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<doc id="90422" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90422" title="The Offspring">
The Offspring
The Offspring is an American <a href="punk%20rock">punk rock</a> band from <a href="Huntington%20Beach%2C%20California">Huntington Beach, California</a>, formed in 1984. Formed under the name Manic Subsidal, the band consists of lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist <a href="Dexter%20Holland">Dexter Holland</a>, bassist <a href="Greg%20K.">Greg K.</a>, lead guitarist <a href="Noodles%20%28musician%29">Kevin "Noodles" Wasserman</a> and drummer <a href="Pete%20Parada">Pete Parada</a>. The Offspring is often credited—alongside fellow <a href="Punk%20rock%20in%20California">California punk</a> bands <a href="Green%20Day">Green Day</a> and <a href="Rancid%20%28band%29">Rancid</a>—for reviving mainstream interest in punk rock in the 1990s. They have sold over 40 million records worldwide, being considered one of the best-selling punk rock bands of all time.
The Offspring has released nine studio albums so far. Their first three albums for the independent record labels <a href="Nemesis%20Records">Nemesis</a> and <a href="Epitaph%20Records">Epitaph</a> earned them a cult following. The band's third studio album, "<a href="Smash%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Smash</a>" (1994), became their first commercial success, and has sold over 11 million copies worldwide, setting a record for most albums sold on an <a href="Independent%20record%20label">independent label</a> and becoming the first album on Epitaph to obtain <a href="Recording%20Industry%20Association%20of%20America">gold and platinum</a> status. After signing to <a href="Columbia%20Records">Columbia Records</a> in 1996, The Offspring continued their commercial success with its next four studio albums, "<a href="Ixnay%20on%20the%20Hombre">Ixnay on the Hombre</a>" (1997), "<a href="Americana%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Americana</a>" (1998), "<a href="Conspiracy%20of%20One">Conspiracy of One</a>" (2000) and "<a href="Splinter%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Splinter</a>" (2003), reaching platinum, multi-platinum, platinum and gold status respectively. "Splinter" was followed five years later by "<a href="Rise%20and%20Fall%2C%20Rage%20and%20Grace">Rise and Fall, Rage and Grace</a>" (2008), and then four years later by "<a href="Days%20Go%20By%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Days Go By</a>" (2012). The Offspring is currently in production of their tenth studio album, which is due for release in 2016.
The foundations for The Offspring began with guitarist/vocalist <a href="Dexter%20Holland">Bryan "Dexter" Holland</a> (who was a drummer at the time) and bassist <a href="Greg%20K.">Greg Kriesel</a> playing music together in a garage in <a href="Cypress%2C%20California">Cypress, California</a>. After hearing the <a href="T.S.O.L.">T.S.O.L.</a> album "<a href="Change%20Today%3F">Change Today?</a>" at a party, and following a riot at a 1984 <a href="Social%20Distortion">Social Distortion</a> show, they decided to form a band called Manic Subsidal. Holland changed his role from drums to guitar, and the band was rounded out by singer Doug Thompson and drummer Jim Benton. Marcus Parrish briefly joined as a second guitarist, however, no recordings were made at this point. After Thompson was forced out, Holland took over vocals, and Benton was replaced by Clowns of Death drummer <a href="James%20Lilja">James Lilja</a>. In 1985, school janitor <a href="Noodles%20%28musician%29">Kevin "Noodles" Wasserman</a> (also formerly of Clowns of Death) joined as a second guitarist, allegedly because he was old enough to purchase <a href="alcoholic%20beverage">alcohol</a> for the other members, who were under the legal drinking age.
In 1986, after changing their name to The Offspring, the band released their first <a href="Single%20%28music%29">single</a>; the 7" "<a href="I%27ll%20Be%20Waiting%20%28The%20Offspring%20song%29">I'll Be Waiting</a>". They released the single on their self-made Black Label record company, named after the <a href="Carling">brand of beer</a>. An earlier version of "I'll Be Waiting", which was then known as "Fire and Ice", appeared on the long-out of print "Subject to Blackout" compilation tape, which was also released in 1986 Also in 1986, The Offspring recorded a demo tape, which received a positive review in <a href="Maximumrocknroll">Maximum Rocknroll</a> magazine. Lilja left The Offspring in 1987 to pursue a medical career in <a href="gynecology">gynecology</a>, and was replaced by <a href="Ron%20Welty">Ron Welty</a>, who was only 16 years old at the time.
After recording another demo in 1988, The Offspring signed a record deal with a small-time label, <a href="Nemesis%20Records">Nemesis Records</a>. Then in March 1989, the band teamed up with producer <a href="Thom%20Wilson">Thom Wilson</a> (who had worked with <a href="The%20Adolescents">The Adolescents</a>, <a href="Dead%20Kennedys">Dead Kennedys</a>, <a href="Social%20Distortion">Social Distortion</a>, <a href="The%20Vandals">The Vandals</a> and <a href="Youth%20Brigade%20%28band%29">Youth Brigade</a>) to record their first album, titled "<a href="The%20Offspring%20%28album%29">The Offspring</a>". The album was released in limited numbers by the label, only on the <a href="Gramophone%20record">12" vinyl</a> and cassette formats, and was not released on CD until 1995. A six-week national tour followed, but <a href="Noodles%20%28musician%29">Noodles</a> was later stabbed during their <a href="Hollywood%2C%20Los%20Angeles%2C%20California">Hollywood</a> anti-nuclear benefit.
In 1991, The Offspring teamed up with Wilson again to produce the "<a href="Baghdad%20%28album%29">Baghdad</a>" 7" EP and a third demo tape. This EP and demo were instrumental to the band's signing with <a href="Epitaph%20Records">Epitaph Records</a>. In 1992, Thom Wilson and The Offspring returned to the studio to record their second album "<a href="Ignition%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Ignition</a>", which was released in October of that year. The band went on U.S. tours with <a href="Pennywise%20%28band%29">Pennywise</a> and <a href="Lunachicks">Lunachicks</a>, and a European tour with <a href="NOFX">NOFX</a>.
When The Offspring returned to the studio to work on their third album in 1993, the band's relations with producer Thom Wilson had begun to strain. The band released what would become their biggest selling album, titled "<a href="Smash%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Smash</a>" (1994). Fueled by the hit singles "<a href="Come%20Out%20and%20Play%20%28song%29">Come Out and Play</a>", "<a href="Self%20Esteem%20%28song%29">Self Esteem</a>", and "<a href="Gotta%20Get%20Away%20%28The%20Offspring%20song%29">Gotta Get Away</a>", the album set the all-time record for most units sold by an independent label band at 16 million records. "Smash" has continued to sell consistently well in the twenty-one years since its release, and has also been certified 6x Platinum in the United States. The album also sold very well outside the U.S., particularly in Australia, where it debuted No. 1 on the <a href="ARIA%20Charts">ARIA Charts</a>, and remained in that position for three weeks in 1995.
After the release of "Smash", and armed with a newly expanded income, the band decided to buy out the rights to their first album. Holland and Greg K. then created their own record label "<a href="Nitro%20Records">Nitro Records</a>" and started signing bands. One of their first releases was a re-release of their first album "The Offspring". The label also signed a number of punk bands including <a href="The%20Vandals">The Vandals</a>, <a href="Guttermouth">Guttermouth</a> and <a href="Jughead%27s%20Revenge">Jughead's Revenge</a>. Soon after, <a href="Nitro%20Records">Nitro Records</a> became solely Dexter's responsibility.
The Offspring left <a href="Epitaph%20Records">Epitaph</a> and signed with <a href="Columbia%20Records">Columbia Records</a>. Epitaph retained its rights to release the next album in Europe, while Columbia had it for all other territories. The band's attorney, Peter Paterno, had issued a letter to Epitaph stating that the band had "substantial and fundamental reasons" for wanting to leave the label and that Epitaph had "breached its contract." The band began writing and recording their fourth album, titled "<a href="Ixnay%20on%20the%20Hombre">Ixnay on the Hombre</a>", in 1996. The album was released on February 4, 1997, which happened to be Noodles' 34th birthday. This album was not as successful as "Smash", although it did sell four million units and spawned five singles. The album saw the band move away from the political-punk themes common to many Epitaph bands, and more into mainstream rock with songs like: "<a href="All%20I%20Want%20%28The%20Offspring%20song%29">All I Want</a>", "<a href="Gone%20Away">Gone Away</a>", and "<a href="I%20Choose">I Choose</a>". The video for the last track was directed by Holland himself. Dexter commented that "Ixnay" probably wasn't as well-received as "Smash" because it was such a departure, and that many fans probably were expecting "Smash Part Two".
In 1998, The Offspring released "<a href="Americana%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Americana</a>". Three of the album's singles: "<a href="Pretty%20Fly%20%28for%20a%20White%20Guy%29">Pretty Fly (for a White Guy)</a>", "<a href="Why%20Don%27t%20You%20Get%20a%20Job%3F">Why Don't You Get a Job?</a>", and "<a href="The%20Kids%20Aren%27t%20Alright">The Kids Aren't Alright</a>" became the band's biggest hits and making the album the peak of The Offspring's mainstream popularity. "<a href="She%27s%20Got%20Issues">She's Got Issues</a>" was also released as a single, and was a minor hit.
In 1999, the band appeared as themselves in the film "<a href="Idle%20Hands">Idle Hands</a>". They played a cover version of "<a href="I%20Wanna%20Be%20Sedated">I Wanna Be Sedated</a>" (originally by <a href="Ramones">The Ramones</a>) and "Beheaded" at a school dance before Holland's character is killed. They also appeared at the infamous <a href="Woodstock%201999">Woodstock 1999</a>, where their performance was broadcast live on <a href="pay-per-view">pay-per-view</a> television.
2000 saw the band release their sixth album called "<a href="Conspiracy%20of%20One">Conspiracy of One</a>". The band intended to release the entire album online through their official website, to show their support for <a href="music%20download">downloading music</a> on the internet. However, under threat of legal action by Columbia through their parent company Sony, only the first single "Original Prankster" was released on their official website (the rest of the record was leaked to fan sites). The band also sold T-shirts on their website with the <a href="Napster">Napster</a> logo on it and donated money to Napster creator <a href="Shawn%20Fanning">Shawn Fanning</a> with the profits.
The band also released a single "<a href="Defy%20You">Defy You</a>" exclusively for the film "<a href="Orange%20County%20%28film%29">Orange County</a>".
Longtime drummer <a href="Ron%20Welty">Ron Welty</a> left the group in 2003 to play in <a href="Steady%20Ground">Steady Ground</a>, a band in which he played drums and co-produced (they broke up in 2007). Neither Welty nor the remaining members have elaborated on the departure.
In 2003, the band released their seventh album "<a href="Splinter%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Splinter</a>". The Offspring recruited <a href="Josh%20Freese">Josh Freese</a> to record the drums for "Splinter" and later announced that <a href="Atom%20Willard">Atom Willard</a> would be the official replacement for Ron Welty. The album's original title was to be "Chinese Democrazy (You Snooze, You Lose)", from the name of the <a href="Chinese%20Democracy">long-delayed album</a> by <a href="Guns%20N%27%20Roses">Guns N' Roses</a>. As a result, Guns N' Roses frontman <a href="Axl%20Rose">Axl Rose</a> filed a <a href="cease%20and%20desist">cease and desist</a> order against The Offspring, but eventually began to calm down when he realized the date this was announced was April 1. The first single "Hit That" enjoyed moderate success on MTV. "Hit That" used a variety of electronic samples, different from what The Offspring has done in the past.
In 2005, the band released a "<a href="Greatest%20Hits%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Greatest Hits</a>" album in both <a href="DualDisc">DualDisc</a> and regular CD editions. "Greatest Hits" contains 14 of the band's hits between "<a href="Smash%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Smash</a>" and "<a href="Splinter%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Splinter</a>", and two previously unreleased songs, "<a href="Can%27t%20Repeat">Can't Repeat</a>" and "<a href="Next%20to%20You%20%28The%20Police%20song%29">Next to You</a>" (a cover of <a href="The%20Police">The Police</a>) (a hidden track). The compilation does not contain any material from the <a href="The%20Offspring%20%28album%29">first album</a> or "<a href="Ignition%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Ignition</a>". The DualDisc contains video of Dexter and Noodles discussing the band's history and a bonus acoustic version of the song "Dirty Magic." About a month later, the band released a video DVD with all of their music videos, and some videos from a live show.
During the summer of 2005, the band played the <a href="Vans%20Warped%20Tour">Vans Warped Tour</a> for the first time, and followed that with a tour of Europe and Japan. After the "Greatest Hits" world tour the band took a break from writing, recording and touring. During the hiatus, Willard was recruited by <a href="Tom%20DeLonge">Tom DeLonge</a> for his band <a href="Angels%20%26amp%3B%20Airwaves">Angels & Airwaves</a> and released an album, "<a href="We%20Don%27t%20Need%20to%20Whisper">We Don't Need to Whisper</a>", in 2006.
In November 2006, it was reported that The Offspring was back in the studio recording their eighth studio album, "<a href="Rise%20and%20Fall%2C%20Rage%20and%20Grace">Rise and Fall, Rage and Grace</a>" with producer <a href="Bob%20Rock">Bob Rock</a> and "a fistful of demos". In July 2007, Dexter announced that the band had finished two more songs and the album was being recorded in Orange County, California.
It was announced on July 27, 2007, that former <a href="Saves%20the%20Day">Saves the Day</a> drummer <a href="Pete%20Parada">Pete Parada</a> had been chosen to be The Offspring's new drummer, replacing Atom Willard, who went on to join <a href="Angels%20and%20Airwaves">Angels and Airwaves</a>. The band's first shows with Parada were at the Summer Sonic festival in Japan in August of the same year. It was during these shows that the band debuted "<a href="Hammerhead%20%28The%20Offspring%20song%29">Hammerhead</a>" which would become the first single from the new album. Parada did not play on the new album however; Josh Freese once again handled drum duties, as he did with "<a href="Splinter%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Splinter</a>".
The Offspring co-headlined the Australian <a href="Soundwave%20Festival">Soundwave Festival</a> during February and May 2008, alongside <a href="Incubus%20%28band%29">Incubus</a> and <a href="Killswitch%20Engage">Killswitch Engage</a>.
On April 9, 2008, Dexter announced that the album would be called "<a href="Rise%20and%20Fall%2C%20Rage%20and%20Grace">Rise and Fall, Rage and Grace</a>" and would be released on June 17. The album's first single, "Hammerhead", went to radio on May 6. Additionally, The Offspring's official site provided an <a href="MP3">MP3</a> download of the song to the general public on May 5. The second single from the album, "<a href="You%27re%20Gonna%20Go%20Far%2C%20Kid">You're Gonna Go Far, Kid</a>", had topped the <a href="Hot%20Modern%20Rock%20Tracks">Hot Modern Rock Tracks</a> chart, and had stayed there for 11 weeks, a record for the band. It was also The Offspring's only RIAA Gold song, proving it to be one of the most successful singles the band had released in their over-twenty-year career. Despite this, "Rise and Fall, Rage and Grace" has never received any certification by the RIAA.
Also in April 2008, <a href="Epitaph%20Records">Epitaph Records</a> announced that the label would be reissuing "<a href="Ignition%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Ignition</a>" and "<a href="Smash%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Smash</a>"; both albums were remastered, and "Smash" contained a new 24-page booklet. The re-issues were released on the same day as "Rise and Fall, Rage and Grace", coinciding with the new album's release.
The supporting tour for the album began on May 16 with a performance at the <a href="X-Fest">X-Fest</a> festival in California. On May 28, it was announced on the band's website that <a href="Scott%20Shiflett">Scott Shiflett</a> (from <a href="Face%20to%20Face%20%28punk%20band%29">Face to Face</a>) would replace bassist <a href="Greg%20K.">Greg K.</a> on current tour dates due to a birth in the family. Kriesel returned in mid-June. In October, with the addition of touring guitarist <a href="Andrew%20Freeman%20%28musician%29">Andrew Freeman</a>, the band embarked on a 3-week Japanese tour followed by a tour of South America. On December 13, 2008, The Offspring headlined the nineteenth annual <a href="KROQ-FM">KROQ</a> <a href="KROQ%20Almost%20Acoustic%20Christmas">Almost Acoustic Christmas</a>. In an interview at the Almost Acoustic Christmas show, guitarist <a href="Noodles%20%28musician%29">Noodles</a> stated that The Offspring would be taking a break for a month or two and promised a US tour to kick off in 2009. They toured North America on their "Shit is Fucked Up" tour from May through July with <a href="Dropkick%20Murphys">Dropkick Murphys</a>, <a href="Alkaline%20Trio">Alkaline Trio</a>, <a href="Street%20Dogs">Street Dogs</a>, <a href="Pennywise%20%28band%29">Pennywise</a>, <a href="Shiny%20Toy%20Guns">Shiny Toy Guns</a>, <a href="Sum%2041">Sum 41</a> and <a href="Frank%20Turner">Frank Turner</a>.
In May 2009, the band started doing preliminary work with <a href="Bob%20Rock">Bob Rock</a> in Hawaii for what would be the ninth Offspring album. They recorded sporadically through the next year. In June 2010 the Offspring headlined two dates in Western Canada. The Offspring took a break from the studio in order to join <a href="311%20%28band%29">311</a> on their summer 2010 Unity Tour. The 19-date tour was held in amphitheaters around the U.S., also featuring <a href="Pepper%20%28band%29">Pepper</a> as a special guest. Before the 311 and Pepper tour, The Offspring played four West Coast dates in June, which were supported by <a href="Terrible%20Things">Terrible Things</a>. At the Las Vegas show on June 18, 2010, they debuted a new song, titled "You Will Find a Way", which later became the song "Days Go By". After that the band started working on the new album. In January 2011, session drummer <a href="Josh%20Freese">Josh Freese</a> (who recorded drum tracks for the band's last two albums) mentioned on his website that he was in the studio working with The Offspring again. <a href="Ronnie%20King">Ronnie King</a> had also confirmed that he would appear as the keyboardist on the album, after performing the same role on "<a href="Splinter%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Splinter</a>". The band interrupted their work in 2011 in order to tour and took the main stage at the 2011 <a href="Reading%20and%20Leeds%20Festivals">Reading and Leeds Festivals</a>.
After the tour, the band started recording in earnest and it was later announced that the album was in the mixing stage. They headlined the PunkSpring Festival in Japan, on March 31, 2012 in <a href="Tokyo">Tokyo</a> and on April 1, 2012 in <a href="Osaka">Osaka</a>, with <a href="Sum%2041">Sum 41</a>, <a href="New%20Found%20Glory">New Found Glory</a> and <a href="All%20Time%20Low">All Time Low</a>. At one of the shows, The Offspring performed a new song called "The Future Is Now". They were also confirmed to play at the <a href="Rock%20am%20Ring%20and%20Rock%20im%20Park">Rock am Ring/im Park</a> and <a href="Nova%20Rock%20Festival">Novarock</a> festivals in the summer 2012. Prior to that, the band would be playing at the 20th annual <a href="KROQ-FM">KROQ</a> <a href="KROQ%20Weenie%20Roast">Weenie Roast</a>, which was to take place at the <a href="Verizon%20Wireless%20Amphitheatre%20%28Irvine%29">Verizon Wireless Amphitheatre</a> in <a href="Irvine%2C%20California">Irvine, California</a> on May 5, 2012.
In March 2012, the band announced on their Twitter page that the album was finished. On April 20, 2012, <a href="Kevin%20and%20Bean">Kevin and Bean</a> announced that The Offspring's new single "<a href="Days%20Go%20By%20%28The%20Offspring%20song%29">Days Go By</a>" would be premiered on April 27. Three days later, the band announced on their website that "<a href="Days%20Go%20By%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Days Go By</a>" would be the name of their ninth studio album, which was eventually released on June 26, 2012. On April 30, 2012, the band released another song from "Days Go By", "Cruising California (Bumpin' in My Trunk)".
In early fall 2012, The Offspring toured with <a href="Neon%20Trees">Neon Trees</a> and <a href="Dead%20Sara">Dead Sara</a>. They were co-headliners of the <a href="Soundwave%20%28Australian%20music%20festival%29">Soundwave</a> in Australia in 2013 alongside <a href="Metallica">Metallica</a> and <a href="Linkin%20Park">Linkin Park</a>. After this, they performed at the 20th annual <a href="WJRR">WJRR Earthday Birthday</a> on April 13, 2013, and at the Gulfport Music Festival a month later. The Offspring will spend much of the spring, summer and fall of 2013 playing shows in Europe, the United States and South America. In November and December of that year, they will play <a href="Warped%20Tour">Warped Tour</a> for the first time in eight years, this time in Australia.
On June 20, 2013, it was reported that The Offspring was working on a live album with engineer Ian Charbonneau. Instead of a standard release, the live album (which was recorded at in Warsaw, Poland at the Orange Warsaw Festival held at Narodowy Stadium) will be available online. As of September 2014, however, the live album has not been released.
The Offspring was expected to begin work on their tenth studio album after the "Days Go By" tour, and has considered releasing it independently as they have fulfilled their contract with <a href="Columbia%20Records">Columbia Records</a>. Guitarist <a href="Noodles%20%28musician%29">Noodles</a> stated that he hoped they would enter the studio in 2014 to begin recording their new album. Vocalist <a href="Dexter%20Holland">Dexter Holland</a> stated in a May 2013 interview that he had written a "punk" song about "the government keeping you down." On July 16, 2013 Dexter posted 5 new photos of the recording process to The Offspring's Facebook page titled "In the Studio July 2013", indicating that the band had started work on their new album, which was scheduled for a 2014 release. Like "Rise and Fall, Rage and Grace" and "Days Go By", the new album will be produced by <a href="Bob%20Rock">Bob Rock</a>, and is expected to be released in 2016.
On October 23, 2013, bassist <a href="Greg%20K.">Greg K.</a> told May the Rock Be With You that The Offspring had been "working on a couple of singles", but was unsure what they were "going to do with them." Then he added, "As far as a full scale album there's nothing in the works, if we do something it wouldn't be until at least next year, but we're still moving forward and still going to keep trying to put out new stuff."
The Offspring spent the summer of 2014 on tour commemorating the of their third album "<a href="Smash%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Smash</a>". They headlined the Summer Nationals 2014 tour from July to September, with support from their former labelmates <a href="Bad%20Religion">Bad Religion</a> and <a href="Pennywise%20%28band%29">Pennywise</a> as well as <a href="The%20Vandals">The Vandals</a>, <a href="Stiff%20Little%20Fingers">Stiff Little Fingers</a> and <a href="Naked%20Raygun">Naked Raygun</a>. To coincide with the Summer Nationals tour, The Offspring released cover versions of Pennywise's "No Reason Why", and Bad Religion's "Do What You Want" and "No Control" on their <a href="YouTube">YouTube</a> account. These cover versions were released on the EP "<a href="Summer%20Nationals">Summer Nationals</a>", which was released digitally in August 2014.
On December 24, 2014, <a href="Radio%20Contraband">Radio Contraband</a> announced on their <a href="Facebook">Facebook</a> page that they would premiere the Offspring's new single, "<a href="Coming%20for%20You%20%28The%20Offspring%20song%29">Coming for You</a>", on January 30, 2015. "Coming for You" was posted on the Offspring's <a href="YouTube">YouTube</a> account on January 30, 2015. It was unclear if "Coming for You" would be released as a one-off single or would appear on the band's upcoming tenth studio album, but a tweet from frontman <a href="Dexter%20Holland">Dexter Holland</a> heavily implied the album was in an unfinished state. However, according to guitarist <a href="Noodles%20%28musician%29">Noodles</a>, "Coming for You" is expected to appear on the album. The Offspring toured in support of the "Coming for You" single and performed their 1998 album "<a href="Americana%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Americana</a>" in its entirety at the <a href="Amnesia%20Rockfest">Amnesia Rockfest</a> on June 19, 2015, in Montebello, Canada.
The Offspring reacquired the rights to their <a href="Columbia%20Records">Columbia Records</a> albums in 2014. The band started auctioning off the rights to those albums in August 2015, as well as their songwriting credits, for around US$30 million. <a href="Sony%20Music%20Entertainment">Sony Music Entertainment</a> (the owner of Columbia Records) and Round Hill Music are allegedly interested in bidding for the Offspring's music. In January 2016, Round Hill Music acquired the band's Columbia Records catalogue for £23 million. By September 2015, the band had finished 2-3 tracks without a label. A month later, Noodles posted a picture of himself, Holland, Parada and <a href="Bob%20Rock">Bob Rock</a> in the studio on his <a href="Instagram">Instagram</a> page, which indicated that they are recording their new album. In a November 2015 interview on <a href="KROQ-FM">KROQ</a>'s "<a href="Kevin%20and%20Bean">Kevin and Bean</a>", Noodles said that he hopes the album will be released in 2016.
The Offspring has been labeled under multiple genres, such as <a href="punk%20rock">punk rock</a>, <a href="pop%20punk">pop punk</a>, <a href="skate%20punk">skate punk</a>, and <a href="alternative%20rock">alternative rock</a>. A signature style of The Offspring is their chorused "whoas", "heys", or "yeahs". <a href="NOFX">NOFX</a> (who were labelmates with The Offspring from the early to mid-1990s) poked fun at them for this in their song "Whoa on the Whoas". Several tracks also incorporate elements of Eastern music, which can be heard on the likes of "Pay the Man" and the verse hook from "Come Out and Play". Their lyrics cover a wide range of topics, like personal relationships, such as in their songs "She's Got Issues", "Self Esteem" and "Spare Me the Details", and the degradation of the United States, politics, and society in general with songs like "It'll Be a Long Time", "Americana" and "Stuff Is Messed Up". The lyrics generally reflect a sarcastic viewpoint, which, along with the language, can be offensive to some. This is acknowledged in the first track from their album "<a href="Ixnay%20on%20the%20Hombre">Ixnay on the Hombre</a>", "Disclaimer", which is sarcastic itself. Like "Disclaimer", the first track of most of The Offspring's albums are an introduction of some sort, "Time to Relax" (from "Smash"), "Welcome" (from "Americana"), "Intro" (from "Conspiracy of One"), and "Neocon" (from "Splinter") are also examples of this.
Growing up in Orange County, the band was influenced by local punk bands such as <a href="Social%20Distortion">Social Distortion</a>, <a href="Youth%20Brigade%20%28band%29">Youth Brigade</a>, <a href="T.S.O.L">T.S.O.L</a>., <a href="The%20Vandals%20%28band%29">The Vandals</a>, <a href="D.I.%20%28band%29">D.I.</a>, <a href="The%20Adolescents">The Adolescents</a>, <a href="Channel%203%20%28band%29">Channel 3</a> and <a href="Agent%20Orange%20%28band%29">Agent Orange</a>. Other influences include <a href="Bad%20Religion">Bad Religion</a>, <a href="The%20Clash">The Clash</a>, <a href="Dead%20Kennedys">Dead Kennedys</a>, <a href="Ramones">The Ramones</a>, <a href="Sex%20Pistols">Sex Pistols</a>, <a href="D.O.A.%20%28band%29">D.O.A.</a> and <a href="The%20Dickies">The Dickies</a>.
With the mainstream success of "<a href="Smash%20%28The%20Offspring%20album%29">Smash</a>", going six times multi-platinum and earning worldwide airplay, The Offspring's impact persists to this day. As one of the most popular punk bands of the 1990s, they are credited with reviving popular interest in punk rock and bringing the genre into the mainstream. They have influenced younger artists such as <a href="Simple%20Plan">Simple Plan</a>. The Los Angeles <a href="modern%20rock">modern rock</a> radio station <a href="KROQ-FM">KROQ</a> listed The Offspring at No. 21 in the "top 106.7 biggest KROQ bands of all time" memorial, and No. 8 at the "Top 166 Artists of 1980–2008" list.
The Offspring's music has appeared in movies such as "<a href="The%20Chase%20%281994%20film%29">The Chase</a>", "<a href="Batman%20Forever">Batman Forever</a>", "<a href="I%20Know%20What%20You%20Did%20Last%20Summer">I Know What You Did Last Summer</a>", "<a href="The%20Faculty">The Faculty</a>", "<a href="Varsity%20Blues%20%28film%29">Varsity Blues</a>", "<a href="Wanted%20%282008%20film%29">Wanted</a> ", "<a href="Idle%20Hands">Idle Hands</a>" (which also features a cameo by the band, while Dexter Holland plays himself), "<a href="Me%2C%20Myself%20%26amp%3B%20Irene">Me, Myself & Irene</a>", "<a href="Loser%20%28film%29">Loser</a>", "<a href="Tomcats%20%282001%20film%29">Tomcats</a>", "<a href="Bubble%20Boy%20%28film%29">Bubble Boy</a>", "<a href="The%20Animal">The Animal</a>", "<a href="American%20Pie%202">American Pie 2</a>", "<a href="Orange%20County%20%28film%29">Orange County</a>", "<a href="The%20New%20Guy">The New Guy</a>", "<a href="Bowling%20for%20Columbine">Bowling for Columbine</a>", "<a href="Pauly%20Shore%20Is%20Dead">Pauly Shore Is Dead</a>", "<a href="Click%20%282006%20film%29">Click</a>" and "<a href="How%20to%20Eat%20Fried%20Worms%20%28film%29">How to Eat Fried Worms</a>" (for the trailer). "Mota", "Amazed", "<a href="The%20Meaning%20of%20Life%20%28The%20Offspring%20song%29">The Meaning of Life</a>" (all from "<a href="Ixnay%20on%20the%20Hombre">Ixnay on the Hombre</a>") were featured in <a href="Warren%20Miller%20%28director%29">Warren Miller</a>'s 1997 documentary "Snowriders II". "<a href="Pretty%20Fly%20%28for%20a%20White%20Guy%29">Pretty Fly (for a White Guy)</a>" can be heard in the "<a href="King%20of%20the%20Hill">King of the Hill</a>" episode "Escape From Party Island". "<a href="You%27re%20Gonna%20Go%20Far%2C%20Kid">You're Gonna Go Far, Kid</a>" was featured in the "<a href="90210%20%28TV%20series%29">90210</a>" episode "We're Not in Kansas Anymore", while "<a href="Kristy%2C%20Are%20You%20Doing%20Okay%3F">Kristy, Are You Doing Okay?</a>" appeared in the episode "Zero Tolerance". In video games, The Offspring's songs have appeared in "<a href="Crazy%20Taxi">Crazy Taxi</a>", "<a href="Tony%20Hawk%27s%20Pro%20Skater%204">Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 4</a>" and "<a href="List%20of%20songs%20in%20SingStar%20games%20%28PlayStation%202%29">SingStar Rocks!</a>". "Pretty Fly (for a White Guy)" appears in "". "<a href="Hammerhead%20%28The%20Offspring%20song%29">Hammerhead</a>", "<a href="Gone%20Away">Gone Away</a>", "<a href="Pretty%20Fly%20%28for%20a%20White%20Guy%29">Pretty Fly (for a White Guy)</a>", "<a href="Self%20Esteem%20%28song%29">Self Esteem</a>", "<a href="All%20I%20Want%20%28The%20Offspring%20song%29">All I Want</a>", "<a href="The%20Kids%20Aren%27t%20Alright">The Kids Aren't Alright</a>", "A Lot Like Me" and "<a href="Days%20Go%20By%20%28The%20Offspring%20song%29">Days Go By</a>" are downloadables for the <a href="Rock%20Band">"Rock Band" series</a>. "Hammerhead" was also featured in the football video game "<a href="Madden%20NFL%2009">Madden NFL 09</a>". "Days Go By" was featured in "<a href="NHL%2013">NHL 13</a>".
<div style="float:left;">
</doc>
<doc id="90424" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90424" title="Mystic Records">
Mystic Records
Mystic Records is an American <a href="record%20label">record label</a> and music production company specializing in <a href="hardcore%20punk">hardcore punk</a>, <a href="crossover%20thrash">crossover thrash</a>, <a href="underground%20music">underground music</a>, vintage and cult records. It is owned and operated by Doug Moody. The label was first established in <a href="Hollywood%2C%20California">Hollywood, California</a> and subsequently moved its operations to <a href="Oceanside%2C%20California">Oceanside, California</a>. Mystic Records is an independent label and not a member of the Recording Industry Association of America (<a href="RIAA">RIAA</a>).
Mystic Records is closely associated with the personality of its founder, Doug Moody, regarded as a pioneer of the independent <a href="Rock%20and%20Roll">Rock and Roll</a> industry. Moody's father, Walter Moody, was himself an influential figure in the music industry, running EMI Studios (Abbey Road) in London during the 1930s. In 1953 the family moved to the United States.
Moody decided to himself become involved in the music business, first working in the <a href="Artists%20and%20repertoire">A&R department</a> of <a href="Silvertone%20Records%20%281916%29">Silvertone Records</a> in <a href="New%20Jersey">New Jersey</a>. A series of music industry jobs followed throughout the decades of the 1960s and 1970s, including stints in various capacities at <a href="Kama%20Sutra%20Records">Kama Sutra Records</a>, <a href="20th%20Century%20Fox">20th Century Fox</a>, and <a href="A%26amp%3BM%20Records">A&M Records</a>.
Seeking another place in the music industry outside of the major record labels, Moody opened a <a href="recording%20studio">recording studio</a> in <a href="Hollywood%2C%20California">Hollywood, California</a> at the location of the old Mustang Studios, made famous as a facility used by the <a href="Bobby%20Fuller%20Four">Bobby Fuller Four</a>. Moody changed out the studio's superannuated 2 track <a href="monaural">mono</a> recording gear and replaced it with state of the art 8-track <a href="Stereophonic%20sound">stereo</a> gear, leaving the recording rooms otherwise largely unaltered.
In tandem with the studio was launched the Mystic Records label. During the label's peak period of activity, from 1982 through 1990, Mystic released over 200 <a href="gramophone%20record">records</a>, many of which were multi-band compilations, involving the work of several hundred artists. Emerging as a prominent force in the <a href="Southern%20California">Southern California</a> <a href="punk%20rock">punk rock</a> music scene, Mystic put out an array of alternative bands, with an emphasis on the <a href="hardcore%20punk">hardcore punk</a>, <a href="crossover%20thrash">crossover thrash</a>, and <a href="speed%20metal">speed metal</a> styles in vogue during this period.
Moody claimed to have invested $70,000 in the label in 1983 alone, but taking into account recording costs and sales figures averaging about 2,000 copies per record, found the operation with about $40,000 left to recover at the end of that year. Bands would purchase studio time, with Mystic recouping its investment against royalties due, which in 1984 Moody claimed was approximately 40 cents per record.
In conjunction with the label, Moody and Mystic established its own wholesale record distribution branch, MD Distributing. This distributorship handled not only Mystic releases but those of other labels as well.
Some of the best known artists on Mystic Records include <a href="NOFX">NOFX</a>, <a href="Dr.%20Know%20%28band%29">Dr. Know</a>, <a href="RKL">RKL</a>, <a href="Battalion%20of%20Saints">Battalion of Saints</a>, <a href="Ill%20Repute">Ill Repute</a>, <a href="Agression%20%28band%29">Agression</a>, and <a href="The%20Mentors">The Mentors</a>. Mystic Records has also released vinyl compilations featuring <a href="Suicidal%20Tendencies">Suicidal Tendencies</a>, <a href="New%20Regime%20%28American%20band%29">New Regime</a>, <a href="Black%20Flag%20%28band%29">Black Flag</a>, <a href="SIN%2034">SIN 34</a>, <a href="Government%20Issue">Government Issue</a>, <a href="Minutemen%20%28band%29">The Minutemen</a>, <a href="Habeas%20Corpus%20%28band%29">Habeas Corpus</a>, The Instigators, and <a href="Bad%20Religion">Bad Religion</a>.
Mystic Records was instrumental in establishing the punk rock scenes of <a href="Simi%20Valley">Simi Valley</a> and <a href="Oxnard%2C%20California">Oxnard</a>, California, which they marketed as "Slimey Valley" and "<a href="Nardcore">Nardcore</a>" respectively.
Mystic Records has been credited with several innovations in the independent record industry of the 1980s. It introduced Super Sevens (7-inch 33rpm extended play records featuring seven songs) and helped popularize the manufacture of limited edition records on colored vinyl. The label was also influential through its release of multi-band compilation albums, such as its "The Sound of Hollywood" series, and promotional label samplers making use of album tracks, typified by its "Mystic Sampler" series.
Moody's key collaborators on the Mystic Records project included producer and engineer Phillip "Philco" Raves, sales and distribution manager Bill Karras, and "Mystic Mark" Wilkins, coordinator of record and tour promotion.
</doc>
<doc id="90425" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90425" title="Big Joe Turner">
Big Joe Turner
Joseph Vernon "Joe" Turner, Jr. (May 18, 1911 – November 24, 1985), best known as Big Joe Turner, was an American <a href="blues%20shouter">blues shouter</a> from <a href="Kansas%20City%2C%20Missouri">Kansas City, Missouri</a>, United States. According to the songwriter <a href="Doc%20Pomus">Doc Pomus</a>, "<a href="Rock%20and%20roll">Rock and roll</a> would have never happened without him." While he had his greatest fame during the 1950s with his rock and roll recordings, particularly "<a href="Shake%2C%20Rattle%20and%20Roll">Shake, Rattle and Roll</a>", Turner's career as a performer endured from the 1920s into the 1980s. Turner was inducted into the <a href="Rock%20and%20Roll%20Hall%20of%20Fame">Rock and Roll Hall of Fame</a> in 1987, with the Hall lauding him as "the brawny voiced 'Boss of the Blues'".
Known variously as The Boss of the Blues, and Big Joe Turner (due to his 6'2", 300+ lbs stature), Turner was born in Kansas City. His father was killed in a train accident when Joe was only four years old. He first discovered a love of music in his involvement at church. He began singing on street corners for money, quitting school at age fourteen to work in Kansas City's nightclubs, first as a cook, and later as a singing bartender. He became known eventually as The Singing Barman, and worked in such venues as The Kingfish Club and The Sunset, where he and his piano playing partner <a href="Pete%20Johnson">Pete Johnson</a> became resident performers. The Sunset was managed by Piney Brown. It featured "separate but equal" facilities for caucasian patrons. Turner wrote "Piney Brown Blues" in his honor and sang it throughout his entire career.
At that time Kansas City nightclubs were subject to frequent raids by the police, but as Turner recounts, "The Boss man would have his bondsmen down at the police station before we got there. We'd walk in, sign our names and walk right out. Then we would cabaret until morning."
His partnership with <a href="boogie-woogie">boogie-woogie</a> pianist Pete Johnson proved fruitful. Together they went to New York City in 1936, where they appeared on a playbill with <a href="Benny%20Goodman">Benny Goodman</a>, but as Turner recounts, "After our show with Goodman, we auditioned at several places, but New York wasn't ready for us yet, so we headed back to K.C.". Eventually they were witnessed by the talent scout, <a href="John%20Hammond%20%28producer%29">John H. Hammond</a> in 1938, who invited them back to New York to appear in one of his "<a href="From%20Spirituals%20to%20Swing">From Spirituals to Swing</a>" concerts at <a href="Carnegie%20Hall">Carnegie Hall</a>, which were instrumental in introducing <a href="jazz">jazz</a> and <a href="blues">blues</a> to a wider American audience.
Due in part to their appearance at Carnegie Hall, Turner and Johnson had a major success with the song "<a href="Roll%20%27Em%20Pete">Roll 'Em Pete</a>". The track, basically a collection of <a href="Traditional%20blues%20verses">traditional blues lyrics</a> featured one of the earliest recorded examples of a <a href="beat%20%28music%29">back beat</a>. It was a song that Turner recorded many times, with various combinations of musicians, over the ensuing years.
In 1939, along with boogie players <a href="Albert%20Ammons">Albert Ammons</a> and <a href="Meade%20Lux%20Lewis">Meade Lux Lewis</a>, they began a residency at <a href="Caf%C3%A9%20Society">Café Society</a>, a nightclub in New York City, where they appeared on the same playbill as <a href="Billie%20Holiday">Billie Holiday</a> and Frank Newton's band. Besides "Roll 'Em, Pete", Turner's best-known recordings from this period are probably "Cherry Red", "I Want A Little Girl" and "Wee Baby Blues". "Cherry Red" was recorded in 1939 for the <a href="Vocalion%20Records">Vocalion</a> <a href="record%20label">label</a>, with <a href="Hot%20Lips%20Page">Hot Lips Page</a> on <a href="trumpet">trumpet</a> and a full band in attendance. The next year Turner contracted with <a href="Decca%20Records">Decca</a> and recorded "Piney Brown Blues", with Johnson on piano.
In 1941, he went to Los Angeles and performed in <a href="Duke%20Ellington">Duke Ellington</a>'s revue "Jump for Joy" in Hollywood. He appeared as a singing policeman in a comedy sketch called "He's on the Beat". Los Angeles was his home for a time, and during 1944 he worked in <a href="Meade%20Lux%20Lewis">Meade Lux Lewis</a>'s <a href="Soundies">Soundies</a> musical movies. Although he sang on the soundtrack recordings, he was not present for filming, and his vocals were mouthed by comedian <a href="Dudley%20Dickerson">Dudley Dickerson</a> for the camera. In 1945 Turner and Pete Johnson established their bar in Los Angeles, The Blue Moon Club.
That same year he contracted with <a href="National%20Records">National Records</a> company, and recorded under <a href="Herb%20Abramson">Herb Abramson</a>'s supervision. His first hit single was a cover of <a href="Saunders%20King">Saunders King</a>'s "S.K. Blues" (1945). He recorded the songs "My Gal's A Jockey" and the risqué "Around The Clock" the same year, and the <a href="Aladdin%20Records">Aladdin</a> company released "Battle of the Blues", a duet with <a href="Wynonie%20Harris">Wynonie Harris</a>. Turner stayed with National until 1947, but none of his recordings were great sellers. In 1950, he released the song "Still in the Dark" on <a href="Freedom%20Records%20%28jazz%20label%29">Freedom Records</a>.
Turner made many albums with Johnson, <a href="Art%20Tatum">Art Tatum</a>, <a href="Sammy%20Price">Sammy Price</a>, and other jazz groups. He recorded with several recording companies and also performed with the <a href="Count%20Basie%20Orchestra">Count Basie Orchestra</a>. During his career, Turner was part of the transition from <a href="big%20band">big band</a>s to <a href="jump%20blues">jump blues</a> to <a href="rhythm%20and%20blues">rhythm and blues</a>, and finally to <a href="rock%20and%20roll">rock and roll</a>. Turner was a master of <a href="traditional%20blues%20verses">traditional blues verses</a> and at Kansas City <a href="jam%20session">jam session</a>s he could swap choruses with instrumental soloists for hours.
In 1951, while performing with the Count Basie Orchestra at Harlem's <a href="Apollo%20Theater">Apollo Theater</a> as a replacement for <a href="Jimmy%20Rushing">Jimmy Rushing</a>, he was spotted by <a href="Ahmet%20Erteg%C3%BCn">Ahmet</a> and <a href="Nesuhi%20Erteg%C3%BCn">Nesuhi Ertegün</a>, who contracted him to their new recording company, <a href="Atlantic%20Records">Atlantic Records</a>. Turner recorded a number of successes for them, including the <a href="List%20of%20blues%20standards">blues standard</a>s, "<a href="Chains%20of%20Love%20%28Ahmet%20Ertegun%20song%29">Chains of Love</a>" and "Sweet Sixteen". Many of his vocals are punctuated with shouts to the band members, as for the songs "Boogie Woogie Country Girl" ("That's a good rockin' band!", "Go ahead, man! Ow! That's just what I need!" ) and "<a href="Honey%20Hush">Honey Hush</a>" (he repeatedly sings "Hi-yo, Silver!", probably in reference to <a href="The%20Treniers">The Treniers</a> singing the phrase for their <a href="Lone%20Ranger">Lone Ranger</a> parody "Ride, Red, Ride"). Turner's records scored at the top of the rhythm-and-blues charts; although they were sometimes so risqué that some radio stations would not play them, the songs received much play on jukeboxes and records.
Turner had a great success during 1954 with "<a href="Shake%2C%20Rattle%20and%20Roll">Shake, Rattle and Roll</a>", which seriously enhanced his career, turning him into a teenage favorite, and also helped to transform popular music. During the song, Turner yells at his woman to "get outa that bed, wash yo' face an' hands" and comments that she's "wearin' those dresses, the sun comes shinin' through!, I can't believe my eyes, all that mess belongs to you." He sang the number on film for the 1955 theatrical feature "Rhythm and Blues Revue".
Although the cover version of the song by <a href="Bill%20Haley%20%26amp%3B%20His%20Comets">Bill Haley & His Comets</a>, with the risqué lyrics partially omitted, was a greater sales success, many listeners sought out Turner's version and were introduced thereby to rhythm and blues. <a href="Elvis%20Presley">Elvis Presley</a>'s version of "Shake, Rattle and Roll" combined Turner's lyrics with Haley's arrangement, but was not a successful single.
"The Chicken and the Hawk", "<a href="Flip%2C%20Flop%20and%20Fly">Flip, Flop and Fly</a>", "Hide and Seek", "Morning, Noon and Night", and "Well All Right" were successful recordings from this period. He performed on the <a href="television%20program">television program</a> "<a href="Showtime%20at%20the%20Apollo">Showtime at the Apollo</a>" and in the movie "<a href="Shake%2C%20Rattle%20%26amp%3B%20Rock%21%20%281956%20film%29">Shake Rattle & Rock!</a>" (1956).
The song "<a href="Corrine%2C%20Corrina">Corrine, Corrina</a>" was another great seller during 1956. In addition to the rock music songs, he released "Boss of the Blues" album in 1956. "(I’m Gonna) Jump for Joy", his last hit, reached the US R&B record chart on May 26, 1958.
After a number of successes in this vein, Turner quit popular music and resumed singing with small jazz combos, recording numerous albums in that style during the 1960s and 1970s. During 1966, <a href="Bill%20Haley">Bill Haley</a> helped revive Turner's career by lending the Comets for a series of popular recordings in Mexico. In 1977 he recorded a cover version of <a href="Guitar%20Slim">Guitar Slim</a>'s song, "<a href="The%20Things%20That%20I%20Used%20to%20Do">The Things That I Used to Do</a>".
During the 1960s and 1970s he resumed performing jazz and blues music, performing at many music festivals and recording for <a href="Norman%20Granz">Norman Granz</a>'s company <a href="Pablo%20Records">Pablo Records</a>. He also worked with <a href="Axel%20Zwingenberger">Axel Zwingenberger</a>. Turner also participated in a 'Battle of the Blues' with <a href="Wynonie%20Harris">Wynonie Harris</a> and <a href="T-Bone%20Walker">T-Bone Walker</a>.
During 1965 he toured in England with trumpeter <a href="Buck%20Clayton">Buck Clayton</a> and trombonist <a href="Vic%20Dickenson">Vic Dickenson</a>, accompanied by <a href="Humphrey%20Lyttelton">Humphrey Lyttelton</a> and his Band. Part of a studio concert was televised by the BBC and later issued on DVD. A sound recording of a club appearance made during this tour is not thought of sufficient sound quality to justify commercial issue. He also toured Europe with <a href="Count%20Basie">Count Basie</a> and his Orchestra.
He won the "<a href="Esquire%20%28magazine%29">Esquire</a>" magazine award for male vocalist in 1945, the "<a href="Melody%20Maker">Melody Maker</a>" award for best 'new' vocalist during 1956, and the British "Jazz Journal" award as top male singer during 1965. In 1977, Turner recorded "<a href="I%27m%20Gonna%20Sit%20Right%20Down%20and%20Write%20Myself%20a%20Letter">I'm Gonna Sit Right Down and Write Myself a Letter</a>" for <a href="Spivey%20Records">Spivey Records</a>, featuring <a href="Lloyd%20Glenn">Lloyd Glenn</a> on piano. Turner's career endured from the bar rooms of Kansas City in the 1920s (when at the age of twelve he performed with a pencilled moustache and his father's hat), to European jazz music festivals of the 1980s.
In 1983, only two years before his death, Turner was inducted into the <a href="Blues%20Hall%20of%20Fame">Blues Hall of Fame</a>. That same year, the album "Blues Train" was released by <a href="Mute%20Records">Mute Records</a> company; the album had Turner paired with the team <a href="Roomful%20of%20Blues">Roomful of Blues</a>. Turner received top billing with <a href="Count%20Basie">Count Basie</a> in the <a href="Kansas%20City%20jazz">Kansas City jazz</a> reunion movie "<a href="The%20Last%20of%20the%20Blue%20Devils">The Last of the Blue Devils</a>" (1979) featuring <a href="Jay%20McShann">Jay McShann</a>, <a href="Jimmy%20Forrest">Jimmy Forrest</a>, and other players from the city.
Big Joe Turner died in <a href="Inglewood%2C%20California">Inglewood, California</a>, in November 1985, at the age of 74 of heart failure, having suffered the earlier effects of arthritis, a stroke and diabetes. He was buried at Roosevelt Memorial Park, in <a href="Gardena%2C%20California">Gardena, California</a>.
Big Joe Turner was posthumously inducted into the <a href="Rock%20and%20Roll%20Hall%20of%20Fame">Rock and Roll Hall of Fame</a> in 1987. He is buried at Roosevelt Memorial Park in Gardena, California.
"<a href="The%20New%20York%20Times">The New York Times</a>" music critic <a href="Robert%20Palmer%20%28writer%29">Robert Palmer</a> said: "...his voice, pushing like a Count Basie solo, rich and grainy as a section of saxophones, which dominated the room with the sheer sumptuousness of its sound."
In announcing Turner's death in their December 1985 edition, the British music magazine, "<a href="NME">NME</a>", described Turner as "the grandfather of rock and roll."
<a href="Bob%20Dylan">Bob Dylan</a> referenced Turner in the song "<a href="High%20Water%20%28For%20Charley%20Patton%29">High Water (For Charley Patton)</a>", from his 2001 album "<a href="Love%20and%20Theft%20%28Bob%20Dylan%20album%29">Love and Theft</a>". Songwriter <a href="Dave%20Alvin">Dave Alvin</a> wrote a song about an evening he spent with Turner titled "Boss Of The Blues". It was on his 2009 release, "Dave Alvin & The Guilty Women". Alvin discussed the song in Issue 59 of The Blasters Newsletter.
<a href="Dave%20Alvin">Dave Alvin</a> would later collaborate on a second reunion album released in 2015 with his former Blaster's brother <a href="Phil%20Alvin">Phil Alvin</a> featuring four Big Joe covers. "Lost Time" covers songs such as "Cherry Red", "Wee Baby Blues" and "Hide and Seek". The brothers met Big Joe Turner in Los Angeles while he was playing the clubs on Central Ave. and living in the Adams district between tours in the 1960s. <a href="Phil%20Alvin">Phil Alvin</a> even opened for Turner a few times with his first band, Delta Pacific and Turner continued mentoring the Alvin brothers till his death in 1985. Big Joe Turner is pictured on the back cover of "Lost Time".
The biographical film "<a href="The%20Buddy%20Holly%20Story">The Buddy Holly Story</a>" refers to Turner as well as contemporaries <a href="Little%20Richard">Little Richard</a> and <a href="Fats%20Domino">Fats Domino</a> as major influences on <a href="Buddy%20Holly">Buddy Holly</a>, with Holly collecting their <a href="Vinyl%20record">vinyls</a>.
Tracks marked as * were million selling <a href="gramophone%20record">discs</a>.
</doc>
<doc id="90428" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90428" title="Social Democratic Party">
Social Democratic Party
The name Social Democratic Party or Social Democrats has been used by a large number of <a href="Political%20party">political parties</a> in various countries around the world. Such parties are most commonly aligned to <a href="social%20democracy">social democracy</a> as their <a href="Ideologies%20of%20parties">political ideology</a>.
</doc>
<doc id="90435" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90435" title="Champagne-Ardenne">
Champagne-Ardenne
Champagne-Ardenne () is a former <a href="regions%20of%20France">administrative region</a> of France, located in the northeast of the country, bordering <a href="Belgium">Belgium</a>. Mostly corresponding to the historic province of <a href="Champagne%20%28historical%20province%29">Champagne</a>, the region is famous for its sparkling white wine, named <a href="Champagne%20%28wine%29">champagne</a> after the eponymous <a href="Champagne%20%28wine%20region%29">wine region</a>.
The administrative region was formed in 1956, consisting of the four <a href="departments%20of%20France">departments</a> <a href="Aube">Aube</a>, <a href="Ardennes%20%28department%29">Ardennes</a>, <a href="Haute-Marne">Haute-Marne</a>, and <a href="Marne">Marne</a>. On 1 January 2016, it merged with neighboring regions of <a href="Alsace">Alsace</a> and <a href="Lorraine%20%28region%29">Lorraine</a> to form the new region <a href="Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine">Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine</a>, thereby ceasing to exist as an independent <a href="Territorial%20collectivity">entity</a>.
Its rivers, most of which flow west, include the <a href="Seine">Seine</a>, the <a href="Marne%20%28river%29">Marne</a>, and the <a href="Aisne%20%28river%29">Aisne</a>. The <a href="Meuse%20River">Meuse</a> flows north.
The rail network includes the Paris–Strasbourg line, which follows the <a href="Marne%20Valley">Marne Valley</a> and serves <a href="%C3%89pernay">Épernay</a>, <a href="Ch%C3%A2lons-en-Champagne">Châlons-en-Champagne</a>, and <a href="Vitry-le-Fran%C3%A7ois">Vitry-le-François</a>. The <a href="LGV%20Est">LGV Est</a> <a href="TGV">TGV</a> line also connecting Paris and Strasbourg opened in 2007 and serves Reims with <a href="Gare%20de%20Champagne-Ardenne%20TGV">a train station</a> in the commune of <a href="Bezannes">Bezannes</a>.
The region's <a href="canal">canal</a>s include the <a href="Canal%20lat%C3%A9ral%20%C3%A0%20la%20Marne">Canal latéral à la Marne</a> and <a href="Marne-Rhine%20Canal">Marne-Rhine Canal</a>, the latter connecting to the <a href="Marne%20%28river%29">Marne</a> at Vitry-le-François. These are "petit gabarit" canals.
The <a href="Vatry%20International%20Airport">Vatry International Airport</a>, primarily dedicated to air freight, has a runway long. The airport is in a sparsely populated area just from Paris.
The population of Champagne-Ardenne has been in steady decrease since 1982 due to a <a href="rural%20exodus">rural exodus</a>. With 1.3 million people and a density of 52/km², it is one of France's least populated regions. After a brief period of stabilization in the 1990s, the region's population is now among the fastest "dying" in Europe, with several municipalities losing people at a faster rate than a lot of Eastern European areas, especially in the Haute-Marne department. The region is among the oldest in France, has a weak fertility rate, and its immigrant population, while growing, is still minimal compared to the national average.
</doc>
<doc id="90437" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90437" title="Zea (genus)">
Zea (genus)
Zea is a genus of plants in the <a href="Poaceae">grass family</a>. The best-known species is "Z. mays", variously called maize, corn, or Indian corn, one of the most important crops for human societies over much of the world. Several wild species are commonly known as teosintes and are native to <a href="Mesoamerica">Mesoamerica</a>.
The five recognized species in the genus are: "<a href="Zea%20diploperennis">Zea diploperennis</a>", "<a href="Zea%20perennis">Zea perennis</a>", "<a href="Zea%20luxurians">Zea luxurians</a>", "<a href="Zea%20nicaraguensis">Zea nicaraguensis</a>", and "<a href="Maize">Zea mays</a>". The last species is further divided into four subspecies: "Z. m. huehuetenangensis", "Z. m. mexicana", "Z. m. parviglumis", and "Z. m. mays". The first three subspecies are teosintes; the last is <a href="maize">maize</a>, or corn, the only domesticated <a href="taxon">taxon</a> in the genus "Zea". The species are grouped into two <a href="section%20%28botany%29">sections</a>, section "Luxuriantes", with the first four species, and section "Zea" with "Zea mays". The former section is typified by dark-staining knobs made up of <a href="heterochromatin">heterochromatin</a> that are terminal on most <a href="chromosome">chromosome</a> arms, while most subspecies of section "Zea" may have none to three knobs between each chromosome end and the <a href="centromere">centromere</a> and very few terminal knobs (except "Z. m. huehuetenangensis", which has many large terminal knobs). The two perennials are thought to be one species by some.
Both <a href="Annual%20plant">annual</a> and <a href="perennial%20plant">perennial</a> teosinte species occur. "<a href="Zea%20diploperennis">Zea diploperennis</a>" and "Z. perennis" are perennial, while all other species are annual. All species are <a href="diploid">diploid</a> (n=10) with the exception of "Z. perennis", which is <a href="tetraploid">tetraploid</a> (n=20). The different species and subspecies of teosinte can be readily distinguished based on morphological, cytogenetic, protein, and DNA differences and on geographic origin, although the two perennials are <a href="sympatric">sympatric</a> and very similar. What many consider to be the most puzzling teosinte is "Z. m. huehuetenangensis", which combines a morphology rather like "Z. m. parviglumis" with many terminal chromosome knobs and an isozyme position between the two sections. Considered to be phenotypically the most distinctive, as well as the most threatened, teosinte is "Zea nicaraguensis". This teosinte thrives in flooded conditions along 200 m of a coastal estuarine river in northwest Nicaragua.
