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Using Markov models in order to obfuscate binary data into pseudo language.
import re
import operator
import random
# Exception to throw if the algorithm breaks like a condom on prom night
class AlgorithmFailException(Exception):
def __init__(self):
# The core class of this project, learns based off input of sentences, and can then obfuscate and deobfuscate data
class MarkovKeyState:
def __init__(self):
It is a constructor that takes no arguments, why do you care about what it does???
self.words = set()
# Set the --terminate-- character (acts as the first and last character of a sentence)
self.raw_scores = {"--terminate--": {}}
def learn_sentence(self, sentence):
Learn based on the input sentence.
:param sentence: Space separated sentence to apply to Markov model
:return: No relevant return data
# Split the sentence into words/parts
parts = re.findall(r"\w[\w']*", sentence.lower())
if len(parts) == 0:
# This is a speed optimized method to increment the relation count between --terminate-- and the last part
self.raw_scores[parts[-1]]["--terminate--"] += 1
except KeyError:
self.raw_scores[parts[-1]]["--terminate--"] = 1
except KeyError:
self.raw_scores[parts[-1]] = {"--terminate--": 1}
# Iterate through all the parts, and increment the relation counts for all adjacent parts
last = "--terminate--"
for x in xrange(len(parts)):
current = parts[x]
self.raw_scores[last][current] += 1
except KeyError:
self.raw_scores[last][current] = 1
except KeyError:
self.raw_scores[last] = {current: 1}
last = current
# If any of the parts of this sentence don't end up in the database, something is broken in the code
for part in parts:
if part not in self.raw_scores:
def print_most_likely_sentence(self):
This function is mostly for testing/fun. It generates the most likely sentence from the Markov model
:return: The sentence
last = "--terminate--"
parts = []
while True:
# Get the most likely next word, and set as current
current = sorted(self.raw_scores[last].items(), key=operator.itemgetter(1))[-1][0]
# If the current value is --terminate--, we are done generating the sentence
if current == "--terminate--":
# Set current to last as we move into the next iteration
last = current
return " ".join(parts)
def create_byte(self, last, byte_value):
Internal function to generate an obfuscated byte, which can be represented by multiple words/sentences
:param last: The last word in the current obfuscated sentence
:param byte_value: The byte value to append
:return: A string of words to append
words = []
# Do we need to use a long value or can we use a short value
if len(self.raw_scores[last].items()) < 256:
# It is feasible to fail to find a valid result, generally we just need to try again though
try_again = True
while try_again:
# We start with last in our word list since we care about the transition between words, not words
words_to_use = [last]
# Since we can potentially spread the value over various word transitions, we maintain a remaining
# value left to represent
remaining_value = byte_value
# Loop until we have our words, or we crap out
while True:
count = 0
# Get the total possibility count, the total needs to be over 256 to possibly represent our byte
for word in words_to_use:
count += len(self.raw_scores[word].items())
if count < 256:
# we need another word
current_list = sorted(
# we need whichever is smaller, the remaining value or
# the length of values for the next word
upper_bound = remaining_value if remaining_value < len(current_list) - 1 else len(
current_list) - 1
# Pick a random word that does not result in us going over our remaining value
if upper_bound < 2:
index = 0
index = random.randint(0, upper_bound)
# Decrement remaining value and push our word to our list of words
remaining_value -= index
# We have enough words
current_list = sorted(
# If this is true, the algo has failed going down this random path
if len(current_list) < remaining_value + 1:
raise AlgorithmFailException()
# Push our most common last word to terminate our long value
# Clean out the "last" argument from list
words = words_to_use[1:]
try_again = False
except AlgorithmFailException:
try_again = True
# w00t, we can use a short value!
words.append(sorted(self.raw_scores[last].items(), key=operator.itemgetter(1))[::-1][byte_value][0])
return words
def obfuscate_string(self, s):
Obfuscate the input binary string with the Markov model
:param s: Input string, can be binary string, we immediately convert to ints anyways
:return: The obfuscated string
# Convert each byte of the string to an integer
parts = map(ord, list(s))
# Start off with a random first word (word following --terminate--)
result = self.create_byte("--terminate--", random.randint(0, 256))
last = result[-1]
for x in parts:
# This function is deceptively simple because 99% of the work is done in create_byte
to_append = self.create_byte(last, x)
for current in to_append:
# If its a --terminate--, add in a period, else, add in the word
if current != "--terminate--":
result.append(". ")
last = current
# Join it all into a string
return " ".join(result)
def deobfuscate_string(self, s):
""" we need to be able to deobfuscate a string, right?
:param s: The string to deobfuscate
:return: The deobfuscated string
# Split it up by spaces into words
parts = s.split(' ')
# Start our loop out with last being the first word in the string
last = parts.pop(0)
# Get our last_list based on the words that can follow last
last_list = sorted(self.raw_scores[last].items(), key=operator.itemgetter(1))[::-1]
result = []
running_values = None
running_list_lengths = None
running_value = None
# Loop until we have no words left
while len(parts) != 0:
# Once you pop, you just can't stop
current_word = parts.pop(0)
# Convert .'s to --terminate--, as . is our terminator (I'll be back...)
if current_word == ".":
current_word = "--terminate--"
# If it is an empty string, then we should just move on and pretend nothing happened here
if current_word == "":
# Grab the list of words that can follow our current word
current_list = sorted(self.raw_scores[current_word].items(), key=operator.itemgetter(1))[::-1]
current_value = None
# We need the value of the current word
for x in xrange(len(last_list)):
if last_list[x][0] == current_word:
current_value = x
# The multiple word transitions make everything way more complicated
if running_values is not None:
# Keep pushing lengths of potential values until we get over 256
if sum(running_list_lengths) >= 256:
# We made it! Now add the running value and start again
# running_value = sum(running_values)
running_list_lengths = None
running_values = None
elif running_value is not None:
# I think this is deprecated, but I wrote this a while ago
result.append(current_value + running_value)
running_value = None
elif len(last_list) < 256:
# Keep adding to the running values, we aren't home yet
running_values = [current_value]
running_list_lengths = [len(last_list)]
# Good old simple single word transition byte, reminds me of a simpler time
# Back before I decided to support Markov models which did not have sufficient relations between words
last = current_word
last_list = current_list
# Shake out the remaining drop
if running_value is not None:
# Shake out the remaining drops
if running_values is not None:
# Join the ints together as chrs, to live in harmony forevaaaa
return "".join(map(chr, result))
if __name__ == "__main__":
# Regular expression to split our training files on
split_regex = r'\.'
# File/book to read for training the Markov model (will be read into memory)
training_file = "98.txt"
# Obfuscating Markov engine
m = MarkovKeyState()
# Read the shared key into memory
with open(training_file, "r") as f:
text =
# Split learning data into sentences, in this case, based on periods.
map(m.learn_sentence, re.split(split_regex, text))
# Our data to obfuscate
test_string = "This is a test message to prove the concept."
print "Original string: {0}".format(test_string)
# Obfuscate the data
s = m.obfuscate_string(test_string)
print "Obfuscated string: {0}".format(s)
# Other Markov engine
m2 = MarkovKeyState()
# Split learning data into sentences, in this case, based on periods.
map(m2.learn_sentence, re.split(split_regex, text))
# Print out the deobfuscated string
print "Deobfuscated string: {0}".format(m2.deobfuscate_string(s))
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