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An extensible Makefile for AVRs which makes use of the Arduino core and (optionally) Arduino libraries.

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AVR-makefile-base.mk
Makefile
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### MARKHAM'S NOTES:
 
# This Makefile includes the Arduino core sources. (Set ARDDIR here:)
ARDDIR = /d/arduino
 
# You should build a tiny Makefile for each of your projects and just declare a few
# things in it, then include this Makefile in it. Your Makefile should be in the same
# directory as your TARGET file (see below).
#
# Exemplia gratia:
#
# TARGET = foo # the name of your main file, with no extension
# SRC = foo.c bar.c # the C source files
# PSRC = baz.cpp qux.cpp # the C++ source files
# ARDLIBS = SoftwareSerial # extra Arduino libraries
# include /d/dev/avr/Makefile.base # this line includes the Makefile.base
 
# A number of necessary variables are set to defaults below, but you can override them
# in your own Makefile:
# F_CPU (default is 16000000)
# MCU (default is atmega328p)
# AVRDUDE_PORT (default is com8)
#
# To include Arduino libraries, define
# ARDLIBS = SoftwareSerial Servo...
#
# This Makefile requires that you have no spaces in your file paths, including
# your Arduino directory (where you core, variants, and libs are stored). If
# necessary, copy your Arduino source files to another directory and define that
# directory in the variables for this file.
 
# This Makefile is modified from
# WinAVR Sample makefile written by Eric B. Weddington, Jörg Wunsch, et al.
# Modified (bringing often-changed options to the top) by Elliot Williams
 
# The following tasks are defined in this Makefile:
# make all = Make software and program
# make clean = Clean out built project files.
# make program = Download the hex file to the device, using avrdude.
 
# Supply the following variables:
# SRC = source files ending with .c
# PSRC = source files ending with .cpp
 
### These macros pertain to compiler flags
# Target file name (without extension).
ifndef TARGET
TARGET = main
endif
# List any extra directories to look for include files here.
ifndef EXTRAINCDIRS
EXTRAINCDIRS =
endif
ifndef LDFLAGS
LDFLAGS =
endif
ifndef CFLAGS
CFLAGS =
endif
 
 
### These macros pertain to hardware settings
ifndef MCU
MCU = atmega328p
endif
ifndef AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER
AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER = stk500v1
endif
ifndef AVRDUDE_PORT
AVRDUDE_PORT = com8
endif
ifndef BAUDRATE
BAUDRATE = 19200
endif
ifndef F_CPU
F_CPU = 16000000
endif
CFLAGS += -D F_CPU=$(F_CPU)
 
 
### These macros pertain to supporting Arduino libs
ifndef NO_ARDUINO
LDFLAGS += -lm # -lm = math library
ARDLIBDIR = $(ARDDIR)/libraries
ARDCOREDIR = $(ARDDIR)/hardware/arduino/cores/arduino
ifeq ($(MCU),atmega328p)
EXTRAINCDIRS += $(ARDDIR)/hardware/arduino/variants/standard
endif
ifeq ($(MCU),atmega2560)
EXTRAINCDIRS += $(ARDDIR)/hardware/arduino/variants/mega
endif
ifeq ($(MCU),attiny85)
EXTRAINCDIRS += $(ARDDIR)/hardware/attiny/variants/tiny8
endif
# add Arduino sources and include directories to PSRC and EXTRAINCDIRS
PSRC += $(wildcard $(ARDCOREDIR)/*.cpp)
SRC += $(wildcard $(ARDCOREDIR)/*.c)
EXTRAINCDIRS += $(ARDCOREDIR)
PSRC += $(foreach lib,$(ARDLIBS),$(ARDLIBDIR)/$(lib)/$(lib).cpp)
EXTRAINCDIRS += $(foreach lib,$(ARDLIBS),$(ARDLIBDIR)/$(lib))
endif
 
 
############# Don't need to change below here for most purposes (Elliot)
 
# Optimization level, can be [0, 1, 2, 3, s]. 0 turns off optimization.
# (Note: 3 is not always the best optimization level. See avr-libc FAQ.)
OPT = s
 
# Output format. (can be srec, ihex, binary)
FORMAT = ihex
 
 
# List Assembler source files here.
# Make them always end in a capital .S. Files ending in a lowercase .s
# will not be considered source files but generated files (assembler
# output from the compiler), and will be deleted upon "make clean"!
# Even though the DOS/Win* filesystem matches both .s and .S the same,
# it will preserve the spelling of the filenames, and gcc itself does
# care about how the name is spelled on its command-line.
ASRC =
 