Teosintes strongly resemble maize in many ways, notably their tassel (male inflorescence) morphology. Teosintes are distinguished from maize most obviously by their numerous branches each bearing bunches of distinctive, small female <a href="inflorescences">inflorescences</a>. These spikes mature to form a two-ranked 'ear' of five to 10 triangular or trapezoidal, black or brown disarticulating segments, each with one seed. Each seed is enclosed by a very hard fruitcase, consisting of a cupule or depression in the rachis and a tough lower glume. This protects them from the digestive processes of <a href="ruminants">ruminants</a> that forage on teosinte and aid in seed distribution through their droppings. Teosinte seed exhibits some resistance to germination, but will quickly <a href="germinate">germinate</a> if treated with a dilute solution of hydrogen peroxide.
Teosintes are critical components of maize <a href="Selective%20breeding">evolution</a>, but opinions vary about which taxa were involved. According to the most widely held evolutionary model, the crop was derived directly from "Z. m. parviglumis" by selection of key mutations; but in some varieties up to 20% of its genetic material came from "Z. m. mexicana" through <a href="introgression">introgression</a>
All but the Nicaraguan species of teosinte may grow in or very near corn fields, providing opportunities for introgression between teosinte and maize. First- and later-generation hybrids are often found in the fields, but the rate of gene exchange is quite low. Some populations of "Z. m. mexicana" display <a href="Vavilovian%20mimicry">Vavilovian mimicry</a> within cultivated maize fields, having evolved a maize-like form as a result of the farmers' selective weeding pressure. In some areas of <a href="Mexico">Mexico</a>, teosintes are regarded by maize farmers as a noxious weed, while in a few areas, farmers regard it as a beneficial companion plant, and encourage its introgression into their maize.
According to Matsuoka et al., the available early maize gene pool can be divided into three clusters:
Also, some other intermediate genomes, or admixtures of these clusters occur.
According to these authors, "The maize of the Andes Mountains with its distinctive hand grenade-shaped ears was derived from the maize of lowland South America, which in turn came from maize of the lowlands of Guatemala and southern Mexico."
"Zea" species are used as food plants by the <a href="larva">larva</a>e (<a href="caterpillar">caterpillar</a>s) of some <a href="Lepidoptera">Lepidoptera</a> species including (in the Americas) the <a href="fall%20armyworm">fall armyworm</a> ("Spodoptera frugiperda"), the <a href="Helicoverpa%20zea">corn earworm</a> ("<a href="Helicoverpa%20zea">Helicoverpa zea</a>"), and the stem borers "<a href="Diatraea">Diatraea</a>" and "<a href="Chilo%20%28moth%29">Chilo</a>"; in the Old World, it is attacked by the <a href="double-striped%20pug">double-striped pug</a>, the <a href="cutworm">cutworm</a>s <a href="heart%20and%20club">heart and club</a> and <a href="heart%20and%20dart">heart and dart</a>, "<a href="Hypercompe">Hypercompe indecisa</a>", the <a href="rustic%20shoulder-knot">rustic shoulder-knot</a>, the <a href="setaceous%20Hebrew%20Character">setaceous Hebrew Character</a> and <a href="turnip%20moth">turnip moth</a>s, and the <a href="European%20corn%20borer">European corn borer</a> ("Ostrinia nubilalis"), among many others.
Virtually all populations of teosintes are either threatened or endangered: "Z. diploperennis" exists in an area of only a few square miles; "Z. nicaraguensis" survives as about 6000 plants in an area of 200 x 150 m. The Mexican and Nicaraguan governments have taken action in recent years to protect wild teosinte populations, using both "in situ" and "ex situ" conservation methods. Currently, a large amount of scientific interest exists in conferring beneficial teosinte traits, such as insect resistance, perennialism, and flood tolerance, to cultivated maize lines, although this is very difficult due to linked deleterious teosinte traits.
Species
</doc>
<doc id="90439" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90439" title="Pyrénées-Atlantiques">
Pyrénées-Atlantiques
Pyrénées-Atlantiques (; <a href="Gascon%20language">Gascon</a>: "Pirenèus-Atlantics"; or ) is a <a href="departments%20of%20France">department</a> in the region <a href="Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes">Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes</a>, southwestern <a href="France">France</a>. It takes its name from the <a href="Pyrenees">Pyrenees</a> mountains and the <a href="Atlantic%20Ocean">Atlantic Ocean</a>. It covers the <a href="French%20Basque%20Country">French Basque Country</a> and the <a href="B%C3%A9arn">Béarn</a>.
Basses-Pyrénées is one of the original 83 <a href="departments%20of%20France">departments of France</a> created during the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a>, on 4 March 1790. It was created out of parts belonging to the former greater province of <a href="Guyenne">Guyenne</a> and <a href="Gascony">Gascony</a>, as well as the <a href="Viscounty%20of%20B%C3%A9arn">Béarn</a>-<a href="Basse-Navarre">Navarre</a> (still, at least nominally, Kingdom of Navarre), i.e. the <a href="French%20Basque%20Country">Basques provinces</a> of <a href="Basse-Navarre">Basse-Navarre</a>, <a href="Labourd">Labourd</a>, <a href="Bayonne">Bayonne</a> (detached a few years before from Labourd), and <a href="Soule">Soule</a>, and <a href="B%C3%A9arn">Béarn</a>.
The 1790 administrative design brought about <a href="End%20of%20Basque%20home%20rule%20in%20France">the end of native institutions and laws</a>. The Basque third-estate representatives overtly opposed the new administrative layout since it suppressed their institutions and laws. The representatives of Lower Navarre refused to vote arguing that they were not part of the Kingdom of France, those of Soule voted against, while the brothers <a href="Dominique%20Joseph%20Garat">Garat</a>, representing Labourd, eventually voted yes, thinking that would give them a say in upcoming political decisions.
On 10 October 1969, Basses-Pyrénées was renamed "Pyrénées-Atlantiques".
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is part of the <a href="Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes">Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes</a> <a href="Regions%20of%20France">region</a> of Southwest France. It is bordered by the <a href="Landes%20%28department%29">Landes</a>, <a href="Hautes-Pyr%C3%A9n%C3%A9es">Hautes-Pyrénées</a>, <a href="Gers">Gers</a> departments and the <a href="Bay%20of%20Biscay">Bay of Biscay</a>. Principal settlements include <a href="Pau%2C%20Pyr%C3%A9n%C3%A9es-Atlantiques">Pau</a>, <a href="Oloron-Sainte-Marie">Oloron-Sainte-Marie</a>, <a href="Orthez">Orthez</a>, <a href="Biarritz">Biarritz</a>, <a href="Bayonne">Bayonne</a>, <a href="Anglet">Anglet</a>, <a href="Urrugne">Urrugne</a>, <a href="Saint-Jean-de-Luz">Saint-Jean-de-Luz</a> and <a href="Hendaye">Hendaye</a>. <a href="Lac%20Gentau">Lac Gentau</a> is located here, as are the <a href="Lacs%20de%20Carnau">Lacs de Carnau</a>.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques, a border province, has cultivated a number of economic and cultural links with Spain.
Two urban concentrations exist in the east and west of the département: Pau, which has 145,000 inhabitants, and 344,000 workers in the local area; and Bayonne - Anglet - Biarritz which has 166,400 inhabitants and 235 000 workers in the local area
These parts of the department that were part of Guyenne and Gascony, and Béarn have a culture heavily influenced by the <a href="Basques">Basques</a>, but clearly different identities.
Both the Gascon <a href="Bearnese%20dialect">Bearnese</a> variant and <a href="Basque%20language">Basque</a> language are indigenous to the region in their respective districts. Gascon in turn is a dialect of <a href="Occitan%20language">Occitan</a>, formerly the main language of southern France. It is more closely related to <a href="Catalan%20language">Catalan</a> than it is to <a href="French%20language">French</a>. Basque is a <a href="language%20isolate">language isolate</a>, not related to any known language. Today, <a href="French%20language">French</a>, the sole official language of the French Republic, is the predominant native language and is spoken by virtually all inhabitants.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is also home to a number of professional sports teams, including <a href="Aviron%20Bayonnais">Aviron Bayonnais</a>, <a href="Biarritz%20Olympique">Biarritz Olympique</a>, <a href="Section%20Paloise">Section Paloise</a> (rugby), <a href="%C3%89lan%20B%C3%A9arnais%20Pau-Orthez">Élan Béarnais Pau-Orthez</a> (basketball) and <a href="Pau%20FC">Pau FC</a> (association football). The <a href="Pau%20Grand%20Prix">Pau Grand Prix</a>, an auto race first held in 1901, has hosted the <a href="World%20Touring%20Car%20Championship">World Touring Car Championship</a>, <a href="British%20Formula%20Three">British Formula Three</a>, <a href="Formula%203%20Euro%20Series">Formula 3 Euro Series</a> and <a href="FIA%20European%20Formula%203%20Championship">FIA European Formula 3 Championship</a>.
The <a href="coat%20of%20arms">coat of arms</a> of Pyrénées-Atlantiques combines those of four traditional provinces:
</doc>
<doc id="90443" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90443" title="List of companies of Italy">
List of companies of Italy
This is a list of notable <a href="companies">companies</a> from Italy.
These companies specialize in <a href="automobile%20design">automobile design</a>.
</doc>
<doc id="90444" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90444" title="House of York">
House of York
The House of York was a <a href="cadet%20branch">cadet branch</a> of the English royal <a href="House%20of%20Plantagenet">House of Plantagenet</a>. Three of its members became <a href="List%20of%20monarchs%20of%20England">Kings of England</a> in the late 15th century. The House of York was descended in the <a href="patrilineality">male line</a> from <a href="Edmund%20of%20Langley%2C%201st%20Duke%20of%20York">Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York</a>, the fourth surviving son of <a href="Edward%20III%20of%20England">Edward III</a>, but also represented Edward's senior line, being <a href="cognatic">cognatic</a> descendants of <a href="Lionel%20of%20Antwerp%2C%201st%20Duke%20of%20Clarence">Lionel, Duke of Clarence</a>, Edward III's second surviving son. It is based on these descents that they claimed the English crown. Compared with the <a href="House%20of%20Lancaster">House of Lancaster</a>, it had a senior claim to the throne of England according to <a href="Cognatic%20primogeniture%23Male-preference%20primogeniture">cognatic primogeniture</a> but junior claim according to the <a href="agnatic%20primogeniture">agnatic primogeniture</a>. The reign of this dynasty ended with the death of <a href="Richard%20III%20of%20England">Richard III of England</a> in 1485. It became extinct in the male line with the death of <a href="Edward%20Plantagenet%2C%2017th%20Earl%20of%20Warwick">Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick</a> in 1499.
<a href="Edmund%20of%20Langley%2C%201st%20Duke%20of%20York">Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York</a>, 1st Earl of Cambridge, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was a younger son of King <a href="Edward%20III%20of%20England">Edward III of England</a> and <a href="Philippa%20of%20Hainault">Philippa of Hainault</a>, the fourth of their five sons who lived to adulthood. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard to Anne Mortimer that the Yorkist faction in the Wars of the Roses made its claim on the throne. The other party in the <a href="Wars%20of%20the%20Roses">Wars of the Roses</a>, the <a href="House%20of%20Lancaster">Lancasters</a>, were descendants of Edmund's elder brother, <a href="John%20of%20Gaunt%2C%201st%20Duke%20of%20Lancaster">John of Gaunt</a> whose son <a href="Henry%20IV%20of%20England">Henry</a> usurped the throne of <a href="Richard%20II%20of%20England">Richard II</a> in 1399.
Edmund had two sons, <a href="Edward%20of%20Norwich%2C%202nd%20Duke%20of%20York">Edward</a>, and <a href="Richard%20of%20Conisburgh%2C%203rd%20Earl%20of%20Cambridge">Richard of Conisburgh</a>. Edward succeeded to the dukedom in 1402, but was killed at the <a href="battle%20of%20Agincourt">battle of Agincourt</a> in 1415, with no issue. Richard married <a href="Anne%20Mortimer">Anne Mortimer</a>, a great-granddaughter of <a href="Lionel%20of%20Antwerp%2C%201st%20Duke%20of%20Clarence">Lionel of Antwerp</a>, the second son (cadet line) of Edward III. Furthermore, Anne's son Richard also became <a href="heir%20general">heir general</a> to the <a href="earl%20of%20March">earldom of March</a>, after her only brother, <a href="Edmund%20Mortimer%2C%205th%20Earl%20of%20March">Edmund, 5th Earl</a>, died without issue in 1425. Their father <a href="Roger%20Mortimer%2C%204th%20Earl%20of%20March">Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March</a> had been named <a href="heir%20presumptive">heir presumptive</a> of <a href="Richard%20II%20of%20England">Richard II</a> before <a href="Henry%20IV%20of%20England">Henry IV</a>'s accession; although it had been passed over at the time, Anne's son Richard also inherited this claim to the throne.
Richard of Conisburgh was executed following his involvement in the <a href="Southampton%20Plot">Southampton Plot</a> to depose <a href="Henry%20V%20of%20England">Henry V of England</a> in favour of the Earl of March. The dukedom of York therefore passed to his son, <a href="Richard%20Plantagenet%2C%203rd%20Duke%20of%20York">Richard Plantagenet</a>. Through his mother, Richard Plantagenet also inherited the lands of the earldom of March, as well as the Mortimer claim to the throne.
Despite his elevated status, Richard Plantagenet was denied a position in government by the advisers of the weak <a href="Henry%20VI%20of%20England">Henry VI</a>, particularly <a href="John%20Beaufort%2C%201st%20Duke%20of%20Somerset">John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset</a>, and the queen consort, <a href="Margaret%20of%20Anjou">Margaret of Anjou</a>. Although he served as Protector of the Realm during Henry VI's period of incapacity in 1453-54, his reforms were reversed by Somerset's party once the king had recovered.
The <a href="Wars%20of%20the%20Roses">Wars of the Roses</a> began the following year, with the <a href="First%20Battle%20of%20St%20Albans">First Battle of St Albans</a>. Initially, Richard aimed only to purge his Lancastrian political opponents from positions of influence over the king. It was not until October 1460 that he claimed the throne for the House of York. In that year the Yorkists had captured the king at the <a href="battle%20of%20Northampton%20%281460%29">battle of Northampton</a>, but victory was short-lived. Richard and his second son <a href="Edmund%2C%20Earl%20of%20Rutland">Edmund</a> were killed at the <a href="battle%20of%20Wakefield">battle of Wakefield</a> on 30 December.
Richard's claim to the throne was inherited by his son <a href="Edward%20IV%20of%20England">Edward</a>. With the support of <a href="Richard%20Neville%2C%2016th%20Earl%20of%20Warwick">Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick</a> ("The Kingmaker"), Edward, already showing great promise as a leader of men, defeated the Lancastrians in a succession of battles. While Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou were campaigning in the north, Warwick gained control of the capital and had Edward declared king in London in 1461. Edward strengthened his claim with a decisive victory at the <a href="Battle%20of%20Towton">Battle of Towton</a> in the same year, in the course of which the Lancastrian army was virtually wiped out.
The early reign of <a href="Edward%20IV%20of%20England">Edward IV</a> was marred by Lancastrian plotting and uprisings in favour of Henry VI. Warwick himself changed sides, and supported Margaret of Anjou and the king's jealous brother <a href="George%20Plantagenet%2C%201st%20Duke%20of%20Clarence">George, Duke of Clarence</a>, in briefly restoring Henry in 1470-71. However, Edward regained his throne, and the House of Lancaster was wiped out with the death of Henry VI himself, in the <a href="Tower%20of%20London">Tower of London</a> in 1471. In 1478, the continued trouble caused by Clarence led to his execution in the <a href="Tower%20of%20London">Tower of London</a>; popularly he is thought to have been drowned in a butt of <a href="malmsey">malmsey</a> wine.
On Edward's death in 1483, the crown passed to his twelve-year-old son <a href="Edward%20V%20of%20England">Edward</a>. Edward IV's younger brother <a href="Richard%20III%20of%20England">Richard, Duke of Gloucester</a>, was appointed Protector, and escorted the young king, and his brother <a href="Richard%20of%20Shrewsbury%2C%201st%20Duke%20of%20York">Richard</a>, to the Tower of London. The famous <a href="Princes%20in%20the%20Tower">Princes in the Tower</a> were never seen again. However it is unknown whether they were killed or who killed them if it happened. Parliament declared, in the document "<a href="Titulus%20Regius">Titulus Regius</a>", that the two boys were illegitimate, on the grounds that Edward IV's marriage was invalid, and as such Richard was heir to the throne. He was crowned Richard III in July 1483.
Richard III had many enemies. Though the House of Lancaster had been extinguished, the Lancastrian sympathisers survived, who now rallied behind <a href="Henry%20VII%20of%20England">Henry Tudor</a>, a descendant of the Beauforts, a legitimized branch of the House of Lancaster. Moreover, the family of Edward IV, and the Edwardian loyalists, were naturally opposed to him, essentially dividing his Yorkist power base. A coup attempt failed in late 1483, but in 1485 Richard met Henry Tudor at the <a href="battle%20of%20Bosworth%20Field">battle of Bosworth Field</a>. During the battle, some of Richard's important supporters switched sides or withheld their retainers from the field. Richard himself was killed. He was the last of the Plantagenet kings, and the last English king to die in battle.
Henry Tudor declared himself king, took <a href="Elizabeth%20of%20York">Elizabeth of York</a>, eldest child of Edward IV, as his wife, symbolically uniting the surviving houses of York and Lancaster, and acceded to the throne as Henry VII, founder of the Tudor dynasty which reigned until 1603.
The <a href="John%20de%20la%20Pole%2C%202nd%20Duke%20of%20Suffolk">de la Pole</a> family were sometimes suggested as heirs to the Yorkist cause, but Henry Tudor and his son <a href="Henry%20VIII%20of%20England">Henry VIII of England</a> efficiently suppressed all such opposition.
Another Yorkist branch descends from <a href="George%20Plantagenet%2C%201st%20Duke%20of%20Clarence">George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence</a>, and younger brother of Edward IV. The heir to this branch is the <a href="Earl%20of%20Loudoun">Earl of Loudoun</a>, currently <a href="Simon%20Abney-Hastings%2C%2015th%20Earl%20of%20Loudoun">Simon Abney-Hastings</a>. There was in Edward IV's reign a suspicion that <a href="Edward%20IV%20of%20England%23Was%20Edward%20illegitimate.3F">this king was illegitimate</a>. In 2004, the British station Channel 4 revived the George branch's claim as "Britain's Real Monarch". The Earls of Loudoun would then, at least, be the heirs to the Yorkists.
Upon Henry Tudor's uniting the rival houses of Lancaster and York, the title <a href="Duke%20of%20York">Duke of York</a> became a royal prerogative and is traditionally accorded to the second son of the reigning monarch. Beginning with <a href="Richard%20of%20Shrewsbury%2C%20Duke%20of%20York">Richard of Shrewsbury</a> (son of Edward IV, one of the Princes in the Tower), none of its holders were able to transmit it; they either died without a male heir or succeeded to the throne. The title is held today by <a href="Prince%20Andrew%2C%20Duke%20of%20York">Prince Andrew</a>, second son of Queen <a href="Elizabeth%20II">Elizabeth II</a> and her consort <a href="Prince%20Philip%2C%20Duke%20of%20Edinburgh">Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh</a>.
The symbol of the House of York was a <a href="White%20Rose%20of%20York">white rose</a>, still used as the badge of <a href="Yorkshire">Yorkshire</a> and <a href="Jacobitism">Jacobitism</a>. <a href="York%2C%20Pennsylvania">York, Pennsylvania</a>, is known as the White Rose City after the symbol of the House of York. The rivalry between York and Lancaster, in the modern form of the counties of Yorkshire and <a href="Lancashire">Lancashire</a>, has continued into the present day on a more friendly basis.
Edward Plantagenet became <a href="Edward%20IV%20of%20England">Edward IV</a> in 1461, thus merging the title of <a href="Duke%20of%20York">Duke of York</a> in crown.
</doc>
<doc id="90446" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90446" title="Equality (mathematics)">
Equality (mathematics)
In <a href="mathematics">mathematics</a>, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two <a href="mathematical%20expression">mathematical expression</a>s, asserting that the quantities have the same value, or that the expressions represent the same <a href="mathematical%20object">mathematical object</a>. The equality between "A" and "B" is written "A" = "B", and pronounced "A" equals "B". The symbol "=" is called an "<a href="equals%20sign">equals sign</a>". Thus there are three kinds of equality, which are formalized in different ways.
These may be thought of as the logical, set-theoretic and algebraic concepts of equality respectively.
The <a href="etymology">etymology</a> of the word is from the Latin "<a href="wikt%3Aaequalis%23Latin">aequālis</a>" (“equal”, “like”, “comparable”, “similar”) from "<a href="wikt%3Aaequus%23Latin">aequus</a>" (“equal”, “level”, “fair”, “just”).
Equality is defined so that things which have the same properties are equal. If some form of <a href="Identity%20of%20indiscernibles">Leibniz's law</a> is added as an <a href="axiom">axiom</a>, the assertion of this axiom rules out "bare particulars"—things that have all and only the same properties but are not equal to each other—which are possible in some logical formalisms. The axiom states that two things are equal if they have all and only the same <a href="Property%20%28philosophy%29">properties</a>. Formally:
In this law, the connective "if and only if" can be weakened to "if"; the modified law is equivalent to the original.
Instead of considering Leibniz's law as an axiom, it can also be taken as the "definition" of equality. The property of being an equivalence relation, as well as the properties given below, can then be proved: they become <a href="theorem">theorem</a>s.
If a=b, then a can replace b and b can replace a.
The substitution property states:
In <a href="first-order%20logic">first-order logic</a>, this is a <a href="schema%20%28logic%29">schema</a>, since we can't quantify over expressions like "F" (which would be a <a href="functional%20predicate">functional predicate</a>).
Some specific examples of this are:
The reflexive property states:
This property is generally used in <a href="mathematical%20proof">mathematical proof</a>s as an intermediate step.
The symmetric property states:
The transitive property states:
These three properties were originally included among the <a href="Peano%20axioms">Peano axioms</a> for natural numbers. Although the symmetric and transitive properties are often seen as fundamental, they can be proved if the substitution and reflexive properties are assumed instead.
When "A" and "B" are not fully specified or depend on some <a href="Variable%20%28mathematics%29">variables</a>, equality is a <a href="proposition%20%28mathematics%29">proposition</a>, which may be true for some values and false for some other values. Equality is a <a href="binary%20relation">binary relation</a>, or, in other words, a two-arguments <a href="predicate%20%28mathematical%20logic%29">predicate</a>, which may produce a <a href="truth%20value">truth value</a> ("false" or "true") from its arguments. In <a href="computer%20programming">computer programming</a>, its computation from two expressions is known as <a href="relational%20operator">comparison</a>.
Equality of sets is axiomatized in set theory in two different ways, depending on whether the axioms are based on a first-order language with or without equality.
In FOL with equality, the axiom of extensionality states that two sets which "contain" the same elements are the same set.
Incorporating half of the work into the first-order logic may be regarded as a mere matter of convenience, as noted by Lévy.
In FOL without equality, two sets are "defined" to be equal if they contain the same elements. Then the axiom of extensionality states that two equal sets "are contained in" the same sets.
When "A" and "B" may be viewed as <a href="function%20%28mathematics%29">functions</a> of some variables, then "A" = "B" means that "A" and "B" define the same function. Such an equality of functions is sometimes called an <a href="identity%20%28mathematics%29">identity</a>. An example is ("x" + 1) = "x" + 2"x" + 1.
An <a href="equation">equation</a> is the problem of finding values of some variables, called "unknowns", for which the specified equality is true. "Equation" may also refer to an equality relation that is satisfied only for the values of the variables that one is interested on. For example, "x" + "y" = 1 is the "equation" of the <a href="unit%20circle">unit circle</a>.
There is no standard notation that distinguishes an equation from an identity or other use of the equality relation: a reader has to guess an appropriate interpretation from the semantics of expressions and the context. An identity is "asserted" to be true for all values of variables in a given domain. An "equation" may sometimes mean an identity, but more often it "specifies" a subset of the variable space to be the subset where the equation is true.
In some cases, one may consider as equal two mathematical objects that are only equivalent for the properties that are considered. This is, in particular the case in <a href="geometry">geometry</a>, where two <a href="geometric%20shape">geometric shape</a>s are said equal when one may be moved to coincide with the other. The word congruence is also used for this kind of equality.
There are some <a href="mathematical%20logic">logic systems</a> that do not have any notion of equality. This reflects the <a href="undecidable%20problem">undecidability</a> of the equality of two <a href="real%20number">real number</a>s defined by formulas involving the <a href="integer">integer</a>s, the basic <a href="arithmetic%20operation">arithmetic operation</a>s, the <a href="logarithm">logarithm</a> and the <a href="exponential%20function">exponential function</a>. In other words, there cannot exist any <a href="algorithm">algorithm</a> for deciding such an equality.
The <a href="binary%20relation">binary relation</a> "<a href="approximation">is approximately equal</a>" between <a href="real%20number">real number</a>s or other things, even if more precisely defined, is not transitive (it may seem so at first sight, but many small <a href="Difference%20%28mathematics%29">differences</a> can add up to something big). However, equality <a href="almost%20everywhere">almost everywhere</a> "is" transitive.
Viewed as a relation, equality is the archetype of the more general concept of an <a href="equivalence%20relation">equivalence relation</a> on a set: those binary relations that are <a href="reflexive%20relation">reflexive</a>, <a href="symmetric%20relation">symmetric</a>, and <a href="transitive%20relation">transitive</a>.
The identity relation is an equivalence relation. Conversely, let "R" be an equivalence relation, and let us denote by "x" the equivalence class of "x", consisting of all elements "z" such that "x R z". Then the relation "x R y" is equivalent with the equality "x" = "y". It follows that equality is the finest equivalence relation on any set "S", in the sense that it is the relation that has the smallest equivalence classes (every class is reduced to a single element).
In some contexts, equality is sharply distinguished from "<a href="equivalence%20relation">equivalence</a>" or "<a href="isomorphism">isomorphism</a>." For example, one may distinguish "<a href="fraction%20%28mathematics%29">fractions</a>" from "<a href="rational%20number">rational number</a>s," the latter being equivalence classes of fractions: the fractions formula_1 and formula_2 are distinct as fractions, as different strings of symbols, but they "represent" the same rational number, the same point on a number line. This distinction gives rise to the notion of a <a href="quotient%20set">quotient set</a>.
Similarly, the sets
are not equal sets – the first consists of letters, while the second consists of numbers – but they are both sets of three elements, and thus isomorphic, meaning that there is a <a href="bijection">bijection</a> between them, for example
However, there are other choices of isomorphism, such as
and these sets cannot be identified without making such a choice – any statement that identifies them "depends on choice of identification". This distinction, <a href="Isomorphism%23Relation%20with%20equality">between equality and isomorphism</a>, is of fundamental importance in <a href="category%20theory">category theory</a>, and is one motivation for the development of category theory.
</doc>
<doc id="90447" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90447" title="François-André Danican Philidor">
François-André Danican Philidor
François-André Danican Philidor (September 7, 1726 – August 31, 1795), often referred to as André Danican Philidor during his lifetime, was a <a href="France">French</a> <a href="composer">composer</a> and <a href="chess">chess</a> player. He contributed to the early development of the <a href="op%C3%A9ra%20comique">opéra comique</a>. He was also regarded as the best chess player of his age; his book "Analyse du jeu des Échecs" was considered a standard chess manual for at least a century, and a well-known <a href="chess%20opening">chess opening</a> and a <a href="checkmate">checkmate</a> method are both named after him.
François-André Danican Philidor came from a well-known musical family, which included:
François-André Danican Philidor was born to his father’s second wife, Elizabeth Le Roy, whom he wed in 1719 when she was 19 years old and he 72. When François-André was born, his father was 79 years old; he died 4 years later and left his son fatherless.
Philidor joined the royal choir of <a href="Louis%20XV%20of%20France">Louis XV</a> in 1732 at the age of six, and made his first attempt at the composition of a song at the age of 11. It was said that Louis XV wanted to listen to the choir almost every day, and the singers, while waiting for the king to arrive, played chess to relieve their boredom; this may have sparked Philidor's interest in chess.
From around 1740 he lived and worked in Paris as a performer, teacher and music copyist. He was the teacher of the Bohemian composer and pianist <a href="Ludwig%20Wenzel%20Lachnith">Ludwig Wenzel Lachnith</a>. During this time he met <a href="Diderot">Diderot</a>, who calls him 'Philidor le subtil' in "<a href="Le%20neveu%20de%20Rameau">Le neveu de Rameau</a>". He spent much of the period 1745–54 in London after a concert tour of the Netherlands collapsed, and moved in the same circles as <a href="Samuel%20Johnson">Dr Johnson</a> and <a href="Charles%20Burney">Dr Burney</a>. He returned to the French capital in 1754, although his music was found by some to be too Italianate (as a result of his travels). However he scored several triumphs at the fair theatres, starting with "Blaise le savetier" in 1759. His three most successful works were "Le sorcier" (1764), "<a href="Tom%20Jones%20%28Philidor%29">Tom Jones</a>" (after <a href="Henry%20Fielding">Henry Fielding</a>, 1765), and "Ernelinde" (1767).
For a time Philidor was among the leading opera composers in France, and during his musical career produced over 20 <a href="op%C3%A9ra%20comique">opéras comiques</a> and two tragédies-lyriques. He also wrote secular cantatas and motets.
Philidor also wrote music for <a href="Freemasonry">masonic</a> rituals.
Philidor started playing regularly around 1740 at the chess Mecca of France, the <a href="Caf%C3%A9%20de%20la%20R%C3%A9gence">Café de la Régence</a>. It was also there that he famously played with a friend from '<a href="New%20England">New England</a>', Mr. <a href="Benjamin%20Franklin">Benjamin Franklin</a>. The best player in France at the time, <a href="Legall%20de%20Kermeur">Legall de Kermeur</a>, taught him. At first, Legall could give Philidor <a href="Chess%20handicap">rook odds</a>, a handicap in which the stronger player starts without one of his rooks, but in only three years, Philidor was his equal, and then surpassed him. Philidor visited England in 1747 and decisively beat the <a href="Syria">Syria</a>n <a href="Phillip%20Stamma">Phillip Stamma</a> in a match +8−1=1, even though Philidor let Stamma have the first move in every game, and scored all draws as wins for Stamma.
The same year, Philidor played many games with another strong player, Sir Abraham Janssen, who was then the best player in England, and with the exception of M. de Legalle, probably the best player Philidor ever encountered. He could win on an average one game in four off Philidor, at even terms; and Philidor himself declared that he could only give to Janssen the pawn for the move.
In 1754, Philidor returned to France, after nine years of absence spent mostly in Holland and England. He was now a much stronger player, having successfully played with opponents of the calibre of Philip Stamma and Abraham Janssen, but, as G. Allen reports in "The life of Philidor", it was not until his match with de Legal in 1755 that he can be considered the strongest player in the world.
When Philidor left Paris, in 1745, although he had for some time been playing even games with M. de Legal... he had not ceased to recognize his old master as still his master and superior. But nine years of practice, with a great variety of players, had authorized him to look for neither superior nor equal; and when, in 1755, a match was arranged between the pupil and his master, who was still at the height of his strength, the result placed the crown firmly and indisputably upon the head of Philidor.
In 1771 and 1773 Philidor made brief stays in London to play at the Salopian coffee-house, Charing Cross and at the St James Chess Club. In 1774 the Parloe's chess club, on St James street, in London, was created and Philidor obtained a remuneration as a chess master every year, for a regular season from February to June. Philidor stayed faithful to this agreement until the end of his life and he was replaced by <a href="Verdoni%20%28chess%20player%29">Verdoni</a> only after his death. It is rightly in this place Philidor encountered Mr. <a href="George%20Atwood">George Atwood</a>, famous mathematician and physician, lecturer at Cambridge University. In an article of J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson, devoted to George Atwood, there is the following passage:
Atwood was a renowned amateur chess-player and among other opponents played games against the famous French player Philidor, who was regarded as the unofficial world champion.
H E Bird records:
Of the players who encountered Philidor, Sir Abraham Janssens, who died in 1775, seems to have been the best, Mr. George Atwood, a mathematician, one of Pitt's secretaries came next, he was of a class which we should call third or two grades of odds below Philidor, a high standard of excellence to which but few amateurs attain. One of most interesting features of Atwood as a chess player is that he recorded and preserved some of his games, an unusual practice at that time. These records have survived, among them the last games that Philidor played which were against Atwood at Parsloe's Club in London on 20 June 1795.
In England, Philidor astounded his peers by playing three <a href="blindfold%20chess">blindfold chess</a> games simultaneously in the chess club of St. James Street in <a href="London">London</a> on 9 May 1783. Philidor let all three opponents play white, and gave up a pawn for the third player. Some <a href="affidavit">affidavit</a>s were signed, because those persons who were involved doubted that future generations would believe that such a feat was possible. Today, three simultaneous blindfold games would be fairly unremarkable among many chess <a href="chess%20master">masters</a>. Even when he was in his late years, when he was 67 years old (1793), he played and won two blindfold games simultaneously in London.
Philidor, both in England and France, was largely recognized in each of his fields and got a lot of admirers, protectors and also friends, like were the French philosophers <a href="Voltaire">Voltaire</a>, <a href="Jean-Jacques%20Rousseau">Rousseau</a> and the famous English actor <a href="David%20Garrick">David Garrick</a> (1717–1779).
In December 1792, however, when he was age 65, Philidor had to definitively leave France for England. He was fleeing the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> (1789–1799), because his name figured on the Revolutionary banishment list, established by the "Convention nationale". This was not probably due to his ideas (indeed it seems Philidor was rather reserved about his opinions apart from music and chess), but very likely in view of the traditional attachment of his family to the King's family service.
<a href="Andrew%20Soltis">Andrew Soltis</a> writes that Philidor "was the best player in the world for 50 years. In fact, he was probably about 200 <a href="Elo%20rating">rating points</a> better than anyone else yet alive—set apart by the mysteries of the game he had solved."
Also interesting is GM <a href="Boris%20Alterman">Boris Alterman</a>'s opinion on Philidor play:
500 years ago chess was different from today. Pawns didn't cost as much as they do today. The best players started games with the gambits. Pawns were only a small price to: Open a file or diagonal; Create an immediate attack on an opponent's king. It was the Italian style of chess. All positions of the King's Gambit were very popular... The best chess player of his day was Francois Andre Danican-Philidor... His published chess strategy stood for a hundred years without significant addition or modification. He preached the value of a strong pawn center, an understanding of the relative value of the pieces, and correct pawn formations...
In the same web-article, Alterman also noticed, analyzing the game Count Bruehl–Philidor, F, 0–1, London 1783, that Philidor understood very well modern concepts like: power of passed pawns; bad and good pieces; space advantage; open files; pawn structure; importance of center.
<a href="Jacques%20Fran%C3%A7ois%20Mouret">Jacques François Mouret</a>, one of the best French players of the early 19th century, was Philidor's great-nephew.
In 1749, Philidor published his famous book "Analyse du jeu des Échecs". He printed a second edition in 1777, and a third edition in 1790. The book was such an advance in chess knowledge that by 1871, it had gone through about 70 editions, and had been translated into English, German, Russian and Italian. In it, Philidor analyzed nine different types of game openings. Most of the openings of Philidor are designed to strengthen and establish a strong defensive center using pawns. He is the first one to realize the new role of the <a href="pawn%20%28chess%29">pawn</a> in the chess game; and his most famous advice was the saying "The pawns are the soul of chess."
More precisely Philidor said:
Mon but principal est de me rendre recommandable par une nouveauté dont personne ne s'est avisé, ou peut-être n'a été capable ; c'est celle de bien jouer les pions ; ils sont l'âme des Echecs : ce sont eux-mêmes qui forment uniquement l'attaque et la défense et de leur bon ou mauvais arrangement dépend entièrement le gain ou la perte de la partie.
Translation: My main purpose is to make myself commendable by a novelty of which no one was aware or perhaps was capable [of discovering]; this is to play the pawns well; they are the soul of chess: it is they which uniquely determine the attack and the defence, and on their good or bad arrangement depends entirely the winning or losing of the game.
It was said that the reason why Philidor emphasized the pawns in the chess game was related to the political background during the eighteenth century of France, and that he regarded pawns as the "Third rank" on the chess board (citizens were regarded as the third rank of the society before the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> started in 1789). He also included analysis of certain positions of <a href="Philidor%20position%23Rook%20and%20bishop%20versus%20rook">rook and bishop versus rook</a>, such analysis being still current theory even today. He is most famous for showing an important drawing technique with a <a href="rook%20and%20pawn%20versus%20rook%20endgame">rook and pawn versus rook endgame</a>, in a position known as the <a href="Philidor%20position">Philidor position</a>. The <a href="Philidor%20Defence">Philidor Defense</a> (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6) is <a href="List%20of%20chess%20openings%20named%20after%20people">named</a> for him. Philidor’s book was the very first (1) that gave detailed annotations on how to play the middlegame, (2) that presented chess strategy as a whole, and (3) that presented the concepts of the blockade, prophylaxis, positional sacrifice, and mobility of the pawn formation.
Early critics of the "Analyse du jeu des Échecs" include those of the Modenese School (<a href="Ercole%20del%20Rio">Ercole del Rio</a>, <a href="Giambattista%20Lolli">Lolli</a> or <a href="Domenico%20Lorenzo%20Ponziani">Ponziani</a>), who in contrast to the French, advocated a free piece play, <a href="gambit">gambit</a> openings and tactical complications; they also found some of the variations reported in the "Analyse" to be unsound (in particular those related with f7–f5 push in the <a href="Philidor%20Defence">Philidor Defence</a> 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 f5). Some of Philidor's disciples -- <a href="Bernard%20%28chess%20player%29">Bernard</a>, <a href="Carlier%20%28chess%20player%29">Carlier</a>, <a href="Leger%20%28chess%20player%29">Leger</a>, and <a href="Verdoni%20%28chess%20player%29">Verdoni</a>, who met at the <a href="Caf%C3%A9%20de%20la%20R%C3%A9gence">Café de la Régence</a> under the name of "Société des Amateurs"—also criticized his work. In their book, "<a href="Trait%C3%A9%20des%20Amateurs">Traité des Amateurs</a>", they expressed many criticisms and comments on his earlier printed book, arguing that the variations reported in Philidor's "Analyse" are more instructive than correct. Nevertheless, the games of the "<a href="Trait%C3%A9%20des%20Amateurs">Traité</a>" can be regarded, together of those of Philidor, as typical examples of the understanding of chess during the <a href="Age%20of%20Enlightenment">Enlightenment</a>, and the "Société des Amateurs" was much closer to Philidor than to the Modenese school.
Philidor was stranded in England when the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> occurred. Because of many of his social connections mentioned above, the Revolutionary Government put him on the banned list. He died on August 31, 1795, in London and was buried in St James, <a href="Piccadilly">Piccadilly</a>. A few days later, his relatives succeeded in getting his name removed from the list.
Philidor's name is used for three well-known chess topics:
A one-act <a href="op%C3%A9ra-comique">opéra-comique</a> with music by Amédée Dutacq and libretto by Abraham Dreyfus entitled "Battez Philidor !" ("Beat Philidor!") was premiered on 13 November 1882 at the <a href="Op%C3%A9ra-Comique">Opéra-Comique</a>. Set in 1777, a poor musician is required to beat Philidor at chess before he can win the hand of his sweetheart. Although Philidor agrees to lose the match to help out, by distraction he nonetheless wins the game, although all turns out well for the lovers in the end. "Battez Philidor !" also features Philidor's sometime collaborator A A H Poinsinet.
</doc>
<doc id="90448" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90448" title="Fifth column">
Fifth column
A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group—such as a nation or a <a href="siege%20warfare">besieged city</a>—from within, usually in favor of an enemy group or nation. The activities of a fifth column can be overt or clandestine. Forces gathered in secret can mobilize openly to assist an external attack. This term is also extended to organized actions by military personnel. Clandestine fifth column activities can involve acts of sabotage, disinformation, or espionage executed within defense lines by secret sympathizers with an external force.
<a href="Emilio%20Mola">Emilio Mola</a>, a <a href="National%20faction%20%28Spanish%20Civil%20War%29">Nationalist General</a> during the <a href="Spanish%20Civil%20War">Spanish Civil War</a>, told a journalist in 1936 that as his four <a href="Column%20%28formation%29">columns</a> of troops approached <a href="Siege%20of%20Madrid">Madrid</a>, a "fifth column" () of supporters inside the city would support him and undermine the <a href="Second%20Spanish%20Republic">Republican government</a> from within. The term was then widely used in Spain. <a href="Ernest%20Hemingway">Ernest Hemingway</a> used it as the title of his only play, which he wrote in Madrid while the city was being bombarded, and published in 1938 in his book "<a href="The%20Fifth%20Column%20and%20the%20First%20Forty-Nine%20Stories">The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories</a>".
Some writers, mindful of the origin of the phrase, use it only in reference to military operations rather than the broader and less well defined range of activities that sympathizers might engage in to support an anticipated attack.
In the United States at the end of the 1930s, as involvement in the European war seemed ever more likely, those who feared the possibility of betrayal from within used the newly coined term "fifth column" as a shorthand for sedition and disloyalty. The rapid <a href="Battle%20of%20France">fall of France</a> in 1940 led many to blame a "fifth column" rather than German military superiority. Political factions in France blamed one another for the nation's defeat and military officials blamed the civilian leadership, all helping feed American anxieties. In June 1940, <a href="Life%20magazine">"Life" magazine</a> ran a series of photos under the heading "Signs of Nazi Fifth Column Everywhere". In July 1940, <a href="Time%20magazine">"Time" magazine</a> called fifth column talk a "national phenomenon". In August 1940 the "<a href="New%20York%20Times">New York Times</a>" mentioned "the first spasm of fear engendered by the success of fifth columns in less fortunate countries". One report identified participants in Nazi "fifth columns" as "partisans of authoritarian government everywhere", citing <a href="Poland">Poland</a>, <a href="Czechoslovakia">Czechoslovakia</a>, <a href="Norway">Norway</a>, and the <a href="Netherlands">Netherlands</a>. <a href="Vidkun%20Quisling">Vidkun Quisling</a> aided the Nazis during the <a href="Norwegian%20Campaign">campaign in Norway</a> by proclaiming a Nazi government on the day of the German invasion in 1940, and his name of "quisling" is associated with Nazi collaborators.
<a href="John%20Langdon-Davies">John Langdon-Davies</a>, a British journalist who covered the Spanish Civil War, popularized the term "fifth column" by publishing an account called "The Fifth Column" in 1940. The "New York Times" published three editorial cartoons that used the term on August 11, 1940. In November 1940, Ralph Thomson, reviewing Harold Lavine's "Fifth Column in America", a study of Communist and fascist groups in the U.S., in the "New York Times", questioned his choice of that title: "the phrase has been worked so hard that it no longer means much of anything". In the US an Australian radio play, The Enemy Within, proved be to very popular, however, this popularity was due to the belief that the stories of fifth column activities were based on real events. In December 1940 the Australian censors had the series banned.
British reviewers of <a href="Agatha%20Christie">Agatha Christie</a>'s novel "<a href="N%20or%20M%3F">N or M?</a>" in 1941 used the term to describe the struggle of two British partisans of the Nazi regime working on its behalf in England during World War II.
In <a href="Frank%20Capra">Frank Capra</a>'s 1941 film "<a href="Meet%20John%20Doe">Meet John Doe</a>", newspaper editor Henry Connell warns political ingenue John Doe about a businessman's plans to promote his own political ambitions using the apolitical John Doe Clubs. Connell says to John: "Listen, pal, this fifth-column stuff is pretty rotten, isn't it?", identifying the businessman with anti-democratic interests in the United States. When Doe agrees, he adds: "And you'd feel like an awful sucker if you found yourself marching right in the middle of it, wouldn't you?"
Immediately following the Japanese <a href="attack%20on%20Pearl%20Harbor">attack on Pearl Harbor</a>, U.S. Secretary of the Navy <a href="Frank%20Knox">Frank Knox</a> issued a statement that "the most effective Fifth Column work of the entire war was done in Hawaii with the exception of Norway." The widely-read columnist <a href="Walter%20Lippmann">Walter Lippmann</a> publicized similar accusations of sabotage on the part of <a href="Japanese%20American">Japanese American</a>s in his syndicated column on February 12, 1942, titled "The Fifth Column on the Coast."
During the <a href="Philippines%20Campaign%20%281941%E2%80%9342%29">Japanese invasion of the Philippines</a>, an article in the "<a href="Pittsburgh%20Post-Gazette">Pittsburgh Post-Gazette</a>" in December 1941 said the indigenous <a href="Moro%20people">Moro Muslims</a> were "capable of dealing with Japanese fifth columnists and invaders alike". Another in the "<a href="Vancouver%20Sun">Vancouver Sun</a>" the next month described how the large population of Japanese immigrants in <a href="Davao%20Region">Davao</a> in the Philippines welcomed the invasion: "the first assault on Davao was aided by numbers of Fifth Columnists–residents of the town".
The term was soon so widely known that it very quickly appeared in popular U.S. entertainment. Introducing a 1941 newsreel, "Meet John Doughboy", the animated character <a href="Porky%20Pig">Porky Pig</a> asked any "fifth columnists" in the audience leave the theater immediately. In <a href="Alfred%20Hitchcock">Alfred Hitchcock</a>'s "<a href="Saboteur%20%28film%29">Saboteur</a>" (1942), <a href="Robert%20Cummings">Robert Cummings</a> asks for help against "fifth columnists" who are conspiring to sabotage the American war effort. The next year in <a href="Looney%20Tunes">Looney Tunes</a>' "Foney Fables", the narrator of a comic fairy tale described a wolf in sheep's clothing as a "fifth columnist". In 1943, an animated cartoon in the <a href="Merrie%20Melodies">Merrie Melodies</a> series was called "<a href="The%20Fifth-Column%20Mouse">The Fifth-Column Mouse</a>".
</doc>
<doc id="90449" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90449" title="Seminole Wars">
Seminole Wars
The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in <a href="Florida">Florida</a> between the <a href="Seminole">Seminole</a>—the collective name given to the amalgamation of various groups of <a href="Native%20Americans%20in%20the%20United%20States">Native Americans</a> and <a href="African%20Americans">African Americans</a> who settled in Florida in the early 18th century—and the <a href="United%20States">United States</a> <a href="US%20Army">Army</a>. The First Seminole War was from 1816 to 1819 (although sources differ), the Second Seminole War from <a href="Timeline%20of%20Florida%20History">1835 to 1842</a> and the Third Seminole War from 1855 to 1858. They were the largest conflicts in the United States between the <a href="War%20of%201812">War of 1812</a> and the <a href="American%20Civil%20War">American Civil War</a>. Taken together, the Seminole Wars were the longest and most expensive (both in human and monetary terms) Indian Wars in United States history and one of the most expensive of all wars ever fought by the U.S. as a percentage of <a href="gross%20national%20product">gross national product</a>.
The <a href="indigenous%20peoples">indigenous peoples</a> of Florida declined significantly in number after the arrival of <a href="Europe">Europe</a>ans in the region. The <a href="Native%20Americans%20in%20the%20United%20States">Native Americans</a> had little resistance to diseases newly introduced from Europe. <a href="Kingdom%20of%20Spain">Spanish</a> suppression of native revolts further reduced the population in northern Florida. By 1707, colonial soldiers from the <a href="Province%20of%20Carolina">Province of Carolina</a> and their <a href="Yamasee">Yamasee Indian</a> allies had killed or carried off nearly all the remaining native inhabitants, having conducted a series of raids extending the full length of the peninsula. In the first decade of the 18th century, 10,000 – 12,000 Indians were taken as slaves according to the governor of La Florida and by 1710, observers noted that north Florida was virtually depopulated. The few remaining natives fled west to <a href="Pensacola%2C%20Florida">Pensacola</a> and beyond or east to the vicinity of <a href="St.%20Augustine%2C%20Florida">St. Augustine</a>; in 1763, when Spain ceded Florida to <a href="Kingdom%20of%20Britain">Great Britain</a> as part of the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Paris%20%281763%29">Treaty of Paris</a>, the Spanish took the few surviving Florida Indians with them to <a href="Cuba">Cuba</a> and <a href="New%20Spain">New Spain</a>.
Bands from various Native American tribes from the <a href="southeastern%20United%20States">southeastern United States</a> began moving into the unoccupied lands of Florida. In 1715, the <a href="Yamasee">Yamasee</a> moved into Florida as allies of the Spanish, after conflicts with the English colonies. <a href="Creek%20people">Creek people</a>, at first primarily the <a href="Lower%20Creek">Lower Creek</a> but later including <a href="Upper%20Creek">Upper Creek</a>, also started moving into Florida from the area of Georgia. The <a href="Mikasuki">Mikasuki</a>, "<a href="Hitchiti">Hitchiti</a>"-speakers, settled around what is now <a href="Lake%20Miccosukee">Lake Miccosukee</a> near <a href="Tallahassee%2C%20Florida">Tallahassee</a>. (Descendants of this group have maintained a separate tribal identity as today's <a href="Miccosukee">Miccosukee</a>.)
Another group of Hitchiti speakers, led by <a href="Cowkeeper">Cowkeeper</a>, settled in what is now <a href="Alachua%20County%2C%20Florida">Alachua County</a>, an area where the Spanish had maintained cattle ranches in the 17th century. One of the best-known ranches was "Rancho de la Chua". The region became known as the "<a href="Paynes%20Prairie">Alachua Prairie</a>". The Spanish in Saint Augustine began calling the Alachua Creek "Cimarrones", which roughly meant "wild ones" or "runaways". This was the probable origin of the term "Seminole". This name was eventually applied to the other groups in Florida, although the Indians still regarded themselves as members of different tribes. Other Native American groups in Florida during the Seminole Wars included the <a href="Choctaw">Choctaw</a>, <a href="Yuchi">Yuchi</a> or Spanish Indians, so called because it was believed that they were descended from <a href="Calusa">Calusa</a>s; and "rancho Indians", who lived at Spanish/Cuban fishing camps on the Florida coast.
Escaped African and African-American slaves who could reach the fort were essentially free. Many were from Pensacola; some were free citizens though others had escaped from United States territory. The Spanish offered the slaves freedom and land in Florida; they recruited former slaves as militia to help defend Pensacola and <a href="Fort%20Mose">Fort Mose</a>. Other escaped slaves joined various Seminole bands as free members of the tribe.
While most of the former slaves at Fort Mose went to Cuba with the Spanish when they left Florida in 1763, others lived with or near various bands of Indians. Slaves continued to escape from the Carolinas and Georgia and make their way to Florida. The blacks who stayed with or later joined the Seminoles became integrated into the tribes, learning the languages, adopting the dress, and inter-marrying. Some of the <a href="Black%20Seminoles">Black Seminoles</a>, as they were called, became important tribal leaders.
During the <a href="American%20Revolution">American Revolution</a>, the British—who controlled Florida—recruited Seminoles to raid frontier settlements in Georgia. The confusion of war allowed more slaves to escape to Florida. The British promised slaves freedom for fighting with them. These events made the Seminoles enemies of the new United States. In 1783, as part of the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Paris%20%281783%29">treaty</a> ending the <a href="American%20Revolutionary%20War">Revolutionary War</a>, Florida was returned to Spain. Spain's grip on Florida was light, as it maintained only small <a href="garrison">garrison</a>s at St. Augustine, <a href="St.%20Marks%2C%20Florida">St. Marks</a> and <a href="Pensacola%2C%20Florida">Pensacola</a>. They did not control the border between Florida and the United States. Mikasukis and other Seminole groups still occupied towns on the United States side of the border, while American <a href="squatter">squatter</a>s moved into Spanish Florida.
The British had divided Florida into <a href="East%20Florida">East Florida</a> and <a href="West%20Florida">West Florida</a> in 1763, a division retained by the Spanish when they regained Florida in 1783. West Florida extended from the <a href="Apalachicola%20River">Apalachicola River</a> to the <a href="Mississippi%20River">Mississippi River</a>. Together with their possession of <a href="Louisiana%20%28New%20France%29">Louisiana</a>, the Spanish controlled the lower reaches of all of the rivers draining the United States west of the <a href="Appalachian%20Mountains">Appalachian Mountains</a>. It prohibited the US from transport and trade on the lower Mississippi. In addition to its desire to expand west of the mountains, the United States wanted to acquire Florida. It wanted to gain free commerce on western rivers, and to prevent Florida from being used a base for possible invasion of the U.S. by a European country.
The <a href="Louisiana%20Purchase">Louisiana Purchase</a> in 1803 put the mouth of the Mississippi River in US hands. But, much of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee were drained by rivers that passed through East or West Florida to reach the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. claimed that the Louisiana Purchase had included West Florida west of the <a href="Perdido%20River">Perdido River</a>, while Spain claimed that West Florida extended to the Mississippi River.
In 1810, American residents of West Florida's <a href="Baton%20Rouge%20District">Baton Rouge District</a> (the same region as today's <a href="Florida%20Parishes">Florida Parishes</a>) overthrew the local Spanish authorities, seized the corresponding fort, and requested protection from the <a href="United%20States">United States</a>. President <a href="James%20Madison">James Madison</a> authorized <a href="William%20C.%20C.%20Claiborne">William C. C. Claiborne</a>, governor of the <a href="Territory%20of%20Orleans">Territory of Orleans</a>, to seize <a href="West%20Florida">West Florida</a> from the Mississippi River to as far east as the <a href="Perdido%20River">Perdido River</a>. Claiborne only occupied the area west of the <a href="Pearl%20River%20%28Mississippi-Louisiana%29">Pearl River</a> (the current eastern boundary of Louisiana), aka the Baton Rouge District.
Madison sent <a href="George%20Mathews%20%28Georgia%29">George Mathews</a> to deal with the disputes over West Florida. When an offer to turn the remainder of <a href="Spanish%20West%20Florida">"Florida Occidental"</a> over to the U.S. was rescinded by the governor, Mathews traveled to "<a href="East%20Florida">Florida Oriental</a>" to incite a rebellion similar to that in the Baton Rouge District.
The residents of East Florida were happy with the status quo, so the U.S. raised a force of <a href="Military%20volunteer">volunteers</a> in <a href="Georgia%20%28U.S.%20state%29">Georgia</a> with a promise of free land. On 13 March 1812, this force of "Patriots," with the aid of some <a href="U.S.%20Navy">U.S. Navy</a> <a href="gunboat">gunboat</a>s, seized <a href="Fernandina%20Beach%2C%20Florida">Fernandina</a>. Although the seizure of Fernandina was initially authorized by President Madison, he later disavowed it. The Patriots were, however, unable to take the <a href="Castillo%20de%20San%20Marcos">Castillo de San Marcos</a> in <a href="St.%20Augustine%2C%20Florida">St. Augustine</a>. The increasing tensions and the approach of war with <a href="United%20Kingdom%20of%20Great%20Britain%20and%20Ireland">Great Britain</a> led to an end of the American incursion into <a href="East%20Florida">East Florida</a>. In 1813 an American force succeeded in seizing the <a href="Mobile%20District">Mobile District</a> (today's coastal <a href="Mississippi">Mississippi</a> and <a href="Alabama">Alabama</a>), from the Spanish.
Before the Patriot army withdrew from Florida, the <a href="Seminole">Seminole</a>, as allies of the Spanish, began to attack them.
The beginning and ending dates for the First Seminole War are not firmly established. The U.S. Army Infantry indicates that it lasted from 1814 until 1819. The U.S. Navy Naval Historical Center gives dates of 1816-1818. Another Army site dates the war as 1817-1818. Finally, the unit history of the 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery describes the war as occurring solely in 1818.
During the <a href="Creek%20War">Creek War</a> (1813-1814), Colonel <a href="Andrew%20Jackson">Andrew Jackson</a> became a national hero after his victory over the Creek <a href="Red%20Sticks">Red Sticks</a> at the <a href="Battle%20of%20Horseshoe%20Bend%20%281814%29">Battle of Horseshoe Bend</a>. After his victory, Jackson forced the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Fort%20Jackson">Treaty of Fort Jackson</a> on the Creek, resulting in the loss of much Creek territory in southern Georgia and central and southern Alabama. As a result, many Creek left Alabama and Georgia, and moved to Spanish West Florida. The Creek refugees joined the Seminole of Florida.
In 1814, Britain was still at <a href="War%20of%201812">war with the United States</a>, and saw merit in recruiting Indian allies. In May 1814, a British force entered the mouth of the Apalachicola River, and distributed arms to the Seminole and Creek warriors, and fugitive slaves. The British moved upriver and began building a fort at <a href="Fort%20Gadsden">Prospect Bluff</a>. A company of <a href="Royal%20Marines">Royal Marines</a>, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel <a href="Edward%20Nicolls">Edward Nicolls</a>, were to subsequently arrive, but were invited to relocate to Pensacola in late August 1814. It was estimated, by Captain Lockyer of , that in August 1814 there were 1,000 Indians at Pensacola, of whom 700 were warriors. Two months after the British and their Indian allies were beaten back from an attack on <a href="Fort%20Bowyer">Fort Bowyer</a> near <a href="Mobile%2C%20Alabama">Mobile</a>, a US force led by General Jackson drove the British out of <a href="Battle%20of%20Pensacola%20%281814%29">Pensacola</a>, and back to the Apalachicola River. They managed to continue work on the fort at Prospect Bluff.
When the War of 1812 ended, all the British forces left the Gulf of Mexico except for Lieutenant Colonel Nicolls and his force in (neutral) Spanish West Florida. He directed the provisioning of the fort at Prospect Bluff with cannon, muskets and ammunition. He told the Indians that the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Ghent">Treaty of Ghent</a> guaranteed the return of all Indian lands lost during the War of 1812, including the Creek lands in Georgia and Alabama. As the Seminole were not interested in holding a fort, they returned to their villages. Before Nicolls left in the spring of 1815, he turned the fort over to the fugitive slaves and Seminoles whom he had originally recruited for possible incursions into U.S. territory during the war. As word spread in the <a href="American%20Southeast">American Southeast</a> about the fort, whites called it the "<a href="Negro%20Fort">Negro Fort</a>." The Americans worried that it would inspire their slaves to escape to Florida or revolt.
