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TensorFlow Example for Experts
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function
import gzip
import os
import tensorflow.python.platform
import numpy
from six.moves import urllib
from six.moves import xrange # pylint: disable=redefined-builtin
import tensorflow as tf
## SECTION FOR INPUT DATA
SOURCE_URL = 'http://yann.lecun.com/exdb/mnist/'
def maybe_download(filename, work_directory):
"""Download the data from Yann's website, unless it's already here."""
if not os.path.exists(work_directory):
os.mkdir(work_directory)
filepath = os.path.join(work_directory, filename)
if not os.path.exists(filepath):
filepath, _ = urllib.request.urlretrieve(SOURCE_URL + filename, filepath)
statinfo = os.stat(filepath)
print('Successfully downloaded', filename, statinfo.st_size, 'bytes.')
return filepath
def _read32(bytestream):
dt = numpy.dtype(numpy.uint32).newbyteorder('>')
return numpy.frombuffer(bytestream.read(4), dtype=dt)[0]
def extract_images(filename):
"""Extract the images into a 4D uint8 numpy array [index, y, x, depth]."""
print('Extracting', filename)
with gzip.open(filename) as bytestream:
magic = _read32(bytestream)
if magic != 2051:
raise ValueError(
'Invalid magic number %d in MNIST image file: %s' %
(magic, filename))
num_images = _read32(bytestream)
rows = _read32(bytestream)
cols = _read32(bytestream)
buf = bytestream.read(rows * cols * num_images)
data = numpy.frombuffer(buf, dtype=numpy.uint8)
data = data.reshape(num_images, rows, cols, 1)
return data
def dense_to_one_hot(labels_dense, num_classes=10):
"""Convert class labels from scalars to one-hot vectors."""
num_labels = labels_dense.shape[0]
index_offset = numpy.arange(num_labels) * num_classes
labels_one_hot = numpy.zeros((num_labels, num_classes))
labels_one_hot.flat[index_offset + labels_dense.ravel()] = 1
return labels_one_hot
def extract_labels(filename, one_hot=False):
"""Extract the labels into a 1D uint8 numpy array [index]."""
print('Extracting', filename)
with gzip.open(filename) as bytestream:
magic = _read32(bytestream)
if magic != 2049:
raise ValueError(
'Invalid magic number %d in MNIST label file: %s' %
(magic, filename))
num_items = _read32(bytestream)
buf = bytestream.read(num_items)
labels = numpy.frombuffer(buf, dtype=numpy.uint8)
if one_hot:
return dense_to_one_hot(labels)
return labels
class DataSet(object):
def __init__(self, images, labels, fake_data=False, one_hot=False,
dtype=tf.float32):
"""Construct a DataSet.
one_hot arg is used only if fake_data is true. `dtype` can be either
`uint8` to leave the input as `[0, 255]`, or `float32` to rescale into
`[0, 1]`.
"""
dtype = tf.as_dtype(dtype).base_dtype
if dtype not in (tf.uint8, tf.float32):
raise TypeError('Invalid image dtype %r, expected uint8 or float32' %
dtype)
if fake_data:
self._num_examples = 10000
self.one_hot = one_hot
else:
assert images.shape[0] == labels.shape[0], (
'images.shape: %s labels.shape: %s' % (images.shape,
labels.shape))
self._num_examples = images.shape[0]
# Convert shape from [num examples, rows, columns, depth]
# to [num examples, rows*columns] (assuming depth == 1)
assert images.shape[3] == 1
images = images.reshape(images.shape[0],
images.shape[1] * images.shape[2])
if dtype == tf.float32:
# Convert from [0, 255] -> [0.0, 1.0].
images = images.astype(numpy.float32)
images = numpy.multiply(images, 1.0 / 255.0)
self._images = images
self._labels = labels
self._epochs_completed = 0
self._index_in_epoch = 0
@property
def images(self):
return self._images
@property
def labels(self):
return self._labels
@property
def num_examples(self):
return self._num_examples
@property
def epochs_completed(self):
return self._epochs_completed
def next_batch(self, batch_size, fake_data=False):
"""Return the next `batch_size` examples from this data set."""