# Optional compiler flags.
# -g: generate debugging information (for GDB, or for COFF conversion)
# -O*: optimization level
# -f...: tuning, see gcc manual and avr-libc documentation
# -Wall...: warning level
# -Wa,...: tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
# -ahlms: create assembler listing
CFLAGS += -g -O$(OPT) \
-funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -fpack-struct -fshort-enums \
-Wall \
$(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))
 
 
# Optional assembler flags.
# -Wa,...: tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
# -ahlms: create listing
# -gstabs: have the assembler create line number information; note that
# for use in COFF files, additional information about filenames
# and function names needs to be present in the assembler source
# files -- see avr-libc docs [FIXME: not yet described there]
ASFLAGS = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.S=.lst),-gstabs
 
 
 
# Optional linker flags.
# -Wl,...: tell GCC to pass this to linker.
# -Map: create map file
# --cref: add cross reference to map file
LDFLAGS += -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
 
 
 
# Additional libraries
 
# Minimalistic printf version
#LDFLAGS += -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_min
 
# Floating point printf version (requires -lm below)
#LDFLAGS += -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_flt
 
 
# Programming support using avrdude. Settings and variables.
 
 
AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U flash:w:$(TARGET).hex
#AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM = -U eeprom:w:$(TARGET).eep
 
AVRDUDE_FLAGS = -p $(MCU) -P $(AVRDUDE_PORT) -c $(AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER)
 
# Uncomment the following if you want avrdude's erase cycle counter.
# Note that this counter needs to be initialized first using -Yn,
# see avrdude manual.
#AVRDUDE_ERASE += -y
 
# Uncomment the following if you do /not/ wish a verification to be
# performed after programming the device.
#AVRDUDE_FLAGS += -V
 
# Increase verbosity level. Please use this when submitting bug
# reports about avrdude. See <http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avrdude>
# to submit bug reports.
#AVRDUDE_FLAGS += -v -v
 
#Run while cable attached or don't
# AVRDUDE_FLAGS += -E reset #keep chip disabled while cable attached
#AVRDUDE_FLAGS += -E noreset
 
#AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U lfuse:w:0x04:m #run with 8 Mhz clock
 
#AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U lfuse:w:0x21:m #run with 1 Mhz clock #default clock mode
 
#AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U lfuse:w:0x01:m #run with 1 Mhz clock no start up time
 
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
# Define directories, if needed.
DIRAVR = c:/winavr
DIRAVRBIN = $(DIRAVR)/bin
DIRAVRUTILS = $(DIRAVR)/utils/bin
DIRINC = .
DIRLIB = $(DIRAVR)/avr/lib
 
 
# Define programs and commands.
SHELL = sh
 
CC = avr-gcc
 
OBJCOPY = avr-objcopy
OBJDUMP = avr-objdump
SIZE = avr-size
 
 
# Programming support using avrdude.
AVRDUDE = avrdude
 
 
REMOVE = rm -f
COPY = cp
 
HEXSIZE = $(SIZE) --target=$(FORMAT) $(TARGET).hex
ELFSIZE = $(SIZE) -A $(TARGET).elf
 
 
 
# Define Messages
# English
MSG_ERRORS_NONE = Errors: none
MSG_BEGIN = -------- begin --------
MSG_END = -------- end --------
MSG_SIZE_BEFORE = Size before:
MSG_SIZE_AFTER = Size after:
MSG_COFF = Converting to AVR COFF:
MSG_EXTENDED_COFF = Converting to AVR Extended COFF:
MSG_FLASH = Creating load file for Flash:
MSG_EEPROM = Creating load file for EEPROM:
MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING = Creating Extended Listing:
MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE = Creating Symbol Table:
MSG_LINKING = Linking:
MSG_COMPILING = Compiling:
MSG_ASSEMBLING = Assembling:
MSG_CLEANING = Cleaning project:
 
 
 
 
# Define all object files.
OBJ = $(SRC:.c=.o) $(ASRC:.S=.o) $(PSRC:.cpp=.o)
 
# Define all listing files.
LST = $(ASRC:.S=.lst) $(SRC:.c=.lst) $(PSRC:.cpp=.lst)
 
# Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
# Add target processor to flags.
ALL_CFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.c=.lst)
ALL_CXXFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.cpp=.lst)
ALL_ASFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp $(ASFLAGS)
 