After a garrison of the Negro Fort killed a group of American sailors, General Jackson decided to destroy it. Acknowledging that it was in Spanish territory, in April 1816, he informed Governor <a href="Jos%C3%A9%20Masot">José Masot</a> of West Florida that if the Spanish did not eliminate the fort, he would. The governor replied that he did not have the forces to take the fort.
Jackson assigned Brigadier General <a href="Edmund%20P.%20Gaines">Edmund Pendleton Gaines</a> to take control of the fort. Gaines directed Colonel <a href="Duncan%20Lamont%20Clinch">Duncan Lamont Clinch</a> to build Fort Scott on the <a href="Flint%20River%20%28Georgia%29">Flint River</a> just north of the Florida border. Gaines said he intended to supply Fort Scott from New Orleans via the Apalachicola River. As this would mean passing through Spanish territory and past the Negro Fort, it would allow the U.S. Army to keep an eye on the Seminole and the Negro Fort. If the fort fired on the supply boats, the Americans would have an excuse to destroy it.
In July 1816, a supply fleet for Fort Scott reached the Apalachicola River. Clinch took a force of more than 100 American soldiers and about 150 Lower Creek warriors, including the chief "<a href="William%20McIntosh">Tustunnugee Hutkee</a>" (White Warrior), to protect their passage. The supply fleet met Clinch at the Negro Fort, and its two gunboats took positions across the river from the fort. The blacks in the fort fired their cannon at the U.S. soldiers and the Creek, but had no training in aiming the weapon. The Americans fired back. The gunboats' ninth shot, a "hot shot" (a cannonball heated to a red glow), landed in the fort's powder <a href="Magazine%20%28artillery%29">magazine</a>. The explosion leveled the fort and was heard more than 100 miles (160 km) away in Pensacola. Of the 320 people known to be in the fort, including women and children, more than 250 died instantly, and many more died from their injuries soon after. Once the US Army destroyed the fort, it withdrew from Spanish Florida.
American squatters and outlaws raided the Seminole, killing villagers and stealing their cattle. Seminole resentment grew and they retaliated by stealing back the cattle. On February 24, 1817, a raiding party killed Mrs. Garrett, a woman living in <a href="Camden%20County%2C%20Georgia">Camden County, Georgia</a>, and her two young children.
Fowltown was a <a href="Miccosukee">Mikasuki</a> village in southwestern Georgia, about 15 miles (24 km) east of <a href="Fort%20Scott%20%28Flint%20River%2C%20Georgia%29">Fort Scott</a>. Chief Neamathla of Fowltown got into a dispute with the commander of Fort Scott over the use of land on the eastern side of the Flint River, essentially claiming Mikasuki sovereignty over the area. The land in southern Georgia had been ceded by the Creeks in the Treaty of Fort Jackson, but the Mikasukis did not consider themselves Creek, did not feel bound by the treaty, and did not accept that the Creeks had any right to cede Mikasuki land. In November 1817, General Gaines sent a force of 250 men to seize Fowltown. The first attempt was beaten off by the Mikasukis. The next day, November 22, 1817, the Mikasukis were driven from their village. Some historians date the start of the war to this attack on Fowltown. <a href="David%20Brydie%20Mitchell">David Brydie Mitchell</a>, former governor of Georgia and Creek <a href="Indian%20agent">Indian agent</a> at the time, stated in a report to <a href="United%20States%20Congress">Congress</a> that the attack on Fowltown was the start of the First Seminole War.
A week later a boat carrying supplies for Fort Scott, under the command of Lt. Richard W. Scott, was attacked on the <a href="Apalachicola%20River">Apalachicola River</a>. There were forty to fifty people on the boat, including twenty sick soldiers, seven wives of soldiers, and possibly some children. (While there are reports of four children being killed by the Seminoles, they were not mentioned in early reports of the massacre, and their presence has not been confirmed.) Most of the boat's passengers were killed by the Indians. One woman was taken prisoner, and six survivors made it to the fort.
While General Gaines had been under orders not to invade Florida, he later decided to allow short intrusions into Florida. When news of the Scott Massacre on the Apalachicola reached <a href="Washington%2C%20D.C.">Washington</a>, Gaines was ordered to invade Florida and pursue the Indians but not to attack any Spanish installations. However, Gaines had left for East Florida to deal with pirates who had occupied <a href="Fernandina%20Beach%2C%20Florida">Fernandina</a>. <a href="United%20States%20Secretary%20of%20War">Secretary of War</a> <a href="John%20C.%20Calhoun">John C. Calhoun</a> then ordered Andrew Jackson to lead the invasion of Florida.
Jackson gathered his forces at <a href="Fort%20Scott%20%28Flint%20River%2C%20Georgia%29">Fort Scott</a> in March 1818, including 800 U.S. Army <a href="Regular%20Army">regulars</a>, 1,000 <a href="Tennessee">Tennessee</a> volunteers, 1,000 Georgia <a href="militia">militia</a>, and about 1,400 friendly Lower Creek warriors (under command of Brigadier General <a href="William%20McIntosh">William McIntosh</a>, a Creek chief). On March 15, Jackson's army entered Florida, marching down the <a href="Apalachicola%20River">Apalachicola River</a>. When they reached the site of the Negro Fort, Jackson had his men construct a new fort, <a href="Fort%20Gadsden">Fort Gadsden</a>. The army then set out for the Mikasuki villages around Lake Miccosukee. The Indian town of <a href="Tallahassee%2C%20Florida">Tallahassee</a> was burned on March 31, and the town of <a href="Miccosukee%2C%20Florida">Miccosukee</a> was taken the next day. More than 300 Indian homes were destroyed. Jackson then turned south, reaching <a href="San%20Marcos%20de%20Apalache%20Historic%20State%20Park">Fort St. Marks</a> ("San Marcos") on April 6.
At St. Marks Jackson seized the Spanish fort. There he found <a href="Alexander%20George%20Arbuthnot">Alexander George Arbuthnot</a>, a <a href="Scottish%20people">Scottish</a> trader working out of the <a href="Bahamas">Bahamas</a>. He traded with the Indians in Florida and had written letters to British and American officials on behalf of the Indians. He was rumored to be selling guns to the Indians and to be preparing them for war. He probably was selling guns, since the main trade item of the Indians was deer skins, and they needed guns to hunt the deer. Two Indian leaders, Josiah Francis, a <a href="Red%20Sticks">Red Stick Creek</a>, also known as the "Prophet" (not to be confused with <a href="Tenskwatawa">Tenskwatawa</a>), and Homathlemico, had been captured when they had gone out to an American ship flying the British <a href="Union%20Flag">Union Flag</a> that had anchored off of St. Marks. As soon as Jackson arrived at St. Marks, the two Indians were brought ashore and hanged without trial.
Jackson left St. Marks to attack villages along the <a href="Suwannee%20River">Suwannee River</a>, which were occupied primarily by fugitive slaves. On April 12, the army found a Red Stick village on the <a href="Econfina%20River">Econfina River</a>, and attacked it. Close to 40 <a href="Red%20Sticks">Red Sticks</a> were killed, and about 100 women and children were captured. In the village, they found Elizabeth Stewart, the woman who had been captured in the attack on the supply boat on the <a href="Apalachicola%20River">Apalachicola River</a> the previous November. The army found the villages on the Suwannee empty, many of the <a href="Black%20Seminoles">Black Seminoles</a> having escaped to Tampa Bay to the maroon community of Angola. Having destroyed the major Seminole and black villages, Jackson declared victory and sent the Georgia militiamen and the Lower Creeks home. The remaining army then returned to Fort St. Marks.
About this time, <a href="Arbuthnot%20and%20Ambrister%20incident">Robert Ambrister</a>, a former <a href="Royal%20Marine">Royal Marine</a> and self-appointed British "agent", was captured by Jackson's army. At St. Marks a <a href="military%20tribunal">military tribunal</a> was convened, and Ambrister and Arbuthnot were charged with aiding the Seminoles and the <a href="Spain">Spanish</a>, inciting them to war and leading them against the United States. Ambrister threw himself on the mercy of the court, while Arbuthnot maintained his innocence, saying that he had only been engaged in legal trade. The tribunal sentenced both men to death but then relented and changed Ambrister's sentence to fifty lashes and a year at hard labor. Jackson, however, reinstated Ambrister's death penalty. Ambrister was executed by a <a href="firing%20squad">firing squad</a> on April 29, 1818. Arbuthnot was hanged from the <a href="Yard%20%28sailing%29">yardarm</a> of his own ship.
Jackson left a garrison at Fort St. Marks and returned to <a href="Fort%20Gadsden">Fort Gadsden</a>. Jackson had first reported that all was peaceful and that he would be returning to <a href="Nashville%2C%20Tennessee">Nashville, Tennessee</a>.
General Jackson later reported that Indians were gathering and being supplied by the Spanish, and he left Fort Gadsden with 1,000 men on May 7, headed for Pensacola. The governor of West Florida protested that most of the Indians at Pensacola were women and children and that the men were unarmed, but Jackson did not stop. When he reached Pensacola on May 23, the governor and the 175-man Spanish garrison retreated to <a href="Fort%20Barrancas">Fort Barrancas</a>, leaving the city of Pensacola to Jackson. The two sides exchanged cannon fire for a couple of days, and then the Spanish surrendered Fort Barrancas on May 28. Jackson left Colonel <a href="William%20King%20%28Governor%20of%20West%20Florida%29">William King</a> as military governor of West Florida and went home.
There were international repercussions to Jackson's actions. <a href="United%20States%20Department%20of%20State">Secretary of State</a> <a href="John%20Quincy%20Adams">John Quincy Adams</a> had just started negotiations with Spain for the purchase of Florida. Spain protested the invasion and seizure of West Florida and suspended the negotiations. Spain did not have the means to retaliate against the United States or regain West Florida by force; so Adams let the Spanish officials protest, then issued a letter (with 72 supporting documents) blaming the war on the British, Spanish, and Indians. In the letter he also apologized for the seizure of West Florida, said that it had not been American policy to seize Spanish territory, and offered to give St. Marks and Pensacola back to Spain.
Spain accepted and eventually resumed negotiations for the sale of Florida. Defending Jackson's actions as necessary, and sensing that they strengthened his diplomatic standing, Adams demanded Spain either control the inhabitants of East Florida or cede it to the United States. An agreement was then reached whereby <a href="Adams-On%C3%ADs%20Treaty">Spain ceded East Florida to the United States and renounced all claim to West.</a>
Britain protested the execution of two of its subjects who had never entered United States territory. There was talk in Britain of demanding reparations and taking reprisals. Americans worried about another war with Britain. In the end Britain, realizing how important the United States was to its economy, opted for maintaining good relations.
There were also repercussions in America. Congressional committees held hearings into the irregularities of the Ambrister and Arbuthnot trials. While most Americans supported Jackson, some worried that Jackson could become a "man on horseback," a <a href="Napoleon%20I%20of%20France">Napoleon</a>, and transform the United States into a military dictatorship. When Congress reconvened in December 1818, resolutions were introduced condemning Jackson's actions. Jackson was too popular, and the resolutions failed; but the Ambrister and Arbuthnot executions left a stain on his reputation for the rest of his life, although it was not enough to keep him from becoming President.
Spain did <a href="Adams-On%C3%ADs%20Treaty">cede Florida</a>, and the United States took possession in 1821. Effective government was slow in coming to Florida. General Andrew Jackson was appointed military governor of Florida in March 1821, but he did not arrive in Pensacola until July 1821. He resigned the post in September 1821 and returned home in October, having spent just three months in Florida. His successor, <a href="William%20Pope%20Duval">William P. Duval</a>, was not appointed until April 1822, and he left for an extended visit to his home in <a href="Kentucky">Kentucky</a> before the end of the year. Other official positions in the territory had similar turn-over and absences.
The Seminoles were still a problem for the new government. In early 1822, Capt. John R. Bell, provisional secretary of the Florida territory and temporary agent to the Seminoles, prepared an estimate of the number of Indians in Florida. He reported about 22,000 Indians, and 5,000 slaves held by Indians. He estimated that two-thirds of them were refugees from the <a href="Creek%20War">Creek War</a>, with no valid claim (in the U.S. view) to Florida. Indian settlements were located in the areas around the Apalachicola River, along the <a href="Suwannee%20River">Suwannee River</a>, from there south-eastwards to the Alachua Prairie, and then south-westward to a little north of <a href="Tampa%20Bay">Tampa Bay</a>.
Officials in Florida were concerned from the beginning about the situation with the Seminoles. Until a treaty was signed establishing a reservation, the Indians were not sure of where they could plant crops and expect to be able to harvest them, and they had to contend with white squatters moving into land they occupied. There was no system for licensing traders, and unlicensed traders were supplying the Seminoles with <a href="Distilled%20beverage">liquor</a>. However, because of the part-time presence and frequent turnover of territorial officials, meetings with the Seminoles were canceled, postponed, or sometimes held merely to set a time and place for a new meeting.
In 1823, the government decided to settle the Seminole on a reservation in the central part of the territory. A meeting to negotiate a treaty was scheduled for early September 1823 at Moultrie Creek, south of St. Augustine. About 425 Seminole attended the meeting, choosing "Neamathla" to be their chief representative or Speaker. Under the terms of the treaty negotiated there, the Seminole were forced to go under the protection of the United States and give up all claim to lands in Florida, in exchange for a reservation of about four million <a href="acre">acre</a>s (16,000 km²). The reservation would run down the middle of the Florida peninsula from just north of present-day <a href="Ocala%2C%20Florida">Ocala</a> to a line even with the southern end of Tampa Bay. The boundaries were well inland from both coasts, to prevent contact with traders from <a href="Cuba">Cuba</a> and the <a href="Bahamas">Bahamas</a>. Neamathla and five other chiefs were allowed to keep their villages along the <a href="Apalachicola%20River">Apalachicola River</a>.
Under the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Moultrie%20Creek">Treaty of Moultrie Creek</a>, the US was obligated to protect the Seminole as long as they remained law-abiding. The government was supposed to distribute farm implements, cattle and hogs to the Seminole, compensate them for travel and losses involved in relocating to the reservation, and provide rations for a year, until the Seminoles could plant and harvest new crops. The government was also supposed to pay the tribe US$5,000 per year for twenty years and provide an interpreter, a school and a blacksmith for twenty years. In turn, the Seminole had to allow roads to be built across the reservation and had to apprehend and return to US jurisdiction any runaway slaves or other fugitives.
Implementation of the treaty stalled. <a href="Fort%20Brooke">Fort Brooke</a>, with four companies of infantry, was established on the site of present-day <a href="Tampa%2C%20Florida">Tampa</a> in early 1824, to show the Seminole that the government was serious about moving them onto the reservation. However, by June <a href="James%20Gadsden">James Gadsden</a>, who was the principal author of the treaty and charged with implementing it, was reporting that the Seminole were unhappy with the treaty and were hoping to renegotiate it. Fear of a new war crept in. In July, Governor DuVal mobilized the militia and ordered the <a href="Tallahassee">Tallahassee</a> and <a href="Miccosukee">Miccosukee</a> chiefs to meet him in St. Marks. At that meeting, he ordered the Seminole to move to the reservation by October 1, 1824.
The move had not begun, but DuVal began paying the Seminole compensation for the improvements they were having to leave as an incentive to move. He also had the promised rations sent to Fort Brooke on Tampa Bay for distribution. The Seminole finally began moving onto the reservation, but within a year some returned to their former homes between the Suwannee and Apalachicola rivers. By 1826, most of the Seminole had gone to the reservation, but were not thriving. They had to clear and plant new fields, and cultivated fields suffered in a long drought. Some of the tribe were reported to have starved to death. Both Col. George M. Brooke, commander of Fort Brooke, and Governor DuVal wrote to <a href="Washington%2C%20D.C.">Washington</a> seeking help for the starving Seminole, but the requests got caught up in a debate over whether the people should be moved to west of the Mississippi River. For five months, no additional relief reached the Seminole.
The Seminoles slowly settled into the reservation, although they had isolated clashes with whites. <a href="Fort%20King">Fort King</a> was built near the reservation agency, at the site of present-day Ocala, and by early 1827 the Army could report that the Seminoles were on the reservation and Florida was peaceful. During the five-year peace, some settlers continued to call for removal. The Seminole were opposed to any such move, and especially to the suggestion that they join their <a href="Muscogee%20%28Creek%29">Creek</a> relations. Most whites regarded the Seminole as simply Creeks who had recently moved to Florida, while the Seminole claimed Florida as their home and denied that they had any connection with the Creeks.
The Seminole and slave catchers argued over the ownership of slaves. New plantations in Florida increased the pool of slaves who could escape to Seminole territory. Worried about the possibility of an Indian uprising and/or a slave rebellion, Governor DuVal requested additional Federal troops for Florida, but in 1828 the US closed Fort King. Short of food and finding the hunting declining on the reservation, the Seminole wandered off to get food. In 1828, Andrew Jackson, the old enemy of the Seminoles, was elected <a href="President%20of%20the%20United%20States">President of the United States</a>. In 1830, Congress passed the <a href="Indian%20Removal%20Act">Indian Removal Act</a> he promoted, which was to resolve the problems by moving the Seminole and other tribes west of the Mississippi.
In the spring of 1832, the Seminoles on the reservation were called to a meeting at Payne's Landing on the <a href="Oklawaha%20River">Oklawaha River</a>. The treaty negotiated there called for the Seminoles to move west, if the land were found to be suitable. They were to settle on the Creek reservation and become part of the Creek tribe. The delegation of seven chiefs who were to inspect the new reservation did not leave Florida until October 1832. After touring the area for several months and conferring with the Creeks who had already been settled there, the seven chiefs signed a statement on March 28, 1833, that the new land was acceptable. Upon their return to Florida, however, most of the chiefs renounced the statement, claiming that they had not signed it, or that they had been forced to sign it, and in any case, that they did not have the power to decide for all the tribes and bands that resided on the reservation. The villages in the area of the Apalachicola River were more easily persuaded, however, and went west in 1834.
The <a href="United%20States%20Senate">United States Senate</a> finally ratified the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Payne%27s%20Landing">Treaty of Payne's Landing</a> in April 1834. The treaty had given the Seminoles three years to move west of the Mississippi. The government interpreted the three years as starting 1832 and expected the Seminoles to move in 1835. Fort King was reopened in 1834. A new Seminole agent, Wiley Thompson, had been appointed in 1834, and the task of persuading the Seminoles to move fell to him. He called the chiefs together at Fort King in October 1834 to talk to them about the removal to the west. The Seminoles informed Thompson that they had no intention of moving and that they did not feel bound by the Treaty of Payne's Landing. Thompson then requested reinforcements for Fort King and Fort Brooke, reporting that, "the Indians after they had received the Annuity, purchased an unusually large quantity of Powder & Lead." General Clinch also warned Washington that the Seminoles did not intend to move and that more troops would be needed to force them to move. In March 1835, Thompson called the chiefs together to read a letter from Andrew Jackson to them. In his letter, Jackson said, "Should you ... refuse to move, I have then directed the Commanding officer to remove you by force." The chiefs asked for thirty days to respond. A month later, the Seminole chiefs told Thompson that they would not move west. Thompson and the chiefs began arguing, and General Clinch had to intervene to prevent bloodshed. Eventually, eight of the chiefs agreed to move west but asked to delay the move until the end of the year, and Thompson and Clinch agreed.
Five of the most important of the Seminole chiefs, including <a href="Micanopy">Micanopy</a> of the Alachua Seminoles, had not agreed to the move. In retaliation, Thompson declared that those chiefs were removed from their positions. As relations with the Seminoles deteriorated, Thompson forbade the sale of guns and ammunition to the Seminoles. <a href="Osceola">Osceola</a>, a young warrior beginning to be noticed by the whites, was particularly upset by the ban, feeling that it equated Seminoles with slaves and said, "The white man shall not make me black. I will make the white man red with blood; and then blacken him in the sun and rain ... and the buzzard live upon his flesh." In spite of this, Thompson considered Osceola to be a friend and gave him a rifle. Later, though, when Osceola was causing trouble, Thompson had him locked up at Fort King for a night. The next day, in order to secure his release, Osceola agreed to abide by the Treaty of Payne's Landing and to bring his followers in.
The situation grew worse. On June 19, 1835, a group of whites searching for lost cattle found a group of Indians sitting around a campfire cooking the remains of what they claimed was one of their herd. The whites disarmed and proceeded to whip the Indians, when two more arrived and opened fire on the whites. Three whites were wounded and one Indian was killed and one wounded, at what became known as the skirmish at Hickory Sink. After complaining to Indian Agent Thompson and not receiving a satisfactory response, the Seminoles became further convinced that they would not receive fair compensations for their complaints of hostile treatment by the settlers. Believed to be in response for the incident at Hickory Sink, in August 1835, Private Kinsley Dalton (for whom <a href="Dalton%2C%20Georgia">Dalton, Georgia</a>, is named) was killed by Seminoles as he was carrying the mail from Fort Brooke to Fort King.
In November 1835 Chief Charley Emathla, wanting no part of a war, agreed to removal and sold his cattle at Fort King in preparation for moving his people to Fort Brooke to emigrate to the west. This act was considered a betrayal by other Seminoles who months earlier declared in council that any Seminole chief who sold his cattle would be sentenced to death. Osceola met Charley Emathla on the trail back to his village and killed him, scattering the money from the cattle purchase across his body.
As Florida officials realized the Seminole would resist relocation, preparations for war began. Settlers fled to safety as Seminole attacked plantations and a militia wagon train. Two companies, totaling 110 men under the command of Major <a href="Francis%20L.%20Dade">Francis L. Dade</a>, were sent from Fort Brooke to reinforce Fort King. On December 28, 1835, Seminoles ambushed the soldiers and destroyed the command. Only two soldiers survived to return to Fort Brooke, and one died of his wounds a few days later. Over the next few months Generals <a href="Duncan%20Lamont%20Clinch">Clinch</a>, <a href="Edmund%20P.%20Gaines">Gaines</a> and <a href="Winfield%20Scott">Winfield Scott</a>, as well as territorial governor <a href="Richard%20Keith%20Call">Richard Keith Call</a>, led large numbers of troops in futile pursuits of the Seminoles. In the meantime the Seminoles struck throughout the state, attacking isolated farms, settlements, plantations and Army forts, even burning the <a href="Cape%20Florida%20Light">Cape Florida lighthouse</a>. Supply problems and a high rate of illness during the summer caused the Army to abandon several forts.
Major <a href="Ethan%20A.%20Hitchcock%20%28general%29">Ethan Allen Hitchcock</a> was among those who found the remains of the Dade party in February. In his journal he wrote of the discovery and expressed his discontent:
"The government is in the wrong, and this is the chief cause of the persevering opposition of the Indians, who have nobly defended their country against our attempt to enforce a fraudulent treaty. The natives used every means to avoid a war, but were forced into it by the tyranny of our government."
On November 21, 1836 at the <a href="Battle%20of%20Wahoo%20Swamp">Battle of Wahoo Swamp</a>, the Seminole fought against American allied forces numbering 2500, successfully driving them back.; among the American dead was <a href="David%20Moniac">David Moniac</a>, the first Native American graduate of <a href="West%20Point">West Point</a>. The skirmish restored Seminole confidence, showing their ability to hold their ground against their old enemies the Creek and white settlers.
Late in 1836, Major General <a href="Thomas%20Jesup">Thomas Jesup</a>, US Quartermaster, was placed in command of the war. Jesup brought a new approach to the war. He concentrated on wearing the Seminoles down rather than sending out large groups who were more easily ambushed. He needed a large military presence in the state to control it, and he eventually brought a force of more than 9,000 men into the state under his command. About half of the force were volunteers and militia. It also included a brigade of marines, and Navy and <a href="United%20States%20Revenue%20Cutter%20Service">Revenue-Marine</a> personnel patrolling the coast and inland rivers and streams.
In January 1837, the Army began to achieve more tangible successes, capturing or killing numerous Indians and blacks. At the end of January, some Seminole chiefs sent messengers to Jesup, and arranged a truce. In March a "Capitulation" was signed by several chiefs, including Micanopy, stipulating that the Seminole could be accompanied by their allies and "their negroes, their "bona fide" property," in their removal to the West. By the end of May, many chiefs, including Micanopy, had surrendered. Two important leaders, Osceola and <a href="Ar-pi-uck-i%20%28Sam%20Jones%29">Sam Jones</a> (a.k.a. Abiaca, Ar-pi-uck-i, Opoica, Arpeika, Aripeka, Aripeika), had not surrendered, however, and were known to be vehemently opposed to relocation. On June 2 these two leaders with about 200 followers entered the poorly guarded holding camp at Fort Brooke and led away the 700 Seminoles who had surrendered. The war was on again, and Jesup decided against trusting the word of an Indian again. On Jesup's orders, Brigadier General <a href="Joseph%20Marion%20Hern%C3%A1ndez">Joseph Marion Hernández</a> commanded an expedition that captured several Indian leaders, including <a href="Wild%20Cat%20%28Seminole%29">Coacoochee</a> (Wild Cat), <a href="John%20Horse">John Horse</a>, Osceola and Micanopy when they appeared for conferences under a <a href="white%20flag">white flag</a> of truce. Coacoochee and other captives, including John Horse, escaped from their cell at <a href="Fort%20Marion">Fort Marion</a> in St. Augustine, but Osceola did not go with them. He died in prison, probably of <a href="malaria">malaria</a>.
Jesup organized a sweep down the peninsula with multiple columns, pushing the Seminoles further south. On Christmas Day 1837, Colonel <a href="Zachary%20Taylor">Zachary Taylor</a>'s column of 800 men encountered a body of about 400 warriors on the north shore of <a href="Lake%20Okeechobee">Lake Okeechobee</a>. The Seminole were led by Sam Jones, Alligator and the recently escaped Coacoochee; they were well positioned in a <a href="Hammock%20%28ecology%29">hammock</a> surrounded by <a href="Cladium">sawgrass</a> with half a mile of swamp in front of it. On the far side of the hammock was Lake Okeechobee. Here the saw grass stood five feet high. The mud and water were three feet deep. Horses would be of no use. The Seminole had chosen their battleground. They had sliced the grass to provide an open field of fire and had notched the trees to steady their rifles. Their scouts were perched in the treetops to follow every movement of the troops coming up. As Taylor's army came up to this position, he decided to attack.
At about half past noon, with the sun shining directly overhead and the air still and quiet, Taylor moved his troops squarely into the center of the swamp. His plan was to attack directly rather than try to encircle the Indians. All his men were on foot. In the first line were the Missouri volunteers. As soon as they came within range, the Seminoles opened fire. The volunteers broke, and their commander Colonel Gentry, fatally wounded, was unable to rally them. They fled back across the swamp. The fighting in the saw grass was deadliest for five companies of the Sixth Infantry; every officer but one, and most of their noncoms, were killed or wounded. When those units retired a short distance to re-form, they found only four men of these companies unharmed. The US eventually drove the Seminoles from the hammock, but they escaped across the lake. Taylor lost 26 killed and 112 wounded, while the Seminoles casualties were eleven dead and fourteen wounded. The US claimed the <a href="Battle%20of%20Lake%20Okeechobee">Battle of Lake Okeechobee</a> as a great victory.
At the end of January, Jesup's troops caught up with a large body of Seminoles to the east of Lake Okeechobee. Originally positioned in a hammock, the Seminoles were driven across a wide stream by cannon and rocket fire, and made another stand. They faded away, having inflicted more casualties than they suffered, and the <a href="Battle%20of%20Loxahatchee">Battle of Loxahatchee</a> was over. In February 1838, the Seminole chiefs Tuskegee and Halleck Hadjo approached Jesup with the proposal to stop fighting if they could stay in the area south of Lake Okeechobee, rather than relocating west. Jesup favored the idea but had to gain approval from officials in Washington for approval. The chiefs and their followers camped near the Army while awaiting the reply. When the secretary of war rejected the idea, Jesup seized the 500 Indians in the camp, and had them transported to the Indian Territory.
In May, Jesup's request to be relieved of command was granted, and <a href="Zachary%20Taylor">Zachary Taylor</a> assumed command of the Army in Florida. With reduced forces, Taylor concentrated on keeping the Seminole out of northern Florida by building many small posts at twenty-mile (30 km) intervals across the peninsula, connected by a grid of roads. The winter season was fairly quiet, without major actions. In Washington and around the country, support for the war was eroding. Many people began to think the Seminoles had earned the right to stay in Florida. Far from being over, the war had become very costly. President <a href="Martin%20Van%20Buren">Martin Van Buren</a> sent the Commanding General of the Army, <a href="Alexander%20Macomb%20%28general%29">Alexander Macomb</a>, to negotiate a new treaty with the Seminoles. On May 19, 1839, Macomb announced an agreement. In exchange for a reservation in southern Florida, the Seminoles would stop fighting.
As the summer passed, the agreement seemed to be holding. However, on July 23, some 150 Indians attacked a trading post on the <a href="Caloosahatchee%20River">Caloosahatchee River</a>; it was guarded by a detachment of 23 soldiers under the command of Colonel <a href="William%20S.%20Harney">William S. Harney</a>. He and some soldiers escaped by the river, but the Seminoles killed most of the garrison, as well as several civilians at the post. Many blamed the "Spanish" Indians, led by Chakaika, for the attack, but others suspected Sam Jones, whose band of Mikasuki had agreed to the treaty with Macomb. Jones, when questioned, promised to turn the men responsible for the attack over to Harney in 33 days. Before that time was up, two soldiers visiting Jones' camp were killed.
The Army turned to <a href="bloodhound">bloodhound</a>s to track the Indians, with poor results. Taylor's blockhouse and patrol system in northern Florida kept the Seminoles on the move but could not clear them out. In May 1839, Taylor, having served longer than any preceding commander in the Florida war, was granted his request for a transfer and replaced by Brig. Gen. <a href="Walker%20Keith%20Armistead">Walker Keith Armistead</a>. Armistead immediately went on the offensive, actively campaigning during the summer. Seeking hidden camps, the Army also burned fields and drove off livestock: horses, cattle and pigs. By the middle of the summer, the Army had destroyed of Seminole crops.
The Navy sent its sailors and marines up rivers and streams, and into the <a href="Everglades">Everglades</a>. In late 1839 Navy Lt. John T. McLaughlin was given command of a joint Army-Navy amphibious force to operate in Florida. McLaughlin established his base at <a href="Tea%20Table%20Key">Tea Table Key</a> in the upper <a href="Florida%20Keys">Florida Keys</a>. Traveling from December 1840 to the middle of January 1841, McLaughlin's force crossed the Everglades from east to west in dugout canoes, the first group of whites to complete a crossing. The Seminoles kept out of their way.
<a href="Indian%20Key%20State%20Historic%20Site">Indian Key</a> is a small island in the upper <a href="Florida%20Keys">Florida Keys</a>. In 1840, it was the <a href="county%20seat">county seat</a> of the newly created <a href="Miami-Dade%20County%2C%20Florida">Dade County</a>, and a <a href="Wrecking%20%28shipwreck%29">wrecking</a> port. Early in the morning of August 7, 1840, a large party of "Spanish" Indians sneaked onto Indian Key. By chance, one man was up and raised the alarm after spotting the Indians. Of about fifty people living on the island, forty were able to escape. The dead included Dr. <a href="Henry%20Perrine">Henry Perrine</a>, former <a href="United%20States">United States</a> <a href="Consul%20%28representative%29">Consul</a> in <a href="Campeche%2C%20Campeche">Campeche</a>, <a href="Mexico">Mexico</a>, who was waiting at Indian Key until it was safe to take up a 36-square mile (93 km²) grant on the mainland that Congress had awarded to him.
The naval base on the Key was manned by a doctor, his patients, and five sailors under a midshipman. They mounted a couple of cannon on barges to attack the Indians. The Indians fired back at the sailors with musket balls loaded in cannon on the shore. The recoil of the cannon broke them loose from the barges, sending them into the water, and the sailors had to retreat. The Indians looted and burned the buildings on Indian Key. In December 1840, Col. Harney at the head of ninety men found Chakaika's camp deep in the Everglades. His force killed the chief and hanged some of the men in his band.
Armistead received US$55,000 to use for bribing chiefs to surrender. Echo Emathla, a Tallahassee chief, surrendered, but most of the Tallahassee, under Tiger Tail, did not. Coosa Tustenuggee finally accepted US$5,000 for bringing in his 60 people. Lesser chiefs received US$200, and every warrior got US$30 and a rifle. By the spring of 1841, Armistead had sent 450 Seminoles west. Another 236 were at Fort Brooke awaiting transportation. Armistead estimated that 120 warriors had been shipped west during his tenure and that no more than 300 warriors remained in Florida.
In May 1841, Armistead was replaced by Col. <a href="William%20Jenkins%20Worth">William Jenkins Worth</a> as commander of Army forces in Florida. Worth had to cut back on the unpopular war: he released nearly 1,000 civilian employees and consolidated commands. Worth ordered his men out on "search and destroy" missions during the summer, and drove the Seminoles out of much of northern Florida.
The Army's actions became a war of attrition; some Seminole surrendered to avoid starvation. Others were seized when they came in to negotiate surrender, including, for the second time, Coacoochee. A large bribe secured Coacoochee's cooperation in persuading others to surrender.
In the last action of the war, General William Bailey and prominent planter Jack Bellamy led a posse of 52 men on a three-day pursuit of a small band of Tiger Tail's braves who had been attacking settlers, surprising their swampy encampment and killing all 24. William Wesley Hankins, at sixteen the youngest of the posse, accounted for the last of the kills and was acknowledged as having fired the last shot of the Second Seminole War.
After Colonel Worth recommended early in 1842 that the remaining Seminoles be left in peace, he received authorization to leave the remaining Seminoles on an informal reservation in southwestern Florida and to declare an end to the war., He announced it on August 14, 1842. In the same month, Congress passed the Armed Occupation Act, which provided free land to settlers who improved the land and were prepared to defend themselves from Indians. At the end of 1842, the remaining Indians in Florida living outside the reservation in southwest Florida were rounded up and shipped west. By April 1843, the Army presence in Florida had been reduced to one regiment. By November 1843, Worth reported that only about 95 Seminole men and some 200 women and children living on the reservation were left, and that they were no longer a threat.
The Second Seminole War may have cost as much as $40,000,000. More than 40,000 regular U.S. military, militiamen and volunteers served in the war. This Indian war cost the lives of 1,500 soldiers, mostly from disease. It is estimated that more than 300 regular U.S. Army, Navy and Marine Corps personnel were killed in action, along with 55 volunteers. There is no record of the number of Seminole killed in action, but many homes and Indian lives were lost. A great many Seminole died of disease or starvation in Florida, on the journey west, and after they reached <a href="Indian%20Territory">Indian Territory</a>. An unknown but apparently substantial number of white civilians were killed by Seminole during the war.
Peace had come to Florida. The Indians were mostly staying on the reservation. Groups of ten or so men would visit Tampa to trade. Squatters were moving closer to the reservation, however, and in 1845 President <a href="James%20Polk">James Polk</a> established a 20-mile (30 km) wide buffer zone around the reservation. No land could be claimed within the buffer zone, no title would be issued for land there, and the <a href="United%20States%20Marshals%20Service">U.S. Marshal</a> would remove squatters from the buffer zone upon request. In 1845, Thomas P. Kennedy, who operated a store at Fort Brooke, converted his fishing station on <a href="Pine%20Island%20%28Lee%20County%2C%20Florida%29">Pine Island</a> into a trading post for the Indians. The post did not do well, however, because whites who sold whiskey to the Indians told them that they would be seized and sent west if they went to Kennedy's store.
The Florida authorities continued to press for removal of all Indians from Florida. The Indians for their part tried to limit their contacts with whites as much as possible. In 1846, Captain John T. Sprague was placed in charge of Indian affairs in Florida. He had great difficulty in getting the chiefs to meet with him. They were very distrustful of the Army since it had often seized chiefs while under a flag of truce. He did manage to meet with all of the chiefs in 1847, while investigating a report of a raid on a farm. He reported that the Indians in Florida then consisted of 120 warriors, including seventy Seminoles in <a href="Billy%20Bowlegs">Billy Bowlegs</a>' band, thirty Mikasukis in Sam Jones' band, twelve Creeks (Muscogee speakers) in Chipco's band, 4 Yuchis and 4 Choctaws. He also estimated that there were 100 women and 140 children.
The trading post on Pine Island had burned down in 1848, and in 1849 Thomas Kennedy and his new partner, John Darling, were given permission to open a trading post on what is now <a href="Paynes%20Creek%20Historic%20State%20Park">Paynes Creek</a>, a tributary of the <a href="Peace%20River%20%28Florida%29">Peace River</a>. One band of Indians was living outside the reservation at this time. Called "outsiders", it consisted of twenty warriors under the leadership of Chipco, and included five Muscogees, seven Mikasukis, six Seminoles, one Creek and one Yuchi. On July 12, 1849 four members of this band attacked a farm on the <a href="Indian%20River%20%28Florida%29">Indian River</a> just north of Fort Pierce, killing one man and wounding another man and a woman. The news of this raid caused much of the population of the east coast of Florida to flee to St. Augustine. On July 17, four of the "outsiders" who had attacked the farm on the Indian River, plus a fifth man who had not been at Indian River, attacked the Kennedy and Darling store. Two workers at the store, including a Captain Payne, were killed, and another worker and his wife were wounded as they escorted their child into hiding.
The U.S. Army was not prepared to engage the Indians. It had few men stationed in Florida and no means to move them quickly to where they could protect the white settlers and capture the Indians. The War Department began a new buildup in Florida, placing Major General <a href="David%20E.%20Twiggs">David E. Twiggs</a> in command, and the state called up two companies of mounted volunteers to guard settlements. Captain John Casey, who was in charge of the effort to move the Indians west, was able to arrange a meeting between General Twiggs and several of the Indian leaders at Charlotte Harbor. At that meeting, Billy Bowlegs promised, with the approval of other leaders, to deliver the five men responsible for the attacks to the Army within thirty days. On October 18, Bowlegs delivered three of the men to Twiggs, along with the severed hand of another who had been killed while trying to escape. The fifth man had been captured but had escaped.
After Bowlegs had delivered the three murderers, General Twiggs told the Indians, much to their dismay, that he had been ordered to remove them from Florida. The government would apply three tactics to carry out the removal. The Army in Florida was increased to 1,500 men. One hundred thousand dollars was appropriated for bribing Indians to move. Finally, a delegation of Seminole chiefs was brought from the Indian Territory to negotiate with their counterparts in Florida. Eventually a Mikasuki sub-chief, Kapiktoosootse, agreed to lead his people west. In February 1850, 74 Indians boarded ship for <a href="New%20Orleans%2C%20Louisiana">New Orleans</a>. They were paid a total of US$15,953 in bribes and compensation for property left behind in Florida. There were a couple of incidents that soured relations after that. A Muskogee and a Mikasuki who had gone in to trade at the same time as Kapiktoosootse and his band were surrendering were involuntarily shipped off to New Orleans with them. Then, in March a mounted detachment of the Seventh Infantry penetrated far in the reservation. As a result, the other Indians broke off contact with the negotiators. By April, Twiggs was reporting to Washington that there was no hope of convincing any more Indians to move.
In August 1850, an orphan boy living on a farm in north central Florida was apparently killed by Indians. Eventually enough complaints about the incident had reached Washington to cause the secretary of war to order the surrender of the Indians responsible, or the president would hold the whole tribe responsible. Captain Casey was able to get word to Bowlegs and arrange a meeting in April. Bowlegs promised to deliver the men responsible, although they apparently were members of Chipco's band, over whom Bowlegs had no authority. Chipco decided to surrender three men as the possible killers, and they were arrested when they showed up to trade in Fort Myers. Once in custody, the three protested their innocence, saying that Chipco did not like them and that other men in Chipco's band were the actual killers, and Captain Casey believed them. The three men tried to escape from the jail in Tampa but were caught and chained up in their cell. They were later found hanging from the bars in their cell. One was still alive when found but was not cut down until the next day, after he had died. It was noted in the community that the constable who had chained the three men in their cell was the father-in-law of a brother of one of the men killed at the Kennedy and Darling store in 1849 (the Paynes Creek Massacre).
In 1851, General Luther Blake was appointed by the secretary of the interior to move the Indians west. He had successfully removed the <a href="Cherokee">Cherokee</a> from Georgia and was presumably up to the job of removing the Seminole. He had funding to pay every adult male $800 and every woman and child $450. He went to the Indian Territory to find interpreters and returned to Florida in March 1852. Traveling into the field to meet with all of the Indian leaders, by July he had found sixteen Seminole to send west. Finding <a href="Billy%20Bowlegs">Billy Bowlegs</a> insistent on staying in Florida, Blake took Bowlegs and several other chiefs to Washington. President <a href="Millard%20Fillmore">Millard Fillmore</a> presented Bowlegs with a medal, and he and three other chiefs were persuaded to sign an agreement promising to leave Florida. The chiefs were taken on a tour that included <a href="Baltimore">Baltimore</a>, <a href="Philadelphia">Philadelphia</a> and <a href="New%20York%20City">New York City</a>. Upon returning to Florida, the chiefs repudiated the agreement they had signed in Washington. Blake was fired in 1853, and Captain Casey was put back in charge of Indian removal.
In January 1851, the Florida Legislature had created the position of commander of the Florida Militia, and Governor <a href="Thomas%20Brown%20%28Florida%20politician%29">Thomas Brown</a> appointed <a href="Benjamin%20Hopkins">Benjamin Hopkins</a> to it. Over the next two years, the Florida Militia pursued Seminole who were outside the reservation boundaries. During this period the militia captured one man and a few women, and 140 hogs. One Seminole woman elder committed suicide while being held by the militia, after the rest of her family had escaped. The whole operation cost the state US$40,000.
Pressure from Florida officials pushed the federal government to take action. Captain Casey continued to try to persuade the Seminole to move west without success. He sent Billy Bowlegs and others to Washington again, but the chiefs refused to agree to move. In August 1854, Secretary of War <a href="Jefferson%20Davis">Jefferson Davis</a> initiated a program to force the Seminole into a final conflict. The plan included a trade embargo against them, the survey and sale of land in southern Florida to European-American settlers, and a stronger Army presence to protect the new settlers. Davis said that if the Seminole did not agree to leave, the Army would use force.
By late 1855, there were more than 700 Army troops stationed on the Florida peninsula. Around that time the Seminoles decided that they would strike back at the increasing pressure being put on them and attack when an opportunity presented itself. Sam Jones may have been the instigator of this decision; Chipco was said to have been against it. On December 7, 1855, First Lieutenant George Hartsuff, who had led previous patrols into the reservation, left Fort Myers with ten men and two wagons. They found no Seminoles but did pass corn fields and three deserted villages, including Billy Bowlegs' village. On the evening of December 19, Hartsuff told his men that they would be returning to Fort Myers the next day. As the men were loading the wagons and saddling their horses the next morning (December 20, 1855), forty Seminoles led by Billy Bowlegs attacked the camp. Several soldiers were shot, including Lieutenant Hartsuff, who managed to hide himself. The Seminoles killed and scalped four men in the camp, killed the wagon mules, looted and burned the wagons and took several horses. Seven men, four of them wounded, made it back to Fort Myers.
When the news of the attack reached Tampa, the men of the city elected militia officers and organized companies. The newly formed militia marched to the Peace River valley, recruited more men, and manned some forts along the river. Governor <a href="James%20Broome">James Broome</a> started organizing as many volunteer companies as he could. Because the state had limited funds, he tried to have the Army accept the volunteers. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis accepted two infantry companies and three mounted companies, about 260 men. Governor Broome kept another 400 men mobilized under state control. The state troops, both those accepted by the Army and those remaining under state control, had been partly armed and supplied by private donations. General Jesse Carter was appointed by Governor Broome as "special agent ... without military rank" to lead the state troops. Carter set half of the state troops to growing crops, and so only 200 of his men were available for patrols. A Tampa newspaper noted that the mounted patrols preferred to patrol in open country, which was easier for the horses, but it allowed the Seminoles to see them coming.
On January 6, 1856, two men gathering <a href="Zamia%20integrifolia">coontie</a> south of the <a href="Miami%20River%20%28Florida%29">Miami River</a> were killed. The settlers in the area promptly fled to Fort Dallas and <a href="Key%20Biscayne">Key Biscayne</a>. A party of some twenty Seminoles under Ocsen Tustenuggee attacked a wood-cutting patrol outside of Fort Denaud, killing five of the six men. Despite the positioning of militia units to defend the area, the Seminoles also raided along the coast south of Tampa Bay. They killed one man and burned a house in what is now <a href="Sarasota%2C%20Florida">Sarasota</a>, and on March 31, 1856, they tried to attack the "Braden Castle", the plantation home of Dr. Joseph Braden, in what is now <a href="Bradenton%2C%20Florida">Bradenton</a>. The "Castle" was too strong for them, but they led away seven slaves and three mules. Burdened with prisoners and loot, the Seminoles did not move fast. While they were stopped at <a href="Big%20Charley%20Apopka%20Creek">Big Charley Apopka Creek</a> eating barbecued beef from a cow they had found and slaughtered, the militia caught up with them. The militiamen killed two of the Seminoles and recaptured the slaves and mules taken from Dr. Braden's plantation. The scalp of one of the dead Seminoles was displayed in Tampa, the other in Manatee.
During April, regular Army and militiamen patrolled around and into the reservation but made little contact with the Seminoles. One six-hour battle was fought near Bowlegs Town in April, with four regulars killed and three wounded before the Seminoles withdrew. The Seminoles continued to carry out small raids around the state. On May 14, 1856, fifteen Seminoles attacked the farm house of Captain Robert Bradley north of Tampa, killing two of his young children. One Seminole was killed by Bradley. Bradley may have been targeted because he had killed Tiger Tail's brother during the Second Seminole War. On May 17, Seminoles attacked a wagon train in central Florida, killing three men. Mail and stagecoach service in and out of Tampa was suspended until the military could provide protection.
On June 14, 1856, Seminoles attacked a farm two miles (3 km) from Fort Meade. All of the household made it safely into the house, and they were able to hold the Seminoles at bay. The gunfire was heard at Fort Meade, and seven mounted militiamen responded. Three of the militiamen were killed and two others wounded. More militiamen pursued the Seminoles but had to retreat when a sudden rain wet their powder. On June 16, twenty militiamen from <a href="Fort%20Fraser%20%28Florida%29">Fort Fraser</a> surprised a group of Seminoles along the Peace River, killing some of the Seminoles. The militiamen withdrew after losing two dead and three wounded. They claimed to have killed as many as twenty Seminoles, but the Indians admitted to only four dead and two wounded. However, one of the dead was Ocsen Tustenuggee, who seems to have been the only chief who would actively lead attacks against settlements.
The citizens of Florida were becoming disenchanted with the militia. There were complaints that the militiamen would pretend to patrol for a day or two and then go home to work their fields, and that they were given to idleness, drunkenness, and thievery. The officers were reported to be unwilling to submit required paperwork. Most importantly, the militia had failed to prevent attacks against settlers.
In September 1856, Brigadier General <a href="William%20S.%20Harney">William S. Harney</a> returned to Florida as commander of the federal troops. Remembering the lessons he had learned in the Second Seminole War, he set up a system of forts in a line across Florida, and patrols moved deep into Seminole territory. He planned to confine the Seminoles to the Big Cypress Swamp and the Everglades, because he believed they would be unable to live there during the wet season. He anticipated being able to catch the Indians when they left their flooded sanctuaries seeking dry land for raising their crops. Part of Harney's plan involved using boats to reach islands and other dry spots in the swamps. He first made one more attempt to negotiate with the Seminoles but was unable to make contact with them. In early January 1857, he ordered his troops to actively pursue the Indians. Harney's plan, however, had shown few results by the time he and the Fifth Infantry were transferred to <a href="Kansas">Kansas</a> to aid in the <a href="Bleeding%20Kansas">uprisings</a> there in April.
Colonel <a href="Gustavus%20Loomis">Gustavus Loomis</a> replaced General Harney as commander in Florida, but the withdrawal of the Fifth Infantry left him with only ten companies of the Fourth Artillery, which was later reduced to just four companies. Loomis organized volunteers into boat companies, which were given metal "alligator boats" that had been built earlier specifically for use in the Big Cypress Swamp and Everglades. Thirty feet (9 m) long, pointed at both ends, and drawing two to three feet (0.7 m) of water, the boats could carry up to sixteen men into the swamps. These boat companies were able to capture many Indians, primarily women and children. The regulars did not do as well. Some officers, including Captain <a href="Abner%20Doubleday">Abner Doubleday</a>, observed that the Seminoles easily avoided the Army patrols. Doubleday attributed this to the fact that most of the enlisted men were recent immigrants who had no skills in <a href="wikt%3Awoodcraft">woodcraft</a>.
In 1857, ten companies of Florida militia were taken into federal service, totaling almost 800 men by September. In November these troops captured eighteen women and children from Billy Bowlegs' band. The troops also found and destroyed several towns and fields of crops. The troops moved into the Big Cypress Swamp starting on <a href="New%20Year%27s%20Day">New Year's Day</a> 1858, again destroying the towns and cultivated fields they found. Another delegation from the Indian Territory arrived in Florida in January and attempted to contact Bowlegs. The troops stood down while the attempt was made, and Bowlegs was contacted. The previous year the Seminoles had finally been given their own reservation in Indian Territory separate from the Creeks. Cash payments of US$500 to each warrior (more to the chiefs) and $100 to each woman were promised. On March 15, Bowlegs' and Assinwar's bands accepted the offer and agreed to go west. On May 4, a total of 163 Seminoles (including some captured earlier) were shipped to New Orleans. On May 8, 1858, Colonel Loomis declared the war to be over.
When Colonel Loomis declared an end to the Third Seminole War, the government believed that only about 100 Seminole were left in Florida. In December 1858, the US recruited two bands totaling 75 people, who agreed to removal to the West; they were shipped out on February 15, 1859.
Seminoles remained in Florida, however. Sam Jones' band was living in southeast Florida, inland from Miami and Fort Lauderdale. Chipco's band was living north of Lake Okeechobee, although the Army and militia had failed to locate it. Individual families were scattered across the wetlands of southern Florida. Since the war was officially over and the remaining Seminole stayed quiet, the government sent the militia home and reassigned the regular Army troops.
All of the forts built for the Seminole wars were decommissioned and soon stripped by settlers of any usable material. In 1862, the state contacted Sam Jones with promises of aid in an attempt to keep the Seminole neutral in the <a href="American%20Civil%20War">Civil War</a>. Although the state did not follow through on its promises, the Seminole were not interested in fighting another war.
The <a href="Florida%20Constitution%23The%201868%20Florida%20Constitution">1868 Florida Constitution</a>, developed by the <a href="Republican%20Party%20%28US%29">Republican</a>-dominated <a href="Reconstruction%20era%20of%20the%20United%20States">Reconstruction</a> legislature, gave the Seminole one seat in the house and one seat in the senate of the state legislature. The Seminole never filled the positions. In 1885, after southern white <a href="Democratic%20Party%20%28US%29">Democrats</a> had regained political power in the state, they passed a new constitution in 1885. It removed the seats for Seminole and established barriers to voter registration and electoral practices that essentially <a href="Disfranchisement%20after%20Reconstruction%20era">disfranchised</a> most blacks and minorities. This situation lasted until the passage of federal civil rights and voting legislation in the mid-1960s, which provided for the enforcement of citizens' constitutional rights.
A small number of Seminoles continued to live in relative isolation in the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades region into the 20th Century. Flood control and drainage projects beginning in the late 1800s opened up more land for development and significantly altered the natural environment, inundating some areas while leaving former swamps dry and arable. These projects, along with the completion of the <a href="Tamiami%20Trail">Tamiami Trail</a> which bisected the Everglades in 1928, simultaneously ended old ways of life and introduced new opportunities. A steady stream of white developers and tourists came to the area, and the Seminoles began to work in local farms, ranches, and souvenir stands.
In the 1940s, Seminoles living across the state began moving to reservations and establishing official tribal governments to form ties with the <a href="Bureau%20of%20Indian%20Affairs">Bureau of Indian Affairs</a>. In 1957, most Seminoles established formal relations with the US government as the <a href="Seminole%20Tribe%20of%20Florida">Seminole Tribe of Florida</a>, which is headquartered in <a href="Hollywood%2C%20Florida">Hollywood, Florida</a> and control the <a href="Big%20Cypress%20Indian%20Reservation">Big Cypress Indian Reservation</a>, <a href="Brighton%20Reservation">Brighton Reservation</a>, Fort Pierce Reservation, <a href="Hollywood%20Reservation">Hollywood Reservation</a>, Immokalee Reservation, and <a href="Tampa%20Reservation">Tampa Reservation</a>.
The <a href="Miccosukee">Miccosukee</a> branch of the Seminoles held to a more traditional lifestyle in the Everglades region, simultaneously seeking privacy and serving as a tourist attraction, wrestling alligators, selling crafts, and giving <a href="Ecotourism">eco-tours</a> of their land. They received federal recognition as a separate nation in 1962 and received their own reservation lands, collectively known as the <a href="Miccosukee%20Indian%20Reservation">Miccosukee Indian Reservation</a>, including a reservation on the northern border of Everglades National Park, about west of Miami.
</doc>
<doc id="90451" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90451" title="Amazon.com">
Amazon.com
Amazon.com, Inc. ( or ), often referred to as simply Amazon, is an American <a href="e-commerce">electronic commerce</a> and <a href="cloud%20computing">cloud computing</a> company with headquarters in <a href="Seattle">Seattle</a>, <a href="Washington%20%28state%29">Washington</a>. It is the largest Internet-based retailer in the United States. Amazon.com started as an online <a href="bookstore">bookstore</a>, later diversifying to sell <a href="DVD">DVD</a>s, <a href="Blu-ray">Blu-ray</a>s, <a href="compact%20Disc">CDs</a>, <a href="Amazon%20Video">video</a> downloads/streaming, <a href="MP3">MP3</a> downloads/streaming, <a href="Audible.com">audiobook</a> downloads/streaming, <a href="software">software</a>, <a href="video%20game">video game</a>s, <a href="consumer%20electronics">electronics</a>, apparel, furniture, food, toys and jewelry. The company also produces <a href="consumer%20electronics">consumer electronics</a>—notably, <a href="Amazon%20Kindle">Amazon Kindle</a> <a href="e-book%20reader">e-book reader</a>s, <a href="Kindle%20Fire">Fire</a> <a href="tablet%20computer">tablet</a>s, <a href="Fire%20TV">Fire TV</a> and <a href="Fire%20Phone">Fire Phone</a>—and is the world's largest provider of <a href="cloud%20infrastructure">cloud infrastructure</a> services (IaaS). Amazon also sells certain low-end products like USB cables under its in-house brand AmazonBasics.
Amazon has separate retail websites for <a href="United%20States">United States</a>, <a href="United%20Kingdom">United Kingdom</a> and <a href="Ireland">Ireland</a>, <a href="France">France</a>, <a href="Canada">Canada</a>, <a href="Germany">Germany</a>, <a href="Italy">Italy</a>, <a href="Spain">Spain</a>, <a href="Netherlands">Netherlands</a>, <a href="Australia">Australia</a>, <a href="Brazil">Brazil</a>, <a href="Japan">Japan</a>, <a href="China">China</a>, <a href="India">India</a> and <a href="Mexico">Mexico</a>. Amazon also offers international shipping to certain other countries for some of its products. In 2011, it professed an intention to launch its websites in <a href="Poland">Poland</a> and <a href="Sweden">Sweden</a>.
In 2015, Amazon surpassed <a href="Walmart">Walmart</a> as the most valuable retailer in the United States by <a href="market%20capitalization">market capitalization</a>.
The company was founded in 1994, spurred by what Bezos called his "regret minimization framework," which described his efforts to fend off any regrets for not participating sooner in the <a href="Dot-com%20bubble">Internet business boom</a> during that time. In 1994, Bezos left his employment as vice-president of <a href="D.%20E.%20Shaw%20%26amp%3B%20Co.">D. E. Shaw & Co.</a>, a Wall Street firm, and moved to Seattle. He began to work on a business plan for what would eventually become Amazon.com.
<a href="Jeff%20Bezos">Jeff Bezos</a> incorporated the company as "Cadabra" on July 5, 1994. Bezos changed the name to Amazon a year later after a lawyer misheard its original name as "cadaver". The company went online as Amazon.com in 1995.
Bezos selected the name Amazon by looking through the dictionary, and settled on "Amazon" because it was a place that was "exotic and different" just as he planned for his store to be; the <a href="Amazon%20river">Amazon river</a>, he noted was by far the "biggest" river in the world, and he planned to make his store the biggest in the world. Bezos placed a premium on his head start in building a brand, telling a reporter, "There's nothing about our model that can't be copied over time. But you know, <a href="McDonald%27s">McDonald's</a> got copied. And it still built a huge, multibillion-dollar company. A lot of it comes down to the brand name. Brand names are more important online than they are in the physical world." Additionally, a name beginning with "A" was preferential due to the probability it would occur at the top of any list that was alphabetized.
Since June 19, 2000, Amazon's logotype has featured a curved arrow leading from A to Z, representing that the company carries every product from A to Z, with the arrow shaped like a smile.