if fake_data:
fake_image = [1] * 784
if self.one_hot:
fake_label = [1] + [0] * 9
else:
fake_label = 0
return [fake_image for _ in xrange(batch_size)], [
fake_label for _ in xrange(batch_size)]
start = self._index_in_epoch
self._index_in_epoch += batch_size
if self._index_in_epoch > self._num_examples:
# Finished epoch
self._epochs_completed += 1
# Shuffle the data
perm = numpy.arange(self._num_examples)
numpy.random.shuffle(perm)
self._images = self._images[perm]
self._labels = self._labels[perm]
# Start next epoch
start = 0
self._index_in_epoch = batch_size
assert batch_size <= self._num_examples
end = self._index_in_epoch
return self._images[start:end], self._labels[start:end]
def read_data_sets(train_dir, fake_data=False, one_hot=False, dtype=tf.float32):
class DataSets(object):
pass
data_sets = DataSets()
if fake_data:
def fake():
return DataSet([], [], fake_data=True, one_hot=one_hot, dtype=dtype)
data_sets.train = fake()
data_sets.validation = fake()
data_sets.test = fake()
return data_sets
TRAIN_IMAGES = 'train-images-idx3-ubyte.gz'
TRAIN_LABELS = 'train-labels-idx1-ubyte.gz'
TEST_IMAGES = 't10k-images-idx3-ubyte.gz'
TEST_LABELS = 't10k-labels-idx1-ubyte.gz'
VALIDATION_SIZE = 5000
local_file = maybe_download(TRAIN_IMAGES, train_dir)
train_images = extract_images(local_file)
local_file = maybe_download(TRAIN_LABELS, train_dir)
train_labels = extract_labels(local_file, one_hot=one_hot)
local_file = maybe_download(TEST_IMAGES, train_dir)
test_images = extract_images(local_file)
local_file = maybe_download(TEST_LABELS, train_dir)
test_labels = extract_labels(local_file, one_hot=one_hot)
validation_images = train_images[:VALIDATION_SIZE]
validation_labels = train_labels[:VALIDATION_SIZE]
train_images = train_images[VALIDATION_SIZE:]
train_labels = train_labels[VALIDATION_SIZE:]
data_sets.train = DataSet(train_images, train_labels, dtype=dtype)
data_sets.validation = DataSet(validation_images, validation_labels,
dtype=dtype)
data_sets.test = DataSet(test_images, test_labels, dtype=dtype)
return data_sets
## END OF SECTION
# Download data to MNIST_data/
# There are 55000 records (28 * 28 pixels = 784)
mnist = read_data_sets("MNIST_data/", one_hot=True)
## We will create a Multilayer Convolutional Network here
# Placeholder
x = tf.placeholder("float", shape=[None, 784])
y_ = tf.placeholder("float", shape=[None, 10])
# Initialize weight with a small amount of noise for symmetry breaking
# and to prevent 0 gradients
def weight_variable(shape):
# Outputs random values from a truncated normal distribution.
# See https://www.tensorflow.org/versions/0.6.0/api_docs/python/constant_op.html#truncated_normal
initial = tf.truncated_normal(shape, stddev=0.1)
return tf.Variable(initial)
def bias_variable(shape):
initial = tf.constant(0.1, shape=shape)
return tf.Variable(initial)
# Convolution and Pooling
# See https://www.tensorflow.org/versions/0.6.0/api_docs/python/nn.html#conv2d
def conv2d(x, W):
return tf.nn.conv2d(x, W, strides=[1, 1, 1, 1], padding='SAME')
# See https://www.tensorflow.org/versions/0.6.0/api_docs/python/nn.html#max_pool
def max_pool_2x2(x):
return tf.nn.max_pool(x, ksize=[1, 2, 2, 1],
strides=[1, 2, 2, 1], padding='SAME')
## First Convolutional Layer
# 32 Features for each 5x5 patch
# [patch_size, patch_size, input_channel, output_channel]
W_conv1 = weight_variable([5, 5, 1, 32])
b_conv1 = bias_variable([32])
# Reshape x to a 4D tensor
# -1 is similar to None (unspecified number)
x_image = tf.reshape(x, [-1, 28, 28, 1])
# Convolve x_image with the weight tensor, add the bias, apply ReLU, and max pool
h_conv1 = tf.nn.relu(conv2d(x_image, W_conv1) + b_conv1)
h_pool1 = max_pool_2x2(h_conv1)
## Second Convolutional Layer
W_conv2 = weight_variable([5, 5, 32, 64])
b_conv2 = bias_variable([64])
h_conv2 = tf.nn.relu(conv2d(h_pool1, W_conv2) + b_conv2)
h_pool2 = max_pool_2x2(h_conv2)
## Densely Connected Layer
# At this point, image size is 7x7 (max_pool_2x2 twice)
W_fc1 = weight_variable([7 * 7 * 64, 1024])
b_fc1 = bias_variable([1024])
h_pool2_flat = tf.reshape(h_pool2, [-1, 7*7*64])
h_fc1 = tf.nn.relu(tf.matmul(h_pool2_flat, W_fc1) + b_fc1)
## Dropout
# In order to prevent overfitting, we will turn dropout on during training (only)
keep_prob = tf.placeholder("float")
h_fc1_drop = tf.nn.dropout(h_fc1, keep_prob)
## Readout (Softmax) Layer
# Map 1024 neurons from densely connected layer to 10 classes
W_fc2 = weight_variable([1024, 10])
b_fc2 = bias_variable([10])
y_conv=tf.nn.softmax(tf.matmul(h_fc1_drop, W_fc2) + b_fc2)
## Training
# Implement cross entropy
cross_entropy = -tf.reduce_sum(y_*tf.log(y_conv))
# Adam Optimizer
train_step = tf.train.AdamOptimizer(1e-4).minimize(cross_entropy)
## Evaluation
correct_prediction = tf.equal(tf.argmax(y_conv,1), tf.argmax(y_,1))
accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct_prediction, "float"))
sess = tf.InteractiveSession()
sess.run(tf.initialize_all_variables())
for i in range(20000):
batch = mnist.train.next_batch(50) # take 50 images randomly
if i%100 == 0:
train_accuracy = accuracy.eval(feed_dict={
x:batch[0], y_: batch[1], keep_prob: 1.0})
print("step %d, training accuracy %g"%(i, train_accuracy))
train_step.run(feed_dict={x: batch[0], y_: batch[1], keep_prob: 0.5})
print ("test accuracy %g"%accuracy.eval(feed_dict=
{x: mnist.test.images, y_: mnist.test.labels, keep_prob: 1.0}))
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