 
# Default target: make program!
all: begin gccversion sizebefore \
$(TARGET).elf $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep $(TARGET).lss $(TARGET).sym \
sizeafter finished end
 
# Eye candy.
# AVR Studio 3.x does not check make's exit code but relies on
# the following magic strings to be generated by the compile job.
begin:
@echo
@echo $(MSG_BEGIN)
 
finished:
@echo $(MSG_ERRORS_NONE)
 
end:
@echo $(MSG_END)
@echo
 
 
# Display size of file.
sizebefore:
@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_BEFORE); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi
 
sizeafter:
@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_AFTER); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi
 
 
 
# Display compiler version information.
gccversion :
@$(CC) --version
@echo
@echo $(OBJ)
 
 
 
 
# Convert ELF to COFF for use in debugging / simulating in
# AVR Studio or VMLAB.
COFFCONVERT=$(OBJCOPY) --debugging \
--change-section-address .data-0x800000 \
--change-section-address .bss-0x800000 \
--change-section-address .noinit-0x800000 \
--change-section-address .eeprom-0x810000
 
 
coff: $(TARGET).elf
@echo
@echo $(MSG_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-avr $< $(TARGET).cof
 
 
extcoff: $(TARGET).elf
@echo
@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-ext-avr $< $(TARGET).cof
 
 
 
 
# Program the device.
program: $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep
$(AVRDUDE) $(AVRDUDE_FLAGS) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH) -b $(BAUDRATE) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM) -vvvv
 
 
 
 
# Create final output files (.hex, .eep) from ELF output file.
%.hex: %.elf
@echo
@echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
$(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) -R .eeprom $< $@
 
%.eep: %.elf
@echo
@echo $(MSG_EEPROM) $@
-$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom="alloc,load" \
--change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O $(FORMAT) $< $@
 
# Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
%.lss: %.elf
@echo
@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING) $@
$(OBJDUMP) -h -S $< > $@
 
# Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
%.sym: %.elf
@echo
@echo $(MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE) $@
avr-nm -n $< > $@
 
 
 
# Link: create ELF output file from object files.
.SECONDARY: $(TARGET).elf
.PRECIOUS: $(OBJ)
%.elf: $(OBJ)
@echo
@echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(OBJ) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)
 
 
# Compile: create object files from C source files.
%.o: %.c
@echo
@echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
$(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@
 
 
# Compile: create assembler files from C source files.
%.s: %.c
$(CC) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@
 
 
# Compile: create object files from C++ source files
%.o: %.cpp
@echo
@echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
$(CC) -c $(ALL_CXXFLAGS) $< -o $@
 
# Compile: create assembler files from C source files.
%.s: %.cpp
$(CC) -S $(ALL_CXXFLAGS) $< -o $@
 
 
# Assemble: create object files from assembler source files.
%.o: %.S
@echo
@echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING) $<
$(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@
 
 
# Target: clean project.
clean: begin clean_list finished end
 
clean_list :
@echo
@echo $(MSG_CLEANING)
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).eep
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).cof
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).elf
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).map
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).a90
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).sym
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lnk
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lss
$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lst
$(REMOVE) $(OBJ)
$(REMOVE) $(LST)
$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.s)
$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.d)
$(REMOVE) $(PSRC:.cpp=.s)
$(REMOVE) $(PSRC:.cpp=.d)
$(REMOVE) *~
 
 
# Automatically generate C source code dependencies.
# (Code originally taken from the GNU make user manual and modified
# (See README.txt Credits).)
#
# Note that this will work with sh (bash) and sed that is shipped with WinAVR
# (see the SHELL variable defined above).
# This may not work with other shells or other seds.
 
%.d: %.c
set -e; $(CC) -MM $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< \
| sed 's,\(.*\)\.o[ :]*,\1.o \1.d : ,g' > $@; \
[ -s $@ ] || rm -f $@
 
%.d: %.cpp
set -e; $(CC) -MM $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< \
| sed 's,\(.*\)\.o[ :]*,\1.o \1.d : ,g' > $@; \
[ -s $@ ] || rm -f $@
 
# Remove the '-' if you want to see the dependency files generated.
-include $(SRC:.c=.d)
 
-include $(PSRC:.cpp=.d)
 
# Listing of phony targets.
.PHONY : all begin finish end sizebefore sizeafter gccversion coff extcoff \
clean clean_list program

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