After reading a report about the future of the Internet that projected annual Web commerce growth at 2,300%, Bezos created a list of 20 products that could be marketed online. He narrowed the list to what he felt were the five most promising products which included: compact discs, computer hardware, computer software, videos, and books. Bezos finally decided that his new business would sell books online, due to the large world-wide demand for literature, the low price points for books, along with the huge number of titles available in print. Amazon was originally founded in Bezos' garage in Bellevue, Washington.
The company began as an online <a href="bookstore">bookstore</a>, an idea spurred off with discussion with <a href="John%20R.%20Ingram%20%28businessman%29">John Ingram</a> of Ingram Book (now called <a href="Ingram%20Content%20Group">Ingram Content Group</a>), along with Keyur Patel who still holds a stake in Amazon. Amazon was able to access books at wholesale from Ingram. In the first two months of business, Amazon sold to all 50 states and over 45 countries. Within two months, Amazon's sales were up to $20,000/week. While the largest <a href="brick%20and%20mortar">brick and mortar</a> bookstores and <a href="mail%20order">mail order</a> catalogs might offer 200,000 titles, an online bookstore could "carry" several times more, since it would have a practically unlimited virtual (not actual) warehouse: those of the actual product makers/suppliers.
Amazon was incorporated in 1994, in the state of <a href="Washington%20%28state%29">Washington</a>. In July 1995, the company began service and sold its first book on Amazon.com: <a href="Douglas%20Hofstadter">Douglas Hofstadter</a>'s "<a href="Fluid%20Concepts%20and%20Creative%20Analogies">Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought</a>". In October 1995, the company announced itself to the public. In 1996, it was reincorporated in <a href="Delaware">Delaware</a>. Amazon issued its <a href="initial%20public%20offering">initial public offering</a> of <a href="stock">stock</a> on May 15, 1997, trading under the <a href="NASDAQ">NASDAQ</a> stock exchange symbol AMZN, at a price of <a href="United%20States%20dollar">US$</a>18.00 per share ($1.50 after three <a href="stock%20split">stock split</a>s in the late 1990s).
Amazon's initial <a href="business%20plan">business plan</a> was unusual; it did not expect to make a profit for four to five years. This "slow" growth caused stockholders to complain about the company not reaching profitability fast enough to justify investing in, or to even survive in the long-term. When the <a href="dot-com%20bubble">dot-com bubble</a> burst at the start of the 21st century, destroying many e-companies in the process, Amazon survived, and grew on past the bubble burst to become a huge player in online sales. It finally turned its first profit in the fourth quarter of 2001: $5 million (i.e., 1¢ per share), on revenues of more than $1 billion. This profit margin, though extremely modest, proved to skeptics that Bezos' unconventional <a href="business%20model">business model</a> could succeed. In 1999, "<a href="Time%20%28magazine%29">Time</a>" magazine named Bezos the <a href="Time%20Person%20of%20the%20Year">Person of the Year</a>, recognizing the company's success in popularizing <a href="online%20shopping">online shopping</a>.
<a href="Barnes%20%26amp%3B%20Noble">Barnes & Noble</a> sued Amazon on May 12, 1997, alleging that Amazon's claim to be "the world's largest bookstore" was false. Barnes and Noble asserted, "[It] isn't a bookstore at all. It's a book broker." The suit was later settled out of court, and Amazon continued to make the same claim." <a href="Walmart">Walmart</a> sued Amazon on October 16, 1998, alleging that Amazon had stolen Walmart's trade secrets by hiring former Walmart executives. Although this suit was also settled out of court, it caused Amazon to implement internal restrictions and the reassignment of the former Walmart executives.
Source:
Amazon owns over 40 subsidiaries, including Zappos, Diapers.com, Kiva Systems, Goodreads, Teachstreet, and IMDb.
As of February 2016, the board of directors is:
Until June 30, 2006, typing <a href="Toys%20R%20Us">ToysRUs.com</a> into a browser would bring up Amazon.com's "Toys & Games" tab; however, this relationship was terminated due to a lawsuit. Amazon also hosted and managed the website for <a href="Borders%20Group">Borders bookstores</a> but this ceased in 2008. From 2001 until August 2011, Amazon hosted the retail website for <a href="Target%20Corporation">Target</a>.
Amazon.com operates retail websites for <a href="Sears%20Canada">Sears Canada</a>, <a href="bebe%20Stores">bebe Stores</a>, <a href="Marks%20%26amp%3B%20Spencer">Marks & Spencer</a>, <a href="Mothercare">Mothercare</a>, and <a href="Lacoste">Lacoste</a>. For a growing number of <a href="Business">enterprise</a> clients, currently including the UK merchants Marks & Spencer, Benefit Cosmetics' UK entity, edeals.com, and Mothercare, Amazon provides a unified multichannel platform where a customer can interact with the retail website, standalone in-store terminals, or phone-based customer service agents. <a href="Amazon%20Web%20Services">Amazon Web Services</a> also powers <a href="AOL">AOL</a>'s Shop@AOL.
On October 18, 2011, Amazon.com announced a partnership with <a href="DC%20Comics">DC Comics</a> for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including "<a href="Superman">Superman</a>", "<a href="Batman">Batman</a>", "<a href="Green%20Lantern">Green Lantern</a>", "<a href="The%20Sandman">The Sandman</a>", and "<a href="Watchmen">Watchmen</a>". The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves.
In November 2013, Amazon.com announced a partnership with the <a href="United%20States%20Postal%20Service">United States Postal Service</a> to begin delivering orders on Sundays. The service, included with Amazon’s standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of <a href="Los%20Angeles">Los Angeles</a> and <a href="New%20York%2C%20New%20York">New York</a> due to the high-volume and inability to deliver timely, with plans to expand into <a href="Dallas%2C%20Texas">Dallas</a>, <a href="Houston">Houston</a>, <a href="New%20Orleans">New Orleans</a>, and <a href="Phoenix%2C%20Arizona">Phoenix</a> by 2014.
Amazon's global headquarters are in 14 buildings in Seattle's <a href="South%20Lake%20Union%2C%20Seattle">South Lake Union</a> neighborhood, developed primarily by <a href="Vulcan%2C%20Inc.">Vulcan, Inc.</a> from 2008 onward. The first 11 buildings were acquired from Vulcan in 2012 at a cost of $1.16 billion. The company was previously headquartered in rented space within the <a href="Pacific%20Medical%20Center">Pacific Medical Center</a>, located in the city's <a href="Beacon%20Hill%2C%20Seattle">Beacon Hill</a> neighborhood, from 1998 to 2011.
Amazon is currently building a new <a href="Amazon.com%20headquarters">three-tower complex</a> in Seattle's <a href="Denny%20Triangle%2C%20Seattle">Denny Triangle</a> neighborhood to serve as its new headquarters. The plan, designed by <a href="NBBJ">NBBJ</a> and named "Rufus 2.0" after a dog who was part of the company in its early days, was approved by the city of Seattle in 2012 and construction began the year after. The first of the towers, <a href="Amazon%20Tower%20I">Amazon Tower I</a> (nicknamed Doppler), opened on December 14, 2015.
The European headquarters are in Luxembourg's capital, <a href="Luxembourg%20%28city%29">Luxembourg City</a>.
While much of Amazon's software development occurs in Seattle, the company employs software developers in centers across the globe. Some of these sites are run by an Amazon subsidiary called A2Z Development.
Fulfillment centers are located in the following cities, often near airports. These centers also provide warehousing and order-fulfillment for third-party sellers. Amazon Fulfillment centers can also provide warehousing and order-fulfillment for third-party sellers for an extra fee. Third-party sellers can use Fulfillment by Amazon, or FBA, to sell on other platforms as well, such as <a href="eBay">eBay</a> or their own websites.
Warehouses are large and each has hundreds of employees. Employees are responsible for four basic tasks: unpacking and inspecting incoming goods; placing goods in storage and recording their location; picking goods from their computer recorded locations to make up an individual shipment; and shipping. A computer that records the location of goods and maps out routes for pickers plays a key role: employees carry hand-held computers which communicate with the central computer and monitor their rate of progress. A picker may walk 10 or more miles a day. In the United Kingdom initial staffing was provided by <a href="Randstad%20Holding">Randstad Holding</a> and other temporary employment agencies. Some workers are accepted as Amazon employees and granted pension and shares of stock; others are dismissed. "When we have permanent positions available, we look to the top performing temporary associates to fill them." Development of a high level of <a href="automation">automation</a> is anticipated in the future following Amazon's 2012 acquisition of <a href="Kiva%20Systems">Kiva Systems</a>, a warehouse automation company.
These US distribution centers have been closed: SDC Seattle Distribution Center, located in Georgetown, just south of downtown Seattle; Red Rock, Nevada; <a href="Chambersburg%2C%20Pennsylvania">Chambersburg, Pennsylvania</a>; <a href="Munster%2C%20Indiana">Munster, Indiana</a>; and <a href="McDonough%2C%20Georgia">McDonough, Georgia</a>.
From 2000 until February 2001, there was an Amazon customer service based in <a href="The%20Hague">The Hague</a>, Netherlands.
Amazon product lines include several media (<a href="book">book</a>s, DVDs, music CDs, <a href="VHS">videotapes</a>, and software), apparel, baby products, <a href="consumer%20electronics">consumer electronics</a>, <a href="cosmetics">beauty products</a>, gourmet food, groceries, health and personal-care items, industrial & scientific supplies, kitchen items, <a href="jewelry">jewelry</a> and watches, lawn and garden items, musical instruments, <a href="sports%20equipment">sporting goods</a>, tools, automotive items and toys & games.
The company launched amazon.com Auctions, a web auctions service, in March 1999. However, it failed to chip away at the large market share of the industry pioneer, <a href="eBay">eBay</a>. Later, the company launched a fixed-price <a href="marketplace">marketplace</a> business, zShops, in September 1999, and the now defunct partnership with <a href="Sotheby%27s">Sotheby's</a>, called "Sothebys.amazon.com", in November. Auctions and zShops evolved into <a href="Amazon%20Marketplace">Amazon Marketplace</a>, a service launched in November 2000 that let customers sell used books, CDs, DVDs, and other products alongside new items. As of October 2014, Amazon Marketplace is the largest of its kind, followed by similar marketplaces from Sears, Rakuten and Newegg.
In August 2007, Amazon announced <a href="AmazonFresh">AmazonFresh</a>, a grocery service offering <a href="perishable%20food">perishable</a> and <a href="nonperishable%20food">nonperishable food</a>s. Customers could have orders delivered to their homes at dawn or during a specified daytime window. Delivery was initially restricted to residents of <a href="Mercer%20Island%2C%20Washington">Mercer Island, Washington</a>, and was later expanded to several <a href="ZIP%20code">ZIP code</a>s in Seattle proper. AmazonFresh also operated pick-up locations in the suburbs of <a href="Bellevue%2C%20Washington">Bellevue</a> and <a href="Kirkland%2C%20Washington">Kirkland</a> from summer 2007 through early 2008.
In 2012, Amazon announced the launch of Vine.com for buying green products, including groceries, household items, and apparel. It is part of <a href="Quidsi">Quidsi</a>, the company that Amazon bought in 2010 that also runs the sites <a href="Diapers.com">Diapers.com</a> (baby), Wag.com (pets), and YoYo.com (toys). Amazon also owns other e-commerce sites like Shopbop.com, <a href="Woot.com">Woot.com</a>, and <a href="Zappos.com">Zappos.com</a>.
Amazon's Subscribe & Save program offers a discounted price on an item (usually sold in bulk), free shipping on every Subscribe & Save shipment, and automatic shipment of the item every one, two, three, or six months.
In 2013, Amazon launched its site in India, amazon.in. It has started with electronic goods and plans to expand into fashion apparel, beauty, home essentials, and healthcare categories by the end of 2013. In July 2014, Amazon had said it will invest $2 billion (Rs 12,000 crore) in India to expand business, after its largest Indian rival Flipkart announced $1 billion in funding.
In 2014, Amazon sold 63% of all books bought online and 40% of all books sold overall.
Fulfillment by Amazon Small and Light is a service introduced in 2015 that will provide fulfillment for small, light items from a center in <a href="Florence%2C%20Kentucky">Florence, Kentucky</a>. The service will offer free standard shipping for small, light, low-value items offered on the site by 3rd party sellers.
In 2015, a study by <a href="Survata">Survata</a> found that 44% of respondents searching for products went directly to Amazon.com.
In 2005, Amazon announced the creation of Amazon Prime, a membership offering free two-day shipping within the contiguous United States on all eligible purchases for a flat annual fee of $79 (), as well as discounted one-day shipping rates. Amazon launched the program in Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom in 2007; in France (as "Amazon Premium") in 2008, in Italy in 2011, and in Canada in 2013.
Amazon Prime membership in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States also provides <a href="Amazon%20Video">Amazon Video</a>, the instant streaming of selected movies and TV shows at no additional cost. In November 2011, it was announced that Prime members have access to the Kindle Owners’ Lending Library, which allows users to borrow certain popular Kindle e-books for free reading on Kindle hardware, up to one book a month, with no due date.
In March 2014, Amazon announced an increase in the annual membership fee for Amazon Prime, from $79 to $99. Shortly after this change, Amazon announced Prime Music, a service whose members can get unlimited, ad-free streaming of over a million songs and access to curated playlists. In November 2014, Amazon added Prime Photos, which allows unlimited photo storage in the users' Amazon cloud drive. In March 2015, Amazon is expanding that service as a paid offering to cover other kinds of content, and to users outside of its loyalty program. Unlimited Cloud Storage will let users get either unlimited photo storage or “unlimited everything” — covering all kinds of media from videos and music through to PDF documents — respectively for $11.99 or $59.99 per year. Amazon also began offering free same-day delivery to Prime members in 14 U.S. metropolitan areas in May 2015.
In April 2015, Amazon started a trial partnership with <a href="Audi">Audi</a> and <a href="DHL%20Express">DHL</a> in order to get deliveries directly into the trunks of Audi cars. This project is only available on the <a href="Munich">Munich (Germany)</a> area to some Audi connected car users.
On July 15, 2015 to commemorate its 20th birthday, Amazon celebrated "Amazon Prime Day," which Amazon announced would feature deals for prime members that rivaled those on <a href="Black%20Friday%20%28shopping%29">Black Friday</a>. Also that month Amazon Prime announced that it would be signing <a href="Jeremy%20Clarkson">Jeremy Clarkson</a>, <a href="Richard%20Hammond">Richard Hammond</a>, and <a href="James%20May">James May</a> of formerly of BBC <a href="Top%20Gear%20%282002%20TV%20series%29">"Top Gear"</a> to begin working on an "<a href="Untitled%20Amazon%20motoring%20show">Untitled Amazon motoring show</a>" series due to be released in 2016.
In December 2015, Amazon released that "tens of millions" of people are Amazon Prime members. Amazon Prime added 3 million members during the third week of December 2015. It was also during December that Amazon announced the creation of the Streaming Partners Program, an over-the-top subscription service that enables Amazon Prime subscribers to add additional streaming video services to their accounts. Among the programming providers involved in the program, they include <a href="Showtime%20%28TV%20network%29">Showtime</a>, <a href="Starz">Starz</a> (with additional content from sister network <a href="Encore%20%28TV%20network%29">Encore</a>), Lifetime Movie Club (containing recent original movie titles from <a href="Lifetime%20Television">Lifetime Television</a> and <a href="Lifetime%20Movie%20Network">Lifetime Movie Network</a>), <a href="Smithsonian%20Institution">Smithsonian Earth</a>, and <a href="Qello">Qello Concerts</a> among others.
In January 2016, Amazon Prime reaches 54 million members according to an report from Consumer Intelligence Research Partners.
In November 2007, Amazon launched <a href="Amazon%20Kindle">Amazon Kindle</a>, an <a href="e-book">e-book</a> reader which downloads content over "<a href="Whispernet">Whispernet</a>", via <a href="Sprint%20Corporation">Sprint's</a> <a href="EV-DO">EV-DO</a> wireless network. The screen uses <a href="E%20Ink">E Ink</a> technology to reduce <a href="battery%20%28electricity%29">battery</a> consumption and to provide a more legible display. As of July 2014, there are over 2.7 million e-books available for purchase at the <a href="Kindle%20Store">Kindle Store</a>.
In September 2011, Amazon announced its entry into the <a href="tablet%20computer">tablet computer</a> market by introducing the <a href="Kindle%20Fire">Kindle Fire</a>, which runs a customized version of the operating system <a href="Android%20%28operating%20system%29">Android</a>. The low pricing of Fire ($199 USD) was widely perceived as a strategy backed by Amazon's revenue from its content sales, to be stimulated by sales of the Fire.
In September 2012, Amazon unveiled the second generation tablet, called the <a href="Kindle%20Fire%20HD">Kindle Fire HD</a>. On September 25, 2013, Amazon.com unveiled its third generation tablet, called the <a href="Kindle%20Fire%20HDX">Kindle Fire HDX</a>. In October 2013, the sixth generation <a href="Amazon%20Kindle%23Sixth%20generation">Kindle</a> was released.
In April 2014, Amazon announced its <a href="Amazon%20Fire%20TV">Amazon Fire TV</a> set-top box system, a device targeted to compete with such systems like <a href="Apple%20TV">Apple TV</a> or <a href="Google">Google</a>'s <a href="Chromecast">Chromecast</a> device. The Amazon set-top box allows for streaming videos from sites like Amazon's own streaming service as well as others such as <a href="Netflix">Netflix</a> or <a href="Hulu">Hulu</a>. The device also supports voice search for movies, as well as gaming, which includes special versions of "<a href="Minecraft">Minecraft</a>", "<a href="Asphalt%208">Asphalt 8</a>", and "<a href="The%20Walking%20Dead%20%28video%20game%29">The Walking Dead</a>". Amazon announced the <a href="Fire%20TV%20Stick">Fire TV Stick</a> in October 2014. The device replicates much of the functionality of the Fire TV.
The company entered the <a href="smartphone">smartphone</a> market in July 2014 with the release of the <a href="Fire%20Phone">Fire Phone</a>.
Amazon's Honor System was launched in 2001 to allow customers to make donations or buy digital content, with Amazon collecting a percentage of the payment plus a fee; however, the service was discontinued in 2008 and replaced by <a href="Amazon%20Payments">Amazon Payments</a>.
<a href="Amazon%20Music">Amazon Music</a>, its own online music store, launched as Amazon MP3 in the US on September 25, 2007, selling downloads exclusively in MP3 format without <a href="digital%20rights%20management">digital rights management</a>. (In addition to copyright law, Amazon's <a href="terms%20of%20service">terms of use</a> agreements restrict use of the MP3s, but Amazon does not use <a href="Digital%20rights%20management">digital rights management (DRM)</a> to enforce those terms.) In addition to independent music labels, Amazon MP3 primarily sells music from the "<a href="music%20industry">Big 4</a>" record labels: <a href="EMI">EMI</a>, <a href="Universal%20Music%20Group">Universal</a>, <a href="Warner%20Bros.%20Records">Warner Bros. Records</a>, and <a href="Sony%20Music">Sony Music</a>. Prior to the launch of this service, Amazon made an investment in <a href="Amie%20Street">Amie Street</a>, a music store with a variable pricing model based on <a href="demand">demand</a>. Amazon MP3 was the first online offering of DRM-free music from all four major record companies.
In January 2008, Amazon began distributing its MP3 service to subsidiary websites worldwide and, in December 2008, Amazon MP3 was made available in the UK. At the launch of Amazon MP3 in the UK, over 3 million Digital Rights Management (DRM)-free songs were made available to consumers, with prices that started at 59p, compared to Apple's 79p starting price.
In July 2010, Amazon announced that <a href="e-book">e-book</a> sales for its Kindle reader outnumbered sales of <a href="hardcover">hardcover</a> books for the first time ever during the second <a href="Fiscal%20year">quarter</a> of 2010. Amazon claims that, during that period, 143 e-books were sold for every 100 hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there is no digital edition; and during late June and early July, sales rose to 180 digital books for every 100 hardcovers.
On March 22, 2011, Amazon launched the <a href="Amazon%20Appstore">Amazon Appstore</a> for <a href="Android%20%28operating%20system%29">Android</a> devices and the service was made available in over 200 countries. Also in 2011, Amazon announced that it was releasing a Mac download store to offer dozens of games and hundreds of pieces of software for Apple computers.
In January 2013, Amazon launched AutoRip, a digital music service. The service allows customers to receive a free MP3 copy of select CDs purchased through Amazon. Amazon announced in September 2013 that it would launch Kindle MatchBook in October 2013, a similar service for books allowing customers who buy books from Amazon to acquire an e-book copy for free, or at a discounted price of US$3 or less. MatchBook was launched on the company's site on October 29, 2013.
In October 2008, Amazon acquired game developer and distributor Reflexive Entertainment. This studio continued to develop games for PC, Mac and Kindle eReaders under the brands Reflexive and Amazon Digital Services. Notable titles include Every Word for Kindle Paperwhite and Airport Mania for Kindle Fire, Android, iOS Windows and Mac.
In August 2012, Amazon announced it would be adding a gaming department to its company titled Amazon Game Studios. Amazon stated that it would introduce "innovative, fun and well-crafted games" to consumers. According to the Amazon Game Studios website, the last game that was launched by the department was Amazon's first ever mobile game "Air Patriots", released on November 1, 2012.
On February 6, 2014, Amazon confirmed the acquisition of the gaming company Double Helix Games without any indication of the financial terms. The 75 Double Helix employees were to become Amazon employees and their <a href="Orange%20County%2C%20California">Orange County, California</a>, headquarters was to remain their operating base. Amazon informed the "TechCrunch" media company that it "acquired Double Helix as part of our [Amazon's] ongoing commitment to build innovative games for customers" and confirmed that Double Helix's current game roster and other future developments will receive support following the acquisition.
On August 25, 2014, Amazon announced its intent to acquire the video game streaming website <a href="Twitch%20%28website%29">Twitch</a> for $970 million. The acquisition of Twitch is expected to help Amazon drive Internet traffic and potentially boost its Prime membership program, and promote its video ad and Fire TV set top box business.
In August 2013 Amazon launched Amazon Art as an online marketplace selling original and limited edition fine art from selected galleries. The initial 40000 items listed for sale included <a href="Norman%20Rockwell">Norman Rockwell</a>'s painting <a href="Willie%20Gillis%23Willie%20Gillis%20Series">"Willie Gillis: Package from Home"</a> priced at $4.85 million, "<a href="L%27Enfant%20a%20la%20tasse">L'Enfant a la tasse</a>" by <a href="Claude%20Monet">Claude Monet</a> for $1.45 million and <a href="Andy%20Warhol">Andy Warhol's "Sachiko"</a> for $45 000.
Amazon Video is an Internet video on demand service by Amazon in the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, Austria and Germany. There are plans to offer the video streaming service in India sometime in 2015.
In 2015, the Prime Instant Video exclusive series "<a href="Transparent%20%28TV%20series%29">Transparent</a>" earned two <a href="Golden%20Globe%20Awards">Golden Globe Awards</a>, and "Transparent" is the first series from a streaming service to win a Golden Globe for best series.
In August 2005, Amazon began selling products under its own <a href="private%20label">private label</a>, "Pinzon"; the <a href="trademark">trademark</a> applications indicated that the label would be used for textiles, kitchen utensils, and other household goods. In March 2007, the company applied to expand the trademark to cover a more diverse list of goods and to register a new design consisting of the "word PINZON in stylized letters with a notched letter "O" which appears at the "one o'clock" position". Coverage by the trademark grew to include items such as paints, carpets, wallpaper, hair accessories, clothing, footwear, headgear, cleaning products, and jewelry. In September 2008, Amazon filed to have the name registered. <a href="United%20States%20Patent%20and%20Trademark%20Office">USPTO</a> has finished its review of the application, but Amazon has yet to receive an official registration for the name.
AmazonBasics is a private-label product line, mainly consisting of consumer electronics accessories, but also including home and office accessories. The line was launched in 2009.
An Amazon.com exclusive is a product, usually a DVD, that is available exclusively on Amazon.com. Some DVDs are produced by the owner of the film or product, while others are produced by Amazon.com itself. The DVDs produced by Amazon are made using its "CreateSpace" program, in which DVDs are created, upon ordering, using DVD-R technology. The DVDs are then shipped about two days later. Some DVDs (such as the "<a href="Jersey%20Shore%20%28TV%20series%29">Jersey Shore</a>" Season 1 or "<a href="The%20Unusuals">The Unusuals</a>" Season 1) are released first as an Amazon.com exclusive for a limited time before being released elsewhere. On May 23, 2011, Amazon.com allowed customers to download <a href="Lady%20Gaga">Lady Gaga</a>'s "<a href="Born%20This%20Way%20%28album%29">Born This Way</a>" album for 99 cents, resulting in some downloads being delayed, due to an extremely high volume of downloads.
Amazon self publishing services through one of its companies, <a href="CreateSpace">CreateSpace</a>, a member of the Amazon group of companies.
Amazon launched <a href="Amazon%20Web%20Services">Amazon Web Services</a> (AWS) in 2002, which provides programmatic access to latent features on its website.
In November 2005, Amazon began testing <a href="Amazon%20Mechanical%20Turk">Amazon Mechanical Turk</a>, an <a href="application%20programming%20interface">application programming interface</a> (API) allowing programs to dispatch tasks to human processors.
In March 2006, Amazon launched an online storage service called <a href="Amazon%20S3">Amazon Simple Storage Service</a> (Amazon S3). An unlimited number of data objects, from 1 <a href="byte">byte</a> to 5 <a href="terabyte">terabyte</a>s in size, can be stored in S3 and distributed via <a href="Hypertext%20Transfer%20Protocol">HTTP</a> or <a href="BitTorrent">BitTorrent</a>. The service charges monthly fees for data stored and transferred. In 2006, Amazon introduced <a href="Amazon%20Simple%20Queue%20Service">Amazon Simple Queue Service</a> (Amazon SQS), a distributed queue messaging service, and product <a href="wiki">wiki</a>s (later folded into <a href="%232007">Amapedia</a>) and <a href="Internet%20forum">discussion forums</a> for certain products using guidelines that follow standard <a href="Internet%20forum">message board</a> conventions.
Also in 2006, Amazon introduced <a href="Amazon%20Elastic%20Compute%20Cloud">Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud</a> (Amazon EC2), a virtual site farm, allowing users to use the Amazon infrastructure to run applications ranging from running simulations to web hosting. In 2008, Amazon improved the service by adding Elastic Block Store (EBS), offering persistent storage for Amazon EC2 instances and <a href="Elastic%20IP%20address">Elastic IP address</a>es, and offering static IP addresses designed for dynamic <a href="cloud%20computing">cloud computing</a>.
Amazon introduced <a href="Amazon%20SimpleDB">SimpleDB</a>, a database system, allowing users of its other infrastructure to utilize a high-reliability, high-performance database system. In 2008, Amazon graduated EC2 from beta to "Generally Available" and added support for the <a href="Microsoft%20Windows">Microsoft Windows</a> platform.
Amazon continues to refine and add services to AWS, adding such services as Scalable DNS service (Amazon Route 53), payment handling, and AWS specific APIs for its <a href="Amazon%20Mechanical%20Turk">Mechanical Turk</a> service.
In August 2012, Amazon announced <a href="Amazon%20Glacier">Amazon Glacier</a>, a low-cost <a href="online%20file%20storage">online file storage</a> <a href="web%20service">web service</a> that provides reliable data archiving, storage, and backup.
In November 2012 at AWS' web developer conference in Las Vegas it announced it was targeting large companies as cloud storage clients. It will further cut its S3 prices to customers with long-term contracts in its "Redshift" storage service launching in 2013.
In March 2013 Amazon announced its Mobile Ads API for developers. The new Ads API can be used on apps distributed on any Android platform as long as the app is also available on Amazon’s Appstore.
As of December 2014, <a href="Amazon%20Web%20Services">Amazon Web Services</a> operated 1.4 Million servers across 11 regions and 28 availability zones.
<a href="Amazon%20Publishing">Amazon Publishing</a> is Amazon's publishing unit. It is composed of AmazonEncore, AmazonCrossing, Montlake Romance, Thomas & Mercer, 47 North, and Powered by Amazon. Additional imprints are planned.
Launched in 2005, Amazon Shorts offered exclusive short stories and non-fiction pieces from best-selling authors for immediate download. By June 2007, the program had over 1,700 pieces and was adding about 50 new pieces per week. The program was discontinued on June 1, 2010.
Amazon also created "channels" to benefit certain causes. In 2004, Amazon allowed customers to donate $5 to $200 to the campaigns of <a href="United%20States%20presidential%20election%2C%202004">2004 US presidential hopefuls</a>, providing links that raised $300,000 for the candidates. Amazon has periodically reactivated a <a href="Red%20Cross">Red Cross</a> donation channel after crises such as <a href="Hurricane%20Sandy">Hurricane Sandy</a>, <a href="Hurricane%20Katrina">Hurricane Katrina</a>, and the 2004 <a href="2004%20Indian%20Ocean%20earthquake%20and%20tsunami">earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean</a>. By January 2005, nearly 200,000 people had donated over $15.7 million in the US.
Amazon Smile, accessed by going to smile.amazon.com when normally shopping, allows Amazon to donate 0.5% of the sale price to a selected charity as its <a href="Sponsor%20%28commercial%29">sponsor</a>.
Amazon Local is a <a href="Deal%20of%20the%20day">daily deal</a> service launched in June 2011 in <a href="Boise%2C%20Idaho">Boise, Idaho</a>. , Amazon Local offers daily deals to over 100 regions in 36 <a href="U.S.%20state">U.S. state</a>s. Amazon Local also acts as a deal aggregator; some of the deals are actually offered through <a href="LivingSocial">LivingSocial</a>, a firm in which Amazon has heavily invested.
It was launched gradually in the United Kingdom on August 29, 2012, starting in London and expanding to more towns and cities.
On December 18, 2015, Amazon Local will stop selling daily deals however purchased deals will remain valid according to its terms.
In July 2009, Amazon.com launched an AmazonWireless website, which offers cellular devices and service plans for <a href="Verizon%20Wireless">Verizon Wireless</a>, <a href="AT%26amp%3BT%20Mobility">AT&T</a>, <a href="Sprint%20Corporation">Sprint</a> and <a href="T-Mobile%20USA">T-Mobile</a> in the US.
<a href="AmazonFresh">AmazonFresh</a> is a home grocery delivery service first trialed in 2007, and later made available in <a href="Seattle">Seattle</a>, <a href="Los%20Angeles">Los Angeles</a>, <a href="San%20Francisco%2C%20California">San Francisco, California</a>, <a href="San%20Diego">San Diego</a>, <a href="Brooklyn%2C%20New%20York">Brooklyn, New York</a> and <a href="Philadelphia%2C%20PA">Philadelphia, PA</a>.
<a href="Amazon%20Prime%20Pantry">Amazon Prime Pantry</a> is a similar service covering the 48 <a href="contiguous%20United%20States">contiguous United States</a>, allowing the order of up to 45 pounds of dry goods and non-perishable groceries for a flat delivery fee.
On March 31, 2015, Amazon.com announced that it was expanding Amazon Dash to include an Amazon Dash Button and a Dash Replenishment Service.
"<a href="60%20Minutes">60 Minutes</a>" announced on December 1, 2013 that Amazon Prime Air was a possible future <a href="Package%20delivery">delivery</a> service expected to be in development for several more years. In concept, the process would use <a href="unmanned%20aerial%20vehicle">drones</a> to deliver small packages (less than five pounds) within 30 minutes by flying short distances (10–20 km) from local Amazon Fulfillment Centers. In the U.S., the project will require the <a href="Federal%20Aviation%20Administration">Federal Aviation Administration</a> to approve commercial use of unmanned drones.
Such approval could be in place as early as 2015, and Amazon expects to be ready at that time. In July 2014, it was revealed the company was developing its 8th and 9th drone prototypes, some that could fly 50 miles an hour and carry 5-pound packages, and had applied to the FAA to test them.
In December 2014, Amazon announced that as a benefit to Prime members, parts of <a href="Manhattan">Manhattan</a>, in <a href="New%20York%20City">New York City</a>, could get products delivered to them within one hour for a fee of $7.99, or within two hours for no additional fee. 25,000 daily essential products are available with this delivery service. In February 2015, the service was extended to include all of Manhattan. It has since been expanded in the United States to include parts of <a href="Chicago">Chicago</a>, <a href="Miami">Miami</a>, <a href="Baltimore">Baltimore</a>, <a href="Dallas">Dallas</a>, <a href="Atlanta">Atlanta</a>, <a href="Austin%2C%20TX">Austin</a>, and <a href="San%20Antonio%2C%20TX">San Antonio</a>. Outside of the U.S., it has expanded to <a href="London">London</a>, <a href="Birmingham">Birmingham, UK</a>., <a href="Newcastle%20upon%20Tyne">Newcastle</a>, <a href="Manchester">Manchester</a>, <a href="Liverpool">Liverpool</a>, <a href="Milan">Milan</a> and <a href="Tokyo">Tokyo</a>.
Amazon Supply, launched in 2012, offers industrial and scientific components and <a href="Maintenance%2C%20Repair%20and%20Operations">maintenance, repair and operations</a> (MRO) supplies. Amazon Supply was developed based on experience operating Smallparts.com, acquired in 2005. (The Smallparts.com brand was discontinued with the launch of Amazon Supply.) While Amazon Supply uses the same order fulfillment and distribution system as Amazon.com, its online store provides services to customers in more than 220 countries.
In January 2007, Amazon launched <a href="Amapedia">Amapedia</a>, a now-defunct <a href="wiki">wiki</a> for user-generated content to replace ProductWiki, and the <a href="video%20on%20demand">video on demand</a> service <a href="Amazon%20Unbox">Amazon Unbox</a>. Also in 2007, Amazon launched <a href="Amazon%20Vine">Amazon Vine</a>, which allows reviewers free access to prerelease products from vendors in return for posting a review, as well as a payment service specifically targeted at developers, <a href="Amazon%20Flexible%20Payments%20Service">Amazon FPS</a>.
<a href="Internet%20Movie%20Database">IMDb</a> and Amazon launched a website called SoundUnwound for browsing music metadata with wiki-like user contribution in September 2007; this data was also used for Amazon's Artist Pages. Soundunwound ceased existence on June 18, 2012, and the site redirected to Amazon.
Amazon Connect enables authors to post remarks on their book pages to customers.
Amazon Webstore allowed businesses to create custom e-commerce online stores using Amazon technology. Sellers selected the category for their business, and paid a commission of 1-2%, plus credit-card processing fees and fraud protection, and a subscription fee depending on the bundle option for an unlimited number of listings. Amazon has chosen a limited number of companies to become an implementation solution provider for them. The Amazon Webstore is no longer available to new merchants.
In August 2014, Amazon launched a credit card reader. Merchants can use it to conduct payments through a smartphone or tablet.
In 2014, Amazon launched a feature called "make an offer" that allows customers to place a bid to 3rd party sellers, rather than buy outright. However, unlike eBay, the feature is not an auction but rather a one-to-one bid where the customer haggles privately with the seller.
In January 2015, Amazon announced its own email and scheduling service dubbed WorkMail developed by Amazon Web Services, the cloud computing unit of Amazon Inc. The Amazon email service is expected to bring in $10 billion extra revenue to the company.
In March 2015, Amazon launched a new on-demand service, Amazon Home Services for all sorts of housework.
In April 2015, Amazon rolled out a new travel site called Amazon Destinations, which focuses on helping customers find "getaway destinations" within driving distance of their homes. Currently Amazon Destinations features hotel selections in three U.S. metro areas: L.A., New York and Seattle.
In October 2015, Amazon announced a new handmade marketplace called Handmade By Amazon, already having 5,000 sellers from 60 countries and 80,000 items for sale. The platform is designed for artisans to sell their good directly to the public, similar to the platform <a href="Etsy">Etsy</a>.
On November 2, 2015, Amazon opened its first physical <a href="retail%20store">retail store</a>, a <a href="bookstore">bookstore</a> in the <a href="University%20Village%2C%20Seattle">University Village</a> shopping center in Seattle. The store, known as <a href="Amazon%20Books">Amazon Books</a>, has prices matched to those found on the Amazon website and integrate online reviews into the store's shelves.
Amazon released branded semiconductors to home equipment designers who are working on Internet-of-Things devices, WiFi routers and other smart home appliances. The chips come from <a href="Annapurna%20Labs">Annapurna Labs</a>, which Amazon purchased in 2015 for a rumored $350 million. On January 7, 2016, the company announced that its Alpine chipset was available for a wide range of applications.
<a href="Amazon%20Studios">Amazon Studios</a> is Amazon.com's division that develops television shows, movies and comics from online submissions and crowd-sourced feedback. It was started in late 2010. Content would be distributed through <a href="Amazon%20Video">Amazon Video</a>, Amazon’s digital video streaming service, and a competitor to services like <a href="Netflix">Netflix</a> and <a href="Hulu">Hulu</a>. For film, Warner Bros. is a partner.
Companies owned by Amazon that operate under their own brand.
<a href="Audible.com">Audible.com</a> is a seller and producer of spoken audio entertainment, information, and educational programming on the Internet. Audible sells digital audiobooks, radio, and TV programs, and audio versions of magazines and newspapers. Through its production arm, Audible Studios, Audible has also become the world's largest producer of downloadable audiobooks. On January 31, 2008 Amazon announced it would buy Audible for about $300 million. The deal closed in March 2008, and Audible became a subsidiary of Amazon.
<a href="Brilliance%20Audio">Brilliance Audio</a> is an <a href="audiobook">audiobook</a> publisher founded in 1984 by Michael Snodgrass in <a href="Grand%20Haven%2C%20Michigan">Grand Haven, Michigan</a>. The company produced its first 8 audio titles in 1985. The company was purchased by Amazon in 2007 for an undisclosed amount. At the time of the acquisition Brilliance was producing 12-15 new titles a month. It operates as an independent company within Amazon.
In 1984, Brilliance Audio invented a technique for recording twice as much on the same cassette. The technique involved recording on each of the two channels of each stereo track. It has been credited with revolutionizing the burgeoning audiobook market in the mid-1980s since it made unabridged books affordable.
<a href="ComiXology">ComiXology</a> is a <a href="Cloud%20computing">cloud</a>-based digital comics platform with over 200 million comic downloads as of September 2013. It offers a selection of more than 40,000 comic books and graphic novels across Android, iOS, Kindle Fire, and Windows 8 devices, and over the Internet. Amazon bought the company in April 2014.
<a href="Goodreads">Goodreads</a> is a "<a href="social%20cataloging">social cataloging</a>" website founded in December 2006 and launched in January 2007 by Otis Chandler, a software engineer and entrepreneur, and Elizabeth Chandler. The website allows individuals to freely search Goodreads' extensive user-populated database of books, annotations, and reviews. Users can sign up and register books to generate library catalogs and reading lists. They can also create their own groups of book suggestions and discussions. In December 2007, the site had over 650,000 members and over 10,000,000 books had been added. Amazon bought the company in March 2013.
<a href="Shelfari">Shelfari</a> is a <a href="social%20cataloging">social cataloging</a> website for books. Shelfari users build virtual bookshelves of the titles which they own or have read, and they can rate, review, <a href="Tag%20%28metadata%29">tag</a>, and discuss their books. Users can also create groups that other members may join, create discussions, and talk about books, or other topics. Recommendations can be sent to friends on the site for what books to read. Amazon bought the company in August 2008. Shelfari continued to function as an independent book social network within the Amazon.com family of sites until 2016, when that January, Amazon announced on Shelfari.com that it would be merging Shelfari with <a href="Goodreads">Goodreads</a> and closing down Shelfari.
Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services is a subsidiary of Amazon and it applied for a <a href="Freight%20forwarder">Freight forwarding</a> license with the <a href="Federal%20Maritime%20Commission">US Maritime Commission</a>. Amazon is also building out its logistics in <a href="Trucking%20industry%20in%20the%20United%20States">trucking</a> and <a href="air%20freight">air freight</a> to potentially compete with <a href="United%20Parcel%20Service">UPS</a> and <a href="FedEx">FedEx</a>.
The domain "amazon.com" attracted at least 615 million visitors annually by 2008, twice the number of "<a href="Walmart">Walmart</a>". Amazon attracts approximately 65 million customers to its US website per month. The company has also invested heavily on a massive amount of server capacity for its website, especially to handle the excessive traffic during the December <a href="Christmas%20holiday%20season">Christmas holiday season</a>.
Results generated by Amazon's search engine are partly determined by promotional fees.
Amazon's <a href="Internationalization%20and%20localization">localized</a> storefronts, which differ in selection and prices, are differentiated by <a href="top-level%20domain">top-level domain</a> and <a href="country%20code">country code</a>:
Amazon allows users to submit reviews to the web page of each product. Reviewers must rate the product on a <a href="rating%20scale">rating scale</a> from one to five stars. Amazon provides a badging option for reviewers which indicate the real name of the reviewer (based on confirmation of a credit card account) or which indicate that the reviewer is one of the top reviewers by popularity. Customers may comment or vote on the reviews, indicating whether they found a review helpful to them. If a review is given enough "helpful" hits, it appears on the front page of the product. In 2010, Amazon was reported as being the largest single source of Internet consumer reviews.
When publishers asked Bezos why Amazon would publish negative reviews, he defended the practice by claiming that amazon.com was "taking a different approach ... we want to make every book available—the good, the bad, and the ugly ... to let truth loose".
Although reviews are attributed to the credit-card name of the reviewer, there have been cases of positive reviews being written and posted by a public relations company on behalf of its clients, and instances of writers using pseudonyms to leave negative reviews of their rivals' works.
Following the listing of "Untouchable: The Strange Life and Tragic Death of Michael Jackson," a disparaging biography of <a href="Michael%20Jackson">Michael Jackson</a> by Randall Sullivan, his fans, organized via <a href="social%20media">social media</a> as "Michael Jackson's Rapid Response Team to Media Attacks" bombarded Amazon with negative reviews and negative ratings of positive reviews.
"Search Inside the Book" is a feature which allows customers to search for keywords in the full text of many books in the catalog. The feature started with 120,000 titles (or 33 million pages of text) on October 23, 2003. There are currently about 300,000 books in the program. Amazon has cooperated with around 130 <a href="publisher">publisher</a>s to allow users to perform these searches.
To avoid copyright violations, amazon.com does not return the computer-readable text of the book. Instead, it returns a picture of the matching page, instructs the web browser to disable printing, and puts limits on the number of pages in a book a single user can access. Additionally, customers can purchase online access to some of the same books via the "Amazon Upgrade" program.
Amazon derives many of its sales from third-party sellers who sell products on Amazon (around 40% in 2008). Associates receive a commission for referring customers to Amazon by placing links to Amazon on their websites, if the referral results in a sale. Worldwide, Amazon has "over 900,000 members" in its affiliate programs. According to <a href="W3Techs">W3Techs</a> the Amazon Affiliate Program is used by 1.2% of all websites, and it is the second most popular advertising network after Google Ads. It is frequently used by websites and non-profits to provide a way for supporters to earn them commission. Amazon reported over 1.3 million sellers sold products through Amazon's websites in 2007. Unlike eBay, Amazon sellers do not have to maintain separate payment accounts; all payments are handled by Amazon.
Associates can access the Amazon catalog directly on their websites by using the Amazon Web Services (AWS) <a href="XML">XML</a> service. A new affiliate product, aStore, allows Associates to embed a subset of Amazon products within another website, or linked to another website. In June 2010, Amazon Seller Product Suggestions was launched (rumored to be internally called "Project Genesis") to provide more transparency to sellers by recommending specific products to third-party sellers to sell on Amazon. Products suggested are based on customers' browsing history.
The Amazon sales rank (ASR) provides an indication of the popularity of a product sold on any Amazon locale. It is a relative indicator of popularity that is updated hourly. Effectively, it is a "best sellers list" for the millions of products stocked by Amazon. While the ASR has no direct effect on the sales of a product, it is used by Amazon to determine which products to include in its best-sellers lists. Products that appear in these lists enjoy additional exposure on the Amazon website, and this may lead to an increase in sales. In particular, products that experience large jumps (up or down) in their sales ranks may be included within Amazon's lists of "movers and shakers"; such a listing provides additional exposure that might lead to an increase in sales. For competitive reasons, Amazon does not release actual sales figures to the public. However, Amazon has now begun to release <a href="point%20of%20sale">point of sale</a> data via the <a href="http%3A//en-us.nielsen.com/">Nielsen BookScan</a> service to verified authors. While the ASR has been the source of much speculation by publishers, manufacturers and marketers, Amazon itself does not release the details of its sales rank calculation algorithm. In addition, it states:
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Information Management (IM) support Amazon’s business strategy. The core technology that keeps Amazon running is Linux-based. , Amazon had the world’s three largest Linux databases, with capacities of 7.8 TB, 18.5 TB, and 24.7 TB. The central data warehouse of Amazon is made of 28 Hewlett Packard servers with four CPUs per node running Oracle database software. Amazon’s technology architecture handles millions of back-end operations every day, as well as queries from more than half a million third-party sellers. With hundreds of thousands of people sending their credit card numbers to Amazon’s servers every day, security becomes a major concern. Amazon employs Netscape Secure Commerce Server using the Secure Socket Layer protocol which stores all credit card details in a separate database. The company also records data on customer buyer behavior which enables them to offer or recommend to an individual specific item, or bundles of items based upon preferences demonstrated through purchases or items visited.
On January 31, 2013 Amazon experienced an outage that lasted approximately 49 minutes, leaving its site inaccessible to some customers.
On May 5, 2014 Amazon unveiled a partnership with <a href="Twitter">Twitter</a>. Twitter users can link their accounts to an Amazon account and automatically add items to their shopping carts by responding to any tweet with an Amazon product link bearing the hashtag #AmazonCart. Customers never leave the Twitter feed, and the product is waiting for them when they go to the Amazon website.
Amazon employs a multi-level e-commerce strategy. Amazon started off by focusing on Business-to-Consumer relationships between itself and its customers, and Business-to-Business relationships between itself and its suppliers but it then moved to incorporate Customer-to-Business transactions as it realized the value of customer reviews as part of the product descriptions. It now also facilitates customer to customer with the provision of the Amazon marketplace which act as an intermediary to facilitate consumer to consumer transactions. The company lets almost anyone sell almost anything using its platform. In addition to affiliate program that lets anybody post Amazon links and earn a commission on click through sales, there is now a program which let those affiliates build entire websites based on Amazon’s platform.
Some other large e-commerce sellers use Amazon to sell their products in addition to selling them through their own websites. The sales are processed through Amazon.com and end up at individual sellers for processing and order fulfillment and Amazon leases space for these retailers. Small sellers of used and new goods go to Amazon Marketplace to offer goods at a fixed price.
Amazon also employs the use of <a href="drop%20shipping">drop shippers</a> or meta sellers. These are members or entities that advertise goods on Amazon who order these goods direct from other competing websites but usually from other Amazon members. These meta sellers may have millions of products listed, have large transaction numbers and are grouped alongside other less prolific members giving them credibility as just someone who has been in business for a long time. Markup is anywhere from 50% to 100% and sometimes more, these sellers maintain that items are in stock when the opposite is true. As Amazon increases their dominance in the marketplace these drop shippers have become more and more commonplace in recent years.
On 2 February 2016, <a href="General%20Growth%20Properties">General Growth Properties</a>’ CEO, Sandeep Mathrani, during a year-end conference call with investors, analysts and reporters mentioned that Amazon plans to roll out 300 to 400 bookstores around the country. This was an unconfirmed comment, however due to the source, a media frenzy ensued. In November 2015, Amazon opened its first physical bookstore location. It is aptly named, Amazon Books and is located in University Village in Seattle. The store is 5,500 square feet and prices for all products match those on its website.
Over the 2000-2010 decade, Amazon has developed a customer base of around 30 million people. Amazon.com is primarily a retail site with a sales revenue model. Amazon makes its money by taking a small percentage of the sale price of each item that is sold through its website. Amazon also allows companies to advertise their products by paying to be listed as featured products.
Since its founding, the company has attracted criticism and controversy from multiple sources over its actions. These include: luring customers away from the site's brick and mortar competitors, poor warehouse conditions for workers; anti-<a href="unionization">unionization</a> efforts; Amazon Kindle remote content removal; taking public subsidies; its "<a href="1-Click">1-Click</a> patent" claims; anti-competitive actions; <a href="price%20discrimination">price discrimination</a>; various decisions over whether to censor or publish content such as the <a href="WikiLeaks">WikiLeaks</a> website; <a href="LGBT">LGBT</a> book sales rank; and works containing <a href="Defamation">libel</a>, facilitating <a href="Dog%20fighting">dogfight</a>, <a href="cockfight">cockfight</a>, or <a href="pedophilia">pedophile</a> activities. In December 2011, Amazon faced backlash from small businesses for running a one-day deal to promote its new Price Check app. Shoppers who used the app to check prices in a brick-and-mortar store were offered a 5% discount to purchase the same item from Amazon. Companies like Groupon, eBay, and Taap.it countered Amazon's promotion by offering $10 off from their products. The company has also faced accusations of putting undue pressure on suppliers to maintain and extend its profitability. One effort to squeeze the most vulnerable book publishers was known within the company as the Gazelle Project, after Bezos suggested, according to <a href="Brad%20Stone%20%28journalist%29">Brad Stone</a>, "that Amazon should approach these small publishers the way a cheetah would pursue a sickly gazelle." In July 2014 the <a href="Federal%20Trade%20Commission">Federal Trade Commission</a> launched a lawsuit against the company alleging it was promoting in-app purchases to children, which were being transacted without parental consent.
Amazon has attracted widespread criticism by both current employees, which refer to themselves as Amazonians, and former employees, as well as the media and politicians for poor working conditions. In 2011 it was publicized that at the Breinigsville, Pennsylvania warehouse, workers had to carry out work in heat, resulting in employees becoming extremely uncomfortable and suffering from dehydration and collapse. Loading-bay doors were not opened to allow in fresh air as "managers were worried about theft". Amazon's initial response was to pay for an ambulance to sit outside on call to cart away overheated employees.
Some workers, "pickers", who travel the building with a trolley and a handheld scanner "picking" customer orders can walk up to 15 miles during their workday, and if they fall behind on their targets, they can be reprimanded. The handheld scanners feed back to the employee real-time information on how fast or slowly they are doing; the scanners also serve to allow Team Leads and Area Managers to track the specific locations of employees and how much "idle time" they gain when not working.
In a German television report broadcast in February 2013, journalists Diana Löbl and Peter Onneken conducted a covert investigation at the distribution center of Amazon in the town of <a href="Bad%20Hersfeld">Bad Hersfeld</a> in the German state of <a href="Hessen">Hessen</a>. The report highlights the behavior of some of the security guards, themselves being employed by a third party company, who apparently either had a <a href="Neo-Nazism">Neo-nazi</a> background or deliberately dressed in Neo-Nazi apparel, and who were intimidating foreign and temporary female workers at its distribution centres. The third party security company involved was delisted by Amazon as a business contact shortly after that report.
In March 2015, it was reported in "<a href="The%20Verge">The Verge</a>" that Amazon will be removing 18 month long <a href="non-compete%20clause">non-compete clause</a>s from its US employment contracts for hourly-paid workers, after criticism that it was acting unreasonably in preventing such employees from finding other work. Even short-term temporary workers have to sign contracts that prohibit them from working at any company where they would "directly or indirectly" support any good or service that competes with those they helped support at Amazon, for 18 months after leaving Amazon, even if they are fired or made redundant.
A substantial "<a href="New%20York%20Times">New York Times</a>" article published on August 16, 2015 described evidence of an intimidating and confrontational working culture for the company's office workers.
In an effort to boost employee morale, on November 2, 2015 Amazon announced that it would be extending 6 weeks of paid leave for new mothers and fathers. This change includes birth parents and adoptive parents, and can be applied in conjunction with existing maternity leave and medical leave for new mothers.
Amazon.com lobbies the United States federal government and state governments on issues such as the enforcement of sales taxes on online sales, transportation safety, privacy and data protection, and intellectual property. According to regulatory filings, Amazon.com focuses its lobbying on the US Congress, the Federal Communications Commission, and the Federal Reserve. Amazon.com spent $500,000 on lobbying in the second quarter of 2010, $630,000 in the first quarter of 2011, and $450,000 in the second quarter of that year.
Amazon.com was a corporate member of the <a href="American%20Legislative%20Exchange%20Council">American Legislative Exchange Council</a> (ALEC) until it dropped membership following protests at its shareholders' meeting May 24, 2012.
The initiative <a href="Choice%20in%20eCommerce">Choice in eCommerce</a> was founded on May 8, 2013 by several online retailers in Berlin, Germany. The cause was, in the view of the initiative, sales bans and online restrictions by individual manufacturers. The dealers felt cut off from their main sales channel and thus deprived them the opportunity to use online platforms like Amazon, <a href="eBay">eBay</a> or <a href="Rakuten">Rakuten</a> in a competitive market for the benefit of their customers.
In 2014, Amazon expanded its lobbying practices as it prepared to lobby the <a href="Federal%20Aviation%20Administration">Federal Aviation Administration</a> to approve its drone delivery program, hiring the Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld lobbying firm in June. Amazon and its lobbyists have visited with Federal Aviation Administration officials and aviation committees in Washington, D.C. to explain its plans to deliver packages.
A number of companies have been started and founded by former Amazon employees.
</doc>
<doc id="90455" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90455" title="Roskilde University">
Roskilde University
Roskilde University (, abbreviated "RUC" or "RU") is a <a href="Denmark">Danish</a> <a href="public%20university">public university</a> founded in 1972 and located in Trekroner in the Eastern part of <a href="Roskilde">Roskilde</a>. The university awards <a href="bachelor%27s%20degrees">bachelor's degrees</a>, <a href="master%27s%20degrees">master's degrees</a>, and <a href="Doctor%20of%20Philosophy">Ph.D. degrees</a> in a wide variety of subjects within social science, the humanities, and natural science.
The university was founded in 1972 and was initially intended as an alternative to the traditional Danish universities which had been the scene of several student uprisings in the late 1960s. The students considered the traditional universities undemocratic and controlled by the professors and wanted more influence as well as more flexible teaching methods.
In the 1970s the university was known for its very liberal education as opposed to the usual lectures provided by the more traditional universities of <a href="University%20of%20Copenhagen">Copenhagen</a> and <a href="Aarhus%20University">Aarhus</a>. The focus was shifted from traditional lectures to group orientated methods and projects rather than traditional exams.
Back in 1972, these educational ideas were both unorthodox and controversial, but the traditional universities in Denmark have now adopted much of the original RU concept themselves, not least the concept of group project work, which is today a recognised academic method. RU can also be said to have brought to Denmark the Anglo-Saxon concepts of interdisciplinarity and less well-defined boundaries between academic fields.
Some notable alumni and professors from RUC include:
The university is governed by a board consisting of 9 members: 5 members recruited outside the university form the majority of the board, 1 member is appointed by the scientific staff, 1 member is appointed by the administrative staff, and 2 members are appointed by the university students. The Rector is appointed by the university board. The rector in turn appoints deans and deans appoint heads of departments. There is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, deans, or department heads. Hence the university has no faculty governance.
Roskilde University offers higher education at bachelor-, master, and <a href="Ph.D.">Ph.D.</a> levels within four main areas: <a href="humanities">humanities</a>, humanistic technologies, <a href="social%20science">social science</a> and <a href="science">science</a>. The traditional educational setup at RU was based on two years of general studies in one of the main scientific areas and four years of specialization. Today, the university follows the general educational structure in Denmark based on three years of bachelor studies qualifying for a two-year master study.
Roskilde University has 4 departments "(institutes)" specializing in very different areas from Mathematics to International Development:
The university offers three international bachelor programmes:
</doc>
<doc id="90456" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90456" title="SS Great Britain">
SS Great Britain
<a href="Steamship">SS</a> "Great Britain" is a <a href="museum%20ship">museum ship</a> and former <a href="ocean%20liner">passenger steamship</a>, which was advanced for her time. She was the longest passenger ship in the world from 1845 to 1854. She was designed by <a href="Isambard%20Kingdom%20Brunel">Isambard Kingdom Brunel</a> for the <a href="Great%20Western%20Steamship%20Company">Great Western Steamship Company</a>'s <a href="transatlantic%20crossing">transatlantic</a> service between <a href="Bristol">Bristol</a> and <a href="New%20York%20City">New York</a>. While other ships had been built of iron or equipped with a <a href="Propeller%20%28marine%29">screw propeller</a>, "Great Britain" was the first to combine these features in a large ocean-going ship. She was the first iron steamer to cross the Atlantic, which she did in 1845, in the time of 14 days.
The ship is in length and has a 3,400-ton displacement. She was powered by two inclined 2 cylinder engines of the <a href="marine%20steam%20engine%23Direct%20acting">direct-acting</a> type, with twin <a href="bore%20%28engine%29">bore</a>, <a href="stroke%20%28engine%29">stroke</a> <a href="cylinder%20%28engine%29">cylinders</a>. She was also provided with secondary sail power. The four decks provided accommodation for a crew of 120, plus 360 passengers who were provided with cabins and dining and promenade saloons.
When launched in 1843, "Great Britain" was by far the largest vessel afloat. However, her protracted construction and high cost had left her owners in a difficult financial position, and they were forced out of business in 1846 having spent all their funds re-floating the ship after she was run aground at <a href="Dundrum%2C%20County%20Down%23History">Dundrum Bay</a> after a <a href="navigation">navigation</a>al error. In 1852 she was sold for <a href="marine%20salvage">salvage</a> and repaired. "Great Britain" carried thousands of <a href="Immigration%20to%20Australia">immigrants</a> to Australia from 1852 until converted to sail in 1881. Three years later, she was retired to the <a href="Falkland%20Islands">Falkland Islands</a> where she was used as a warehouse, quarantine ship and <a href="hulk%20%28ship%29">coal hulk</a> until <a href="scuttling">scuttled</a> in 1937.
In 1970, following a cash donation by Sir <a href="Jack%20Hayward">Jack Hayward</a> that paid for the vessel to be towed back to the UK, "Great Britain" was returned to the Bristol <a href="dry%20dock">dry dock</a> where she was built. Now listed as part of the <a href="National%20Historic%20Fleet">National Historic Fleet</a>, she is an award-winning visitor attraction and museum ship in <a href="Bristol%20Harbour">Bristol Harbour</a>, with between 150,000 and 200,000 visitors annually.
After the initial success of its first liner, of 1838, the <a href="Great%20Western%20Steamship%20Company">Great Western Steamship Company</a> collected materials for a sister ship, tentatively named "City of New York". The same engineering team that had collaborated so successfully on "Great Western"—<a href="Isambard%20Kingdom%20Brunel">Isambard Brunel</a>, Thomas Guppy, Christopher Claxton and <a href="William%20Patterson%20%28engineer%29">William Patterson</a>—was again assembled. This time however, Brunel, whose reputation was at its height, came to assert overall control over design of the ship—a state of affairs that would have far-reaching consequences for the company. Construction was carried out in a specially adapted <a href="dry%20dock">dry dock</a> in <a href="Bristol">Bristol</a>, England.
Two chance encounters were to profoundly affect the design of "Great Britain". In the autumn of 1838, <a href="John%20Laird%20%28shipbuilder%29">John Laird's</a> <a href="English%20Channel">English Channel</a> <a href="packet%20ship">packet ship</a> "Rainbow"—the largest iron-<a href="hull%20%28watercraft%29">hulled</a> ship then in service—made a stop at Bristol. Brunel despatched his associates Christopher Claxton and William Patterson to make a return voyage to <a href="Antwerp">Antwerp</a> on "Rainbow" to assess the utility of the new building material. Both men returned as converts to iron-hulled technology, and Brunel scrapped his plans to build a wooden ship and persuaded the company directors to build an iron-hulled ship.
"Great Britain"s builders recognised a number of advantages of iron over the traditional wooden hull. Wood was becoming more expensive, while iron was getting cheaper. Iron hulls were not subject to <a href="dry%20rot">dry rot</a> or <a href="woodworm">woodworm</a>, and they were also lighter in weight and less bulky. The chief advantage of the iron hull was its much greater structural strength. The practical limit on the length of a wooden-hulled ship is about 300 feet, after which <a href="hogging%20and%20sagging">hogging</a>—the flexing of the hull as waves pass beneath it—becomes too great. Iron hulls are far less subject to hogging, so that the potential size of an iron-hulled ship is much greater. The ship's designers, led by Brunel, were initially cautious in the adaptation of their plans to iron hulled-technology. With each successive draft however, the ship grew ever larger and bolder in conception. By the fifth draft, the vessel had grown to 3,400 tons, over 1,000 tons larger than any ship then in existence.
In the spring of 1840, a second chance encounter occurred, the arrival of the revolutionary at Bristol, the first <a href="propeller">screw-propelled</a> steamship, completed only a few months before by <a href="Francis%20Pettit%20Smith">F. P. Smith's</a> Propeller Steamship Company. Brunel had been looking into methods of improving the performance of "Great Britain"s <a href="paddlewheel">paddlewheel</a>s, and took an immediate interest in the new technology. Smith, sensing a prestigious new customer for his own company, agreed to lend "Archimedes" to Brunel for extended tests. Over several months, Smith and Brunel tested a number of different propellers on "Archimedes" to find the most efficient design, a four-bladed model submitted by Smith.
Having satisfied himself as to the advantages of screw propulsion, Brunel wrote to the company directors to persuade them to embark on a second major design change, abandoning the paddlewheel engines—already half constructed—for completely new engines suitable for powering a propeller.
Brunel listed the advantages of the screw propeller over the paddlewheel as follows:
Brunel's arguments proved persuasive, and in December 1840, the company agreed to adopt the new technology. The decision became a costly one, setting the ship's completion back by nine months.
Reporting on the ship's arrival in New York, in its first issue "<a href="Scientific%20American">Scientific American</a>" opined, "If there is any thing objectionable in the construction or machinery of this noble ship, it is the mode of propelling her by the screw propeller; and we should not be surprised if it should be, ere long, superseded by paddle wheels at the sides."
The launching or, more accurately, the "floating out" took place on 19 July 1843. Conditions were generally favourable and diarists recorded that, after a dull start, the weather brightened with only a few intermittent showers. The atmosphere of the day can best be gauged from a report the following day in "The Bristol Mirror":
Large crowds started to gather early in the day including many people who had travelled to Bristol to see the spectacle. There was a general atmosphere of anticipation as the Royal Emblem was unfurled. The processional route had been cleaned and Temple Street decorated with flags, banners, flowers and ribbons. Boys of the City School and girls of Red Maids were stationed in a neat orderly formation down the entire length of the Exchange. The route was a mass of colour and everybody was out on the streets as it was a public holiday. The atmosphere of gaiety even allowed thoughts to drift away from the problems of political dissension in London.
<a href="Albert%2C%20Prince%20Consort">Prince Albert</a> arrived at 10 a.m. at the Great Western Railway terminus. The <a href="British%20Royal%20Train">royal train</a>, conducted by Brunel himself, had taken two hours and forty minutes from London. There was a <a href="guard%20of%20honour">guard of honour</a> of members of the police force, soldiers and dragoons and, as the Prince stepped from the train, the band of the Life Guards played works by Labitsky and a selection from the "Ballet of Alma". Two sections of the platform were boarded off for the reception and it was noted by "The Bristol Mirror" that parts were covered with carpets from the Council House. The Prince Consort, dressed as a private gentleman, was accompanied by his <a href="equerry">equerry</a>-in-waiting, personal secretary, the Marquis of Exeter, and Lords Warncliffe, Liverpool, Lincoln and Wellesley.
Introductions were made, followed by the "Address to His Royal Highness the Prince Albert", by the town clerk, D. Burgess. Honours were then bestowed on him by the <a href="Society%20of%20Merchant%20Venturers">Society of Merchant Venturers</a>, and there were speeches from members of the Bristol clergy. The royal party then had breakfast and, after 20 minutes, reappeared to board horse-drawn carriages.
At noon, the Prince arrived at the Great Western Steamship yard only to find the ship already "launched" and waiting for royal inspection. He boarded the ship, took refreshments in the elegantly decorated lounge then commenced his tour of inspection. He was received in the ship's banqueting room where all the local dignitaries and their ladies were gathered.
After the banquet and the toasts, he left for the naming ceremony. It had already been decided that the christening would be performed by Clarissa (1790–1868), wife of Philip John Miles (1773–1845) and mother of Bristol's MP, Philip William Skinner Miles (1816–1881), a director of the company. She stepped forward, grasped the champagne bottle and swung it towards the bows. Unfortunately the steam packet "Avon" had started to tow the ship into the harbour and the bottle fell about short of its target and dropped unbroken into the water. A second bottle was rapidly obtained and the Prince hurled it against the iron hull.
In her haste, "Avon" had started her work before the shore warps had been released. The tow rope snapped and, due to the resultant delay, the Prince was obliged to return to the railway station and miss the end of the programme.
Following the launch ceremony, the builders had planned to have "Great Britain" towed to the <a href="Thames">Thames</a> for her final fitting out. Unfortunately, the harbour authorities had failed to carry out the necessary modifications to their facilities in a timely manner. Exacerbating the problem, the ship had been widened beyond the original plans to accommodate the propeller engines, and her designers had made a belated decision to fit the engines prior to launch, which resulted in a deeper <a href="draft%20%28ship%29">draught</a>.
This dilemma was to result in another costly delay for the company, as Brunel's negotiations with the Bristol Dock Board dragged on for months. It was only through the intervention of the Board of Trade that the harbour authorities finally agreed to the lock modifications, begun in autumn 1844.
After being trapped in the harbour for more than a year, "Great Britain" was at last floated out in December 1844, but not before causing more anxiety for her proprietors. After passing successfully through the first set of lock gates, she jammed on her passage through the second, which led to the <a href="River%20Avon%20%28Bristol%29">River Avon</a>. Only the seamanship of Captain Claxton (who after Naval service held the position of Quay Warden (Harbour Master) at Bristol) enabled her to be pulled back and severe structural damage avoided. The following day an army of workmen under the direct control of Brunel, took advantage of the slightly higher tide and removed coping stones and lock gate platforms from the Junction Lock, allowing the <a href="tugboat">tug</a> "Samson," again under Claxton's supervision, to tow the ship safely into the Avon that Midnight.
When completed in 1845, "Great Britain" was a revolutionary vessel—the first ship to combine an iron hull with screw propulsion, and at in length and with a 3,400-ton displacement, more than longer and 1,000 tons larger than any ship previously built. Her <a href="beam%20%28ship%29">beam</a> was and her height from keel to main deck, . She had four decks, including the <a href="spar%20deck">spar (upper) deck</a>, a crew of 120, and was fitted to accommodate a total of 360 passengers, along with 1,200 tons of cargo and 1,200 tons of <a href="coal">coal</a> for fuel.
Like other steamships of the era, "Great Britain" was provided with secondary sail power, consisting of one <a href="square-rig">square-rig</a>ged and five <a href="schooner">schooner</a>-rigged masts—a relatively simple sail plan designed to reduce the number of crew required. The masts were of iron, fastened to the spar deck with iron joints, and with one exception, hinged to allow their lowering to reduce wind resistance in the event of a strong headwind. The rigging was of iron cable instead of the traditional <a href="hemp">hemp</a>, again with a view to reducing wind resistance. Another innovative feature was the lack of traditional heavy bulwarks around the main deck; a light iron railing both reduced weight and allowed water shipped in heavy weather to run unimpeded back to sea.
The hull and single <a href="chimney">funnel</a> amidships were both finished in black paint, with a single white stripe running the length of the hull highlighting a row of false gunports. The hull was flat-bottomed, with no external <a href="keel">keel</a>, and with bulges low on each side amidships which continued toward the <a href="stern">stern</a> in an unusual implementation of <a href="tumblehome">tumblehome</a>—a result of the late decision to install propeller engines, which were wider at the base than the originally planned paddlewheel engines.
Brunel, anxious to ensure the avoidance of <a href="Hogging%20and%20sagging">hogging</a> in a vessel of such unprecedented size, designed the hull to be massively redundant in strength. Ten longitudinal iron girders were installed along the keel, running from beneath the engines and boiler to the forward section. The iron ribs were in size. The iron keel plates were an inch thick, and the hull seams were lapped and double <a href="rivet">rivet</a>ed in many places. Safety features, which also contributed to the structural strength of the vessel, included a <a href="double%20bottom">double bottom</a> and five watertight iron <a href="bulkhead%20%28partition%29">bulkheads</a>. The total amount of iron, including the engines and machinery, was 1,500 tons.
Two giant propeller engines were installed amidships. They had a combined weight of 340 tons. They were built to a modified patent of Brunel's father <a href="Marc%20Isambard%20Brunel">Marc</a>. The engines, which rose from the keel through the three lower decks to a height just below the main deck, were of the <a href="marine%20steam%20engine%23Direct%20acting">direct-acting</a> type, with twin <a href="bore%20%28engine%29">bore</a>, <a href="stroke%20%28engine%29">stroke</a> <a href="cylinder%20%28engine%29">cylinders</a> inclined upward at a 60° angle, capable of developing a total of at 18 <a href="Revolutions%20per%20minute">rpm</a>. Steam power was provided by three long by high by wide, "square" saltwater <a href="boiler">boiler</a>s, forward of the engines, with eight furnaces each – four at each end.
In considering the gearing arrangement, Brunel had no precedent to serve as a guide. The gearing for the "Archimedes", of the spur-and-pinion type, had proven almost unbearably noisy, and would not be suitable for a passenger ship. Brunel's solution was to install a <a href="chain%20drive">chain drive</a>. On the crankshaft between "Great Britain"s two engines, he installed a diameter primary gearwheel, which, by means of a set of four massive inverted-tooth or "silent" chains, operated the smaller secondary gear near the keel, which turned the propeller shaft. This was the first commercial use of silent chain technology, and the individual silent chains installed in "Great Britain" are thought to have been the largest ever constructed.
"Great Britain"s main propeller shaft, built by the Mersey Iron Works, was the largest single piece of machinery. long and in diameter, the shaft was bored with a diameter hole, reducing its weight and allowing cold water to be pumped through to reduce heat. At each end of the main propeller shaft were two secondary coupling shafts: a , diameter shaft beneath the engine, and a screw shaft of in diameter at the stern. Total length of the three shafts was , and the total weight 38 tons. The shaft was geared upward at a ratio of 1 to 3, so that at the engines' normal operating speed of 18 rpm, the propeller turned at a speed of 54 rpm. The initial propeller was a six-bladed "windmill" model of Brunel's own design, in diameter and with pitch of .
The interior was divided into three decks, the upper two for passengers and the lower for cargo. The two passenger decks were divided into forward and aft compartments, separated by the engines and boiler amidships.
In the after section of the ship, the upper passenger deck contained the after or principal saloon, long by wide, which ran from just aft of the engine room to the stern. On each side of the saloon were corridors leading to 22 individual passenger berths, arranged two deep, a total of 44 berths for the saloon as a whole. The forward part of the saloon, nearest the engine room, contained two ladies' boudoirs or private sitting rooms, which could be accessed without entering the saloon from the 12 nearest passenger berths, reserved for females. The opposite end of the saloon opened onto the stern windows. Broad iron staircases at both ends of the saloon ran to the main deck above and the dining saloon below. The saloon was painted in "delicate tints", furnished along its length with fixed chairs of <a href="oak">oak</a>, and supported by 12 decorated pillars.
Beneath the after saloon was the main or dining saloon, long by wide, with dining tables and chairs capable of accommodating up to 360 people at one sitting. On each side of the saloon, seven corridors opened onto four berths each, for a total number of berths per side of 28, 56 altogether. The forward end of the saloon was connected to a stewards' galley, while the opposite end contained several tiers of sofas. This saloon was apparently the ship's most impressive of all the passenger spaces. Columns of white and gold, 24 in number, with "ornamental capitals of great beauty", were arranged down its length and along the walls, while eight <a href="Arabesque%20%28European%20art%29">Arabesque</a> <a href="pilaster">pilaster</a>s, decorated with "beautifully painted" oriental flowers and birds, enhanced the aesthetic effect. The archways of the doors were "tastefully carved and gilded" and surmounted with medallion heads. Mirrors around the walls added an illusion of spaciousness, and the walls themselves were painted in a "delicate lemon-tinted hue" with highlights of blue and gold.
The two forward saloons were arranged in a similar plan to the after saloons, with the upper "promenade" saloon having 36 berths per side and the lower 30, totalling 132. Further forward, separate from the passenger saloons, were the crew quarters. The overall finish of the passenger quarters was unusually restrained for its time, a probable reflection of the proprietors' diminishing capital reserves. Total cost of construction of the ship, not including £53,000 for plant and equipment to build her, was £117,000—£47,000 more than her original projected price tag of £70,000.
On 26 July 1845—seven years after the Great Western Steamship Company had decided to build a second ship, and five years overdue—"Great Britain" embarked on her maiden voyage, from <a href="Liverpool">Liverpool</a> to <a href="New%20York%20City">New York</a> under Captain <a href="James%20Hosken">James Hosken</a>, with 45 passengers. The ship made the passage in 14 days and 21 hours, at an average speed of  – almost slower than the prevailing record. She made the return trip in 13½ days, again an unexceptional time.
Brunel, who prior to commencement of service had substituted a six-bladed "windmill" design of his own for Smith's proven four-bladed propeller design, now decided to try and improve the speed by riveting an extra two inches of iron to each propeller blade. On her next crossing to New York, carrying 104 passengers, the ship ran into heavy weather, losing a mast and three propeller blades. After repairs in New York, she set out for Liverpool with only 28 passengers, and lost four propeller blades during the crossing. By this time, another design flaw had become evident. The ship rolled heavily, especially in calm weather without the steadying influence of sail, causing great discomfort to passengers.
The shareholders of the company again provided further funding to try and solve the problems. The six-bladed propeller was dispensed with and a four-bladed cast iron model, similar to that originally chosen, substituted. The third mast was removed, and the iron rigging, which had proven unsatisfactory, was replaced with conventional rigging. In a major alteration, two <a href="bilge%20keel">bilge keel</a>s were added to each side in an effort to lessen her tendency to roll. These repairs and alterations delayed her return to service until the following year.
In her second season of service in 1846, "Great Britain" successfully completed two round trips to New York at an acceptable speed, but was then laid up for repairs to one of her chain drums, which showed an unexpected degree of wear. Embarking on her third passage of the season to New York, her captain made a series of navigational errors that resulted in her being run hard aground in <a href="Dundrum%2C%20County%20Down%23History">Dundrum Bay</a> on the northeast coast of Ireland. There was no formal inquiry but it has been recently suggested that it was mainly due to the captain not having updated charts, so that he mistook the new St John's light for the Calf light on the Isle of Man.
She remained aground for almost a year, protected by temporary measures organised by Brunel and <a href="James%20Bremner">James Bremner</a>. In August 1847, she was floated free at a cost of £34,000 and taken back to Liverpool, but this expense exhausted the company's remaining reserves. After languishing at the North Dock for some time, she was sold to <a href="Gibbs%2C%20Bright%20%26amp%3B%20Co.">Gibbs, Bright & Co.</a>, former agents of the Great Western Steamship Company, for a mere £25,000.
The new owners decided not merely to give the vessel a total refit. The keel, badly damaged during the grounding, was completely renewed along a length of , and the owners took the opportunity to further strengthen the hull. The old <a href="keelson">keelson</a>s were replaced and ten new ones laid, which ran the entire length of the keel. Both the bow and stern were also strengthened by heavy frames of double <a href="angle%20iron">angle iron</a>.
Reflecting the rapid advances in propeller engine technology, the original engines were removed and replaced with a pair of smaller, lighter and more modern <a href="marine%20steam%20engine">oscillating</a> engines, with cylinders and stroke, built by <a href="John%20Penn%20%28engineer%29">John Penn & Sons</a> of <a href="Greenwich">Greenwich</a>. They were also provided with more support at the base, and supported further by the addition of both iron and wood beams running transversely across the hull, which had the added benefit of reducing engine vibration.
The cumbersome chain-drive gearing was replaced with a simpler and by now proven cog-wheel arrangement, although the gearing of the engines to the propeller shaft remained at a ratio of one to three. The three large boilers were replaced with six smaller ones, operating at or twice the pressure of their predecessors. Along with a new cabin on the main deck, the smaller boilers allowed the cargo capacity to be almost doubled, from 1,200 to 2,200 tons.
The four-bladed propeller was replaced by a slightly smaller three-bladed model, and the bilge keels, previously added to reduce the tendency to roll, were replaced by a heavy external oak keel for the same purpose. The five-masted schooner sail-plan was replaced by four masts, two of which were square-rigged. With the refit complete, "Great Britain" went back into service on the New York run. After only one further round trip she was sold again, to <a href="Antony%20Gibbs%20%26amp%3B%20Sons">Antony Gibbs & Sons</a>, which planned to place her into England-Australia service.
Antony Gibbs & Sons may have intended to employ "Great Britain" only to exploit a temporary demand for passenger service to the Australian gold fields following <a href="Victorian%20gold%20rush">the discovery of gold in Victoria in 1851</a>, but she found long-term employment on this route. For her new role she was given a third refit. Her passenger accommodation was increased from 360 to 730, and her sail-plan altered to a traditional three-masted, square-rigged pattern. She was fitted with a removable propeller, which could be hauled up on deck by chains to reduce drag when under sail power alone.
In 1852, "Great Britain" made her first voyage to <a href="Melbourne">Melbourne</a>, Australia, carrying 630 <a href="Emigration">emigrants</a>. She excited great interest there, with 4,000 people paying a shilling each to inspect her. She operated on the England–Australia route for almost 30 years, interrupted only by two relatively brief sojourns as a <a href="troopship">troopship</a> during the <a href="Crimean%20War">Crimean War</a> and the <a href="Indian%20Mutiny">Indian Mutiny</a>. Gradually, she earned a reputation as the most reliable of the emigrant ships to Australia and carried <a href="English%20cricket%20team%20in%20Australia%20in%201861%E2%80%9362">the first English cricket team to tour Australia</a> in 1861.
Alexander Reid, writing in 1862, recorded some statistics of a typical voyage. The ship put out from Liverpool on 21 October 1861, carrying a crew of 143, 544 passengers (including the English <a href="history%20of%20cricket">cricket</a> team that was the first to visit Australia), a cow, 36 sheep, 140 pigs, 96 goats and 1,114 chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys. The journey to Melbourne (her ninth) occupied 64 days, during which the best day's run was 354 miles and the worst 108. With favourable winds the ship travelled under sail alone, the screw being withdrawn from the water. Three passengers died en route. The captain was John Gray, a Scot, who had held the post since before the Crimean War.
On Thursday 8 October 1868 "The Argus" (Melbourne) reported 'To-day, at daylight, the fine steamship "Great Britain" will leave her anchorage in Hobson's Bay, for Liverpool direct. On this occasion she carries less than her usual complement of passengers, the season not being a favourite one with colonists desiring to visit their native land. The "Great Britain", however, has a full cargo, and carries gold to the value of about £250,000. As she is in fine trim, we shall probably have, in due time, to congratulate Captain Gray on having achieved another successful voyage.'
In 1882 "Great Britain" was converted into a <a href="sailing%20ship">sailing ship</a> to transport bulk coal. She made her final voyage in 1886, after loading up with coal and leaving <a href="Penarth%20Dock">Penarth Dock</a> for <a href="Panama">Panama</a> on 8 February. After a fire on board en-route she was found on arrival at <a href="Port%20Stanley">Port Stanley</a> in the <a href="Falkland%20Islands">Falkland Islands</a> to be damaged beyond economic repair. She was sold to the <a href="Falkland%20Islands%20Company">Falkland Islands Company</a> and used, afloat, as a storage <a href="hulk%20%28ship%29">hulk</a> (coal bunker) until 1937, when she was towed to <a href="Sparrow%20Cove">Sparrow Cove</a>, 3.5 miles from Port Stanley, scuttled and abandoned. As a bunker, she coaled the South Atlantic fleet that defeated Admiral <a href="Graf%20Maximilian%20von%20Spee">Graf Maximilian von Spee</a>'s fleet in the First World War <a href="Battle%20of%20the%20Falkland%20Islands">Battle of the Falkland Islands</a>. In the <a href="Second%20World%20War">Second World War</a>, some of her iron was scavenged to repair , one of the <a href="Royal%20Navy">Royal Navy</a> ships that fought the "<a href="German%20pocket%20battleship%20Admiral%20Graf%20Spee">Graf Spee</a>" and was badly damaged during the <a href="Battle%20of%20the%20River%20Plate">Battle of the River Plate</a>.
The salvage operation, made possible by several large donations, including from <a href="Jack%20Hayward">Sir Jack Hayward</a> and the late <a href="John_Paul_Getty%2C_Jr.">Sir Paul Getty</a>, was organised by 'the SS "Great Britain" Project', chaired by Richard Goold-Adams. Ewan Corlett conducted a naval architect's survey, reporting that she could be refloated. A submersible <a href="Pontoon%20%28boat%29">pontoon</a>, "Mulus III", was chartered in February 1970. A German tug, "Varius II", was chartered, reaching Port Stanley on 25 March. By 13 April, after some concern about a crack in the hull, the ship was mounted successfully on the pontoon and the following day the tug, pontoon and the "Great Britain" sailed to Port Stanley for preparations for the transatlantic voyage. The voyage (code name "Voyage 47") began on 24 April, stopped in <a href="Montevideo">Montevideo</a> from 2 May to 6 May for inspection, then across the Atlantic, arriving at <a href="Barry%20Docks">Barry Docks</a>, west of <a href="Cardiff">Cardiff</a> on 22 June. ("Voyage 47" was chosen as the code name because it was on her 47th voyage from <a href="Penarth">Penarth</a>, in 1886, that during a tempest she had sought shelter in the Falklands.) Bristol-based tugs then took over and towed her, still on her pontoon, to <a href="Avonmouth%20Docks">Avonmouth Docks</a>.
The ship was then taken off the pontoon, in preparation for her re-entry into Bristol, now truly afloat. On Sunday 5 July, amidst considerable media interest, the ship was towed up the <a href="River%20Avon%2C%20Bristol">River Avon</a> to Bristol. Perhaps the most memorable moment for the crowds that lined the final few miles was her passage under the <a href="Clifton%20Suspension%20Bridge">Clifton Suspension Bridge</a>, another Brunel design. She waited for two weeks in the <a href="Cumberland%20Basin%20%28Bristol%29">Cumberland Basin</a> for a tide high enough to get her back through the locks to the Floating Harbour and her birthplace, the dry dock in the Great Western Dockyard (now a grade II* <a href="listed%20building">listed building</a>, disused since bomb damage in the Second World War).
The original intent was to restore her to her 1843 state. However, the philosophy changed and the conservation of all surviving pre-1970 material became the aim. In 1984 the SS Great Britain was designated as a <a href="List%20of%20Historic%20Mechanical%20Engineering%20Landmarks">Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark</a> by the <a href="ASME">American Society of Mechanical Engineers</a>, the fourth such designation outside the USA.
By 1998, an extensive survey discovered that the hull was continuing to corrode in the <a href="humid">humid</a> atmosphere of the dock and estimates gave her 25 years before she corroded away. Extensive conservation work began which culminated in the installation of a glass plate across the dry dock at the level of her water line, with two <a href="dehumidifiers">dehumidifiers</a>, keeping the space beneath at 20% relative humidity, sufficiently dry to preserve the surviving material. This being completed, the ship was "re-launched" in July 2005, and visitor access to the dry dock was restored. The site is visited by over 150,000 visitors per year with a peak in numbers in 2006 when 200,000 people visited.
The engineers Fenton Holloway won the <a href="IStructE%20Awards">IStructE Award</a> for Heritage Buildings in 2006 for the restoration of the "Great Britain". In May of that year the ship won the prestigious <a href="Gulbenkian%20Prize">Gulbenkian Prize</a> for museums and galleries. The chairman of the judging panel, Professor <a href="Robert%20Winston">Robert Winston</a>, commented:
"SS "Great Britain" got our unanimous vote for being outstanding at every level. It combines a truly groundbreaking piece of conservation, remarkable engineering and fascinating social history plus a visually stunning ship above and below the water line. Most importantly, the SS "Great Britain" is accessible and highly engaging for people of all ages."
The project won <a href="The%20Crown%20Estate%20Conservation%20Award">The Crown Estate Conservation Award</a> in 2007. and the <a href="European%20Museum%20of%20the%20Year%20Award">European Museum of the Year Award</a>s <a href="Micheletti%20Prize">Micheletti Prize</a> for 'Best Industrial or Technology Museum'. In 2008 the educational value of the project was honoured by the Sandford Award for Heritage Education. Despite the awards received by the Great Britain, the way in which the exhibition is presented has been criticised as presenting a particular view of cultural history in general and the <a href="British%20Empire">British Empire</a> in particular.
The "Great Britain" featured in several television specials.
Engine
Propeller
Other data
</doc>
<doc id="90460" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90460" title="Depression">
Depression
Depression or depress(ed) may refer to:
</doc>
<doc id="90461" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90461" title="Edwin Lutyens">
Edwin Lutyens
Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, (; ; 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944), was a British architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many <a href="English%20country%20house">English country house</a>s.
He has been referred to as "the greatest British architect" and is known best for having an instrumental role in designing and building a section of the metropolis of <a href="Delhi">Delhi</a>, known as New Delhi, which would later on serve as the seat of the <a href="Government%20of%20India">Government of India</a>. In recognition of his contribution, New Delhi is also known as "<a href="Lutyens%27%20Delhi">Lutyens' Delhi</a>". In collaboration with <a href="Sir%20Herbert%20Baker">Sir Herbert Baker</a>, he was also the main architect of several monuments in New Delhi such as the <a href="India%20Gate">India Gate</a>; he also designed Viceroy's House, which is now known as the <a href="Rashtrapati%20Bhavan">Rashtrapati Bhavan</a>.
He was born in London and grew up in <a href="Thursley">Thursley</a>, Surrey. He was named after a friend of his father, the painter and sculptor <a href="Edwin%20Henry%20Landseer">Edwin Henry Landseer</a>. For many years he worked from offices at 29 <a href="Bloomsbury%20Square">Bloomsbury Square</a>, London. Lutyens studied architecture at <a href="Royal%20College%20of%20Art">South Kensington School of Art</a>, London from 1885 to 1887. After college he joined the <a href="Ernest%20George">Ernest George</a> and <a href="Harold%20Peto">Harold Peto</a> architectural practice. It was here that he first met <a href="Herbert%20Baker">Sir Herbert Baker</a>.
He began his own practice in 1888, his first commission being a private house at Crooksbury, <a href="Farnham%2C%20Surrey">Farnham</a>, Surrey. During this work, he met the garden designer and horticulturalist <a href="Gertrude%20Jekyll">Gertrude Jekyll</a>. In 1896 he began work on a house for Jekyll at <a href="Munstead%20Wood">Munstead Wood</a> near <a href="Godalming">Godalming</a>, Surrey. It was the beginning of a professional partnership that would define the look of many Lutyens country houses.
The "Lutyens-Jekyll" garden overflowed with hardy shrubbery and herbaceous plantings within a firm classicising architecture of stairs and balustraded terraces. This combined style, of the formal with the informal, exemplified by brick paths, softened by billowing herbaceous borders, full of lilies, <a href="lupin">lupin</a>s, <a href="delphinium">delphinium</a>s and <a href="lavender">lavender</a>, was in direct contrast to the very formal bedding schemes favoured by the previous generation in the 19th century. This new "natural" style was to define the "English garden" until modern times.
Lutyens' fame grew largely through the popularity of the new lifestyle magazine "<a href="Country%20Life%20%28magazine%29">Country Life</a>" created by <a href="Edward%20Hudson%20%28magazine%20owner%29">Edward Hudson</a>, which featured many of his house designs. Hudson was a great admirer of Lutyens' style and commissioned Lutyens for a number of projects, including <a href="Lindisfarne%20Castle">Lindisfarne Castle</a> and the "Country Life" headquarters building in London, at 8 <a href="Tavistock%20Street">Tavistock Street</a>. One of his assistants in the 1890s was <a href="Maxwell%20Ayrton">Maxwell Ayrton</a>.
Initially, his designs were all <a href="Arts%20and%20Crafts%20movement">Arts and Crafts</a> style, good examples being <a href="Overstrand%20Hall">Overstrand Hall</a> <a href="Norfolk">Norfolk</a> and Le <a href="Bois%20des%20Moutiers">Bois des Moutiers</a> (1898) in France, but during the early 1900s his work became more <a href="Classicism">classical</a> in style. His commissions were of a varied nature from private houses to two churches for the new <a href="Hampstead%20Garden%20Suburb">Hampstead Garden Suburb</a> in London to <a href="Julius%20Drewe">Julius Drewe</a>'s <a href="Castle%20Drogo">Castle Drogo</a> near <a href="Drewsteignton">Drewsteignton</a> in Devon and on to his contributions to <a href="Lutyens%27%20Delhi">India's new imperial capital</a>, New Delhi, (where he worked as chief architect with Herbert Baker and others). Here he added elements of local architectural styles to his classicism, and based his urbanisation scheme on <a href="Mughal%20architecture">Mughal</a> water gardens. He also designed the <a href="Hyderabad%20House">Hyderabad House</a> for the last <a href="Nizam">Nizam</a> of Hyderabad, as his Delhi palace.
He also designed a chalk building, <a href="Marshcourt">Marshcourt</a>, in Hampshire, England. Built between 1901 and 1905, it is the last of his Tudor designs. In 1903 the main school building of <a href="Amesbury%20School">Amesbury Prep School</a> in Hindhead, Surrey, was designed and built as a private residence. It is now a <a href="Grade%20II%20listed">Grade 2*</a> listed building of National Significance.
He also designed a <a href="http%3A//www.mmtrust.org.uk/mausolea/view/22/Hannen_Mausoleum">Columbarium</a> for the <a href="Hannen">Hannen</a> family in <a href="Wargrave">Wargrave</a>.
Before the end of <a href="World%20War%20I">World War I</a>, he was appointed one of three principal architects for the Imperial War Graves Commission (now <a href="Commonwealth%20War%20Graves%20Commission">Commonwealth War Graves Commission</a>) and was involved with the creation of <a href="World%20War%20I%20memorials">many monuments to commemorate the dead</a>. Larger cemeteries have a <a href="Stone%20of%20Remembrance">Stone of Remembrance</a>, designed by himself. The best known of these monuments are the <a href="The%20Cenotaph%2C%20Whitehall">Cenotaph</a> in <a href="Whitehall">Whitehall</a>, <a href="Westminster">Westminster</a>, and the <a href="Thiepval%20Memorial%20to%20the%20Missing%20of%20the%20Somme">Memorial to the Missing of the Somme</a>, <a href="Thiepval">Thiepval</a>. The Cenotaph was originally commissioned by <a href="David%20Lloyd%20George">David Lloyd George</a> as a temporary structure to be the centrepiece of the Allied Victory Parade in 1919. Lloyd George proposed a <a href="catafalque">catafalque</a>, a low empty platform, but it was Lutyens' idea for the taller monument. The design took less than six hours to complete. Many local war memorials (such as the one at <a href="All%20Saints%27%20Church%2C%20Northampton">All Saints', Northampton</a>), <a href="Montr%C3%A9al">Montréal</a>, Toronto, <a href="Hamilton%2C%20Ontario">Hamilton (Ontario)</a>, <a href="Victoria%2C%20British%20Columbia">Victoria (British Columbia)</a>, and <a href="Vancouver">Vancouver</a> are Lutyens designs, based on the Cenotaph. So is the war memorial in Hyde Park, Sydney. He also designed the <a href="National%20War%20Memorial%2C%20Islandbridge">War Memorial Gardens</a> in Dublin, which were restored in the 1990s. Other works include the <a href="Tower%20Hill%20memorial">Tower Hill memorial</a>, and (similar to his later <a href="India%20Gate">India Gate</a> design) the <a href="Arch%20of%20Remembrance">Arch of Remembrance</a> memorial in <a href="Victoria%20Park%2C%20Leicester">Victoria Park, Leicester</a>.
Lutyens also refurbished <a href="Lindisfarne%20Castle">Lindisfarne Castle</a> for its wealthy owner.
He was <a href="knight">knight</a>ed in 1918 and was elected a <a href="Fellow%23Academia">Fellow</a> of the <a href="Royal%20Academy">Royal Academy</a> in 1921. In 1924, he was appointed a member of the newly created <a href="Commission%20for%20Architecture%20and%20the%20Built%20Environment">Royal Fine Art Commission</a>, a position he held until his death.
While work continued in New Delhi, Lutyens continued to receive other commissions including several commercial buildings in London and the <a href="Embassy%20of%20the%20United%20Kingdom%20in%20Washington%2C%20D.C.">British Embassy</a> in Washington, DC.
In 1924 he completed the supervision of the construction of what is perhaps his most popular design: <a href="Queen%20Mary%27s%20Dolls%27%20House">Queen Mary's Dolls' House</a>. This four-storey <a href="Palladian">Palladian</a> villa was built in 1/12 scale and is now a permanent exhibit in the public area of <a href="Windsor%20Castle">Windsor Castle</a>. It was not conceived or built as a plaything for children; its goal was to exhibit the finest British craftsmanship of the period.
Lutyens was commissioned in 1929 to design a new <a href="Roman%20Catholic">Roman Catholic</a> cathedral in <a href="Liverpool">Liverpool</a>.
He planned a vast building of brick and granite, topped with towers and a 510-foot dome, with commissioned sculpture work by <a href="Charles%20Sargeant%20Jagger">Charles Sargeant Jagger</a> and <a href="W.%20C.%20H.%20King">W. C. H. King</a>. Work on this magnificent building started in 1933, but was halted during the <a href="Second%20World%20War">Second World War</a>. After the war, the project ended due to a shortage of funding, with only the crypt completed. A model of Lutyens' unrealised building was given to and restored by the <a href="Walker%20Art%20Gallery">Walker Art Gallery</a> in 1975 and is now on display in the <a href="Museum%20of%20Liverpool">Museum of Liverpool</a>. The architect of the present <a href="Liverpool%20Metropolitan%20Cathedral">Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral</a>, which was built over land adjacent to the crypt and consecrated in 1967, was Sir <a href="Frederick%20Gibberd">Frederick Gibberd</a>.
In 1945, a year after his death, "A Plan for the City & County of <a href="Kingston%20upon%20Hull">Kingston upon Hull</a>" was published. Lutyens worked on the plan with Sir <a href="Patrick%20Abercrombie">Patrick Abercrombie</a> and they are credited as its co-authors. Abercrombie's introduction in the plan makes special reference to Lutyens' contribution. The plan was, however, rejected by the City Council of Hull.
He received the <a href="AIA%20Gold%20Medal">AIA Gold Medal</a> in 1925.
In November 2015 the British government announced that all 44 of Lutyens' First World War memorials in England had now been listed on the advice of <a href="Historic%20England">Historic England</a>, and were therefore all protected by law. This involved the one remaining memorial—the <a href="Gerrards%20Cross%20Memorial%20Building">Gerrards Cross Memorial Building</a> in <a href="Buckinghamshire">Buckinghamshire</a>—being added to the list, plus a further fourteen having their statuses upgraded.
Less well known is that Lutyens has also designed furniture. Some of his designs are still on the market today.
Largely designed by Lutyens over twenty or so years (1912 to 1930), New Delhi, situated within the metropolis of <a href="Delhi">Delhi</a>, popularly known as '<a href="Lutyens%27%20Delhi">Lutyens' Delhi</a>', was chosen to replace <a href="Calcutta">Calcutta</a> as the seat of the British Indian government in 1912; the project was completed in 1929 and officially inaugurated in 1931. In undertaking this project, Lutyens invented his own new order of classical architecture, which has become known as the <a href="Delhi%20Order">Delhi Order</a> and was used by him for several designs in England, such as <a href="Campion%20Hall%2C%20Oxford">Campion Hall, Oxford</a>. Unlike the more traditional British architects who came before him, he was both inspired by and incorporated various features from the local and traditional Indian architecture—something most clearly seen in the great drum-mounted Buddhist dome of <a href="Viceroy%27s%20House">Viceroy's House</a>, now <a href="Rashtrapati%20Bhavan">Rashtrapati Bhavan</a>. This palatial building, containing 340 rooms, is built on an area of some and incorporates a private garden also designed by Lutyens. The building was designed as the official residence of the <a href="Viceroy%20of%20India">Viceroy of India</a> and is now the official residence of the <a href="President%20of%20India">President of India</a>.
The Delhi Order columns at the front entrance of the palace have bells carved into them, which, it has been suggested, Lutyens had designed with the idea that as the bells were silent the British rule would never come to an end. At one time, more than 2,000 people were required to care for the building and serve the Viceroy's household.
The new city contains both the Parliament buildings and government offices (many designed by Herbert Baker) and was built distinctively of the local red sandstone using the traditional <a href="Mughal%20architecture">Mughal</a> style.
When composing the plans for New Delhi, Lutyens planned for the new city to lie southwest of the walled city of <a href="Shahjahanbad">Shahjahanbad</a>. His plans for the city also laid out the street plan for New Delhi consisting of wide tree-lined avenues.
Built in the spirit of British colonial rule, the place where the new imperial city and the older native settlement met was intended to be a market; it was there that Lutyens imagined the Indian traders would participate in "the grand shopping centre for the residents of Shahjahanabad and New Delhi", thus giving rise to the D-shaped market seen today.
Many of the garden-ringed villas in the <a href="Lutyens%27%20Bungalow%20Zone">Lutyens' Bungalow Zone</a> (LBZ)—also known as <a href="Lutyens%27%20Delhi">Lutyens' Delhi</a>—that were part of Lutyens' original scheme for New Delhi are under threat due to the constant pressure for development in Delhi. The LBZ was placed on the 2002 <a href="World%20Monuments%20Fund">World Monuments Fund</a> Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites. It should be noted that none of the bungalows in the LBZ were designed by Lutyens—he only designed the four bungalows in the Presidential Estate surrounding Rashtrapati Bhavan at Willingdon Crescent now known as Mother Teresa Crescent.
Other buildings in Delhi that Lutyens designed include <a href="Baroda%20House">Baroda House</a>, <a href="Bikaner%20House">Bikaner House</a>, <a href="Hyderabad%20House">Hyderabad House</a>, and <a href="Patiala%20House%20Courts%20Complex">Patiala House</a>.
Lutyens was made a <a href="Order%20of%20the%20Indian%20Empire">Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire</a> (KCIE) on 1 January 1930.
A bust of Lutyens in the former Viceroy's House is the only statue of a Westerner left in its original position in New Delhi. Lutyens' work in New Delhi is the focus of <a href="Robert%20Grant%20Irving">Robert Grant Irving</a>'s book "Indian Summer." In spite of his monumental work in India, Lutyens had views on the peoples of the Indian sub-continent that, although not uncommon for people of his class and his time, would now be considered racist.
Works in Ireland include the <a href="Irish%20National%20War%20Memorial%20Gardens">Irish National War Memorial Gardens</a> in <a href="Islandbridge">Islandbridge</a> in Dublin, which consists of a bridge over the railway and a bridge over the <a href="River%20Liffey">River Liffey</a> (unbuilt) and two tiered sunken gardens; Heywood Gardens, <a href="County%20Laois">County Laois</a> (open to the public), consisting of a hedge garden, lawns, tiered sunken garden and a belvedere; extensive changes and extensions to Lambay Castle, <a href="Lambay%20Island">Lambay Island</a>, near Dublin, consisting of a circular battlement enclosing the restored and extended castle and farm building complex, upgraded cottages and stores near the harbour, a real tennis court, a large guest house (The White House), a boathouse and a chapel; alterations and extensions to <a href="Howth%20Castle">Howth Castle</a>, <a href="County%20Dublin">County Dublin</a>; the unbuilt <a href="Hugh%20Lane">Hugh Lane</a> gallery straddling the <a href="River%20Liffey">River Liffey</a> on the site of the <a href="Ha%27penny%20Bridge">Ha'penny Bridge</a> and the unbuilt <a href="Hugh%20Lane%20Gallery">Hugh Lane Gallery</a> on the west side of <a href="St%20Stephen%27s%20Green">St Stephen's Green</a>; and Costelloe Lodge at <a href="Casla">Casla</a> (also known as <a href="Casla">Costelloe</a>), <a href="County%20Galway">County Galway</a> (that was used for refuge by <a href="J.%20Bruce%20Ismay">J. Bruce Ismay</a>, the Chairman of the <a href="White%20Star%20Line">White Star Line</a>, following the sinking of the <a href="R.M.S.%20Titanic">R.M.S. Titanic</a>).
Lutyens is thought to have designed Tranarossan House, located just north of <a href="Downings">Downings</a> on the <a href="Rosguill">Rosguill</a> Peninsula on the north coast of <a href="County%20Donegal">County Donegal</a>.
In <a href="Madrid">Madrid</a> Lutyens' work can be seen in the interiors of the <a href="Liria%20Palace">Liria Palace</a>, a neoclassical building which was severely damaged during the <a href="Spanish%20Civil%20War">Spanish Civil War</a>. The palace was originally built in the eighteenth century for <a href="James%20FitzJames%2C%201st%20Duke%20of%20Berwick">James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick</a>, and still belongs to his descendants.
Lutyens' reconstruction was commissioned by <a href="Jacobo%20Fitz-James%20Stuart%2C%2017th%20Duke%20of%20Alba">Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 17th Duke of Alba</a>. The <a href="Duke">Duke</a> had met Lutyens while he was the Spanish ambassador to Great Britain.
Two years after she proposed to him and in the face of parental disapproval, Lady Emily Bulwer-Lytton (1874–1964), third daughter of <a href="Robert%20Bulwer-Lytton%2C%201st%20Earl%20of%20Lytton">The 1st Earl of Lytton</a>, a former <a href="Viceroy%20of%20India">Viceroy of India</a>, and Edith (née) Villiers, married Lutyens on 4 August 1897 at <a href="Knebworth">Knebworth</a>, Hertfordshire. They had five children, but the union was largely unsatisfactory, practically from the start. The Lutyens' marriage quickly deteriorated, with Lady Emily becoming interested in <a href="theosophy">theosophy</a>, Eastern religions and a fascination – emotional and philosophical – with <a href="Jiddu%20Krishnamurti">Jiddu Krishnamurti</a>.
The couple’s daughter <a href="Elisabeth%20Lutyens">Elisabeth Lutyens</a> became a well-known composer. Another daughter, <a href="Mary%20Lutyens">Mary Lutyens</a>, became a writer known for her books about Jiddu Krishnamurti. A grandson was <a href="Nicholas%20Ridley%2C%20Baron%20Ridley%20of%20Liddesdale">Nicholas Ridley</a>, cabinet minister under <a href="Margaret%20Thatcher">Margaret Thatcher</a>.
During the later years of his life, Lutyens suffered with several bouts of pneumonia. In the early 1940s he was diagnosed with cancer. He died on 1 January 1944 and was cremated at <a href="Golders%20Green%20Crematorium">Golders Green Crematorium</a> where he had designed the Philipson Mausoleum in 1914–1916. His memorial, designed by his friend and fellow architect <a href="William%20Curtis%20Green">William Curtis Green</a>, is in the crypt of <a href="St.%20Paul%27s%20Cathedral%2C%20London">St. Paul's Cathedral</a> in the <a href="City%20of%20London">City of London</a>.
inspiration for his Whitehall Cenotaph design)
</doc>
<doc id="90465" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90465" title="Super-Poulet number">
Super-Poulet number
A super-Poulet number is a <a href="Poulet%20number">Poulet number</a>, or pseudoprime to base 2, whose every <a href="divisor">divisor</a> "d" divides
For example 341 is a super-Poulet number: it has positive divisors {1, 11, 31, 341} and we have:
When a composite number is a pseudoprime to base 2, but not to every base (That is, not a <a href="Carmichael%20number">Carmichael number</a>), then it is a super-Poulet number, and when formula_1 is not prime, then it and every divisor of it are a pseudoprime to base 2, and a super-Poulet number.
The super-Poulet numbers below 10,000 are :
It is relatively easy to get super-Poulet numbers with 3 distinct prime divisors. If you find three Poulet numbers with three common prime factors, you get a super-Poulet number, as you built the product of the three prime factors.
Example:
2701 = 37 * 73 is a Poulet number
4033 = 37 * 109 is a Poulet number
7957 = 73 * 109 is a Poulet number
so 294409 = 37 * 73 * 109 is a Poulet number too.
Super-Poulet numbers with up to 7 distinct <a href="prime%20factor">prime factor</a>s you can get with the following numbers:
For example 1.118.863.200.025.063.181.061.994.266.818.401 = 6421 * 12841 * 51361 * 57781 * 115561 * 192601 * 205441 is a super-Poulet number with 7 distinct prime factors and 120 Poulet numbers.
</doc>
<doc id="90468" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90468" title="Pompei">
Pompei
Pompei () is a city and "<a href="comune">comune</a>" in the <a href="Metropolitan%20City%20of%20Naples">Metropolitan City of Naples</a> in Italy, famous for <a href="Pompeii">its ancient Roman ruins</a>. In 2010 its population was 25,671.
Modern Pompei was founded in 1891, after the building of the <a href="Shrine%20of%20Our%20Lady%20of%20Pompei">sanctuary</a>, started by <a href="Bartolo%20Longo">Bartolo Longo</a>. He is considered as the founder of the modern town.
The town of Pompei is located at the eastern borders of its province, and its urban area is contiguous with <a href="Scafati">Scafati</a>, in the <a href="Province%20of%20Salerno">Province of Salerno</a>. It borders also with <a href="Torre%20Annunziata">Torre Annunziata</a>, <a href="Castellammare%20di%20Stabia">Castellammare di Stabia</a>, <a href="Boscoreale">Boscoreale</a>, <a href="Santa%20Maria%20la%20Carit%C3%A0">Santa Maria la Carità</a> and <a href="Sant%27Antonio%20Abate">Sant'Antonio Abate</a>.
The city is mainly famous for the ruins of the ancient city of <a href="Pompeii">Pompeii</a>, located in the zone of Pompei Scavi.
The <a href="Shrine%20of%20Our%20Lady%20of%20Pompei">Shrine of Our Lady of Pompei</a>, dedicated to <a href="Our%20Lady%20of%20the%20Rosary">Our Lady of the Rosary</a>, has become a site for <a href="Catholic">Catholic</a> <a href="pilgrimage">pilgrimage</a>s in recent years. It houses a canvas by <a href="Luca%20Giordano">Luca Giordano</a>. It was founded by a convert who experienced a divine grace from Blessed Virgin Mary; miracles are reported since its foundation and the <a href="Rosary">Rosary</a> is a devotion associated with great graces for anyone who faithfully prays it. The ex-votos that cover the walls of the church are an impressive testimonial of the miracles granted from Blessed Virgin Mary since the church was consecrated in 1891. Many churches, chapels, and shrines in the world are dedicated to Our Lady of Pompei.
Road: Pompei is served by the motorway <a href="Autostrada%20A3%20%28Italy%29">A3</a> at the exits of Pompei-Scafati, Pompei Ovest (close to the ruins of <a href="Villa%20of%20the%20Mysteries">Villa of the Mysteries</a>) and also Castellammare di Stabia. It is crossed by the national roads <a href="Strada%20Statale%2018">SS 18</a> and <a href="Strada%20Statale%20145">SS 145</a>.
Railways: On the <a href="Naples%E2%80%93Salerno%20railway">Naples-Salerno line</a>, owned by <a href="Ferrovie%20dello%20Stato">FS</a>, is situated the <a href="Pompei%20railway%20station">main railway station</a> and a little stop named Pompei Scavi (ruins of P.), closed in the 1970s. Onto two lines owned by the <a href="Circumvesuviana">SFSM - Circumvesuviana</a>, Pompei counts a total of 4 station. <a href="Pompei%20Santuario%20railway%20station">Pompei Santuario</a> (P. Sanctuary, in the middle of the town) and Pompei Valle (close to Pompeii) lies on the Torre Annunziata-Pompei-Poggiomarino line. <a href="Pompei%20Scavi-Villa%20dei%20Misteri%20%28Circumvesuviana%20station%29">Pompei Scavi-Villa dei Misteri</a> (serving the <a href="Villa%20of%20the%20Mysteries">Villa of the Mysteries</a>) and Moregine lie on the Naples-Torre Annunziata-Castellammare-<a href="Sorrento">Sorrento</a> line.
The nearest airports are:
</doc>
<doc id="90469" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90469" title="Blasphemy">
Blasphemy
Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of <a href="Deference">reverence</a> for (a) <a href="God">God</a>(s), to religious or holy persons or <a href="sacred">sacred</a> things, or toward something considered <a href="sacred">sacred</a> or <a href="Sanctity%20of%20life">inviolable</a>.
Some religions consider blasphemy as a religious crime. As of 2012, anti-blasphemy laws existed in 32 countries, while 87 nations had hate speech laws that covered defamation of religion and public expression of hate against a religious group. Anti-blasphemy laws are particularly common in Muslim-majority nations, such as those in the Middle East and North Africa, although they are also present in some Asian and European countries.
The word "blasphemy" came via <a href="Middle%20English">Middle English</a> "blasfemen" and <a href="Old%20French">Old French</a> "blasfemer" and <a href="Late%20Latin">Late Latin</a> "blasphemare" from <a href="Greek%20language">Greek</a> βλασφημέω, from βλάπτω "injure" and φήμη "utterance, talk, speech". From "blasphemare" also came Old French "blasmer", from which English "<a href="blame">blame</a>" came. Blasphemy: 'from Gk. blasphemia "a speaking ill, impious speech, slander," from blasphemein "to speak evil of."' "In the sense of speaking evil of God this word is found in Ps. 74:18; Isa. 52:5; Rom. 2:24; Rev. 13:1, 6; 16:9, 11, 21. It denotes also any kind of calumny, or evil-speaking, or abuse (1 Kings 21:10 <a href="Septuagint">LXX</a>; Acts 13:45; 18:6, etc.)."
In <a href="Blasphemy%20law">some countries</a> with a <a href="state%20religion">state religion</a> blasphemy is outlawed under the criminal code. Such laws have led to the persecution, lynchings, murder or arrest of minorities and dissident members, after flimsy accusations.
As of 2012, 33 countries had some form of anti-blasphemy laws in their legal code. Of these, 20 were Muslim-majority nations – Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, the Maldives, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Turkey, the UAE and the Western Sahara. The other twelve nations with anti-blasphemy laws in 2012 were Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, India, Ireland, Italy, Lebanon, Malta, the Netherlands (abolished in 2014), Nigeria, Poland and Singapore. Blasphemy was treated as a <a href="capital%20crime">capital crime</a> (death penalty) in many Muslim nations.
Other countries have removed the ban of blasphemy. France did so in 1881 to allow freedom of religion and freedom of the press and blasphemy was abolished or repealed in Sweden in 1970, Norway with Acts in 2009 and 2015, the Netherlands in 2014, and Iceland in 2015.
Where blasphemy is banned, it can be either some laws which directly punish religious blasphemy, or some laws that allow those who are offended by blasphemy to punish blasphemers. Those laws may condone penalties or retaliation for blasphemy under the labels of <a href="blasphemous%20libel">blasphemous libel</a>, expression of opposition, or "vilification," of religion or of some religious practices, religious insult, or <a href="hate%20speech">hate speech</a>.
<a href="Christian%20theology">Christian theology</a> condemns blasphemy. It is spoken of in <a href="Gospel%20of%20Mark">Mark</a> , where blaspheming the <a href="Holy%20Spirit">Holy Spirit</a> is spoken of as unforgivable—the <a href="eternal%20sin">eternal sin</a>. However, there is dispute over what form this blasphemy may take and whether it qualifies as blasphemy in the conventional sense; and over the meaning of "unforgivable". In 2 Kings 18, the <a href="Rabshakeh">Rabshakeh</a> gave the word from the king of Assyria, dissuading trust in the Lord, asserting that God is no more able to deliver than all the gods of the land.
In , Jesus told a paralytic "your sins are forgiven" and was accused of blasphemy.
Blasphemy has been condemned as a serious, or even the most serious, sin by the major creeds and Church theologians (<a href="apostasy">apostasy</a> and <a href="infidel">infidel</a>ity [unbelief] were generally considered to be the gravest sins, with <a href="heresy">heresy</a> a greater sin than blasphemy, cf. Thomas Aquinas' "Summa Theologiae").
In the Catholic Church, there are specific prayers and devotions as <a href="Acts%20of%20Reparation">Acts of Reparation</a> for blasphemy. For instance, <a href="The%20Golden%20Arrow%20Holy%20Face%20Devotion%20%28Prayer%29">The Golden Arrow Holy Face Devotion (Prayer)</a> first introduced by Sister <a href="Marie%20of%20St%20Peter">Marie of St Peter</a> in 1844 is recited "in a spirit of reparation for blasphemy". This devotion (started by Sister Marie and then promoted by the Venerable <a href="Leo%20Dupont">Leo Dupont</a>) was approved by Pope <a href="Leo%20XIII">Leo XIII</a> in 1885. The <a href="Raccolta">Raccolta</a> Catholic prayer book includes a number of such prayers. The <a href="Five%20First%20Saturdays">Five First Saturdays</a> devotions are done with the intention in the heart of making reparation to the Blessed Mother for blasphemies against her, her name and her holy initiatives.
The <a href="Holy%20See">Holy See</a> has specific "Pontifical organizations" for the purpose of the reparation of blasphemy through <a href="Acts%20of%20Reparation%20to%20Jesus%20Christ">Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ</a>, e.g. the "Pontifical Congregation of the <a href="Benedictine%20Sisters%20of%20the%20Reparation%20of%20the%20Holy%20Face">Benedictine Sisters of the Reparation of the Holy Face</a>."
The most common punishment for blasphemers was <a href="capital%20punishment">capital punishment</a> through hanging or stoning, justified by the words of .
The last person hanged for blasphemy in Great Britain was <a href="Thomas%20Aikenhead">Thomas Aikenhead</a> aged 20, in Scotland in 1697. He was prosecuted for denying the veracity of the Old Testament and the legitimacy of Christ's miracles.
In Islamic literature, blasphemy is of many types, and there are many different words for it: "sabb" (insult) and "shatm" (abuse, vilification), "takdhib" or "tajdif" (denial), "iftira" (concoction), "la`n" or "la'ana" (curse) and "ta`n" (accuse, defame). In Islamic literature, the term blasphemy sometimes also overlaps with <a href="infidel">infidel</a> ("kufr", disbeliever), "fisq" (depravity), "isa'ah" (insult), and "ridda" (apostasy). There are a number of <a href="sura">sura</a>h in Qur'an and <a href="sunnah">sunnah</a> in hadith relating to blasphemy, from which Quranic verses 5:33-34 and 33:57-61 have been most commonly used in Islamic history to justify and punish blasphemers. For example,
A variety of actions, speeches or behavior can constitute blasphemy in Islam. Some examples include insulting or cursing Allah, or Muhammad; mockery or disagreeable behavior towards beliefs and customs common in Islam; criticism of Islam's holy personages. <a href="Apostasy%20in%20Islam">Apostasy</a>, that is, the act of abandoning Islam, or finding faults or expressing doubts about Allah ("ta'til") and Qur'an, rejection of Muhammed or any of his teachings, or leaving the Muslim community to become an atheist is a form of blasphemy. Questioning religious opinions (fatwa) and normative Islamic views can also be construed as blasphemous. Improper dress, drawing offensive cartoons, tearing or burning holy literature of Islam, creating or using music or painting or video or novels to mock or criticize Muhammad are some examples of blasphemous acts. In the context of those who are non-Muslims, the concept of blasphemy includes all aspects of <a href="infidel">infidel</a>ity (kufr).
The <a href="Quran">Quran</a> does not explicitly mention any worldly punishment for blasphemy ("sabb allah" or "sabb al-rasul"), as it does for <a href="Apostasy%20in%20Islam">apostasy</a> ("riddah"). Islamic jurisprudence (<a href="fiqh">fiqh</a>) of Sunni and Shia <a href="madhab">madhab</a>s have declared different punishments for the religious crime of blasphemy, and they vary between schools. These are as follows:
Some jurists suggest that the sunnah in <a href="hadith">hadith</a> provide a basis for a death sentence for the crime of blasphemy, even if someone claims not to be an apostate, but has committed the crime of blasphemy. Some modern Muslim scholars contest that Islam supports <a href="blasphemy%20law">blasphemy law</a>, stating that <a href="Ulama">Muslim jurists</a> made the offense part of <a href="Sharia">Sharia</a>.
The Islamic law considers blasphemy against Muhammad a more severe offense than blasphemy against God. Repentance can lead to forgiveness by God when God is blasphemed, however since Muhammad is no longer alive, forgiveness is not possible when Muhammad is blasphemed, and the Muslim community must punish his blasphemy by avenging blasphemer's death.
In Islamic jurisprudence, Kitab al <a href="Hudud">Hudud</a> and <a href="Tazir">Taz'ir</a> cover punishment for blasphemous acts. The penalties for blasphemy can include fines, imprisonment, flogging, amputation, hanging, or beheading. Many nations prescribe and carry out the death penalty for <a href="Apostasy%20in%20Islam">apostasy</a>, a similarly motivated action, and Pakistan and Egypt demand execution for some <a href="blasphemy%20law">blasphemers</a>. Muslim clerics may call for revenge against an alleged blasphemer by issuing a <a href="fatwa">fatwa</a> (legal ruling), or simply provide guidelines on behaviors and lifestyle that is blasphemous. For example, in Malaysia, Islamic scholars issued a fatwa declaring <a href="yoga">yoga</a> as blasphemous, because yoga is a form of spiritual practice in Hinduism.
One famous case of the Islamic blasphemy law was the fatwa against English author <a href="Salman%20Rushdie">Salman Rushdie</a> for his book entitled <a href="The%20Satanic%20Verses">The Satanic Verses</a>, the title of which refers to an account that Muhammad, in the course of revealing the Quran, received a revelation from Satan and incorporated it therein until made by Allah to retract it (see "<a href="Satanic%20verses">Satanic verses</a>"). Several translators of his book into foreign languages have been murdered.
As of 2011, all Islamic majority nations, worldwide, had criminal laws on blasphemy. Over 125 non-Muslim nations worldwide did not have any laws relating to blasphemy. In Islamic nations, thousands of individuals have been arrested and punished for blasphemy of Islam. Several Islamic nations have argued in the United Nations that blasphemy against Muhammad is unacceptable, and laws should be passed worldwide to place "limits on the freedom of expression." Non-Muslim nations that do not have blasphemy laws, have pointed to abuses of blasphemy laws in Islamic nations, and have disagreed.
<a href="http%3A//www.thehindu.com/news/international/execution-of-salman-taseers-assassin-leads-to-protests/article8296802.ece">Execution of Salman Taseer’s assassin leads to protests:</a>
states that he that blasphemes the <a href="Tetragrammaton">name of the LORD</a> "shall surely be put to death". In <a href="Halakha">Jewish law</a> the only form of blasphemy which is punishable by death is blaspheming the <a href="Tetragrammaton">Ineffable Name</a>.
The <a href="Seven%20Laws%20of%20Noah">Seven Laws of Noah</a>, which Judaism sees as applicable to all people, prohibit blasphemy.
In the early 21st century, blasphemy became an issue in the United Nations. The <a href="United%20Nations">United Nations</a> passed several resolutions which called upon the world to take action against the "defamation of religions".
The campaign for worldwide criminal penalties for the "defamation of religions" had been spearheaded by <a href="Organisation%20of%20Islamic%20Cooperation">Organisation of Islamic Cooperation</a> on behalf of the United Nations' large Muslim bloc. The campaign ended in 2011 when the proposal was withdrawn in Geneva, in the Human Rights Council because of lack of support, marking an end to the effort to impose worldwide blasphemy strictures along the lines of those in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Iran. This resolution had passed every year since 1999, in the United Nations, with declining number of "yes" votes with each successive year.
In July, 2011, the <a href="UN%20Human%20Rights%20Committee">UN Human Rights Committee</a> released a 52-paragraph statement, General Comment 34 on the <a href="International%20Covenant%20on%20Civil%20and%20Political%20Rights">International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights</a> (ICCPR) 1976, concerning freedoms of opinion and expression. Paragraph 48 states:
In contemporary language, the notion of blasphemy is often used <a href="hyperbole">hyperbolically</a>. This usage has garnered some interest among linguists recently, and the word 'blasphemy' is a common case used for illustrative purposes.
</doc>
<doc id="90471" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90471" title="Software engineer">
Software engineer
A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of <a href="software%20engineering">software engineering</a> to the design, development, maintenance, testing, and evaluation of the software and systems that make computers or anything containing software work.
Prior to the mid-1960s, software practitioners called themselves "<a href="computer%20programmer">computer programmer</a>s" or "<a href="software%20developer">software developer</a>s," regardless of their actual jobs. Many people prefer to call themselves "software developer" and "programmer", because most widely agree what these terms mean, while "software engineer" is still being debated.
The term "programmer" has often been used as a pejorative term to refer to those without the tools, skills, education, or ethics to write good quality software. In response, many practitioners called themselves "software engineers" to escape the <a href="social%20stigma">stigma</a> attached to the word "programmer". In many companies, the titles "programmer" and "software developer" were changed to "software engineer", for many categories of programmers.
These terms cause confusion, because some denied any differences (arguing that everyone does essentially the same thing with software) while others use the terms to create a difference (arguing the terms mean completely different jobs).
In 2004, Keith Chapple of the <a href="Bureau%20of%20Labor%20Statistics">U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics</a> counted 760,840 software engineers holding jobs in the <a href="United%20States">U.S.</a>; in the same period there were some 1.4 million practitioners employed in the U.S. in all other engineering disciplines combined. The label software engineer is used very liberally in the corporate world. Very few of the practicing software engineers actually hold Engineering degrees from accredited universities. (See also <a href="Regulation%20and%20licensure%20in%20engineering%23Title%20usage">Regulation and licensure in engineering</a>.)
About half of all practitioners today have <a href="academic%20degree">degree</a>s in <a href="computer%20science">computer science</a>, <a href="information%20systems">information systems</a>, or <a href="information%20technology">information technology</a>. A small, but growing, number of practitioners have software engineering degrees. In 1987, <a href="Imperial%20College%20London">Imperial College London</a> introduced the first three-year software engineering <a href="Bachelor%27s%20degree">Bachelor's degree</a> in the UK and the world; in the following year, the <a href="University%20of%20Sheffield">University of Sheffield</a> established a similar program. In 1996, the <a href="Rochester%20Institute%20of%20Technology">Rochester Institute of Technology</a> established the first software engineering bachelor's degree program in the United States, however, it did not obtain <a href="ABET">ABET</a> accreditation until 2003, the same time as <a href="Rice%20University">Rice University</a>, <a href="Clarkson%20University">Clarkson University</a>, <a href="Milwaukee%20School%20of%20Engineering">Milwaukee School of Engineering</a> and <a href="Mississippi%20State%20University">Mississippi State University</a> obtained theirs. In 1997, PSG College of Technology in Coimbatore, India was the first to start a five-year integrated Master of Science degree in Software Engineering.
Since then, software engineering undergraduate degrees have been established at many universities. A standard international curriculum for undergraduate software engineering degrees was recently defined by the <a href="CCSE">CCSE</a>. , in the U.S., about 50 universities offer software engineering degrees, which teach both computer science and engineering principles and practices. The first software engineering <a href="Master%27s%20degree">Master's degree</a> was established at <a href="Seattle%20University">Seattle University</a> in 1979. Since then graduate software engineering degrees have been made available from many more universities. Likewise in Canada, the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB) of the <a href="Canadian%20Council%20of%20Professional%20Engineers">Canadian Council of Professional Engineers</a> has recognized several software engineering programs.
In 1998, the US <a href="Naval%20Postgraduate%20School">Naval Postgraduate School</a> (NPS) established the first <a href="doctorate">doctorate</a> program in Software Engineering in the world. Additionally, many online advanced degrees in Software Engineering have appeared such as the Master of Science in Software Engineering (MSE) degree offered through the Computer Science and Engineering Department at <a href="California%20State%20University%2C%20Fullerton">California State University, Fullerton</a>. Steve McConnell opines that because most universities teach computer science rather than software engineering, there is a shortage of true software engineers. ETS University and UQAM were mandated by IEEE to develop the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (<a href="SWEBOK">SWEBOK</a>), which has become an ISO standard describing the body of knowledge covered by a software engineer.
In business, some software engineering practitioners have <a href="Management%20Information%20Systems">MIS</a> or <a href="computer%20information%20systems">computer information systems</a> degrees. In <a href="embedded%20systems">embedded systems</a>, some have <a href="electrical%20engineering">electrical engineering</a>, <a href="electronics%20engineering">electronics engineering</a>, <a href="computer%20science">computer science</a> with emphasis in "embedded systems" or <a href="computer%20engineering">computer engineering</a> degrees, because embedded software often requires a detailed understanding of hardware. In <a href="medical%20software">medical software</a>, practitioners may have <a href="medical%20informatics">medical informatics</a>, general medical, or biology degrees.
Some practitioners have <a href="mathematics">mathematics</a>, <a href="science">science</a>, <a href="engineering">engineering</a>, or <a href="technology">technology</a> degrees. Some have <a href="philosophy">philosophy</a> (logic in particular) or other non-technical degrees.For instance, <a href="Barry%20Boehm">Barry Boehm</a> earned degrees in mathematics. And, others have no degrees.
Most software engineers work as employees or contractors. Software engineers work with businesses, government agencies (civilian or military), and non-profit organizations. Some software engineers work on their own as Consulting Software Engineers. Some organizations have specialists to perform each of the tasks in the <a href="software%20development%20process">software development process</a>. Other organizations required software engineers to do many or all of them. Entry-Level Software Engineer or Associate Software Engineer may be best. Some companies offer Software Engineer as an entry level position. In large projects, people may specialize in only one role. In small projects, people may fill several or all roles at the same time. Specializations include: in industry (<a href="Requirements%20analysis">analysts</a>, <a href="Software%20architecture">architects</a>, <a href="Software%20developer">developers</a>, <a href="Software%20testing">testers</a>, <a href="technical%20support">technical support</a>, <a href="Project%20management">managers</a>) and in academia (<a href="educator">educator</a>s, <a href="researcher">researcher</a>s).
There is considerable debate over the future employment prospects for Software Engineers and other <a href="Information%20Technology">IT</a> Professionals. For example, an online futures market called the <a href="http%3A//www.ideosphere.com/fx-bin/Claim%3Fclaim%3DITJOBS">Future of IT Jobs in America</a> attempts to answer whether there will be more IT jobs, including software engineers, in 2012 than there were in 2002. Possible opportunities for Advancement can be as a Software Engineer, then to a Senior Software Engineer, or straight to a Senior Software Engineer, depending on skills and reputation. Services such as <a href="http%3A//www.devfactor.net/2014/12/01/hired-com-review-ultimate-platform-engineers/">Hired</a> are trying to better gauge the coding ability of an engineer, given not all engineers progress their abilities at the same rate.
Most Software Engineers work 37 to 40 hours per week. This job is office-based, and most of the work is done during normal office hours, but can sometimes lead to working away and working late or during weekends, depending on where and when the client is situated. The job can also be done at home or anywhere a computer is set up. Some high-profile companies have encouraged software engineers to work for long hours; <a href="Apple%20Inc">Apple</a>'s <a href="Steve%20Jobs">Steve Jobs</a> set up a culture where engineers would never take holidays and work throughout weekends, yet love what they were doing.
Most students in the developed world have avoided degrees related to software engineering because of the fear of <a href="offshore%20outsourcing">offshore outsourcing</a> (importing software products or services from other countries) and of being displaced by <a href="Foreign%20Worker%20Visa">foreign visa workers</a>. Although government statistics do not currently show a threat to software engineering itself; a related career, <a href="computer%20programming">computer programming</a> does appear to have been affected. Often one is expected to start out as a computer programmer before being promoted to software engineer. Thus, the career path to software engineering may be rough, especially during recessions.
Some career counselors suggest a student also focus on "people skills" and business skills rather than purely technical skills because such "soft skills" are allegedly more difficult to offshore.
Reasonable command over reading, writing & speaking English is asked by most of employers. It is the quasi-management aspects of software engineering that appear to be what has kept it from being impacted by globalization.
There are several prizes in the field of software engineering:
Many people believe that "software engineering" implies a certain level of academic training, professional discipline, adherence to formal processes, and especially legal liability that often are not applied in cases of software development. A common analogy is that working in <a href="construction">construction</a> does not make one a <a href="civil%20engineer">civil engineer</a>, and so writing <a href="Source%20code">code</a> does not make one a software engineer. Furthermore, because computing doesn't utilize the methods of mathematical physics common to all conventional engineering disciplines, it's more appropriate to call those engaged in this occupation as software developers, computer scientists or similar.
In 1978, a prominent computing scientist, <a href="Edsger%20Wybe%20Dijkstra">E. W. Dijkstra</a>, wrote in a paper that the coining of the term "software engineer" was not useful since it was an inappropriate analogy, "The existence of the mere term has been the base of a number of extremely shallow—and false—analogies, which just confuse the issue...Computers are such exceptional gadgets that there is good reason to assume that most analogies with other disciplines are too shallow to be of any positive value, are even so shallow that they are only confusing."
In each of the last few decades, at least one radical new approach has entered the mainstream of software development (e.g. <a href="Structured%20programming">Structured Programming</a>, <a href="Object-oriented%20programming">Object Orientation</a>), implying that the field is still changing too rapidly to be considered an engineering discipline. Proponents argue that the supposedly radical new approaches are evolutionary rather than revolutionary.
Individual commentators have disagreed sharply on how to define "software engineering" or its legitimacy as an engineering discipline. <a href="David%20Parnas">David Parnas</a> has said that software engineering is, in fact, a form of engineering. <a href="Steve%20McConnell">Steve McConnell</a> has said that it is not, but that it should be. <a href="Donald%20Knuth">Donald Knuth</a> has said that programming is an art and a science. <a href="Edsger%20W.%20Dijkstra">Edsger W. Dijkstra</a> claimed that the terms "software engineering" and "software engineer" have been misused and should be considered harmful, particularly in the <a href="United%20States">United States</a>.
The use of the title "tölvunarfræðingur" (e. <a href="computer%20scientist">computer scientist</a>) is protected by law in Iceland. Software engineering is taught in <a href="Computer%20Science">Computer Science</a> departments in Icelandic universities. Icelandic law state that a permission must be obtained from the Minister of Industry when the degree was awarded abroad, prior to use of the title. The title is only awarded to those who have obtained a master's degree in Software Engineering from a recognized higher educational institution.
The U.K. has seen the alignment of the Information Technology Professional and the Engineering Professionals.
In New Zealand, <a href="Institution%20of%20Professional%20Engineers%20New%20Zealand">IPENZ</a>, the professional engineering organization entrusted by the New Zealand government with legal power to license and regulate chartered engineers (CPEng), recognizes software engineering as a legitimate branch of professional engineering and accepts application of software engineers to obtain chartered status provided he or she has a tertiary degree of approved subjects. Software Engineering is included but Computer Science is normally not.
In Canada the use of the job title "Engineer" is controlled in each province by self-regulating professional engineering organizations, often aligned with geologists and geophysicists, who are also tasked with enforcement of the governing legislation. The intent is that any individual holding themselves out as an engineer (or geologist or geophysicist) has been verified to have been educated to a certain accredited level and their professional practice is subject to a code of ethics and peer scrutiny.
IT professionals with degrees in other fields (such as computer science or information systems) are restricted from using the title "Software Engineer", or wording "Software Engineer" in a title, depending on their province or territory of residence. In some instances, cases have been taken to court regarding the illegal use of the protected title "Software Engineer".
The <a href="Bureau%20of%20Labor%20Statistics">U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics</a> classifies "computer software engineers" as a subcategory of "computer specialists", along with occupations such as computer scientist, programmer, and network administrator. The BLS classifies all other engineering disciplines, including computer hardware engineers, as "engineers".
Some of the states regulate the use of terms such as "computer engineer" and even "software engineer". These states include at least Texas and Florida.
There is also a new PE (Professional Engineer) exam beginning in April 2013 for Software Engineering specifically as the process of tougher regulation moves forward.
</doc>
<doc id="90472" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90472" title="Rosalind Franklin">
Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an <a href="English%20people">English</a> <a href="chemist">chemist</a> and <a href="X-ray%20crystallography">X-ray crystallographer</a> who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of <a href="DNA">DNA</a> (deoxyribonucleic acid), <a href="RNA">RNA</a> (ribonucleic acid), <a href="viruses">viruses</a>, <a href="coal">coal</a>, and <a href="graphite">graphite</a>. Although her works on coal and viruses were appreciated in her lifetime, her contributions to the discovery of DNA were largely recognized posthumously.
Born to a prominent <a href="British%20Jews">British Jewish family</a>, Franklin was educated at a private day school at Norland Place in West <a href="London">London</a>, Lindores School for Young Ladies in <a href="Sussex">Sussex</a>, and <a href="St%20Paul%27s%20Girls%27%20School">St Paul's Girls' School</a>, London. Then she studied the <a href="Natural%20Sciences%20Tripos">Natural Sciences Tripos</a> at <a href="Newnham%20College%2C%20Cambridge">Newnham College, Cambridge</a>, from where she graduated in 1941. Earning a research fellowship, she joined the <a href="University%20of%20Cambridge">University of Cambridge</a> physical chemistry laboratory under <a href="Ronald%20George%20Wreyford%20Norrish">Ronald George Wreyford Norrish</a>, who disappointed her for his lack of enthusiasm. Fortunately, the <a href="British%20Coal%20Utilisation%20Research%20Association">British Coal Utilisation Research Association</a> (BCURA) offered her a research position in 1942, and started her work on coals. This helped her earn a PhD in 1945. She went to Paris in 1947 as a "chercheur" (post-doctoral researcher) under <a href="Jacques%20Mering">Jacques Mering</a> at the Laboratoire Central des Services Chimiques de l'Etat, where she became an accomplished <a href="X-ray">X-ray</a> crystallographer. She became a research associate at <a href="King%27s%20College%20London">King's College London</a>, in 1951, but was compelled to move to <a href="Birkbeck%20College">Birkbeck College</a> after two years, owing to disagreeable clashes with her director <a href="John%20Randall%20%28physicist%29">John Randall</a> and more so with her colleague <a href="Maurice%20Wilkins">Maurice Wilkins</a>. At Birkbeck, <a href="J.%20D.%20Bernal">J. D. Bernal</a>, chair of the physics department, offered her a separate research team. She died in 1958 at the age of 37 of <a href="ovarian%20cancer">ovarian cancer</a>.
Franklin is best known for her work on the <a href="Photo%2051">X-ray diffraction images of DNA</a> while at King's College, London, which led to the discovery of the DNA <a href="double%20helix">double helix</a> for which <a href="James%20Watson">James Watson</a>, <a href="Francis%20Crick">Francis Crick</a> and <a href="Maurice%20Wilkins">Maurice Wilkins</a> shared the <a href="Nobel%20Prize%20in%20Physiology%20or%20Medicine">Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine</a> in 1962. Watson suggested that Franklin would have ideally been awarded a <a href="Nobel%20Prize%20in%20Chemistry">Nobel Prize in Chemistry</a>, along with Wilkins, but the Nobel Committee does not make posthumous nominations.
After finishing her work on DNA, Franklin led pioneering work at <a href="Birkbeck%20College">Birkbeck College</a>, London, on the molecular structures of viruses. Her team member <a href="Aaron%20Klug">Aaron Klug</a> continued her research, winning the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1982. Had she been alive, she would very likely have shared that prize as well.
Franklin was born on 25 July 1920 in 50 Chepstow Villas, Notting Hill, London into an affluent and influential <a href="British%20Jews">British Jewish</a> family. Her father was <a href="Ellis%20Arthur%20Franklin">Ellis Arthur Franklin</a> (1894–1964), a politically liberal London <a href="merchant%20banker">merchant banker</a> who taught at the city's <a href="Working%20Men%27s%20College">Working Men's College</a>, and her mother was Muriel Frances Waley (1894–1976). Rosalind was the elder daughter and the second child in the family of five children. David (born 1919) was the eldest brother; <a href="Colin%20Franklin%20%28bibliographer%29">Colin</a> (born 1923), <a href="Roland%20Franklin">Roland</a> (born 1926), and Jenifer (born 1929) were her younger siblings. Her father's uncle was <a href="Herbert%20Samuel%2C%201st%20Viscount%20Samuel">Herbert Samuel</a> (later Viscount Samuel), who was the <a href="Home%20Secretary">Home Secretary</a> in 1916 and the first practising Jew to serve in the <a href="Cabinet%20%28government%29">British Cabinet</a>. Her aunt, Helen Caroline Franklin, known in the family as Mamie, was married to <a href="Norman%20Bentwich">Norman de Mattos Bentwich</a>, who was the <a href="Attorney%20General">Attorney General</a> in the <a href="British%20Mandate%20of%20Palestine">British Mandate of Palestine</a>. Helen Caroline Franklin was active in <a href="trade%20union">trade union</a> organisation and the <a href="Women%27s%20Suffrage">women's suffrage movement</a>, and was later a member of the <a href="London%20County%20Council">London County Council</a>. Her uncle, <a href="Hugh%20Franklin%20%28suffragist%29">Hugh Franklin</a>, was another prominent figure in the suffrage movement, although his actions therein embarrassed the Franklin family. Rosalind's middle name, "Elsie", was in memory of Hugh's first wife, who died in the <a href="1918%20flu%20pandemic">1918 flu pandemic</a>. Her family was actively involved with the <a href="Working%20Men%27s%20College">Working Men's College</a>, where her father taught the subjects of electricity, magnetism, and the history of <a href="the%20Great%20War">the Great War</a> in the evenings, later becoming the vice-principal.
Franklin's parents helped settle Jewish refugees from Europe who had escaped the <a href="Nazism">Nazis</a>, particularly those from the "<a href="kindertransport">kindertransport</a>". They took in two Jewish children to their home, and one of them, a nine-year-old Austrian, Evi Eisenstädter, shared Jenifer's room. (Evi's father Hans Mathias Eisenstädter had been imprisoned in <a href="Buchenwald">Buchenwald</a>, and after liberation, the family adopted the surname "Ellis".)
From early childhood, Franklin showed exceptional scholastic abilities. At age six, she joined her brother Roland at <a href="Norland%20Place%20School">Norland Place School</a>, a private day school in West London. At that time, her aunt Mamie (Helen Bentwich), described her to her husband: "Rosalind is alarmingly clever – she spends all her time doing arithmetic for pleasure, and invariably gets her sums right." She also developed an early interest in cricket and hockey. At age nine, she entered a boarding school, Lindores School for Young Ladies in Sussex. The school was near the seaside, and the family wanted a good environment for her delicate health. She was eleven when she went to <a href="St%20Paul%27s%20Girls%27%20School">St Paul's Girls' School</a>, West London, one of the few girls' schools in London that taught physics and chemistry. At St Paul's she excelled in science, Latin, and sports. She also learned German, and became fluent in French, a language she would later find useful. She topped her classes, and won annual awards. Her only educational weakness was in music, for which the school music director, the composer <a href="Gustav%20Holst">Gustav Holst</a>, once called upon her mother to inquire whether she might have suffered from hearing problem or <a href="tonsillitis">tonsillitis</a>. With six distinctions, she passed her matriculation in 1938, winning a scholarship for university, the School Leaving Exhibition of £30 a year for three years, and £5 from her grandfather. Her father asked her to give the scholarship to deserving refugee student.
Franklin went to <a href="Newnham%20College%2C%20Cambridge">Newnham College, Cambridge</a> in 1938 and studied chemistry within the <a href="Natural%20Sciences%20Tripos">Natural Sciences Tripos</a>. There she met the spectroscopist <a href="Bill%20Price%20%28physicist%29">Bill Price</a>, who worked with her as a laboratory demonstrator and who later became one of her senior colleagues at King's College London. In 1941, she was awarded <a href="second-class%20honours">second-class honours</a> from her final exams. The distinction was accepted as a bachelor's degree in qualifications for employment. Cambridge began awarding titular <a href="Bachelor%20of%20Arts">B.A.</a> and <a href="Master%20of%20Arts%20%28Oxbridge%20and%20Dublin%29">M.A.</a> degrees to women from 1947, and the previous women graduates retroactively received these. In her last year at Cambridge, she met a French refugee Adrienne Weill, a former student of <a href="Marie%20Curie">Marie Curie</a>, who made a huge influence on her life and career and helped her to improve her spoken French.
Franklin was awarded a research fellowship at Newnham College, with which she joined the physical chemistry laboratory of the <a href="University%20of%20Cambridge">University of Cambridge</a> to work under <a href="Ronald%20Norrish">Ronald Norrish</a>, who later won the <a href="Nobel%20Prize%20in%20Chemistry">Nobel Prize in Chemistry</a>. In her one year of work there, she did not have much success. As described by his biographer, Norrish was "obstinate and almost perverse in argument, overbearing and sensitive to criticism". He could not decide for her what to work upon, and at that time was succumbing to heavy drinking. Franklin wrote that he made her despise him completely. Resigning from Norrish's Lab, she fulfilled the requirements of the <a href="Conscription%20in%20the%20United%20Kingdom">National Service Acts</a> by working as an assistant research officer at the <a href="British%20Coal%20Utilisation%20Research%20Association">British Coal Utilisation Research Association</a> (BCURA) in 1942. The BCURA was located on the Coombe Springs Estate near <a href="Kingston%20upon%20Thames">Kingston upon Thames</a> near the southwestern boundary of London. Norrish acted as advisor to the military at BCURA. <a href="John%20G.%20Bennett">John G. Bennett</a> was the director. <a href="Marcello%20Pirani">Marcello Pirani</a> and <a href="Victor%20Goldschmidt">Victor Goldschmidt</a>, both refugees from the Nazis, were consultants and lectured at BCURA while Franklin worked there. During her BCURA research, she stayed at Adrienne Weill's boarding house in Cambridge until her cousin Irene Franklin asked to join her in a vacated house of her uncle in <a href="Putney">Putney</a>. With Irene, she volunteered as an <a href="Air%20Raid%20Warden">Air Raid Warden</a> and regularly made patrols to see the welfare of people during air raids.
She studied the <a href="porosity">porosity</a> of coal using helium to determine its density. Through this, she discovered the relationship between the fine constrictions in the pores of coals and the permeability of the porous space. By concluding that substances were expelled in order of molecular size as temperature increased, she helped classify coals and accurately predict their performance for fuel purposes and for production of wartime devices such as <a href="gas%20masks">gas masks</a>. This work was the basis of her Ph.D. thesis "The physical chemistry of solid organic <a href="colloid">colloid</a>s with special reference to coal" for which Cambridge University awarded her a Ph.D. in 1945. It was also the basis of several papers.
With World War II ending in 1945, Franklin asked Adrienne Weill for help and to let her know of job openings for "a physical chemist who knows very little physical chemistry, but quite a lot about the holes in coal". At a conference in the autumn of 1946, Weill introduced her to Marcel Mathieu, a director of the <a href="Centre%20national%20de%20la%20recherche%20scientifique">Centre national de la recherche scientifique</a> (CNRS), the network of institutes that comprise the major part of the scientific research laboratories supported by the French government. This led to her appointment with <a href="Jacques%20Mering">Jacques Mering</a> at the Laboratoire Central des Services Chimiques de l'Etat in Paris. She joined the "labo" (as referred to by the staff) of Mering on 14 February 1947 as one of the fifteen "chercheurs" (researchers).
Mering was an X-ray crystallographer who applied <a href="X-ray%20diffraction">X-ray diffraction</a> to the study of rayon and other amorphous substances, in contrast to the thousands of regular crystals that had been studied by this method for many years. He taught her the practical aspects of applying X-ray crystallography to amorphous substances. This presented new challenges in the conduct of experiments and the interpretation of results. Franklin applied them to further problems related to coal, in particular the changes to the arrangement of atoms when it is converted to graphite. She published several further papers on this work which has become part of the mainstream of the physics and chemistry of coal. This work was covered in a 1993 monograph, and in the regularly-published textbook "Chemistry and Physics of Carbon". Mering continued the study of carbon in various forms, using X-ray diffraction and other methods.
In 1950, Franklin was granted a three-year <a href="Turner%20%26amp%3B%20Newall">Turner & Newall</a> Fellowship to work at <a href="King%27s%20College%2C%20London">King's College, London</a>. In January 1951, she started working as a research associate in the <a href="Medical%20Research%20Council%20%28UK%29">Medical Research Council's</a> (MRC) Biophysics Unit, directed by <a href="Sir%20John%20Randall">John Randall</a>. She was originally appointed to work on <a href="X-ray%20diffraction">X-ray diffraction</a> of <a href="protein">protein</a>s and <a href="lipid">lipid</a>s in solution, but Randall redirected her work to DNA fibres because of new developments in the field, and she was to be the only experienced experimental diffraction researcher at King's at the time. Randall made this reassignment, even before she started working at King's, because of the following pioneering work by <a href="Maurice%20Wilkins">Maurice Wilkins</a> and <a href="Raymond%20Gosling">Raymond Gosling</a> – a Ph.D. student assigned to help her.
Even using crude equipment, Wilkins and Gosling had obtained an outstanding diffraction picture of DNA which sparked further interest in this molecule. They had been carrying out <a href="X-ray">X-ray</a> diffraction analysis of DNA in the unit since May 1950, but Randall had not informed them that he had asked Franklin to take over both the DNA diffraction work and guidance of Gosling's thesis. Randall's lack of communication about this reassignment significantly contributed to the well documented friction that developed between Wilkins and Franklin.
Franklin, working with Gosling, started to apply her expertise in X-ray diffraction techniques to the structure of DNA. She used a new fine-focus X-ray tube and microcamera ordered by Wilkins, but which she refined, adjusted and focused carefully. Drawing upon her physical chemistry background, she also skillfully manipulated the critical hydration of her specimens. When Wilkins inquired about this improved technique, she replied in terms which offended Wilkins as Franklin had "an air of cool superiority".
Franklin's habit of intensely looking people in the eye while being concise, impatient and direct unnerved many of her colleagues. In stark contrast, Wilkins was very shy, and slowly calculating in speech while he avoided looking anyone directly in the eye. In spite of the intense atmosphere, Franklin and Gosling discovered that there were two forms of DNA: at high humidity (when wet), the DNA fibre became long and thin; when it was dried it became short and fat.
These forms were termed DNA "<a href="B-DNA">B</a>" and "<a href="A-DNA">A</a>" respectively. Because of the intense personality conflict developing between Franklin and Wilkins, Randall divided the work on DNA. Franklin chose the data rich "A" form while Wilkins selected the "B" form because his preliminary pictures had hinted it might be <a href="helix">helical</a>. He showed tremendous insight in this assessment of preliminary data. The X-ray diffraction <a href="Photo%2051">pictures</a> taken by Franklin at this time have been called, by <a href="J.%20D.%20Bernal">J. D. Bernal</a>, as "amongst the most beautiful X-ray photographs of any substance ever taken".
By the end of 1951 it was generally accepted at King's that the B form of DNA was a <a href="helix">helix</a>, but after she had recorded an asymmetrical image in 1952 May, Franklin became unconvinced that the A form of DNA was helical in structure. In July 1952, as a practical joke on Wilkins (who frequently expressed his view that both forms of DNA were helical), Franklin and Gosling produced a funeral notice regretting the 'death' of helical crystalline DNA (A-DNA). During 1952, they worked at applying the <a href="Patterson%20function">Patterson function</a> to the X-ray pictures of DNA they had produced. This was a long and labour-intensive approach but would yield significant insight into the structure of the molecule.
By January 1953, Franklin had reconciled her conflicting data, concluding that both DNA forms had two helices, and had started to write a series of three draft manuscripts, two of which included a double helical DNA backbone (see below). Her two A-DNA manuscripts reached "<a href="Acta%20Crystallographica">Acta Crystallographica</a>" in <a href="Copenhagen">Copenhagen</a> on 6 March 1953, one day before Crick and Watson had completed their model on B-DNA. She must have mailed them while the Cambridge team was building their model, and certainly had written them before she knew of their work. On 8 July 1953 she modified one of these "in proof", "Acta" articles "in light of recent work" by the King's and Cambridge research teams.
The third draft paper was on the B form of DNA, dated 17 March 1953, which was discovered years later amongst her papers, by Franklin's Birkbeck colleague, <a href="Aaron%20Klug">Aaron Klug</a>. He then published an evaluation of the draft's close correlation with the third of the original trio of 25 April 1953 "Nature" DNA articles. Klug designed this paper to complement the first article he had written defending Franklin's significant contribution to DNA structure. He had written this first article in response to the incomplete picture of Franklin's work depicted in Watson's 1968 memoir, "<a href="The%20Double%20Helix">The Double Helix</a>".
As vividly described in "The Double Helix", on 30 January 1953, Watson travelled to King's carrying a preprint of <a href="Linus%20Pauling">Linus Pauling</a>'s incorrect proposal for DNA structure. Since Wilkins was not in his office, Watson went to Franklin's lab with his urgent message that they should all collaborate before Pauling discovered his error. The unimpressed Franklin became angry when Watson suggested she did not know how to interpret her own data. Watson hastily retreated, backing into Wilkins who had been attracted by the commotion. Wilkins commiserated with his harried friend and then changed the course of DNA history with the following disclosure. Wilkins imprudently showed Watson Franklin's DNA X-ray image. Watson, in turn, showed Wilkins a prepublication manuscript by Pauling and Corey. Franklin and Gosling's photo 51 gave the Cambridge pair critical insights into the DNA structure, whereas Pauling and Corey's paper described a molecule remarkably like their first incorrect model.
In February 1953, <a href="Francis%20Crick">Francis Crick</a> and <a href="James%20Watson">James Watson</a> of the <a href="Cavendish%20Laboratory">Cavendish Laboratory</a> in <a href="University%20of%20Cambridge">Cambridge University</a> had started to build a <a href="molecular%20modelling">model</a> of the B form of DNA using data similar to that available to both teams at King's. Much of their data were derived directly from research done at King's by Wilkins and Franklin. Franklin's research was completed by February 1953, ahead of her move to Birkbeck, and her data were critical. Model building had been applied successfully in the elucidation of the structure of the <a href="alpha%20helix">alpha helix</a> by <a href="Linus%20Pauling">Linus Pauling</a> in 1951, but Franklin was opposed to prematurely building theoretical models, until sufficient data were obtained to properly guide the model building. She took the view that building a model was to be undertaken only after enough of the structure was known.
Ever cautious, she wanted to eliminate misleading possibilities. Photographs of her Birkbeck work table show that she routinely used small molecular models, although certainly not ones on the grand scale successfully used at Cambridge for DNA. In the middle of February 1953, Crick's thesis advisor, <a href="Max%20Perutz">Max Perutz</a>, gave Crick <a href="King%27s%20College%20London%20DNA%20Controversy">a copy of a report</a> written for a <a href="Medical%20Research%20Council%20%28United%20Kingdom%29">Medical Research Council</a> biophysics committee visit to King's in December 1952, containing many of Franklin's crystallographic calculations.
Since Franklin had decided to transfer to Birkbeck College and Randall had insisted that all DNA work must stay at King's, Wilkins was given copies of Franklin's diffraction photographs by Gosling. By 28 February 1953, Watson and Crick felt they had solved the problem enough for Crick to proclaim (in the local pub) that they had "found the secret of life". However, they knew they must complete their model before they could be certain.
Watson and Crick finished building their model on 7 March 1953, one day before they received a letter from Wilkins stating that Franklin was finally leaving and they could put "all hands to the pump". This was also one day after Franklin's two A-DNA papers had reached "<a href="Acta%20Crystallographica">Acta Crystallographica</a>". Wilkins came to see the model the following week, according to Franklin's biographer <a href="Brenda%20Maddox">Brenda Maddox</a> on 12 March, and allegedly informed Gosling on his return to King's.
It is uncertain how long it took for Gosling to inform Franklin at Birkbeck, but her original 17 March B-DNA manuscript does not reflect any knowledge of the Cambridge model. Franklin did modify this draft later before publishing it as the third in the trio of 25 April 1953 "Nature" articles. On 18 March, in response to receiving a copy of their preliminary manuscript, Wilkins penned the following "I think you're a couple of old rogues, but you may well have something".
Crick and Watson then published their model in "<a href="Nature%20%28journal%29">Nature</a>" on 25 April 1953 in an article describing the double-helical structure of DNA with only a footnote acknowledging "having been stimulated by a general knowledge of" Franklin and Wilkins' "unpublished" contribution. Actually, although it was the bare minimum, they had just enough specific knowledge of Franklin and Gosling's data upon which to base their model. As a result of a deal struck by the two laboratory directors, articles by Wilkins and Franklin, which included their X-ray diffraction data, were modified and then published second and third in the same issue of "Nature", seemingly only in support of the Crick and Watson theoretical paper which proposed a model for the B form of DNA.
Weeks later, on 10 April, Franklin wrote to Crick for permission to see their model. Franklin retained her scepticism for premature model building even after seeing the Watson-Crick model, and remained unimpressed. She is reported to have commented, "It's very pretty, but how are they going to prove it?" As an experimental scientist, Franklin seems to have been interested in producing far greater evidence before publishing-as-proven a proposed model. As such, her response to the Watson-Crick model was in keeping with her cautious approach to science. Most of the scientific community hesitated several years before accepting the double helix proposal. At first mainly geneticists embraced the model because of its obvious genetic implications.
Among Franklin's key findings was that the conformation of the DNA double helix depends on the level of <a href="Hydration%20reaction">hydration</a>. She was responsible for discovering and naming <a href="A-DNA">A-DNA</a> and <a href="B-DNA">B-DNA</a>, which are the forms at low and high hydration respectively. Watson and Crick's model was for B-DNA, which is the common form the cells. It was not then known whether A-DNA had any biological functions, but <a href="A-DNA%23Biological%20Functions">several are now known</a>.
Franklin left King's College London in mid-March 1953 for <a href="Birkbeck%2C%20University%20of%20London">Birkbeck College</a>, in a move that had been planned for some time and that she described (in a letter to Adrienne Weill in Paris) as "moving from a palace to the slums... but pleasanter all the same." She was recruited by physics department chair <a href="J.%20D.%20Bernal">J. D. Bernal</a>, a brilliant crystallographer who happened to be an Irish communist, known for promoting women crystallographers. She worked as a senior scientist with her own research group, funded by the <a href="Agricultural%20Research%20Council">Agricultural Research Council</a> (ARC). Despite the parting words of Bernal to stop her interest in nucleic acids, she helped Gosling to finish his thesis, although she was no longer his official supervisor. Together they published the first evidence of double helix in the A form of DNA in the 25 July issue of "Nature". Moreover, she continued to explore another major nucleic acid, <a href="RNA">RNA</a>, a molecule equally central to life as <a href="DNA">DNA</a>. She again used X-ray crystallography to study the structure of the <a href="tobacco%20mosaic%20virus">tobacco mosaic virus</a> (TMV), an <a href="RNA%20virus">RNA virus</a>. Her meeting with <a href="Aaron%20Klug">Aaron Klug</a> in the early 1954 led to a longstanding and successful collaboration. Klug had just then earned his PhD from <a href="Trinity%20College%2C%20Cambridge">Trinity College, Cambridge</a>, and joined Birkbeck in the late 1953. In 1955 Franklin published her first major works on TMV in "Nature", in which she described that all TMV virus particles were of the same length. This was in direct contradiction to the ideas of the eminent virologist <a href="Norman%20Pirie">Norman Pirie</a>, though her observation ultimately proved correct.
Franklin assigned the study of the complete structure of TMV to her PhD student <a href="Kenneth%20Holmes">Kenneth Holmes</a>. They soon discovered (published in 1956) that the covering of TMV was protein molecules arranged in helices. Her colleague Klug worked on spherical viruses with his student John Finch, with Franklin coordinating and overseeing the work. As a team, from 1956 they started publishing seminal works on TMV, cucumber virus 4 and <a href="turnip%20yellow%20mosaic%20virus">turnip yellow mosaic virus</a>.
Franklin also had a <a href="research%20assistant">research assistant</a>, James Watt, subsidised by the <a href="National%20Coal%20Board">National Coal Board</a> and was now the leader of the ARC group at Birkbeck. The Birkbeck team members continued working on RNA viruses affecting several plants, including potato, turnip, tomato and pea. In 1955 the team was joined by an American post-doctoral student <a href="Donald%20Caspar">Donald Caspar</a>. He worked on the precise location of RNA molecules in TMV. In 1956 he and Franklin published individual but complementary papers in the 10 March issue of "Nature", in which they showed that the <a href="RNA">RNA</a> in TMV is wound along the inner surface of the hollow virus. Caspar was not an enthusiastic writer, and Franklin had to write the entire manuscript for him.
In 1957 her research grant from ARC had expired, and was given a one-year extension ending in March 1958. She applied for a new grant from the US <a href="National%20Institutes%20of%20Health">National Institutes of Health</a>, which approved £10,000 for three years, the largest fund ever received at Birkbeck.
<a href="Expo%2058">Expo 58</a>, the first major international fair after World War II, was to be held in Brussels in 1958. Franklin was invited to make a five-foot high model of TMV, which she started in 1957. Her materials included table tennis balls and plastic bicycle handlebar grips. The Brussels world's fair, with an exhibit of her virus model at the International Science Pavilion, opened on 17 April, one day after she died.
Her main research team at Birkbeck College, London Klug, Finch and Holmes moved to the <a href="Laboratory%20of%20Molecular%20Biology">Laboratory of Molecular Biology</a>, Cambridge in 1962.
Franklin was best described as an <a href="agnosticism">agnostic</a>. Her lack of religious faith apparently did not stem from anyone's influence, rather from her own inquisitive mind. She developed her scepticism as a young child. Her mother recalled that she refused to believe in the <a href="Existence%20of%20God">existence of god</a>, and remarked, "Well, anyhow, how do you know He isn't She?" She later made her position clear, now based on her scientific experience, and wrote to her father in 1940:
She however did not abandon Jewish traditions. As the only Jewish student at Lindores School, she had Hebrew lessons on her own while her friends went to church. She joined the Jewish Society at age 27 out of respect of her grandfather's request. She confided to her sister that she was "always consciously a Jew".
Franklin loved travelling abroad, particularly <a href="trekking">trekking</a>. She first "qualified" at Christmas 1929 for a vacation at <a href="Menton">Menton</a>, France, where her grandfather went to escape English winter. Her family frequently spent vacations in Wales or Cornwall. A trip to France in 1938 gave her a lasting love for France and its language. She considered the French lifestyle as "vastly superior to that of English". In contrast, she described English people as having "vacant stupid faces and childlike complacency". Her family was almost stuck in Norway in 1939, as World War II was declared on their way home. In another instance, she trekked the French Alps with Jean Kerslake in 1946, which almost cost her her life. She slipped off on a slope, and was barely rescued. But she wrote to her mother, "I am quite sure I could wander happily in France forever. I love the people, the country and the food."
She made several professional trips to US, and was particularly jovial among her American friends and constantly displayed her sense of humour. William Ginoza of the <a href="University%20of%20California%2C%20Los%20Angeles">University of California, Los Angeles</a> later recalled that she was the opposite of Watson's description of her, and as Maddox comments, Americans enjoyed her "sunny side."
Watson's "The Double Helix" almost entirely refers to her as "Rosy", the name people at King's College used behind her back. She did not want to be called by that name because she had a great-aunt Rosy. In the family she was called "Ros". To others, she was simply Rosalind. She made it clear to an American visiting friend Dorothea Raacke, while sitting with her at Crick's table in <a href="The%20Eagle%2C%20Cambridge">The Eagle</a> pub in Cambridge. She [Raacke] asked her how she was to be called, and she replied, "I'm afraid it will have to be Rosalind," and added, "Most definitely not "Rosy"."
She often expressed her political views. She initially blamed <a href="Winston%20Churchill">Winston Churchill</a> for inciting the war, but later admired him for his speeches. She actively supported Professor <a href="John%20Ryle%20%28physician%29">John Ryle</a> as an independent candidate for parliament in 1940, but he was unsuccessful.
She did not seem to have intimate relationship with anyone and always kept her deepest personal feelings to herself. Since her younger days she avoided close friendship with the opposite sex. Once her cousins visited them, she paid Roland to accompany them. In her later years, Evi Ellis, who had shared her bedroom when a child refugee and who was then married to Ernst Wohlgemuth and had moved to Notting Hill from Chicago, tried matchmaking with <a href="Ralph%20Miliband">Ralph Miliband</a> but failed. Franklin once told Evi that her flatmate asked her for a drink, but she did not get the intention. She was quite infatuated by her French mentor Mering, who had a wife and a mistress. Mering also admitted that he was captivated by her "intelligence and beauty". According to Sayre, she did confess her feeling for Mering when she was undergoing surgery, but her family denied this. But Mering wept when he visited her later, and destroyed all her letters.
Her closest personal affair was probably with her once post-doctoral student <a href="Donald%20Caspar">Donald Caspar</a>. In 1956, she visited him at his home in Colorado after her tour to <a href="University%20of%20California%2C%20Berkeley">University of California, Berkeley</a>, and she was known to remark later that Caspar was one "she might have loved, might have married". In her letter to Sayre, she described him as "an ideal match".
In mid-1956, while on a work-related trip to the United States, Franklin first began to suspect a health problem. While in New York she found difficulty in zipping her skirt, her stomach had bulged. Back in London she consulted Mair Livingstone, who asked her, "You're not pregnant?" to which she retorted, "I wish I were." But her diagnosis report stated that it was not pregnancy, and her case was marked "URGENT". An operation on 4 September of the same year revealed two tumours in her abdomen. After this period and other periods of hospitalization, Franklin spent time convalescing with various friends and family members. These included <a href="Anne%20Sayre">Anne Sayre</a>, Francis Crick, his wife Odile, with whom Franklin had formed a strong friendship, and finally with the Roland and Nina Franklin family where Rosalind's nieces and nephews bolstered her spirits.
Franklin chose not to stay with her parents because her mother's uncontrollable grief and crying upset her too much. Even while undergoing cancer treatment, Franklin continued to work, and her group continued to produce results – seven papers in 1956 and six more in 1957. In 1957, the group was also working on the <a href="polio%20virus">polio virus</a> and had obtained funding from the <a href="Public%20Health%20Service">Public Health Service</a> of the <a href="National%20Institutes%20of%20Health">National Institutes of Health</a> in the United States for this.
At the end of 1957, Franklin again fell ill and she was admitted to the <a href="Royal%20Marsden%20Hospital">Royal Marsden Hospital</a>. On 2 December, she made her will. She named her three brothers as executors and made her colleague <a href="Aaron%20Klug">Aaron Klug</a> the principal beneficiary, who would receive £3,000 and her Austin car. Her other friends Mair Livingstone would get £2,000, Anne Piper £1,000, and her nurse Miss Griffith £250. The remainder of the estate was to be used for charities. She returned to work in January 1958, and she was given a promotion to Research Associate in Biophysics on 25 February. She fell ill again on 30 March, and she died on 16 April 1958, in <a href="Chelsea%2C%20London">Chelsea, London</a>, of <a href="bronchopneumonia">bronchopneumonia</a>, secondary <a href="carcinomatosis">carcinomatosis</a>, and <a href="ovarian%20cancer">ovarian cancer</a>. <a href="Health%20effects%20of%20radiation">Exposure to X-ray radiation</a> is sometimes considered to be a possible factor in her illness.
Other members of her family have died of cancer, and the incidence of <a href="gynaecological%20cancer">gynaecological cancer</a> is known to be disproportionately high among <a href="Ashkenazi%20Jews">Ashkenazi Jews</a>. Her death certificate read: "A Research Scientist, Spinster, Daughter of Ellis Arthur Franklin, a Banker." She was interred on 17 April 1958 in the family plot at <a href="Willesden%20United%20Synagogue%20Cemetery">Willesden United Synagogue Cemetery</a> at Beaconsfield Road in <a href="London%20Borough%20of%20Brent">London Borough of Brent</a>. The inscription on her tombstone reads:
IN MEMORY OF <br> ROSALIND ELSIE FRANKLIN <br> מ' רחל בת ר' יהודה <Br> DEARLY LOVED ELDER DAUGHTER OF <br> ELLIS AND MURIEL FRANKLIN <br> 25TH JULY 1920 - 16TH APRIL 1958 <br> SCIENTIST <br> HER RESEARCH AND DISCOVERIES ON <br> VIRUSES REMAIN OF LASTING BENEFIT <br> TO MANKIND <br> ת נ צ ב ה [Hebrew initials for "her soul shall be bound in the bundle of life"]
Various controversies surrounding Rosalind Franklin came to light following her death.
Anne Sayre, Franklin's friend and one of her biographers, states "In 1951 ... King's College as an institution, was not distinguished for the welcome that it offered to women ... Rosalind ... was unused to "purdah" [a religious and social institution of female seclusion] ... there was one other woman scientist on the laboratory staff". Andrzej Stasiak states "Sayre's book became widely cited in feminist circles for exposing rampant sexism in science." Farooq Hussain states "there were seven women in the biophysics department ... Jean Hanson became an FRS, Dame Honor B. Fell, Director of <a href="Strangeways%20Laboratory">Strangeways Laboratory</a>, supervised the biologists". Maddox states, "<a href="John%20Randall%20%28physicist%29">Randall</a> ... did have many women on his staff ... they found him ... sympathetic and helpful."
Sayre states "that while the male staff at King's lunched in a large, comfortable, rather clubby dining room" the female staff of all ranks "lunched in the student's hall or away from the premises". Elkin states that most of the <a href="Medical%20Research%20Council%20%28UK%29">MRC</a> group typically ate lunch together (including Franklin) in the mixed dining room discussed below. And Maddox states, of Randall, "He liked to see his flock, men and women, come together for morning coffee, and at lunch in the joint dining room, where he ate with them nearly every day." Francis Crick also commented that "her colleagues treated men and women scientists alike."
Sayre also discusses at length Franklin's struggle in pursuing science, particularly her father's concern about women in academic professions. This account had been taken to accuse Ellis Franklin of sexism against his daughter. A good deal of information explicitly claims that he strongly opposed her entering Newnham College. Franklin's <a href="Public%20Broadcasting%20Service">Public Broadcasting Service</a> (PBS) biography goes further by stating that he refused to pay her fees, and that an aunt stepped in for her. Her sister Jenifer Glynn explains that these stories are myths, and that her parents fully supported Franklin's entire career.
Sexism is said to pervade the memoir of one peer, James Watson, in his book "The Double Helix" published 10 years after Franklin's death and after Watson had returned from Cambridge to Harvard. His Cambridge colleague, Peter Pauling, wrote in a letter, "Morris ["sic"] Wilkins is supposed to be doing this work; Miss Franklin is evidently a fool." Crick acknowledges later, "I'm afraid we always used to adopt – let's say, a "patronizing" attitude towards her."
Glynn accuses Sayre of making her sister a feminist heroine, and Watson's "The Double Helix" as the root of what she calls "Rosalind Industry". She conjectures that these alleged sexism stories would "have embarrassed her [Rosalind Franklin] almost as much as Watson’s account would have upset her", and declared that "she was never a feminist." Klug and Crick also concurred that she was definitely not a feminist.
Franklin's letter to her parents in January 1939 is often taken as reflecting her own prejudiced attitude and that she was "not immune to the sexism rampant in these circles." In it she remarked one lecturer as "very good, though female." But as Maddox explains, it was more of circumstantial comment rather than a gender bias. It was more of an admiration because at the time woman teachers of science were a rarity. She in fact laughed at men who were embarrassed by the appointment of the first female professor <a href="Dorothy%20Garrod">Dorothy Garrod</a>.
Rosalind Franklin's first important contributions to the Crick and Watson model was her lecture at the seminar in November 1951, where she presented to those present, among them Watson, the two forms of the molecule, type A and type B, her position being that the phosphate units are located in the external part of the molecule. She also specified the amount of water to be found in the molecule in accordance with other parts of it, data that have considerable importance in terms of the stability of the molecule. Franklin was the first to discover and formulate these facts, which in fact constituted the basis for all later attempts to build a model of the molecule. However, Watson, at the time ignorant of the chemistry, failed to comprehend the crucial information, and this led to construction of a wrong model.
The other contribution included an X-ray photograph of B-DNA (called <a href="Photo%2051">photograph 51</a>), that was briefly shown to Watson by Wilkins in January 1953, and a report written for an MRC biophysics committee visit to King's in December 1952 which was shown by Perutz at the Cavendish Laboratory to both Crick and Watson. This MRC report contained data from the King's group, including some of Franklin's and Gosling's work, and was given to Crick – who was working on his thesis on <a href="haemoglobin">haemoglobin</a> structure – by his thesis supervisor Perutz, a member of the visiting committee.
Sayre's biography of Franklin contains a story alleging that the photograph 51 in question was shown to Watson by Wilkins without Franklin's permission, and that this constituted a case of bad science ethics. Others dispute this story, asserting that Wilkins had been given photograph 51 by Franklin's Ph.D. student Gosling because she was leaving King's to work at Birkbeck, and there was allegedly nothing untoward in this transfer of data to Wilkins because Director Randall had insisted that all DNA work belonged exclusively to King's and had instructed Franklin in a letter to even stop working on it and submit her data. Also, it was implied by <a href="Horace%20Freeland%20Judson">Horace Freeland Judson</a>, that Maurice Wilkins had taken the photograph out of Franklin's drawer, but this is also said to be incorrect.
Likewise, Perutz saw "no harm" in showing an MRC report containing the conclusions of Franklin and Gosling's X-ray data analysis to Crick, since it had not been marked as confidential, although "The report was not expected to reach outside eyes". Indeed, after the publication of Watson's "The Double Helix" exposed Perutz's act, he received so many letters questioning his judgment that he felt the need to both answer them all and to post a general statement in "Science" excusing himself on the basis of being "inexperienced and casual in administrative matters".
Perutz also claimed that the MRC information was already made available to the Cambridge team when Watson had attended Franklin's seminar in November 1951. A preliminary version of much of the important material contained in the 1952 December MRC report had been presented by Franklin in a talk she had given in November 1951, which Watson had attended but not understood.
The Perutz letter was as said one of three letters, published with letters by Wilkins and Watson, which discussed their various contributions. Watson clarified the importance of the data obtained from the MRC report as he had not recorded these data while attending Franklin's lecture in 1951. The upshot of all this was that when Crick and Watson started to build their model in February 1953 they were working with critical parameters that had been determined by Franklin in 1951, and which she and Gosling had significantly refined in 1952, as well as with published data and other very similar data to those available at King's. It was generally believed that Franklin was never aware that her work had been used during construction of the model, but Gosling asserted in his 2013 interview that, "Yes. Oh, she did know about that."
Upon the completion of their model, Crick and Watson had invited Wilkins to be a <a href="Collaborative%20writing">co-author</a> of their paper describing the structure. Wilkins turned down this offer, as he had taken no part in building the model. He later expressed regret that greater discussion of co-authorship had not taken place as this might have helped to clarify the contribution the work at King's had made to the discovery. There is no doubt that Franklin's experimental data were used by Crick and Watson to build their model of DNA in 1953. Some, including Maddox, have explained this citation omission by suggesting that it may be a question of circumstance, because it would have been very difficult to cite the unpublished work from the MRC report they had seen.
Indeed, a clear timely acknowledgment would have been awkward, given the unorthodox manner in which data were transferred from King's to Cambridge. However, methods were available. Watson and Crick could have cited the MRC report as a personal communication or else cited the "Acta "articles in press, or most easily, the third "Nature" paper that they knew was in press. One of the most important accomplishments of Maddox's widely acclaimed biography is that Maddox made a well-received case for inadequate acknowledgement. "Such acknowledgement as they gave her was very muted and always coupled with the name of Wilkins".
Twenty five years after the fact, the first clear recitation of Franklin's contribution appeared as it permeated Watson's account, "The Double Helix", although it was buried under descriptions of Watson's (often quite negative) regard towards Franklin during the period of their work on DNA. This attitude is epitomized in the confrontation between Watson and Franklin over a preprint of Pauling's mistaken DNA manuscript. Watson's words impelled Sayre to write her rebuttal, in which the entire chapter nine, "Winner Take All" has the structure of a legal brief dissecting and analyzing the topic of acknowledgement.
Sayre's early analysis was often ignored because of perceived feminist overtones in her book. It should be noted that in their original paper, Watson and Crick do not cite the X-ray diffraction work of both Wilkins and Franklin. However, they admit their having "been stimulated by a knowledge of the general nature of the unpublished experimental results and ideas of Dr. M. H. F. Wilkins, Dr. R. E. Franklin and their co-workers at King's College, London." Watson and Crick had no experimental data to support their model. It was Franklin and Gosling's own publication in the same issue of "Nature" with the X-ray image of DNA, which served as the main evidence; in which they concluded:
Franklin was never nominated for a <a href="Nobel%20Prize">Nobel Prize</a>. Her work was a crucial part in the discovery of DNA, which Francis Crick, James Watson, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded a Nobel Prize in 1962. She had died in 1958, and during her lifetime the DNA structure was not considered as fully proven. It took Wilkins and his colleagues about seven years to collect enough data to prove and refine the proposed DNA structure. Moreover, its biological significance, as proposed by Watson and Crick, was not established. General acceptance for the DNA double helix and its function did not start until late in the 1950s, leading to Nobel nominations in 1960, 1961, and 1962 for Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and in 1962 for Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The first breakthrough was from <a href="Matthew%20Meselson">Matthew Meselson</a> and <a href="Franklin%20Stahl">Franklin Stahl</a> in 1958, who experimentally showed the DNA replication of a bacterium "<a href="Escherichia%20coli">Escherichia coli</a>". Now known as <a href="Meselson%E2%80%93Stahl%20experiment">Meselson–Stahl experiment</a>, DNA was found to replicate into two double-stranded helices, with each helix having one of the original DNA strands. This <a href="Semiconservative%20replication">DNA replication</a> was firmly established by 1961 after further demonstration in other species, and of the stepwise chemical reaction. According to the 1961 Crick–Monod letter, this experimental proof, along with Wilkins having initiated the DNA diffraction work, were the reasons why Crick felt that Wilkins should be included in the DNA Nobel prize.
In 1962 the Nobel Prize was subsequently awarded to Crick, Watson, and Wilkins. It is not clear whether she would have been included, had she lived. The award was for their body of work on <a href="nucleic%20acids">nucleic acids</a> and not exclusively for the discovery of the structure of DNA. By the time of the award Wilkins had been working on the structure of DNA for more than 10 years, and had done much to confirm the Watson–Crick model. Crick had been working on the <a href="genetic%20code">genetic code</a> at Cambridge and Watson had worked on <a href="RNA">RNA</a> for some years. Watson has suggested that ideally Wilkins and Franklin would have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Franklin's colleague and principal beneficiary in her will Klug was the sole winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982, "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes." This work was exactly what Franklin had started and which she introduced to Klug, and it is highly plausible that, were she alive, she would have shared the Nobel prize.
Franklin's part in the discovery of the nature of DNA was shown in the 1987 TV Movie "<a href="Life%20Story%20%28TV%20film%29">Life Story</a>", starring <a href="Tim%20Pigott-Smith">Tim Pigott-Smith</a> as Crick, <a href="Alan%20Howard">Alan Howard</a> as Wilkins, <a href="Jeff%20Goldblum">Jeff Goldblum</a> as Watson, and <a href="Juliet%20Stevenson">Juliet Stevenson</a> as Franklin. This movie portrayed Franklin as somewhat stern, but also alleged that Watson and Crick did use a lot of her work to do theirs.
A 56-minute documentary of the life and scientific contributions of Franklin, "DNA - Secret of Photo 51", was broadcast in 2003 on <a href="PBS%20Nova">PBS NOVA</a>. Narrated by <a href="Barbara%20Flynn">Barbara Flynn</a>, the program features interviews with Wilkins, Gosling, Klug, Maddox, including Franklin's friends Vittorio Luzzati, Caspar, Anne Piper, and Sue Richley. The UK version produced by <a href="BBC">BBC</a> is titled "Rosalind Franklin: DNA's Dark Lady".
The first episode of another PBS documentary serial, "DNA", was aired on 4 January 2004. The episode titled "The Secret of Life" centres much around the contributions of Franklin. Narrated by Jeff Goldblum, it features Watson, Wilkins, Gosling and Peter Pauling (son of Linus Pauling).
A play titled "Rosalind: A Question of Life" was written by Deborah Gearing to mark the work of Franklin, and was first performed on 1 November 2005 at the <a href="Birmingham%20Repertory%20Theatre">Birmingham Repertory Theatre</a>, and published by <a href="Oberon%20Books">Oberon Books</a> in 2006.
Another play, "Photograph 51" by Anna Ziegler, published in 2011, has been produced at several places in the USA, and in late 2015 was put on at the Noel Coward Theatre, London, with <a href="Nicole%20Kidman">Nicole Kidman</a> playing Franklin. Ziegler's version of the 1951–53 'race' for the structure of DNA sometimes emphasizes the pivotal role of Franklin's research and her personality. Although sometimes altering history for dramatic effect, the play nevertheless illuminates many of the key issues of how science was and is conducted.
"False Assumptions" by <a href="Lawrence%20Aronovitch">Lawrence Aronovitch</a> is a play about the life of <a href="Marie%20Curie">Marie Curie</a> in which Franklin is portrayed as frustrated and angry at the lack of recognition for her scientific contributions.
Rosalind Franklin produced a number of publications, some cited a number of times. A representative sample is listed below. The last two publications in this list were published posthumously.
</doc>
<doc id="90473" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90473" title="Wall Street Week">
Wall Street Week
Wall Street Week (WSW) is an <a href="investment">investment</a> news and information <a href="Television">TV</a> program that was broadcast weekly each Friday evening on <a href="Public%20Broadcasting%20Service">Public Broadcasting Service</a> (PBS) in the United States from 1970 to 2005 and now airs, after being revived in April 2015, weekly each Sunday morning on <a href="Fox%20Broadcasting%20Company">Fox Broadcasting Company</a> in select major markets and at <a href="http%3A//wallstreetweek.com">wallstreetweek.com</a>. It features a host (or hosts) and guest experts participating in discussions related to the <a href="financial%20market">financial market</a>s.
The original show, which was created by <a href="Anne%20Truax%20Darlington">Anne Truax Darlington</a> and produced by <a href="Maryland%20Public%20Television">Maryland Public Television</a> (MPT), debuted on the entire <a href="Public%20Broadcasting%20Service">PBS</a> network on January 7, 1972 and was officially titled Wall $treet Week with <a href="Louis%20Rukeyser">Louis Rukeyser</a> (W$W) during the 32 years he hosted from 1970 to 2002 (the "S" in "Street" was in the shape of a dollar sign).
In June 2002, the show was modified, dropping Rukeyser and changing the name to Wall Street Week with <a href="Fortune%20%28magazine%29">Fortune</a>. Rukeyser went on to host "<a href="Louis%20Rukeyser%27s%20Wall%20Street">Louis Rukeyser's Wall Street</a>" on <a href="CNBC">CNBC</a> (cancelled on December 31, 2004 at Rukeyser's request due to continuing ill health), which was also distributed to PBS stations. Wall Street Week with <a href="Fortune%20%28magazine%29">Fortune</a>, which was hosted by <a href="Geoff%20Colvin">Geoff Colvin</a> and former <a href="Fox%20News">Fox News</a> business correspondent <a href="Karen%20Gibbs">Karen Gibbs</a>, ended its PBS run on June 24, 2005.
Wall Street Week was resurrected in April 2015 by SkyBridge Media LLC, an affiliated entity of global investment firm <a href="SkyBridge%20Capital">SkyBridge Capital</a>, which was founded by financier and entrepreneur <a href="Anthony%20Scaramucci">Anthony Scaramucci</a>. The new "Wall Street Week" features <a href="Anthony%20Scaramucci">Anthony Scaramucci</a> and Morgan Stanley senior advisor Gary Kaminsky as co-hosts. The new show airs Sunday mornings on Fox affiliates in select markets, and is available for streaming and on-demand viewing Sunday mornings starting at 11 AM ET on wallstreetweek.com.
Over the years, the list of guests included such notables as <a href="Paul%20Volcker">Paul Volcker</a>, <a href="Alan%20Greenspan">Alan Greenspan</a>, <a href="Ross%20Perot">Ross Perot</a>, <a href="John%20Kenneth%20Galbraith">John Kenneth Galbraith</a>, <a href="Malcolm%20Forbes">Malcolm Forbes</a>, and <a href="Paul%20Samuelson">Paul Samuelson</a>.
After being introduced, guests for the interview segment were escorted from backstage by a woman in formal dress dubbed by production staff and listed in the <a href="Credits%20roll">credits</a> as "Ms. Smythe" ("Miss Smythe" until the late 1980s), always followed by her real name. Various women over the years performed this task, the most famous being Natalie Seltz.
During Rukeyser's tenure, the program featured a distinctive theme composed by Donald Swartz entitled "TWX in 12 Bars," which featured percussion supplied by a <a href="teletype%20machine">teletype machine</a>. The opening bells of the song replicated the sound of the <a href="Westminster%20chime">Westminster chime</a>s.
On the last Friday of the year, the host and panelists would appear in <a href="black%20tie">black tie</a>, make market predictions and stock recommendations for the upcoming year, and review how well their predictions of one year ago fared.
On October 23, 1987, the first program following <a href="Black%20Monday%20%281987%29">Black Monday</a>, the show dropped its regular format for a special program where Rukeyser interviewed three experts on the impact of the stock market crash.
Afterwards, the show would employ this alternative format whenever events warranted, usually once every few months.
Whenever Rukeyser was on vacation or otherwise absent, one of the show's regular panelists would fill in. For many years this function was usually performed by Carter Randall, though in later years it was usually Frank Cappiello or (less often) <a href="Martin%20Zweig">Martin Zweig</a> after Randall died in 1999. Both Randall and Cappiello were investment bankers from <a href="Baltimore">Baltimore</a>, convenient to where "WSW" was produced in <a href="Owings%20Mills%2C%20Maryland">Owings Mills, Maryland</a>.
During the 1984 and 1985 <a href="pledge%20drive">pledge-drive</a> seasons, Rukeyser hosted two "Investment Primer" specials, introducing viewers to the stock market and how it worked. The first show, which aired in 1984, dealt with stocks, bonds, and gold; whereas the second show in 1985 dealt with mutual funds, options and commodities. Some of the guests included <a href="Stan%20Weinstein">Stan Weinstein</a> (editor of "The Professional Tape Reader"), Peter Lynch (manager of the Magellan funds at <a href="Fidelity%20Investments">Fidelity Investments</a>), and Dick Fabian (editor for "The Telephone Switch Newsletter")
With the new hosts came a change in format:
The new show's theme music was an updated, more orchestral version of "TWX in 12 Bars", produced again by Don Swartz and Don Barto.
Without Louis Rukeyser as host, this new version suffered from lower ratings, neither capturing a new more youthful market as PBS had intended, nor retaining the original viewers. It was cancelled after three seasons.
During its run, the show used two different indexes to predict future market trends:
From 1970 to 1989, the show used the Wall Street Week Index (later known as the WSW Technical Market Index), a <a href="technical%20analysis">technical analysis</a> developed by <a href="Robert%20Nurock">Robert Nurock</a>. The analysis consisted of ten separate technical <a href="Technical%20indicator">indicators</a>, each of which was assigned a value of either +1 (indicating a <a href="bullish">bullish</a> trend), -1 (for a <a href="bearish">bearish</a> trend, or 0 (neutral)). A net balance of +5 (or higher) was interpreted as a buy signal, while a reading of -5 (or lower) was a sell signal. While the index rarely gave outright buy or sell signals, over time it was found to give an accurate forecast of the stock market. Rukeyser irreverently named the index "The Elves" (a reference to the <a href="Gnomes%20of%20Z%C3%BCrich">Gnomes of Zürich</a>), and dubbed Nurock the "Chief Elf." After being in neutral for a considerable period of time, Rukeyser requested significant changes in the makeup of the index. Nurock refused since he believed his ten indicators were still the best way to judge the technical aspects of the market. This ended Nurock's association with the show and the Index was replaced.
Used From 1989 to the end of the Rukeyser era, the Elves Index was also a reading of ten indicators scored in the same manner as the Wall Street Week Index. Instead of reflecting technical factors, the indicators now represented the personal sentiment of ten market analysts about the direction of the market over the next three months. The Elves Index had more volatility and gave more buy and sell signals than the old Wall Street Week Index, but was not as highly regarded. In 1998, one magazine even suggested the Elves Index was more useful as a <a href="contrarian">contrarian</a> tool, citing three examples where buy signals were followed by periods of market drift or contraction. Later, Rukeyser added an Elves Index for the NASDAQ. This index had one of the worst predictive records of any public index.
The indexes were "retired" by Rukeyser after the <a href="September%2011%2C%202001%20attacks">September 11, 2001 attacks</a>. At that point, the indexes were signalling a very strong sell signal. However, as was usually the case, it was an excellent time to do the opposite as the market rallied significantly after the initial selloff.
The premiere of "WSW" on November 20, 1970 was carried on eleven stations of the <a href="American%20Public%20Television">Eastern Educational Television Network</a>. The show rapidly grew in coverage and viewers until it became one of the most popular programs on the newly created PBS member stations. At its peak in the 1980s, the program aired on over 300 stations, and claimed a viewership of 4,100,000 households, which meant more people watched "WSW" every week than read the "<a href="Wall%20Street%20Journal">Wall Street Journal</a>". The program became a major source of profit for both MPT and PBS through underwriting support and viewer pledges (it is estimated PBS earned $5,000,000 profit annually from the show).
Over the years, stock traders and analysts noted that a company touted on "WSW" on Friday would experience a run-up in its stock price the following Monday. This phenomenon, dubbed "The Rukeyser Effect", was stated to be a further demonstration of the program's influence. However, in 1987, Prof. <a href="Robert%20Pari">Robert Pari</a> of <a href="Bentley%20College">Bentley College</a> published an academic article in the "<a href="Journal%20of%20Portfolio%20Management">Journal of Portfolio Management</a>" detailing the results of a study that found that stocks recommended by Rukeyser's guests on Wall Street Week not only tended to rise in price and trading volume in the days "preceding" the Friday evening broadcast, peaking on the Monday afterward, but thereafter those stocks tended to drop in price and under-perform the market for up to a year following the recommendation. Rukeyser strongly disputed this claim, but ten years later Professors <a href="Jess%20Beltz">Jess Beltz</a> and <a href="Robert%20Jennings">Robert Jennings</a> published another academic article in the "<a href="Review%20of%20Financial%20Economics">Review of Financial Economics</a>" reporting results consistent with Pari's original findings, and that there was "little correlation between the 6-month performance of a recommendation and the abnormal volume at the date the recommendation is made." They observed that there were differences in return performance between the recommendations of different individuals, but the market could not discern the more insightful recommendations from the less insightful. Another commentator observed "It is mathematically impossible for the thirty million viewers of this show to beat the market, since they are the market."
Louis Rukeyser conducted the proceedings with a wry sense of humor (including the use of <a href="pun">pun</a>s) and a reassuring manner. In 1980 Rukeyser explained his hosting philosophy to "<a href="The%20New%20York%20Times">The New York Times</a>" as, "I am talking to one person, whom I regard as intelligent, with a good sense of humor, but not all that technically knowledgeable." He instructed panelists and guests not to use technical jargon and economic theories on the show, but rather talk about making money, because, "Economics puts people to sleep. Money wakes them up."
From its ratings peak in the early 1980s, "WSW" suffered a long steady decline in viewers due to competition from shows such as the "<a href="Nightly%20Business%20Report">Nightly Business Report</a>", cable programs like "<a href="Lou%20Dobbs%20Tonight">Moneyline</a>", and cable networks such as <a href="CNBC">CNBC</a>. By 2001 viewership was down to 1,500,000 households and demographics showed that the average "WSW" viewer was 65 years old (about the same age as Rukeyser). MPT began to discuss the possibility of updating the format in an effort to reverse these trends. On March 21, 2002, MPT announced that beginning in June the program would be renamed "Wall Street Week with Fortune", would be a collaboration between MPT and Fortune magazine, and would feature two new cohosts. Rukeyser was invited to remain with the program in a reduced role as a senior correspondent, but he turned down the offer.
The following evening, Rukeyser opened the telecast by announcing "A funny thing happened to me on the way to the studio this week—I got ambushed." He criticized MPT's decision to change the show format, announced that he was developing a new business program for PBS, and concluded his commentary by asking viewers to write to their local PBS station and request it carry his new show. After the broadcast MPT dismissed Rukeyser and executive producer Rich Dubroff. Over the next three months <a href="Marshall%20Loeb">Marshall Loeb</a> and Ray Brady served as guest hosts while the new format was put in place.
Despite "ambushing" Rukeyser, the show's trend of losing viewers continued as the show floundered on without Rukeyser's trusted presence and was terminated in early 2005. Rukeyser died 11 months after the show ended.
In May 2014, <a href="SkyBridge%20Capital">SkyBridge Capital</a> acquired licensing rights to "Wall Street Week", creating a new entity, SkyBridge Media, for the purpose of re-launching the show.
The new "Wall Street Week" features SkyBridge founder and managing partner <a href="Anthony%20Scaramucci">Anthony Scaramucci</a> and Morgan Stanley senior advisor Gary Kaminsky as hosts, and the format has been refreshed to maintain the spirit of the original show while modernizing certain aspects of the presentation. The show is filmed at the Thomson Reuters studio at 3 Times Square in New York, NY.
The new "Wall Street Week" streams every Sunday morning at 11 AM ET on wallstreetweek.com, where it can be watched on-demand on any device - mobile, tablet or computer. The show also airs Sunday mornings on local Fox affiliates in New York, Washington, D.C., Chicago and San Francisco. The website also features Web Extra video and blog content.
The first episode aired April 19 with special guest "bond king" <a href="Jeffrey%20Gundlach">Jeffrey Gundlach</a> of DoubleLine Capital and panelists Liz Ann Sonders (who was a frequent panelist on the original "Wall Street Week with Louis Rukeyser") of Charles Schwab and Jonathan Beinner of Goldman Sachs Asset Management. Gundlach's commentary on the show, where he called for a potential crash in the junk bond market, made waves across Wall Street in the week following the premiere.
</doc>
<doc id="90478" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90478" title="Brueghel">
Brueghel
Brueghel or Bruegel () was the name of several Dutch/Flemish painters from the same family line:
Bruegel may also refer to:
</doc>
<doc id="90479" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90479" title="Puy-de-Dôme">
Puy-de-Dôme
Puy-de-Dôme (; "lo Puèi de Doma" / "lo Puèi Domat" in the "<a href="Auvergnat">Auvergnat</a>" dialect of the <a href="Occitan%20language">Occitan language</a>) is a <a href="departments%20of%20France">department</a> in the centre of <a href="France">France</a> named after the famous dormant volcano, the <a href="Puy%20de%20D%C3%B4me">Puy de Dôme</a>.
Inhabitants were called Puydedomois until December 2005. With effect from Spring 2006, in response to a letter writing campaign, the name used for the inhabitants was changed by the <a href="General%20councils%20%28France%29">departmental General Council</a> to Puydômois, and this is the name that has since then been used in all official documents and publications.
Puy-de-Dôme is one of the original 83 departments created during the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> on 4 March 1790. It was created from part of the <a href="provinces%20of%20France">former province</a> of <a href="History%20of%20Auvergne">Auvergne</a>. Originally, the department was to be called "Mont-d'Or" ("Golden Mountain"), but this was changed to Puy-de-Dôme following the intervention of , a local <a href="National%20Assembly%20%28French%20Revolution%29">deputy</a>, because of a concern that the name originally chosen risked attracting excessive unwelcome attention from the national taxation authorities.
Puy-de-Dôme is part of the current <a href="regions%20of%20France">region</a> of <a href="Auvergne-Rh%C3%B4ne-Alpes">Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes</a> and is surrounded by the departments of <a href="Loire%20%28department%29">Loire</a>, <a href="Haute-Loire">Haute-Loire</a>, <a href="Cantal">Cantal</a>, <a href="Corr%C3%A8ze">Corrèze</a>, <a href="Allier">Allier</a>, and <a href="Creuse">Creuse</a>.
The department is in the <a href="Massif%20Central">Massif Central</a> and boasts more than 80 volcanic craters. It is three hours from <a href="Paris">Paris</a> and an hour from <a href="Lyon">Lyon</a> by <a href="Autoroutes%20of%20France">highways</a> <a href="A71%20autoroute">A71</a> and <a href="A72%20autoroute">A72</a>. The <a href="A75%20autoroute">A75</a> links it to the <a href="Mediterranean%20Sea">Mediterranean Sea</a>.
Its main cities are <a href="Clermont-Ferrand">Clermont-Ferrand</a>, <a href="Thiers%2C%20Puy-de-D%C3%B4me">Thiers</a>, <a href="Riom">Riom</a>, <a href="Issoire">Issoire</a>, <a href="Ambert">Ambert</a>, and <a href="Cournon-d%27Auvergne">Cournon-d'Auvergne</a>. Parts of the department belong to the <a href="Parc%20naturel%20r%C3%A9gional%20Livradois-Forez">Parc naturel régional Livradois-Forez</a>.
<a href="Clermont-Ferrand">Clermont-Ferrand</a>, is home to one of the country's best known manufacturing businesses and brands, <a href="Michelin">Michelin</a>. <a href="Thiers%2C%20Puy-de-D%C3%B4me">Thiers</a> is the oldest industry place in Auvergne with its cutlery tradition from the 14th century.
The countryside lends itself to tourism and Puy-de-Dôme is a popular weekend destination for city dwellers. The 1999 census found that 11.7% of the usable homes in the department were being kept as second homes.
The department was the electoral constituency of <a href="Valery%20Giscard%20d%27Estaing">Valery Giscard d'Estaing</a>, who served as President of the Republic from 1974 to 1981.
</doc>
<doc id="90494" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90494" title="Moselle (department)">
Moselle (department)
Moselle () is a <a href="departments%20of%20France">department</a> in the east of <a href="France">France</a> named after the river <a href="Moselle%20%28river%29">Moselle</a>.
Moselle is one of the original 83 departments created during the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> on March 4, 1790. It was created from the former <a href="provinces%20of%20France">province</a> of <a href="Lorraine%20%28province%29">Lorraine</a>.
In 1793 France annexed the German <a href="enclave">enclave</a>s of <a href="Manderen">Manderen</a>, <a href="Lixing-l%C3%A8s-Rouhling">Lixing-lès-Rouhling</a>, <a href="Momerstroff">Momerstroff</a>, and <a href="Cr%C3%A9hange">Créhange</a> (Kriechingen) - all possessions of princes of the German <a href="Holy%20Roman%20Empire">Holy Roman Empire</a> - and incorporated them into the Moselle département.
By the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Paris%20%281814%29">Treaty of Paris of 1814</a> following the first defeat and abdication of <a href="Napoleon">Napoleon</a>, France had to surrender almost all the territory it had conquered since 1792. In northeastern France, the Treaty did not restore the 1792 borders, however, but defined a new frontier to put an end to the convoluted nature of the border, with all its enclaves and exclaves. As a result, France ceded the <a href="exclave">exclave</a> of <a href="Tholey">Tholey</a> (now in <a href="Saarland">Saarland</a>, <a href="Germany">Germany</a>) as well as a few <a href="Commune%20in%20France">communes</a> near <a href="Sierck-les-Bains">Sierck-les-Bains</a> (both territories until then part of the Moselle département) to Austria. On the other hand, the Treaty confirmed the French annexations of 1793, and furthermore, the south of the Napoleonic département of <a href="Sarre%20%28d%C3%A9partement%29">Sarre</a> was ceded to France, including the town of <a href="Lebach">Lebach</a>, the city of <a href="Saarbr%C3%BCcken">Saarbrücken</a>, and the rich coal basin nearby. France thus became a net beneficiary of the Treaty of Paris: all the new territories ceded to her being far larger and more strategic than the few territories ceded to Austria. All these new territories were incorporated into the Moselle department, and so Moselle had now a larger territory than ever since 1790.
However, with the <a href="Hundred%20Days">return of Napoleon</a> (March 1815) and his final defeat at the <a href="Battle%20of%20Waterloo">Battle of Waterloo</a> (June 1815), the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Paris%20%281815%29">Treaty of Paris</a> in November 1815 imposed much harsher conditions on France. Tholey and the communes around Sierck-les-Bains were still to be ceded as agreed in 1814, but the south of the Sarre department with Saarbrücken was withdrawn from France. In addition, France had to cede to <a href="Austria">Austria</a> the area of <a href="Rehlingen">Rehlingen</a> (now in Saarland) as well as the strategic fort-town of <a href="Saarlouis">Saarlouis</a> and the territory around it, all territories and towns which France had controlled since the 17th century, and which formed part of the Moselle department since 1790. At the end of 1815 Austria transferred all these territories to <a href="Prussia">Prussia</a>. (So later France could directly invade Prussia, starting on 2 August 1870 the <a href="Franco-German%20War">Franco-German War</a>, which it had declared on <a href="North%20German%20Confederation">North Germany</a> on 19 July, with the French Army of the Rhine Corps II and III conquering Saarbrücken. And from the Saar basin the Prussian forces subsequently counterattacked and invaded France, supported by North Germany and the southern German states and defeating France in 1871.)
Thus, by the end of 1815, the Moselle department had finally the limits that it would keep until 1871. It was slightly smaller than at its creation in 1790, the incorporation of the Austrian enclaves not compensating for the loss of Saarlouis, Rehlingen, Tholey, and the communes around Sierck-les-Bains. Between 1815 and 1871, the department had an area of 5,387 km² (2,080 sq. miles). Its <a href="prefectures%20in%20France">prefecture</a> (capital) was <a href="Metz">Metz</a>. It had four <a href="Arrondissements%20of%20France">arrondissements</a>: Metz, <a href="Briey">Briey</a>, <a href="Sarreguemines">Sarreguemines</a>, and <a href="Thionville">Thionville</a>.
After the French defeat in the <a href="Franco-Prussian%20War">Franco-Prussian War</a> of 1870-1871, almost all of the Moselle department, along with <a href="Alsace">Alsace</a> and portions of the <a href="Meurthe%20Department">Meurthe</a> and <a href="Vosges%20%28department%29">Vosges</a> departments, went to the <a href="German%20Empire">German Empire</a> by the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Frankfurt%20%281871%29">Treaty of Frankfurt</a> on the ground that the population in those areas spoke <a href="German%20dialects">German dialects</a>. <a href="Otto%20von%20Bismarck">Bismarck</a> omitted only one-fifth of Moselle (the arrondissement of Briey in the extreme west of the department) from annexation, as it was a French-speaking area. (Bismarck later regretted his decision when it was discovered that the region of Briey and <a href="Longwy">Longwy</a> had rich iron-ore deposits.) The Moselle department ceased to exist on May 18, 1871, and the eastern four-fifths of Moselle returned to Germany merged with the also German-annexed eastern third of the <a href="Meurthe%20Department">Meurthe Department</a> into the German <a href="Bezirk%20Lothringen">Department of Lorraine</a>, based in Metz, within the newly established <a href="Reichsland%20Elsa%C3%9F-Lothringen">Imperial State of Alsace-Lorraine</a>. France merged the remaining area of Briey with the truncated Meurthe department to create the new <a href="Meurthe-et-Moselle">Meurthe-et-Moselle</a> department (a new name chosen on purpose to remind people of the lost Moselle department) with its "préfecture" at <a href="Nancy%2C%20France">Nancy</a>.
In 1919, following the French victory in the <a href="First%20World%20War">First World War</a>, Germany returned Alsace-Lorraine to France under the terms of the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Versailles">Treaty of Versailles</a>. However, it was decided not to recreate the old separate departments of Meurthe and Moselle by reverting to the old department borders of before 1871. Instead, Meurthe-et-Moselle was left untouched, and the German Region of Lorraine (Bezirk Lothringen) was reconstituted as the new department of Moselle. Thus, the Moselle department was reborn, but with quite different borders from those before 1871. Having lost the area of Briey, it had now gained the areas of <a href="Ch%C3%A2teau-Salins">Château-Salins</a> and <a href="Sarrebourg">Sarrebourg</a> which before 1871 had formed one-third of the Meurthe department and which had been part of the "Reichsland" of "Alsace-Loraine" since 1871.
The new Moselle department now reached its current area of 6,216 km² (2,400 sq. miles), larger than the old Moselle because the areas of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg were far larger than the area of Briey and Longwy.
During <a href="World%20War%20II">World War II</a> Germany again annexed Moselle from France: it became part of the "<a href="Gau%20Westmark">Gau Westmark</a>" in accordance with the <a href="Second%20Armistice%20at%20Compi%C3%A8gne">armistice of June 22, 1940</a>. Adolf Hitler considered Moselle and Alsace part of Germany and as a result had the eligible inhabitants drafted into the German <a href="Wehrmacht">Wehrmacht</a>.
The <a href="United%20States%20Army">United States Army</a> liberated Moselle from the <a href="III%20Reich">III Reich</a> in battle in 1944, and it was returned to French governance in 1945 with the same frontiers as 1919. As a result of German aggression in <a href="World%20War%202">World War 2</a> both the French Government actively discouraged the Germanic heritage of the region, and the local German <a href="Lorraine%20Franconian">Lorraine Franconian</a> dialects ceased to be used in the public realm. in recent years efforts there has been a revival of the old dialects and distinct Franco-German culture of the region with the onset of open borders between France and Germany as members of the <a href="European%20Union">European Union</a>'s<a href="Schengen%20Treaty">Schengen Treaty</a>.
Moselle is part of the current <a href="regions%20of%20France">region</a> of <a href="Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine">Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine</a> and is surrounded by the French departments of <a href="Meurthe-et-Moselle">Meurthe-et-Moselle</a> and <a href="Bas-Rhin">Bas-Rhin</a>, as well as <a href="Germany">Germany</a> (states of <a href="Saarland">Saarland</a> and <a href="Rhineland-Palatinate">Rhineland-Palatinate</a>) and <a href="Luxembourg">Luxembourg</a> in the north. Parts of Moselle belong to <a href="Parc%20naturel%20r%C3%A9gional%20de%20Lorraine">Parc naturel régional de Lorraine</a>.
The following are the most important rivers:
The inhabitants of the department are called "Mosellans" in <a href="French%20%28language%29">French</a>.
The population has remained relatively stable since World War II and now exceeds 1 million, located mostly in the urban area around <a href="Metz">Metz</a> and along the river <a href="Moselle%20%28river%29">Moselle</a>.
If the Moselle department still existed in its limits of between 1815–1871, its population at the 1999 French census would have been 1,089,804 inhabitants. The current Moselle department, whose limits were set in 1919, had less population, with only 1,023,447 inhabitants. This is because the industrial area of Briey and Longwy lost in 1871 is more populated than the rural areas of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg gained in 1919.
A significant minority of inhabitants of the department (fewer than 100,000) speak a Germanic dialect known as "platt lorrain" or "Lothringer Platt" (see <a href="Lorraine%20Franconian">Lorraine Franconian</a> and <a href="Linguistic%20boundary%20of%20Moselle">Linguistic boundary of Moselle</a>).
<a href="Linguistics">Linguistically</a>, "Platt" can be further subdivided into three varieties, going from east to west: <a href="Rhenish%20Franconian">Rhenish Franconian</a>, <a href="Moselle%20Franconian">Moselle Franconian</a>, and <a href="Luxembourgish%20language">Luxembourgish</a>.
Moselle and <a href="Alsace">Alsace</a> to its east have their own laws in certain fields. The statutes in question date primarily from the period 1871 - 1919 when the area was part of the <a href="German%20Empire">German Empire</a>. With the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Versailles">return of Alsace-Lorraine to France</a> in 1919, many in central government assumed that the recovered territories would be subject to French law.
Local resistance to a total acceptance of French law arose because some of <a href="Otto%20von%20Bismarck">Bismarck</a>'s reforms included strong protections for civil and social rights. After much discussion and uncertainty, Paris accepted in 1924 that pre-existing German law would apply in certain fields, notably hunting, economic life, local government relationships, health insurance, and social rights. Many of the relevant statues continue to be referred to in the original German, as they have never been formally translated.
One major difference with French law is the absence of the <a href="La%C3%AFcit%C3%A9">formal separation between church and state</a>: several mainstream denominations of the Christian church as well as the Jewish faith benefit from state funding, despite principles applied rigorously in the rest of France.
</doc>
<doc id="90497" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90497" title="Manche">
Manche
Manche () is a <a href="France">French</a> <a href="Departments%20of%20France">department</a> in <a href="Normandy%20%28French%20region%29">Normandy</a> ("Normandie"), named for the <a href="English%20Channel">English Channel</a>, which is known as "La Manche", literally "the sleeve", in French, that borders its north and west shores and part of its east shore.
Manche is one of the original 83 departments created during the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> on March 4, 1790. It was created from part of the province of <a href="Normandy">Normandie</a>.
The first capital was <a href="Coutances">Coutances</a> until 1796, and it resumed that role after <a href="World%20War%20II">World War II</a> because of the almost complete destruction of <a href="Saint-L%C3%B4">Saint-Lô</a> during the <a href="battle%20of%20Normandy">battle of Normandy</a> following <a href="D-Day">D-Day</a>. When Saint-Lô was rebuilt, it again became the capital.
The Department includes the <a href="Cotentin%20Peninsula">Cotentin Peninsula</a> down to the famous <a href="Mont%20St%20Michel">Mont St Michel</a>; though of the off-shore <a href="Channel%20Islands">Channel Islands</a> only <a href="Chausey">Chausey</a> forms part of the territory of the department.
Manche borders the Normandy departments of <a href="Calvados%20%28d%C3%A9partement%29">Calvados</a> to the east and <a href="Orne">Orne</a> to the southeast. <a href="Mayenne">Mayenne</a>, a department of the <a href="Pays%20de%20la%20Loire">Pays de la Loire</a>, is to the south-east, and <a href="Ille-et-Vilaine">Ille-et-Vilaine</a> in <a href="Brittany">Brittany</a> is to the south-west.
The region is lush and green with sandy beaches, remaining very rural and farming oriented. The peninsula was originally joined as a single land mass to <a href="Cornwall">Cornwall</a> and <a href="Dorset">Dorset</a> in England, meaning that their countrysides are very similar. Flat marsh areas are known for their bird watching. The region and around St Lo is the horse capital of France, where the cooler climate compared to the south is ideal for breeding and training.
France's first <a href="EPR%20%28nuclear%20reactor%29">EPR reactor</a> is near completion at Cherbourg and the TGV fast trains are planned for Paris to Caen and Cherbourg for 2020.
The climate is <a href="Oceanic%20climate">oceanic</a>, with relatively mild winters temperatures can go below zero for a few days occasionally. Temperate summers, around 20 °C, can occasionally reach 35 °C in direct sun light. Precipitation is substantial, and varies greatly by region, between 700mm on the coast and 1300mm in the southern central area. Highly localised, not life-threatening flash flooding has been experienced over the last few years in the spring period.
The west coast benefits from the <a href="Gulf%20stream">Gulf stream</a>'s influence, allowing the naturalization of many Mediterranean and exotic plants (mimosas, palms, agaves...).
There is often a sea breeze on the coast, which combined with tides contributes to quick temperature changes over a single day. Sea temperatures can be very pleasant for swimming between July and October.
Inhabitants of the department are called "Manchots" or "Manchois".
</doc>
<doc id="90499" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90499" title="Isère">
Isère
Isère (; <a href="Arpitan">Arpitan</a>: "Isera", <a href="Occitan">Occitan</a>: "Isèra") is a <a href="departments%20of%20France">department</a> in the <a href="Auvergne-Rh%C3%B4ne-Alpes">Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes</a> <a href="Regions%20of%20France">region</a> in the east of <a href="France">France</a> named after the river <a href="Is%C3%A8re%20%28river%29">Isère</a>.
Isère is one of the original 83 departments created during the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> on March 4, 1790. It was created from part of the <a href="province%20of%20France">former province</a> of <a href="Dauphin%C3%A9">Dauphiné</a>. Its area has been reduced twice, in 1852 and again in 1967, on both occasions losing territory to the department of <a href="Rh%C3%B4ne%20%28department%29">Rhône</a>.
In 1852 in response to rapid urban development round the edge of <a href="Lyon">Lyon</a>, the (hitherto Isère) communes of <a href="Bron">Bron</a>, <a href="Vaulx-en-Velin">Vaulx-en-Velin</a>, <a href="V%C3%A9nissieux">Vénissieux</a> and <a href="Villeurbanne">Villeurbanne</a> were transferred to <a href="Rh%C3%B4ne%20%28department%29">Rhône</a>. In 1967 the redrawing of local government borders led to the creation of the <a href="Urban%20Community%20of%20Lyon">Urban Community of Lyon</a> (more recently known simply as Greater Lyon / Grand Lyon). At that time intercommunal groupings of this nature were not permitted to straddle departmental frontiers, and accordingly 23 more Isère communes (along with 6 communes from <a href="Ain">Ain</a>) found themselves transferred to Rhône. The affected Isère communes were <a href="Chaponnay">Chaponnay</a>, <a href="Chassieu">Chassieu</a>, <a href="Communay">Communay</a>, <a href="Corbas">Corbas</a>, <a href="D%C3%A9cines-Charpieu">Décines-Charpieu</a>, <a href="Feyzin">Feyzin</a>, <a href="Genas">Genas</a>, <a href="Jonage">Jonage</a>, <a href="Jons">Jons</a>, <a href="Marennes%2C%20Rh%C3%B4ne">Marennes</a>, <a href="Meyzieu">Meyzieu</a>, <a href="Mions">Mions</a>, <a href="Pusignan">Pusignan</a>, <a href="Saint-Bonnet-de-Mure">Saint-Bonnet-de-Mure</a>, <a href="Saint-Laurent-de-Mure">Saint-Laurent-de-Mure</a>, <a href="Saint-Pierre-de-Chandieu">Saint-Pierre-de-Chandieu</a>, <a href="Saint-Priest%2C%20Rh%C3%B4ne">Saint-Priest</a>, <a href="Saint-Symphorien-d%27Ozon">Saint-Symphorien-d'Ozon</a>, <a href="S%C3%A9r%C3%A9zin-du-Rh%C3%B4ne">Sérézin-du-Rhône</a>, <a href="Simandres">Simandres</a>, <a href="Solaize">Solaize</a>, <a href="Ternay%2C%20Rh%C3%B4ne">Ternay</a> and <a href="Toussieu">Toussieu</a>.
Most recently, on 1 April 1971, <a href="Colombier-Saugnieu">Colombier-Saugnieu</a> was lost to Rhône. Banners appeared in the commune's three little villages at the time proclaiming "<a href="Dauphin%C3%A9">Dauphinois</a> toujours" "(Always Dauphinois)"
"Isère" was also the name of the French ship which delivered the 214 boxes holding the <a href="Statue%20of%20Liberty">Statue of Liberty</a>.
Isère is part of the current region of <a href="Auvergne-Rh%C3%B4ne-Alpes">Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes</a> and is surrounded by the departments of <a href="Rh%C3%B4ne%20%28department%29">Rhône</a>, <a href="Ain">Ain</a>, <a href="Savoie">Savoie</a>, <a href="Hautes-Alpes">Hautes-Alpes</a>, <a href="Dr%C3%B4me">Drôme</a>, <a href="Ard%C3%A8che">Ardèche</a>, and <a href="Loire%20%28department%29">Loire</a>.
Isère includes a part of the French <a href="Alps">Alps</a>. The highest point in the department is the Sub-Peak "Pic Lory" at 4,088 metres, subsidiary to the <a href="Barre%20des%20%C3%89crins">Barre des Écrins</a>. The summit of <a href="La%20Meije">La Meije</a> at 3,988 metres is also very known. The <a href="Vercors%20Plateau">Vercors Plateau</a> dominates the west of the department.
Inhabitants of the department are called "Isérois".
The President of the General Council is <a href="Andr%C3%A9%20Vallini">André Vallini</a> of the <a href="Socialist%20Party%20%28France%29">Socialist Party</a>.
The <a href="Grande%20Chartreuse">Grande Chartreuse</a> is the mother abbey of the <a href="Carthusian">Carthusian</a> order. It is located 14 miles north of Grenoble.
As early as the 13th century, residents of the north and central parts of Isère spoke a dialect of the <a href="Franco-Proven%C3%A7al%20language">Franco-Provençal language</a> called <a href="Franco-Proven%C3%A7al%20language%23Dialects">Dauphinois</a>. It continued to be spoken in rural areas of Isère into the 20th century.
Isère features many <a href="ski%20resort">ski resort</a>s, including the <a href="Alpe%20d%27Huez">Alpe d'Huez</a>, <a href="Les%20Deux%20Alpes">Les Deux Alpes</a>, the <a href="1968%20Winter%20Olympics">1968 Winter Olympics</a> resorts of <a href="Chamrousse">Chamrousse</a>, <a href="Villard%20de%20Lans">Villard de Lans</a>, <a href="Autrans">Autrans</a>. Other popular resorts include <a href="Les%207%20Laux">Les 7 Laux</a>, <a href="Le%20Collet%20d%27Allevard">Le Collet d'Allevard</a>, <a href="M%C3%A9audre">Méaudre</a>, <a href="Saint-Pierre-de-Chartreuse">Saint-Pierre-de-Chartreuse</a>, <a href="Alpe%20du%20Grand%20Serre">Alpe du Grand Serre</a>, <a href="Gresse-en-Vercors">Gresse-en-Vercors</a>.
Grenoble has a dozen museums, including the most famous created in Grenoble in 1798, the <a href="Museum%20of%20Grenoble">Museum of Grenoble</a>.
It is the third largest ski and winter destination of France, after <a href="Savoie">Savoie</a> and <a href="Haute-Savoie">Haute-Savoie</a>, and before <a href="Hautes-Alpes">Hautes-Alpes</a>. It also hosts <a href="Coupe%20Icare">Coupe Icare</a>, an annual festival of free flight, such as <a href="paragliding">paragliding</a> and <a href="hang-gliding">hang-gliding</a>, held at the world-renowned paragliding site at <a href="Lumbin">Lumbin</a>.
<a href="Poma">Poma</a> (ski-lifts) and <a href="Rossignol">Rossignol</a> (ski and winter surf company) are headquartered in Isère, near Grenoble.
Other companies include STMicroelectronics France, <a href="Schneider%20Electric">Schneider Electric</a> SA, Caterpillar France SAS, Hewlett Packard, Becton Dickinson France SAS, Soitec, Siemens, Teisseire.
Isère produces the following cheeses: <a href="Bleu%20du%20Vercors-Sassenage">Bleu du Vercors-Sassenage</a>, an <a href="Appellation%20d%27Origine%20Contr%C3%B4l%C3%A9e">Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée</a> cheese, and <a href="Saint-Marcellin">Saint-Marcellin</a>.
</doc>
<doc id="90500" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90500" title="Boosting (machine learning)">
Boosting (machine learning)
Boosting is a <a href="Ensemble%20learning">machine learning ensemble</a> <a href="meta-algorithm">meta-algorithm</a> for primarily reducing <a href="Supervised%20learning%23Bias-variance%20tradeoff">bias</a>, and also variance in <a href="supervised%20learning">supervised learning</a>, and a family of machine learning algorithms which convert weak learners to strong ones. Boosting is based on the question posed by <a href="Michael%20Kearns%20%28computer%20scientist%29">Kearns</a> and <a href="Leslie%20Valiant">Valiant</a> (1988, 1989): Can a set of weak learners create a single strong learner? A weak learner is defined to be a classifier which is only slightly correlated with the true classification (it can label examples better than random guessing). In contrast, a strong learner is a classifier that is arbitrarily well-correlated with the true classification.
Robert Schapire's affirmative answer in a 1990 paper to the question of Kearns and Valiant has had significant ramifications in <a href="machine%20learning">machine learning</a> and <a href="statistics">statistics</a>, most notably leading to the development of boosting.
When first introduced, the "hypothesis boosting problem" simply referred to the process of turning a weak learner into a strong learner. "Informally, [the hypothesis boosting] problem asks whether an efficient learning algorithm […] that outputs a hypothesis whose performance is only slightly better than random guessing [i.e. a weak learner] implies the existence of an efficient algorithm that outputs a hypothesis of arbitrary accuracy [i.e. a strong learner]." Algorithms that achieve hypothesis boosting quickly became simply known as "boosting". Freund and Schapire's arcing (Adapt[at]ive Resampling and Combining), as a general technique, is more or less synonymous with boosting.
While boosting is not algorithmically constrained, most boosting algorithms consist of iteratively learning weak classifiers with respect to a distribution and adding them to a final strong classifier. When they are added, they are typically weighted in some way that is usually related to the weak learners' accuracy. After a weak learner is added, the data is reweighted: examples that are misclassified gain weight and examples that are classified correctly lose weight (some boosting algorithms actually decrease the weight of repeatedly misclassified examples, e.g., <a href="boost%20by%20majority">boost by majority</a> and <a href="BrownBoost">BrownBoost</a>). Thus, future weak learners focus more on the examples that previous weak learners misclassified.
There are many boosting algorithms. The original ones, proposed by <a href="Robert%20Schapire">Robert Schapire</a> (a recursive majority gate formulation) and <a href="Yoav%20Freund">Yoav Freund</a> (boost by majority), were not adaptive and could not take full advantage of the weak learners. However, Schapire and Freund then developed <a href="AdaBoost">AdaBoost</a>, an adaptive boosting algorithm that won the prestigious <a href="G%C3%B6del%20Prize">Gödel Prize</a>.
Only algorithms that are provable boosting algorithms in the probably approximately correct learning formulation can accurately be called "boosting algorithms". Other algorithms that are similar in spirit to boosting algorithms are sometimes called "leveraging algorithms", although they are also sometimes incorrectly called boosting algorithms.
The main variation between many boosting algorithms is their method of weighting training data points and hypotheses. <a href="AdaBoost">AdaBoost</a> is very popular and perhaps the most significant historically as it was the first algorithm that could adapt to the weak learners. However, there are many more recent algorithms such as <a href="LPBoost">LPBoost</a>, <a href="TotalBoost">TotalBoost</a>, <a href="BrownBoost">BrownBoost</a>, <a href="MadaBoost">MadaBoost</a>, <a href="LogitBoost">LogitBoost</a>, and others. Many boosting algorithms fit into the <a href="AnyBoost">AnyBoost</a> framework, which shows that boosting performs <a href="gradient%20descent">gradient descent</a> in <a href="function%20space">function space</a> using a <a href="Convex%20function">convex</a> cost function.
In 2008 Phillip Long (at Google) and Rocco A. Servedio (Columbia University) published a paper at the 25th International Conference for Machine Learning suggesting that many of these algorithms are probably flawed. They conclude that "convex potential boosters cannot withstand random classification noise," thus making the applicability of such algorithms for real world, noisy data sets questionable. The paper shows that if any non-zero fraction of the training data is mis-labeled, the boosting algorithm tries extremely hard to correctly classify these training examples, and fails to produce a model with accuracy better than 1/2. This result does not apply to branching program based boosters but does apply to <a href="AdaBoost">AdaBoost</a>, <a href="LogitBoost">LogitBoost</a>, and others.
</doc>
<doc id="90501" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90501" title="Labrador Peninsula">
Labrador Peninsula
The Labrador Peninsula is a large <a href="peninsula">peninsula</a> in eastern <a href="Canada">Canada</a>. It is bounded by the <a href="Hudson%20Bay">Hudson Bay</a> to the west, the <a href="Hudson%20Strait">Hudson Strait</a> to the north, the <a href="Labrador%20Sea">Labrador Sea</a> to the east, and the <a href="Gulf%20of%20Saint%20Lawrence">Gulf of Saint Lawrence</a> to the southeast. The peninsula includes the region of <a href="Labrador">Labrador</a>, which is part of the province of <a href="Newfoundland%20and%20Labrador">Newfoundland and Labrador</a>, and the regions of <a href="Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean">Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean</a>, <a href="C%C3%B4te-Nord">Côte-Nord</a>, and <a href="Nord-du-Qu%C3%A9bec">Nord-du-Québec</a>, which are in the province of <a href="Quebec">Quebec</a>. The peninsula has a population of about 150,000 (2006 census). It also has an area of , making it the 4th largest peninsula in the world.
The peninsula is surrounded by sea on all sides except for the southwest where it connects to the mainland. The northwestern part of the Labrador Peninsula is shaped as a lesser peninsula, the <a href="Ungava%20Peninsula">Ungava Peninsula</a>, surrounded by Hudson Bay, the Hudson Strait, and <a href="Ungava%20Bay">Ungava Bay</a>. The northernmost point of the Ungava Peninsula, <a href="Cape%20Wolstenholme">Cape Wolstenholme</a>, also serves as the northernmost point of the Labrador Peninsula and of the province of Quebec.
The peninsula is a plateau threaded by river valleys. There are several mountain ranges. The <a href="Torngat%20Mountains">Torngat Mountains</a>, located in the northern part of the peninsula, contain the highest point of the peninsula <a href="Mount%20Caubvick">Mount Caubvick</a>, which at is also the highest point of Canada east of <a href="Alberta">Alberta</a>. The mountains also host <a href="Torngat%20Mountains%20National%20Park">Torngat Mountains National Park</a>, the only national park of Canada on the Labrador Peninsula. The park is located in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, whereas the adjacent <a href="Kuururjuaq%20National%20Park">Kuururjuaq National Park</a> is governed by the province of Quebec.
It is widely accepted that the peninsula is named after Portuguese explorer <a href="Jo%C3%A3o%20Fernandes%20Lavrador">João Fernandes Lavrador</a>. He was granted a patent by King <a href="Manuel%20I%20of%20Portugal">Manuel I</a> of <a href="Portugal">Portugal</a> in 1499 which gave him the right to explore that part of the Atlantic Ocean as set out in the <a href="Treaty%20of%20Tordesillas">Treaty of Tordesillas</a>.
Together with <a href="P%C3%AAro%20de%20Barcelos">Pêro de Barcelos</a>, he first sighted Labrador in 1498. Fernandes charted the coasts of Southwestern <a href="Greenland">Greenland</a> and of adjacent Northeastern North America around 1498 and gave notice of them in Portugal and Europe. His landowner status allowed him to use the title lavrador, Portuguese for "farmer" or "landholder" (). Fernandes actually gave the name of "Terra do Lavrador" to Greenland which was the first land he sighted, but eventually the name was spread to all areas and finally was set for Labrador.
</doc>
<doc id="90504" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90504" title="Adja">
Adja
Adja may refer to:
</doc>
<doc id="90506" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90506" title="Adjassou-Linguetor">
Adjassou-Linguetor
In <a href="Haitian%20Vodou">Haitian Vodou</a> Adjassou-Linguetor is a <a href="loa">loa</a> with protruding eyes and a bad temper. She governs spring water.
</doc>
<doc id="90507" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90507" title="Adjinakou">
Adjinakou
In <a href="Haitian%20Vodou">Vodou</a> and especially in <a href="Haiti">Haiti</a>, Adjinakou is an <a href="elephant">elephant</a> <a href="loa">loa</a>.
Adjinakou is also known as Agaou L'Ephant and is of the <a href="Rada%20loa">Rada loa</a> Family.
</doc>
<doc id="90509" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90509" title="Adya Houn'tò">
Adya Houn'tò
In <a href="West%20African%20Vodun">West African Vodun</a> Adya Hount'tò is a <a href="loa">loa</a> associated with <a href="drum">drum</a>ming.
</doc>
<doc id="90510" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90510" title="Ardèche">
Ardèche
Ardèche (; <a href="Occitan">Occitan</a> and <a href="Arpitan">Arpitan</a>: "Ardecha") is a <a href="departments%20of%20France">département</a> in the <a href="Auvergne-Rh%C3%B4ne-Alpes">Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes</a> <a href="regions%20of%20France">region</a> of south-central France. It is named after the <a href="Ard%C3%A8che%20%28river%29">River Ardèche</a>.
The area has been inhabited by humans at least since the <a href="Upper%20Paleolithic">Upper Paleolithic</a>, as attested by the famous cave paintings at <a href="Chauvet%20Cave">Chauvet Pont d'Arc</a>. The plateau of the Ardèche river has extensive standing stones (<a href="dolmen">dolmen</a>s and <a href="menhir">menhir</a>s), erected thousands of years ago. The river is the largest natural canyon in Europe and the caves that dot the cliffs (which go as high as 300 m (1,000 feet)) are known for signs of prehistoric inhabitants (arrowheads and flint knives are often found).
The Vivarais, as the Ardèche is still called, takes its name and coat-of-arms from <a href="Viviers%2C%20Ard%C3%A8che">Viviers</a>, which was the capital of the <a href="Gaul">Gaul</a>ish tribe of <a href="Helvii">Helvii</a>, part of <a href="Gallia%20Narbonensis">Gallia Narbonensis</a>, after the <a href="Archeological%20site%20of%20Alba-la-Romaine">destruction of their previous capital</a> at <a href="Alba-la-Romaine">Alba-la-Romaine</a>. <a href="Saint%20And%C3%A9ol%2C%202nd%20Cty%20CE">Saint Andéol</a>, a disciple of <a href="St%20Polycarp">St Polycarp</a>, is supposed to have evangelized the Vivarais during the reign of Emperor <a href="Septimius%20Severus">Septimius Severus</a>, and was supposedly <a href="martyr">martyr</a>ed in 208. (Legend tells of Andéol's burial by Amycia Eucheria Tullia.)
<a href="Auxonius">Auxonius</a>, in 430, transferred the see to Viviers as a result of the problems suffered at its previous site in Alba Augusta.
The area of the Vivarais suffered greatly in the 9th century with raids from <a href="Hungarian%20people">Magyar</a> and <a href="Saracen">Saracen</a> slavers operating from the coast of <a href="Provence">Provence</a> resulting in an overall <a href="depopulation">depopulation</a> of the region.
In the early 10th century, economic recovery saw the building of many <a href="Romanesque%20architecture">Romanesque</a> churches in the region including Ailhon, Mercuer, St Julien du Serre, Balazuc, Niègles and Rochecolombe. The medieval county of Viviers or Vivarais at this time was administratively a part of the <a href="Kingdom%20of%20Arles">Kingdom of Arles</a>, formed in 933 with the fusion by <a href="Rudolph%20II%20of%20Burgundy">Rudolph II of Burgundy</a> of the realms of <a href="Provence">Provence</a> and <a href="Kingdom%20of%20Burgundy">Burgundy</a> and bequeathed by its last monarch <a href="Rudolph%20III%20of%20Burgundy">Rudolph III of Burgundy</a> to the <a href="Holy%20Roman%20Empire">Holy Roman Emperor</a> <a href="Conrad%20II%2C%20Holy%20Roman%20Emperor">Conrad II</a> in 1032. Locally throughout this period, the Church played an important role. John II (<a href="Giovanni%20of%20Siena">Giovanni of Siena</a>), Cardinal and <a href="Bishop%20of%20Viviers">Bishop of Viviers</a> (1073–95), accompanied Pope <a href="Urban%20II">Urban II</a> to the <a href="Council%20of%20Clermont">Council of Clermont</a>. It was later held in fief by the <a href="Counts%20of%20Toulouse">Counts of Toulouse</a>, who lost it to the French crown in 1229. In 1284, with the Cistercian Abbey of Marzan, Philip IV established Villeneuve de Berg, and by the treaty of 10 July 1305 <a href="Philip%20IV%20of%20France">Philip IV of France</a> obliged the bishops of Vivarais to admit the sovereignty of the Kings of France over all their temporal domain. The realm was largely ignored by the Emperors and was finally granted to France as part of the domain of the <a href="Dauphin%20of%20France">Dauphin</a>, the future <a href="Charles%20VII%20of%20France">Charles VII</a> of <a href="House%20of%20Valois">Valois</a> in 1308. During this period, the Maillard family, as Counts of Tournon, were influential in the Ardèche. During the <a href="Hundred%20Years%20War">Hundred Years War</a>, the area maintained its loyalty to the French crown, despite frequent attacks from the west.
As a result of the reformation of <a href="John%20Calvin">John Calvin</a> in <a href="Geneva">Geneva</a>, the Vivarais Ardèche was one of the areas which strongly embraced Protestantism partly as a result of the missionary activity of 1534 by <a href="Jacques%20Valery">Jacques Valery</a>. During the following <a href="French%20Wars%20of%20Religion">Wars of Religion</a> (1562–1598), the Ardèche was considered a strategically important location between Protestant Geneva, Lyon and Catholic Languedoc. The region had prospered with the introduction of tobacco growing from America, and the agrarian experiments of <a href="Olivier%20de%20Serres">Olivier de Serres</a>, father of modern French agriculture. The influence of Protestant Lyon, and the growth of the silk industry, thanks to the planting of <a href="mulberry">mulberry</a> trees, had given the <a href="Bourgeoisie">burghers</a> of the Vivarais towns a certain independence of thinking, and with the support of the powerful Protestant <a href="Huguenot">Huguenot</a>s, the <a href="Comte%20de%20Crussol">Comte de Crussol</a> and <a href="Olivier%20de%20Serres">Olivier de Serres</a> the Vivarais became a Protestant stronghold. As a result, it suffered many attacks and eight pitched battles between 1562 and 1595. In 1598, the <a href="Edict%20of%20Nantes">Edict of Nantes</a> put an end to these struggles. At that time, the Vivarais had over 75 Protestant churches and five fortified strongholds with permanent garrisons. However, the problems of the area were not over. In 1629, Paule de Chambaud, daughter of the Huguenot lord of Privas, chose instead to marry a Catholic, the Vicomte de l'Estrange, who supported the persecution of Protestants by <a href="Cardinal%20Richelieu">Cardinal Richelieu</a>. Privas, with a majority of the population Protestant, refused to submit, and as a centre of the revolt of the <a href="Benjamin%20de%20Rohan%2C%20duc%20de%20Soubise">Benjamin de Rohan, duc de Soubise</a>, was burned to the ground by the forces of <a href="Louis%20XIII">Louis XIII</a>, sent to support the Vicomte de l'Estrange. As a result, one-fifth of the Protestant population of the Vivarais emigrated.
The <a href="Revocation%20of%20the%20Edict%20of%20Nantes">Revocation of the Edict of Nantes</a> in 1685, which finally outlawed Protestantism, resulted in the peasant family of <a href="Marie%20Durand">Marie</a> and <a href="Pierre%20Durand">Pierre Durand</a> leading a revolt against royal authority. This led to the <a href="Camisard">Camisard</a> revolt of the <a href="Ard%C3%A8che%20prophets">Ardèche prophets</a>. Louis XIV responded by dispatching <a href="Dragoons">Dragoons</a>, who brutalised the population by "<a href="dragonnade">dragonnade</a>s", destroying a number of communities. The brutality of those years was enormous and peace was only restored in 1715. As a result of brutality on both sides, a further 50,000 Archèche Protestants left France, many fleeing to Switzerland, whilst others were forced into abjuration (conversion).
In the following century, despite the growth of the community of Annonay, an increasing polarisation between the upper nobility families such as Rohan Soubise, and Vogue, Count of Aubenas, possessing huge financial fortunes, and the lesser nobility, the village clergy and the bourgeoisie of the Vivarais paralleled developments elsewhere in France. Despite this, the sons of a local Annonay paper-maker, <a href="Joseph%20Montgolfier">Joseph</a> and <a href="Jacques%20Etienne%20Montgolfier">Jacques Etienne Montgolfier</a> ascended in the first <a href="hot%20air%20balloon">hot air balloon</a> over the town on 4 June 1783. The firm of Canson Mongolfier continues making paper to this day and on the anniversary every year on the first weekend in June a large hot air balloon gathering celebrates the event of the first journey. At the 200th anniversary in 1983, some 50 hot air balloons took part with the first historic flight reenacted with people dressed in period costume.
During the French Revolution, in 1789, with the Declaration of Human Rights, Ardèche Protestants were at last recognised as citizens in their own right, free at last to practise their faith. However, Catholicism continued to grow and by the early 19th century, the Ardèche included only 34,000 Protestants out of a population of 290,000. Named after the river of the same name, the Ardèche was one of the original 83 departments created during the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> on 4 March 1790. The support of Count <a href="Fran%C3%A7ois%20Antoine%20de%20Boissy%20d%27Anglas">François Antoine de Boissy d'Anglas</a> representing the Third Estate of the Vivarais in the States General, the freeing of the serfs and the support of the lesser clergy of the church ensured that the Ardèchois had supported the early revolution, but they withdrew support when things became more radical. During the <a href="Reign%20of%20Terror">Reign of Terror</a>, in 1794, a <a href="guillotine">guillotine</a> was kept busy with the execution of the former moderate supporters of the revolution at Privas. Under the <a href="French%20Directory">Directory</a>, bands of <a href="Chouans">Chouans</a> took to the Cevennes to escape and support former <a href="emigr%C3%A9">emigré</a>s.
With the Naploeonic period, the Ardèche entered a period of increasingly prosperous inconspicuousness. After a period of eclipse, Viviers was re-established in 1822 as the site of the see of the bishops of Ardèche, where it remains to this day.
Throughout the 19th century, a modest economic growth took place. The population grew from 273,000 in 1793 to 388,500 in 1861. The silk worm industry boomed until 1855, when disease affected the worms and competition with China undermined the industry's profitability. Mining at Privas saw the exploitation of local iron ore, which was quickly depleted. As a result, six <a href="blast%20furnaces">blast furnaces</a> were established, but they were only moderately profitable, the last closing at Pouzain in 1929.
The scientific pioneer <a href="Marc%20Seguin">Marc Seguin</a>, whose inventions played a key role in the development of early locomotives, was born in the department. However, Seguin located <a href="Seguin%20%26amp%3B%20Co.">his business</a> upstream near <a href="Lyon">Lyon</a>, and industrial development in the Ardèche remained relatively small scale. No large towns appeared in the department during the years of France's industrialisation, and its official population total of 388,500, reached in 1861, turned out to be a peak level which has not been matched subsequently.
Since the 1860s, the Ardèche economy has been split between the prosperous Rhône valley and the relatively poor and mountainous Haut Vivarais on the western side of the department. Sheep farming did not lead to the prosperity hoped for and wine growing, which was badly hit by the <a href="phylloxera">phylloxera</a> crisis during the closing decades of the 19th century, has had to compete with other more established areas of France.
The department, corresponding to the ancient province of Vivarais, is part of the current <a href="regions%20of%20France">region</a> of <a href="Auvergne-Rh%C3%B4ne-Alpes">Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes</a> and is surrounded by the French departments of <a href="Dr%C3%B4me">Drôme</a>, <a href="Vaucluse">Vaucluse</a>, <a href="Gard">Gard</a>, <a href="Loz%C3%A8re">Lozère</a>, <a href="Haute-Loire">Haute-Loire</a>, <a href="Loire%20%28department%29">Loire</a> and <a href="Is%C3%A8re">Isère</a>. It is a land of great contrasts: at the lowest it is at a mere 40 metres of elevation above sea level at the point at which the Ardèche river flows into the Rhône (in the south east of the department) up to 1,754 metres at Mont Mézenc (Centre-west), it is bordered to the east by the length of the Rhône valley for 140 km and to the west by the high plateaus of the Massif Central.
At its widest, the department does not exceed 75 km. It covers an area of 5,550 square kilometres, a size that hides the great diversity from place to place in terms of relief, the absence of access to rapid transport (unique in France) and the difficulties in transport from one part of the Ardeche to another, above all in winter. Privas shares this inaccessibility, being by road 589 km from Paris, 574 km from Strasbourg, 215 km from Marseille, 211 km from Annecy, 162 km from Chambéry, 147 km from Nîmes, 140 km from Lyon, 135 km from Grenoble, and 127 km from Saint-Étienne.
There are five <a href="natural%20region">natural region</a>s of the Ardèche:
They border the western frontier of the department with an average altitude of 1,100 metres. Basically they are of <a href="granite">granitic</a> composition split by the Velay <a href="Basalt">Basalt</a>s of the Massif of Mézenc, and the Forez Mounts, centred upon <a href="volcanoes">volcanic</a> cones of ash, <a href="lava">lava</a> plugs and numerous <a href="magma">magma</a> flows (Mézenc: 1,754 metres; Gerbier de Jonc: 1,551 m). Their inclination slopes gently towards the west, thus leading to a westerly flow of water towards the <a href="Atlantic">Atlantic</a>. Here the <a href="Loire">Loire</a> has its source. Within a distance of a few kilometres is the volcanic lake of Issarlès (92 ha, 5 km in circumference, 108 m in depth). The climate is extreme: snow for many months, very violent winds over autumn and winter (known locally as "la burle"), frequent fogs in the valleys, extreme falls of temperature between the seasons, with heavy rains (1,500 mm per year in average) strongly concentrated in September and October.
The transition zone descending from the mountains (1,200 m) to the valley of the Rhône (300 to 400 m), is the plateau region. The medium altitude of the plateau is one of green forested crests separated by wild and uncrossable <a href="Canyon">gorges</a>. <a href="Hydrology">Hydrographic</a> resources are dominated by these torrential streams and rainfall is characterised by the frequent importance of summer showers, with climate much less extreme than that of the mountains to the west.
The Ardèche river flows as far as the Rhône, following a course generally to the south east. This <a href="Karst">Karst</a> region is formed of calcareous <a href="limestone">limestone</a>s, where the streams flow in steep-sided valleys separated by sharp crests. With a generally low altitude the Bas-Vivarais enjoys a warm, and dry, almost Mediterranean climate. Skies are wide and bright, temperatures more elevated (3 or 4 °C in January). The winds from the north-east are dominant, but those of the south (known as the "vent du midi") and of the west are full of humidity, bringing heavy precipitation for a few days at a time. The few rivers, the Lavezon, Escoutay, and Frayol, provide less of a hydrological resource than one sees in the crysaline granitic areas to the north. This is the country of the vine, of shrubland, of cereals and extensive fruit trees (this is the region of <a href="Aubenas">Aubenas</a> and of <a href="Joyeuse%2C%20Ard%C3%A8che">Joyeuse</a>).
This plateau with an altitude of 800 metres above sea level, is completely surrounded to the north by the valleys of the Ouvèze and the Payre, to the south by the valley of the Escoutay, to the west by the Col of the Escrinet and the valley of Vesseaux. It is built of basalt which extends in length 18 km in the direction of the Rhône, and at its widest is a maximum 11 km in width. The climate here is also fairly extreme: snow, without being thick, is frequent, variations of temperature accentuated by the fact of the strong cold winds that blow. The soil is rich and fertile. Farming is dominated by the growing of wheat, oats and potatoes, dominates, with the raising of goats and cattle. On the slopes one finds vines and fruit trees.
The Rhône corridor is very straight on the right bank which runs almost at the foot of the Vivarais plateaus, leaving tiny plains where the rivers from the Vivarais descend to the Rhône. Here the strong wind of the north, (known as the <a href="Mistral%20%28wind%29">mistral</a>) dominates. Nevertheless, the temperatures are moderated by the influence of the "Midi" to the south. The small plains are very fertile and favourable to orchards (peaches and apricots) at first and on the slopes the vines dominate.
Maps of different types of agricultural products translate clearly into these five regions. "The true character of the Ardèche is" according to A. Siegfried, "of a slope turning towards the Mediterranean, open to the influences coming from the Midi. These influences climb the length of the valleys to the summit of the high plateau, which resists their passage, not letting them penetrate. The high and the low are thus opposed, such is the character of the Ardèche personality."
Ardèche is divided into 3 <a href="Arrondissements%20of%20France">arrondissements</a>.
Deputies in the <a href="National%20Assembly%20of%20France">National Assembly</a>:
<br>
Representing Ardèche in the <a href="Senate%20of%20France">Senate of France</a> are Senators <a href="Michel%20Teston">Michel Teston</a> and <a href="Yves%20Chastan">Yves Chastan</a>.
The President of the General Council is <a href="Pascal%20Terrasse">Pascal Terrasse</a> of the <a href="Socialist%20Party%20%28France%29">Socialist Party</a>.
The inhabitants of the department are called "Ardéchois". As one of the poorer districts in France, emigration from the Ardèche outnumbered immigrants for a long time, although this situation has recently changed. In 1990, Ardèche reached once again the population level it had 50 years earlier. Today, the population numbers 309,000 (compared to 390,000 in 1860). Despite this demographic recovery, the area remains marked by a rural exodus which minimises the effects of a higher than average <a href="birth%20rate">birth rate</a>. Despite this, the rate of natural increase is practically non-existent, as the Ardèche also has a higher than average median age amongst Ardèche born inhabitants, and thus also a higher than average <a href="death%20rate">death rate</a>.
Ardèche has a low population of foreign born immigrants, found almost exclusively in the tourist locations of Largentière, Le Pouzin and Bourg-Saint-Andéol. They number about 11,000, representing a mere 4% of the population. During the summer months, many European tourists visit the Ardèche, principally Dutch and Germans staying at camping sites.
Some 50% of the population of the department lives in rural communities, compared to a national average of 75% of the French population living in urban locations. The Ardèche has an average population density of 52 per km², compared to 122 per km² for the <a href="Rh%C3%B4ne-Alpes">Rhône-Alpes</a> region and 104 per km² in France. Population density is highest in the regions around the two towns of <a href="Annonay">Annonay</a> and <a href="Aubenas">Aubenas</a> and along the edge of the Rhône valley. The mountainous areas is much less densely populated with only 6 to 7 inhabitants per km² in the cantons of Saint-Étienne-de-Lugdarès and Valgorge. As the mountains and the plateau continue to depopulate, those of the Rhône valley, Bas-Vivarais and lower Ardèche are continuing to grow, but the population situation, whilst better than in the past, still remains an issue for the region.
The Rhône valley and the Annonay region, close to the main axes of communication, (Highways and the TGV railway) are the most urbanised areas of the department. Here the natural growth in population is everywhere positive. Annonay, Tournon-sur-Rhône and Guilherand-Granges benefit from the proximity of the nearby town of Valence and the economically more advanced department of la Drôme. In the southern interior with the town of Aubenas and the valley of the Ardèche river, the population of the cantons of Villeneuve-de-Berg and of Vallon-Pont-d'Arc grow at four times the speed of the departmental average.
The high plateau and the mountainous areas as far as <a href="Privas">Privas</a> continue to lose its young population (the median age of the population as a whole is growing more elderly as a result of the weakness of the power of this region to attract new permanent inhabitants). For example, le Cheylard and Lamastre have recently lost 300 and 250 inhabitants respectively.
With its rivers and streams, the Ardèche has become a favorite place for <a href="canoe">canoe</a> and <a href="kayak">kayak</a> enthusiasts from around the world. The Ardèche contains a part of the <a href="C%C3%A9vennes%20National%20Park">Cévennes National Park</a>.
The area is very well known for <a href="sport%20climbing">sport climbing</a>, with many well-managed limestone and granite crags.
Each year the Ardeche hosts one of France's biggest road cycling events, <a href="L%27Ardechoise">L'Ardechoise</a>, with 16,000 entrants participating in 2011.
The Ardèche is known for the speciality of <a href="Sweet%20Chestnut">Sweet Chestnut</a>s, with the famous "châtaigne d'Ardèche'" granted the "AOC", or <a href="Appellation%20d%27origine%20contr%C3%B4l%C3%A9e">"Appellation of Controlled Origin"</a>, in 2006.
</doc>
<doc id="90513" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90513" title="Agassou">
Agassou
In the <a href="West%20African%20Vodun">Vodou</a> religion, Agassou (also Ati-A-Sou) is a <a href="loa">loa</a>, or deity, who guards the old traditions of <a href="Dahomey">Dahomey</a>. The Rada Lwa of <a href="Haitian%20Vodou">Haitian Vodou</a>.
Agassou is the product of a divine mating—his mother was a princess and is said to have mated with a Leopard, giving birth to Agassou. Those in the occultism know this to be the pairing of a <a href="Nephilim">Nephilim</a>, with the resulting offspring being demi-divine. The angel Cassial has been recorded since ancient antiquity to incarnate as a leopard. Perhaps, this was one of his encounters, recorded and remembered down through the ages.
Agassou is further noted as ruler and king of a particular sect in Africa that has come to be known as the <a href="Leopard%20Society">Leopard Society</a>. His brothers were also to have been the progeny of angelic matings. Their lineage, their royal regalia, and their legacy are still held to this very day, by the Leopard Society of West Africa. In that society, the men take their lineage, to this very day, from the clan of Agassou. His shield and his spear are guarded to this very day—gifts that are said to have been given to him by his angelic father.
As such, Agassou is then the first human who can be traced back to see how he ascended to the status of Lwa. In the Priyere, he is called him "Houngan Agassou de Bo Miwa", in honor of his work as both a Priest/King and a magician. It is also a very ancient reference to Cassial, who was often referred to as the "Mirror of God". His spears and shield are still in ancient Dahomey which is Benin today.
In Rada, he's referred to as Ati-Agassou, in Petro Hougan Agassou.
In African oral chant from Bening, Agassou is depicted as the chosen one sent to Haiti by Ayida Wedo to bring the practice to her African children to ease their pain and sufferings from slavery. Agassou was given a crab for the journey.
His day is Thursday, and his colors are brown and gold. Hougan (ou'k bon) meaning "you are the righteous one" or the Mambo will invoke Agassou when money is needed in the temple, his specialty is making money out of cigarettes.
</doc>
<doc id="90514" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90514" title="Agwé">
Agwé
In <a href="Haitian%20Vodou">Vodou</a>, and especially in <a href="Haiti">Haiti</a>, Agwé (also spelt Goue, Agoueh, or Agive), is a <a href="loa">loa</a> who rules over the sea, fish, and aquatic plants, as well as the patron loa of fishermen and sailors. He is considered to be married to <a href="Erzulie%20Freda">Erzulie Freda</a> and <a href="La%20Sirene">La Sirene</a>. He goes by several titles, including "koki la me" ("Shell of the Sea"), "koki dore" ("Golden Shell"), "The Angel in the Mirror", "The Eel", and "The Tadpole in the Pond". A recent appearance of Agwé on stage was <a href="Once%20On%20This%20Island">Once On This Island</a> where he was one of the four gods: <a href="Asak">Asak</a>a Mother of Earth, Agwé God of Water, <a href="Erzulie">Erzulie</a> Goddess of Love and Papa Gé (<a href="Papa%20Ghede">Papa Ghede</a>) Demon of Death.
Met Agwe is the Loa of direction. His territory is the winds and the currents, waves and depths of the oceans. He helps sailors find their bearings when lost at sea. He provides inspiration and guidance whenever an individual needs them in times of turmoil, loss, or indecision. He lives in a glorious palace under the seas. Patron of sailors, sea travelers and pirates.
Agwe Arroyo or Agwe Tawoyo / Agwe 'Woyo ("Agwe of the Streams") is captain of "Immamou", the ship that carries the dead to "Guinee", the afterlife. He cries salt-water tears for the departed. He assisted the souls of those that suffered crimes against humanity during the trans-atlantic slave trade.
Papa Agwe is envisioned as a handsome African man with green eyes, sometimes lighter skin, often wearing a naval officer's or sailor's uniform. He is considered to be a gentleman who commands respect and embodies several ideals of masculinity including bravery, reserve and provision.
Agwe Flambeau ("Agwe of the Torch") is from a realm of boiling water, like a hot springs or an underwater volcanic eruption. He is appealed to give rivals bad luck in fishing or sailing. He is also invoked to avoid or remove bad luck at sea, to avoid sinking or drowning, or to stop or prevent rough seas and bad storms.
Agwe Ge-Rouge ("Agwe of the Red Eyes")
His colours are blue, white, and occasionally sea-green or brown. His "veve" (ritual symbol) is a boat with sails. His symbols are painted shells, painted oars, and sealife like the Seahorse and Starfish. He is syncretised with the Catholic Saint <a href="Ulrich%20of%20Augsburg">Ulrich of Augsburg</a> and occasionally the archangel <a href="Raphael%20%28archangel%29">Raphael</a>, both of whom are depicted holding fish. His holy day is Thursday.
He is saluted or signaled with blowing on a conch-shell and/or volleys of gunfire. When he possesses a devotee he often pushes himself around the temple on a chair (his boat) with a cane (his oar), shouting naval commands and saluting members of the congregation. His "chevals" ("horses", or possessed devotees) need to be kept moist with wet sponges or damp towels and have to be kept from running into the sea, where Agwe belongs.
Small offerings to Agwe are poured or dropped overboard in deep ocean water. Large offerings to Agwe are left on constructed rafts ("barques d'Agwe") which are floated or towed out to sea. If the raft sinks, it is accepted; if it returns to shore it is rejected. After the offering is left, the supplicants cannot look back at that place or it will anger Agwe. "Chevals" must be prevented from falling or leaping into the sea and drowning, as it would offend Agwe. Nothing toxic (lead pipes, cement bags, garbage) must be used to weigh down the raft; if it will hurt or pollute the sea, it will anger Agwe.
His offerings include:
He is rarely offered seafood. If it is offered (perhaps to celebrate a bountiful year, good fortune, or a joyous occasion) it must be prepared and then cooked in a pan or oven. Then (to be fit for the table of the King of the Sea) it must be served on a white china dish with blue patterns.
Agwe's ship is crewed by other Loa as well:
At Agwe's ceremonies, they arrive first to make sure the place is fit for "The Admiral".
"Agwe" is also a character in the <a href="Musical%20%28theater%29">musical</a> "<a href="Once%20on%20This%20Island">Once on This Island</a>" as the god of water.
</doc>
<doc id="90516" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90516" title="Ariège (department)">
Ariège (department)
Ariège (; ) is a <a href="departments%20of%20France">department</a> in the <a href="Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyr%C3%A9n%C3%A9es">Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées</a> region of southwestern France named after the <a href="Ari%C3%A8ge%20River">Ariège River</a>. Its capital is the town of <a href="Foix">Foix</a> and the <a href="INSEE">INSEE</a> and Postal code is 09. The inhabitants of the department are known as "Ariègeois" or "Ariègeoises".
The department is part of the current region of <a href="Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyr%C3%A9n%C3%A9es">Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées</a> and is surrounded by the French departments of <a href="Haute-Garonne">Haute-Garonne</a> to the west and north, <a href="%3AAude">:Aude</a> to the east, and <a href="Pyr%C3%A9n%C3%A9es-Orientales">Pyrénées-Orientales</a> in the south-east, as well as Spain (<a href="Lleida">Lleida</a>) and <a href="Andorra">Andorra</a> in the south.
Covering an area of 4,890 km, the department is divided into three arrondissements: <a href="Arrondissement%20of%20Foix">Foix</a>, <a href="Arrondissement%20of%20Pamiers">Pamiers</a>, and <a href="Arrondissement%20de%20Saint-Girons">Saint-Girons</a>.
It is composed of <a href="Cantons%20of%20the%20Ari%C3%A8ge%20department">13 cantons</a>, 21 intercommunalities, and <a href="Communes%20of%20the%20Ari%C3%A8ge%20department">332 communes</a>. In 2009 the Regional Natural Park of the Ariège Pyrenees was created covering about 40% of the area of the department of Ariège.
There are three main areas:
The north of the department consists of plains, hills and low valleys where agriculture is prevalent. Part of <a href="Lauragais">Lauragais</a> covers the northeast of the department. Two major rivers, the <a href="Ari%C3%A8ge%20%28river%29">Ariège</a> and the <a href="L%C3%A8ze">Lèze</a> traverse the plain from south to north. A landscape of grain fields dominates the scene with growing of <a href="corn">corn</a> and <a href="sunflowers">sunflowers</a> and with <a href="prairies">prairies</a>.
This area includes the <a href="Pre-Pyrenees">Plantaurel mountains</a> and the Pre-Pyrenean hills below 1000m. Various geological structures are present in contrast: the Foix Valley with its granite mountain landscape and the <a href="Lavelanet">Lavelanet</a> region with <a href="marl">marl</a> and <a href="limestone">limestone</a>.
The geography is dominated by the <a href="Pyrenees">Pyrenees</a> mountains exceeding 1,000m above sea level which form the border between France and Spain. The "<a href="Pica%20d%27Estats">Pica d'Estats</a>" (3143m), the "peak of Montcalm" (3077m), and "<a href="Pic%20de%20Sotllo">Pic de Sotllo</a>" (3072m) are the highest points of the department. These peaks are clearly visible from <a href="Toulouse">Toulouse</a> in the <a href="Haute%20Garonne">Haute Garonne</a>.
The landscape is dominated by forests with <a href="coniferous">coniferous</a> species coexist with <a href="hardwoods">hardwoods</a> such as <a href="chestnut">chestnut</a> trees, <a href="Robinia%20pseudoacacia">Black Locust</a> trees, <a href="Sorbus%20aucuparia">ash</a> trees, and <a href="beech">beech</a> trees.
There are hundreds of kilometres of well-marked paths which allow exploration of the magnificent Pyrenees mountains. The high mountains are easily accessible via good roads, cable cars or by foot. There are a number of lodges providing high level mountain accommodation that are comfortable, warm and with good meals.
There are also a number of fresh water lakes which provide a variety of activities including, walking, swimming, fishing, canoeing, sailboarding and picnicking.
There are several downhill ski resorts, the three largest being Ax-Bonascre, Les Monts D'Olmes and <a href="Guzet-Neige">Guzet-Neige</a>. There are many cross country ski-ing resorts, one of the best being at Plateau de Beille, near <a href="Les%20Cabannes%2C%20Ari%C3%A8ge">Les Cabannes</a>.
Ariège is one of the least populated and most unspoiled regions of France. The locals enjoy keeping traditions alive, especially old farming techniques. Consequently, as fewer insecticides, for example, have been used, the flora and fauna of the area continue to be rich in both diversity and numbers. Butterflies are common and birds are numerous; particularly noticeable are large birds of prey, including the magnificent Griffon vultures.
There are also many unspoiled villages and hamlets tucked away in the valleys close to the department's border with Spain – <a href="Seix">Seix</a>, Cominac, and <a href="Aulus-les-Bains">Aulus-les-Bains</a> are examples – together with picturesque mountain villages, most notably <a href="Aleu">Aleu</a> which comes alive in the holiday season.
Ariège stands on the eastern limit of <a href="oceanic%20climate">oceanic</a> dominance over rainfall, but other influences are felt:
There is no great tendency to summer drought as the flow of air from the north-west brings rain throughout the year. Rainfall is moderate on the foothills and in some sheltered valleys, measuring 700 to 1,000 mm per year, but increases significantly in the higher valleys with levels between 1,000 mm and 1,800 mm. The slopes exposed to the north-west, such as Aulus and <a href="Orlu%2C%20Ari%C3%A8ge">Orlu</a>, are, as one would expect, the wettest, together with the frontal ridges that meet air flow from the southwest (giving rise to the <a href="Foehn%20wind">Foehn effect</a>). Snow cover is common over 1,000 metres, lasting several months above 1,500 to 2,000 metres. Some periglacial areas exist over 2,500 m but the only true <a href="glacier">glacier</a> in Ariège is that of <a href="Mont%20Valier">Mont Valier</a>, near <a href="Castillon-en-Couserans">Castillon-en-Couserans</a>.
Temperatures are mild in the foothills, e.g. at the city of <a href="Foix">Foix</a> (400 metres) the average is 5 °C in January and 19 °C in July. However, they decline rapidly with elevation, e.g. at <a href="l%27Hospitalet-pr%C3%A8s-l%27Andorre">l'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre</a> (1,430 m) it is 0 °C in January and 14 °C in July.
Ariège is one of the original 83 departments created during the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> on 4 March 1790 under the Act of 22 December 1789. It was created from the counties of <a href="County%20of%20Foix">Foix</a> (Languedoc), and <a href="Couserans">Couserans</a> (Gascogne).
A request was made to the Council of State to rename the department Ariège-Pyrénées. According to the proponents of this project, the word "Pyrenees" would better position the department to promote itself throughout France. The demand was rejected.
<a href="Foix">Foix</a> is the administrative capital of the Ariège. It is an ancient medieval town with a fortress, <a href="Chateau%20de%20Foix">Chateau de Foix</a>, perched on a hill overlooking it. The fortress has been attacked many times without being captured including an attempt by <a href="Simon%20de%20Montfort%2C%205th%20Earl%20of%20Leicester">Simon de Montfort</a>. It has also been used as a prison, and the names of English prisoners of war can still be seen on the cell walls. Another famous castle in the Ariège is <a href="Ch%C3%A2teau%20de%20Monts%C3%A9gur">Montségur</a>, located on a rocky outcrop at a height of 1200 metres. During the <a href="Albigensian%20Crusade">Albigensian Crusade</a> and siege in 1244 the castle was largely destroyed, with more than two hundred <a href="Cathar">Cathar</a> priests burnt at the stake as heretics. The castle was gradually rebuilt by Royalists over the next three hundred years.
The start of the seventeenth century saw the area ravaged by the <a href="Huguenot%20rebellions">Huguenot rebellions</a> by Protestants against Catholics. In 1621 the <a href="Huguenot">Huguenot</a> forces ruined the church at <a href="La%20Tour-du-Crieu">La Tour-du-Crieu</a>. In 1629 <a href="Pamiers">Pamiers</a> was sacked by <a href="Henri%2C%20Prince%20of%20Cond%C3%A9%20%281588%E2%80%931646%29">Henry of Condé</a> following uprisings that left several hundred dead in the city. This was also the period during which the abbeys at <a href="Foix">Foix</a>, <a href="Tarascon-sur-Ari%C3%A8ge">Tarascon-sur-Ariège</a>, <a href="Saint-Girons%2C%20Ari%C3%A8ge">Saint-Girons</a>, <a href="Saverdun">Saverdun</a> and <a href="Le%20Mas-d%27Azil">Le Mas-d'Azil</a> were torched and destroyed.
The nineteenth century was a time of strong industrial growth, supported in Ariège by an abundant supply of water power. The department also benefited from its significant reserves of iron ore. The growth of iron-based industries was a feature of the period with the establishment, in 1817, of a <a href="Steelmaking">steel manufacturing plant</a> at <a href="Pamiers">Pamiers</a> which has been a principle driver of the local economy ever since. Other representative examples of the iron-based industries that developed in Ariège during the nineteenth century include the forges at <a href="Montgaillard%2C%20Ari%C3%A8ge">Montgaillard</a> and the <a href="blast%20furnace">blast furnace</a>s at <a href="Tarascon-sur-Ari%C3%A8ge">Tarascon-sur-Ariège</a>.
A description of the department's industrial development during the nineteenth century should also include mention the paper industry at <a href="Saint-Girons%2C%20Ari%C3%A8ge">Saint-Girons</a> and the textile industry in the Pays d'Olmes. Changes in forest laws in 1829 resulted in the <a href="War%20of%20the%20Maidens">War of the Maidens</a>, a revolt by peasants who saw their rights to use the forests restricted and who disguised themselves as females while performing acts of rebellion.
Towns of particular historical interest in the department include <a href="Pamiers">Pamiers</a> which hosted a large commercial centre and three churches, <a href="Mirepoix%2C%20Ari%C3%A8ge">Mirepoix</a>, a medieval town, as is <a href="Saint-Lizier">Saint-Lizier</a> - situated on a hilltop with winding streets, fine views, and a church with <a href="cloister">cloister</a>s that are noteworthy. <a href="Saint-Girons%2C%20Ari%C3%A8ge">Saint-Girons</a> is an agricultural centre with a Saturday market.
The patriotic song "Arièjo O moun Pais" was written by Father Sabas Maury, born on 1 March 1863 in <a href="Gesti%C3%A8s">Gestiès</a> in the valley of Siguer, who was pastor of <a href="Miglos">Miglos</a> and <a href="Varilhes">Varilhes</a>. It naturally became the anthem for Ariége.
The Ariege department is a largely unknown department which is situated next to <a href="Aude">Aude</a> in the southwestern part of the Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées region and shares its borders with <a href="Aude">Aude</a>, <a href="Andorra">Andorra</a>, <a href="Haute-Garonne">Haute-Garonne</a> and <a href="Pyr%C3%A9n%C3%A9es-Orientales">Pyrénées-Orientales</a>.
It is predominantly a farming area as the soil is rich and fertile but more than 50% of Ariège is mountainous, with 490,965 hectares being covered by forests.
In the Ax valleys, the mining of <a href="talc">talc</a> is the most typical activity. The processing plant for talc at <a href="Luzenac">Luzenac</a> is supplied by "Carrière de talc de Trimouns" who is the largest producer in the region (400,000 tonnes per year).
This industry is supplemented by tourism with winter sports resorts (<a href="Ax%203%20Domaines">Ax 3 Domaines</a>, Ascou-Pailhères, <a href="Plateau%20de%20Beille">Plateau de Beille</a>, Le Chioula, and <a href="Goulier">Goulier</a> Neige).
In the Lavelanet area the textile industry used to be the major industry but has gradually disappeared. There are only a few companies trying to survive in the face of competition from Eastern Europe and Asia.
In the Pamiers area metallurgy, aeronautics, and chemistry are the main industries. Metallurgy, in the Aubert & Duval factory, produces forgings for the aerospace and energy industries. There are several companies in the aeronautics outsourcing industry such as "Recaero" and "Maz'Air" who are partners with aircraft manufacturers. Chemistry is represented by the paint industry with the "Alliance Maestria" which includes several companies making paint for anything from buildings to aircraft. In the same sector there is also "Etienne Lacroix" in the commune of <a href="Maz%C3%A8res%2C%20Ari%C3%A8ge">Mazères</a> which mainly manufactures fireworks and pyrotechnics.
For the Saint-Girons area, industry is in decline and is represented mainly by the production of paper.
<a href="Hydroelectric">Hydroelectric</a> production from Ariège is about one-fifth of Pyrenean production. The hydroelectric plant at <a href="Aston%2C%20Ari%C3%A8ge">Aston</a> has the largest annual production capacity in the Pyrenees (392 million kWh). With <a href="Orlu%2C%20Ari%C3%A8ge">Orlu</a> and "<a href="L%27Hospitalet-pr%C3%A8s-l%27Andorre">L'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre</a>", these three plants have the largest capacity in the department. The hydroelectric developments in Ariège can support a city of 600,000 inhabitants. Large industrial plants use the energy produced together with the <a href="natural%20gas">natural gas</a> from <a href="Lacq">Lacq</a>.
The Ariège Chamber of Commerce and Industry is situated at Foix. The department’s Economic Development Agency (ARIEGE EXPANSION) is at <a href="Verniolle">Verniolle</a>. The department has established three ‘business incubators’ to support enterprise in Ariège.
Mostly mountainous and rural, the department of Ariège is far from the main transport routes serving the main valleys and coastlines. The railway arrived in the department in 1861 with the <a href="Portet-Saint-Simon%E2%80%93Puigcerd%C3%A0%20railway">Toulouse to Puigcerda</a> line which is the only line that remains open to this day in the department. Besides the trains of the <a href="TER%20Midi-Pyr%C3%A9n%C3%A9es">TER Midi-Pyrénées</a>, this route is still served by <a href="Intercit%C3%A9s">Intercity trains</a> from <a href="Gare%20de%20Paris-Austerlitz">Paris-Austerlitz</a>.
Since 2002 Ariège has been connected to the national motorway network via the <a href="A66%20autoroute">A66 autoroute</a> which joins the <a href="A61%20autoroute">A61 autoroute</a> at <a href="Villefranche-de-Lauragais">Villefranche-de-Lauragais</a> and continues south of <a href="Pamiers">Pamiers</a> by the National Route NR20 as a dual carriageway as far as <a href="Tarascon-sur-Ariege">Tarascon-sur-Ariege</a>. The upgrading to autoroute standards on the Pamiers to Tarascon and setting up a dual carriageway to <a href="Andorra">Andorra</a> are dreams for the future.
The department has 151,477 inhabitants, or 146,289 <a href="population%20without%20double%20counting">without double counting</a>.
The populations of the arrondissements (double-counting) are :
The populations of the principal towns (double-counting) are :
Communes with more than 2,000 inhabitants (and trend of the population as at 2006)
NB : The communes in italics are part of the agglomeration of Pamiers.
The department has 2 <a href="Metropolitan%20area">Urban Areas</a>: <a href="Foix">Foix</a> (17,000 inhabitants) and <a href="Pamiers">Pamiers</a> (23,876 inhabitants).
According to the general census of the population of 8 March 1999, 26.5% of available housing in the department consists of second homes.
The following table indicates the main communes of Ariège in which the number of second homes amounts to more than 10% of total dwellings.
The department has two <a href="parliamentary%20constituencies">parliamentary constituencies</a> and 13 cantons. In general it can be said that:
"With a republican and secular tradition since the <a href="French%20Third%20Republic">Third Republic</a>, Ariege is firmly held by the <a href="Socialist%20Party%20%28France%29">Socialist Party</a> (PS) even though in recent years the right has managed to sink a few corners of the fortress".
This results in a parliamentary representation that is exclusively PS and a General Council where 19 of the 22 members are PS or close to this party - the political orientation of the department is therefore clearly identified. In 2007 it was the department with the most votes for <a href="S%C3%A9gol%C3%A8ne%20Royal">Ségolène Royal</a> (59.56%). In 2012 it had the third most voters for <a href="Francois%20Hollande">Francois Hollande</a> in France with 64.69% after <a href="Corr%C3%A8ze">Corrèze</a> and <a href="Seine%20Saint-Denis">Seine Saint-Denis</a>.
Although male/female parity is well respected by MPs (Mrs. <a href="Fr%C3%A9d%C3%A9rique%20Massat">Frédérique Massat</a> and Mr. Alain Fauré), all 22 councillors were men until 2011 when two women were elected.
The President of the General Council is Augustin Bonrepaux of the <a href="Socialist%20Party%20%28France%29">Socialist Party</a>.
The region was originally part of <a href="Aquitaine">Aquitaine</a> and has retained many hallmarks of the <a href="Gascony">Gascon</a> culture and <a href="Gascon%20language">Gascon language</a>.
The gastronomy of Ariège is based on the cooking of Pyrenean regional food, such as cheese or <a href="charcuterie">charcuterie</a> from the mountain country. <a href="http%3A//www.azinat.com/ariege/azinat/">Azinat</a> is the local and typical dish of Ariège. The department is also well advanced in the field of organic farming.
</doc>
<doc id="90521" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90521" title="Ayida-Weddo">
Ayida-Weddo
In <a href="Haitian%20Vodou">Vodou</a>, especially in <a href="Benin">Benin</a> and <a href="Haiti">Haiti</a>, Ayida-Weddo is a <a href="loa">loa</a> of fertility, <a href="rainbow">rainbow</a>s, wind, water, fire, and <a href="snake">snake</a>s. Ayida-Weddo is known as the "Rainbow Serpent". Variants of Ayida-Weddo's name include Aida-Weddo, Ayida-Wedo, Aido Quedo, and Aido Hwedo.
Ayida-Weddo is a member of the <a href="Rada%20loa">Rada</a> family and a root, or (Old French) "racine" <a href="Loa">Loa</a>. She is married to husband/companion <a href="Damballa">Damballah-Wedo</a>, the Sky God is also a Loa of creation. She shares her husband with his concubine, <a href="Erzulie">Erzulie Freda</a>.
Ayida-Weddo's symbols are the rainbow and white <a href="paket%20kongo">paket kongo</a>. Her ceremonial colors are white and blue. Appropriate offerings to her include white chickens, white eggs, rice, and milk. Her favorite plant is cotton.
The <a href="Fon%20people">Fon people</a> of Benin believe the rainbow snake Ayida-Weddo, created to serve <a href="Nana%20Buluku">Nana Buluku</a>, held up the heavens. The creature had a twin personality as the red part of the rainbow was male, while the blue part was female. She is portrayed as a narrow green snake. Like Dambala, she lives in the sky as well as in all the trees, springs, pools, and rivers. In some West African mythology, <a href="Mawu">Mawu</a> the creator sent down <a href="Adam">Adanhu</a> and <a href="Eve">Yewa</a> from the sky with the rainbow serpent Ayida-Weddo.
"In the beginning there was a vast serpent, whose body formed seven thousand coils beneath the earth, protecting it from descent into the abysmal sea. Then the titanic snake began to move and heave its massive form from the earth to envelop the sky. It scattered stars in the firmament and wound its taught flesh down the mountains to create riverbeds. it shot thunderbolts to the earth to create the sacred thunderstones. From its deepest core it released the sacred waters to fill the earth with life. As the first rains fell, a rainbow encompassed the sky and Danbala took her, Ayida Wedo, as his wife. The spiritual nectar that they created reproduces through all men and women as milk and semen. The serpent and the rainbow taught humankind the link between blood and life, between menstruation and birth, and the ultimate Vodou sacrament of blood sacrifice."
She is <a href="syncretism">syncretised</a> with the <a href="Catholic">Catholic</a> figure of <a href="Our%20Lady%20of%20Immaculate%20Conception">Our Lady of Immaculate Conception</a>.
</doc>
<doc id="90522" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90522" title="Cantal">
Cantal
Cantal (; ) is a <a href="departments%20of%20France">department</a> in south-central France. It is named after the Cantal mountain range, a group of extinct, eroded volcanic peaks, which covers much of the department. Residents are known as "Cantaliens" or "Cantalous" (<a href="Occitan%20language">Occitan language</a>).
Cantal is part of the current <a href="regions%20of%20France">region</a> of <a href="Auvergne-Rh%C3%B4ne-Alpes">Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes</a>. It borders the departments of <a href="Puy-de-D%C3%B4me">Puy-de-Dôme</a>, <a href="Haute-Loire">Haute-Loire</a>, <a href="Aveyron">Aveyron</a>, <a href="Lot%20%28department%29">Lot</a>, <a href="Loz%C3%A8re">Lozère</a>, and <a href="Corr%C3%A8ze">Corrèze</a>. Its principal towns are <a href="Aurillac">Aurillac</a>, <a href="Saint-Flour%2C%20Cantal">Saint-Flour</a>, and <a href="Mauriac%2C%20Cantal">Mauriac</a>. The highest point in Cantal is "Le Plomb du Cantal" at 1858 metres.
Cantal remains, with <a href="Loz%C3%A8re">Lozère</a> and <a href="Creuse">Creuse</a>, one of the most sparsely populated and geographically isolated French departments. Aurillac is the farthest removed departmental capital from a major motorway.
Cantal is one of the original 83 departments created during the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> on 4 March 1790. It was created from a part of the <a href="provinces%20of%20France">former province</a> of <a href="Auvergne%20%28province%29">Auvergne</a>, called <a href="Haute-Auvergne">Haute-Auvergne</a>.
The <a href="Occitan%20language">Occitan language</a> was historically dominant in Cantal.
The Cantal department has different types of climates according to the geographical position.
The west is well watered, thanks to abundant precipitations coming from the Atlantic. The temperatures are generally even; the east is much drier and cooler.
There is abundant precipitation on the central area. To this fact, it is necessary to add the effect of the altitude: the climate is quite cold in winter (it snows almost every winter) but it can be very hot during the summer, especially in the southern part of the department with borders with <a href="Aveyron">Aveyron</a> and <a href="Lot%20%28department%29">Lot</a>.
In the central part of the department, i.e. on the highest ground, the altitude surpasses m and It can be very cold. There is abundant snowfall which can remain up to six months on the tops. Winter temperatures can fall to below , whereas in summer is often reached.
The television weather forecasts often indicate <a href="Aurillac">Aurillac</a> as the coldest city of France in the mornings. The temperatures observed by "Météo France" are explained by the following:
Fog is rare and disappears quickly. There is sunshine throughout year and the wind is not usually strong. The annual sunshine hours reflect Cantal's southerly latitude (the same as <a href="Bordeaux">Bordeaux</a>'s). Average number of hours of sunshine from 1991 to 2000:
Nîmes: 2590 h – Millau : 2120 h – Aurillac: 2080 h – Toulouse: 2010 h – Bordeaux: 1990 h – Lyon: 1930 h – Limoges: 1870 h – Tours: 1800 h – Nantes: 1690 h – Paris: 1630 h.
The Cantal is a mountainous department whose altitude varies between 250 m in the valley of the River <a href="Lot%20%28river%29">Lot</a> and 1855 m in the top of Plomb du Cantal. The temperature variations can be very high from one place to another. It is not colder in the Cantal than in other mountainous regions like the Vosges or Jura. The prevailing winds and the relief divide the Cantal into four climatic zones:
Cantal frequently experiences violent summer storms. According to specialists, the lightning flashes in this department are among the most spectacular in France.
In Cantal, the farmers practise mountain pasture, with the herd passing summer at altitude in the mountains. The milk is traditionally used to produce <a href="Appellation%20d%27Origine%20Contr%C3%B4l%C3%A9e">Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée</a> (AOC) cheese such as <a href="Cantal%20cheese">Cantal</a>, <a href="Salers%20cheese">Salers cheese</a> and <a href="Bleu%20d%27Auvergne">Bleu d'Auvergne</a>. Cantal is the only French departement to be home to no fewer than five <a href="Appellation%20d%27Origine%20Contr%C3%B4l%C3%A9e">Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée</a> cheeses
The official population count for 2013 was 147,000. The population peaked at 262,117 in 1836. It has been below 200,000 for the last 90 years. The department has experienced a particularly drastic level of depopulation, although the phenomenon was a feature of many of the country's rural departments throughout the twentieth century, as agricultural wages failed to keep pace with those available in the industrialising regions outside the department.
The department counts several remarkable buildings. Among them, the Romanesque religious buildings like the churches of Cheylade (eleventh century), Dieno or Massiac. Some churches are in the Gothic style like the Cathedral of St Pierre de Saint-Flour (fifteenth century).
The characteristic folk dance in Cantal is "La Bourée". In the countryside it would be danced in folk costumes with accompaniment by accordion. The dance form was long ago adapted for use in courtly music and features prominently in the <a href="Baroque">Baroque</a> <a href="Suite%20de%20danses">dance suite</a>s of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Prominent museums in Cantal include:
Dishes of Cantal are made of basic recipes. In origin, they were designed to satisfy hill farmers who did very physical work: looking after cows, the manufacture of cheese, etc.
Thus, ham, cheese, vegetables are at the basis of the dishes in this department, such as:
Located in the "Parc Regional des Volcans d’Auvergne", the Cantal is a department with little urbanization. The main industry is tourism, especially rural tourism.
The most visited places are Puy Mary (1787 m) considered to be one of the prettiest panoramas in Europe, the Plomb du Cantal (1855 m), the village of <a href="Salers">Salers</a>, and the gorges of the <a href="Truy%C3%A8re">Truyère</a> (with the <a href="Garabit%20viaduct">Garabit viaduct</a>, the castle of <a href="Alleuze">Alleuze</a>, and the towns of <a href="Boisset%2C%20Cantal">Boisset</a>, <a href="Pierrefort">Pierrefort</a>). The "Parc Naturel des Volcans d’Auvergne" features several inactive volcanoes. Cantal also has numerous castles. Puy Mary can be accessed by car easily. and is accessible to hikers. It is also possible to hike to the nearby Puy de Peyre-Arse(1806m). <a href="Le%20Lioran">Le Lioran</a> or Super-Lioran are the best places to start the hike. <a href="Le%20Lioran">Le Lioran</a> is accessible by rail or bus and Super-Lioran is just a kilometre away from <a href="Le%20Lioran">Le Lioran</a>. From Super-Lioran it is also possible to hike to Plomb du Cantal. There is also an option of taking the cable car to Plomb du Cantal from Super-Lioran. <a href="http%3A//www.lelioran.com">Super-Lioran tourist office</a> has various hike routes in the region. There are also various adventure courses, dirt bikes, summer luges etc. that run in Super-Lioran.
Among the various activities offered in this department, the "Massif Cantalien" can be discovered through walking, horseback riding or <a href="mountain%20biking">mountain biking</a> excursions (tracks are especially designed for this). Aquatic sports are also popular, thanks to numerous lakes.
The department also offers more classical activities such as mountaineering, <a href="canoeing">canoeing</a> and fishing. The landscape also allows the practice of free flight: <a href="base%20jump">base jump</a>ers frequent the sector around the Puy Mary and the Brezon valley.
Thanks to its terrain, Cantal can count on a good snow level, which allows winter sports.
The station of <a href="Le%20Lioran">Le Lioran</a>, largest ski-resort of the Massif Central offers alpine skiing (with specific adaptations for snowboard) and ice-skating. Excursions in snow shoes are also possible. The department has several hundred kilometres of cross-country skiing tracks.
This staunchly <a href="Catholic%20Church">Catholic</a> department is an old stronghold of the French Right, and was the electoral base of the late president <a href="Georges%20Pompidou">Georges Pompidou</a>. Only the area around <a href="Aurillac">Aurillac</a>, historically <a href="anti-clerical">anti-clerical</a> and <a href="Radical%20Socialist%20Party">Radical</a>, has some left-wing support.
The current president of the <a href="Cantal%20General%20Council">general council</a> is <a href="Vincent%20Descoeur">Vincent Descoeur</a> of the <a href="Union%20for%20a%20Popular%20Movement">Union for a Popular Movement</a>, presently the main opposition party in France.
<a href="Paul%20Doumer">Paul Doumer</a>, French president from May 1931 to May 1932, was born in <a href="Aurillac">Aurillac</a> in this department.
</doc>
<doc id="90525" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90525" title="Corrèze">
Corrèze
Corrèze (; ) is a <a href="departments%20of%20France">department</a> in south-western France, named after the <a href="Corr%C3%A8ze%20River">Corrèze River</a>.
The inhabitants of the department are called "Corréziens".
Corrèze is one of the original 83 departments created during the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> on 4 March 1790. It includes part of the <a href="provinces%20of%20France">former province</a> of <a href="Limousin%20%28province%29">Limousin</a> (the Bas-Limousin).
The 1851 census recorded a population of 320,866: this remained relatively constant for the rest of the nineteenth century. During the twentieth century, however, Corrèze shared the experience of many of <a href="France">the country's</a> rural departments as the population fell steadily.
Within Corrèze the nineteenth-century railway planners, influenced in part by the department's topography, endowed <a href="Brive-la-Gaillarde">Brive-la-Gaillarde</a> with good connections and a major junction from which railway lines fanned out in six different directions. The railways arrived in 1860, at an opportune moment, directly after <a href="phylloxera">phylloxera</a> had destroyed the local <a href="vineyard">wine industry</a>. The new railways enabled the farms in the area surrounding Brive to specialise in fruits and vegetables which they could now transport rapidly to the larger population centres of central and southern France. Locally, the new agriculture triggered the development, in the Brive basin, of related businesses and industries such as the manufacture of jams and liquors, as well as timber/paper-based packaging businesses.
The department is part of the <a href="regions%20of%20France">region</a> of <a href="Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes">Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes</a>. It is surrounded by the department of <a href="Creuse">Creuse</a>, <a href="Haute-Vienne">Haute-Vienne</a>, <a href="Cantal">Cantal</a>, <a href="Puy-de-D%C3%B4me">Puy-de-Dôme</a>, <a href="Lot%20%28department%29">Lot</a>, and <a href="Dordogne">Dordogne</a>. <a href="Tulle">Tulle</a> is the <a href="prefecture">prefecture</a> of Corrèze and <a href="Brive-la-Gaillarde">Brive-la-Gaillarde</a> the largest city.
The President of the General Council was <a href="Fran%C3%A7ois%20Hollande">François Hollande</a> of the <a href="Socialist%20Party%20%28France%29">Socialist Party</a> until 2012 when he was elected President of the Republic. <a href="Jacques%20Chirac">Jacques Chirac</a> also served as a Deputy of the National Assembly here for many years.
People who were born or have significantly lived in Corrèze include:
</doc>
<doc id="90530" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90530" title="Damballa">
Damballa
Damballa or Damballah or Danbala (see current <a href="Haitian%20Creole">Haitian Creole</a> orthography) is one of the most important of all the <a href="loa">loa</a>. Damballa is the <a href="Sky%20Father">Sky Father</a> and the <a href="%3Awikt%3Aprimordial">primordial</a> creator of all life. He rules the mind, intellect, and cosmic equilibrium. Damballa, as the serpent spirit and "The Great Master", created the cosmos by using his 7,000 coils to form the stars and the planets in the heavens and to shape the hills and valleys on earth. By shedding the serpent skin, Damballa created all the waters on the earth. Damballa is <a href="syncretism">syncretized</a> with either <a href="St.%20Patrick">Saint Patrick</a>, <a href="Jesus">Christ the Redeemer</a>, <a href="Our%20Lady%20of%20Mercy">Our Lady of Mercy</a>, or <a href="Moses">Moses</a>.
Damballa's wife is <a href="Ayida-Weddo">Ayida-Weddo</a>, and <a href="Erzulie">Erzulie Freda</a> is his concubine.
</doc>
<doc id="90531" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90531" title="Corse-du-Sud">
Corse-du-Sud
Corse-du-Sud (; ) () is a <a href="Departments%20of%20France">department</a> of <a href="France">France</a> consisting of the southern part of the island of <a href="Corsica">Corsica</a>.
The department was formed on 15 September 1975, when the department of <a href="Corsica">Corsica</a> was divided into <a href="Haute-Corse">Haute-Corse</a> and Corse-du-Sud. Its boundaries correspond to the former department of <a href="Liamone">Liamone</a>, which existed from 1793 to 1811.
The department hit the head-lines at the end of the twentieth century with the assassination at <a href="Ajaccio">Ajaccio</a> of the prefect <a href="Claude%20%C3%89rignac">Claude Érignac</a> on 6 February 1998.
The department is surrounded on three sides by the <a href="Mediterranean%20Sea">Mediterranean Sea</a> and on the north by the department of <a href="Haute-Corse">Haute-Corse</a>.
The entire island of Corsica is mountainous with many beautiful beaches.
The people living in this subregion are called "Southerners" ("Suttanacci").
Corsicans are a fiercely independent people. However, on 6 July 2003 a referendum rejected increased autonomy by a very small majority, with 50.98 percent of those voting being against and 49.02 percent for. This was a major setback for the French Minister of the Interior, <a href="Nicolas%20Sarkozy">Nicolas Sarkozy</a>, who had hoped to use Corsica as the first step in his decentralization programme.
The President of the Departemental Council is Pierre-Jean Luciani, who has held the office since 2015.
South Corsica enjoys the mild and hot climate of Mediterranean Islands, and therefore attracts a lot of tourists. Its gem is the city of <a href="Bonifacio%2C%20Corse-du-Sud">Bonifacio</a>, part of which is built upon a huge cliff.
But inside mountains are beautiful as well, especially the Aiguilles de Bavella, some naked, needle-like rocks.
<br>
</doc>
<doc id="90535" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90535" title="Ayizan">
Ayizan
In <a href="Haitian%20Vodou">Vodou</a>, and especially in <a href="Haiti">Haiti</a>, Ayizan (also Grande Ai-Zan, Aizan, or Ayizan Velekete) is the <a href="loa">loa</a> of the marketplace and commerce.
She is a racine, or root Loa, associated with Vodoun <a href="Rite%20of%20passage">rites of initiation</a> (called kanzo). Just as her husband <a href="Loco%20%28loa%29">Loco</a> is the archetypal <a href="Houngan">Houngan</a> (priest), Ayizan is regarded as the first, or archetypal <a href="Mambo%20%28Voodoo%29">Mambo</a> (priestess), and as such is also associated with priestly knowledge and mysteries, particularly those of initiation, and the natural world.
As the spiritual parents of the priesthood she and her husband are two of the Loa involved in the <a href="kanzo%20rites">kanzo rites</a> in which the Priest/ess-to-be is given the <a href="asson">asson</a> (sacred rattle and tool of the priesthood), and are both powerful guardians of "reglemen," or the correct and appropriate form of Vodoun service.
She is <a href="wiktionary%3Asyncretised">syncretised</a> with the Catholic <a href="Clare%20of%20Assisi">Saint Clare</a>, her symbol is the <a href="palm%20frond">palm frond</a>, she drinks no alcohol, and is the wife of <a href="Loco%20%28loa%29">Loko Atisou</a>. Her colours are most commonly gold, yellow and white.
</doc>
<doc id="90538" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90538" title="Azaka-Tonnerre">
Azaka-Tonnerre
In <a href="Haitian%20Vodou">Vodou</a>, and especially in <a href="Haiti">Haiti</a>, Azaka-Tonnerre (also Azaca or Azacca) is in the same "family" of <a href="loa">loa</a> as Azaka Medeh - the loa of <a href="agriculture">agriculture</a>. Azaka-Tonnerre is a loa of <a href="thunder">thunder</a>.
</doc>
<doc id="90539" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90539" title="Haute-Corse">
Haute-Corse
Haute-Corse (; ) () is a <a href="Departments%20of%20France">department</a> of <a href="France">France</a> consisting of the northern part of the island of <a href="Corsica">Corsica</a>.
The department was formed on 15 September 1975, when the department of Corsica was divided into Upper Corsica ("Haute-Corse") and South Corsica ("<a href="Corse-du-Sud">Corse-du-Sud</a>"). The department corresponds exactly to the former department of Golo, which existed between 1793 and 1811.
The department is surrounded on three sides by the <a href="Mediterranean%20Sea">Mediterranean Sea</a> and on the south by the department of Corse-du-Sud.
The people living in this subregion are called "Northerners" ("Supranacci").
The Corsicans are a fiercely independent people. However, a 6 July 2003 referendum on increased autonomy was voted down by a very thin majority: 50.98 percent against to 49.02 percent for. This was a major setback for French Minister of the Interior <a href="Nicolas%20Sarkozy">Nicolas Sarkozy</a>, who had hoped to use Corsica as the first step in his decentralization policies.
The President of the General Council is <a href="Paul%20Giacobbi">Paul Giacobbi</a>, who has held the office since 1998.
</doc>
<doc id="90541" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90541" title="Unisys ICON">
Unisys ICON
The ICON was a computer built specifically for use in schools, to fill a standard created by the <a href="Ministry%20of%20Education%20%28Ontario%29">Ontario Ministry of Education</a>. It was based on the <a href="Intel%2080186">Intel 80186</a> CPU and ran an early version of the <a href="QNX">QNX</a> <a href="Unix-like">Unix-like</a> operating system. The system was packaged as an all-in-one machine similar to the <a href="Commodore%20PET">Commodore PET</a>, and included a <a href="trackball">trackball</a> for mouse-like control. Over time a number of <a href="GUI">GUI</a>-like systems appeared for the platform, based on the system's <a href="NAPLPS">NAPLPS</a>-based graphics system.
The ICON was widely used, mostly in <a href="high%20school">high school</a>s in the mid to late 1980s, but disappeared after that time with the widespread introduction of <a href="Personal%20Computer">PC</a>s and <a href="Apple%20Macintosh">Apple Macintosh</a>es. They were also known as the CEMCorp ICON, Burroughs ICON, and finally Unisys ICON when <a href="Burroughs%20Corporation">Burroughs</a> and <a href="Sperry%20Corporation">Sperry Corporation</a> merged to form <a href="Unisys">Unisys</a> in 1986. The machine was also nicknamed the "bionic beaver".
In 1981, three years after the first usable <a href="microcomputers">microcomputers</a> appeared, the <a href="Ministry%20of%20Education%20%28Ontario%29">Ontario Ministry of Education</a> sensed that microcomputers could be an important component of education. In June the <a href="Ministry%20of%20Education%20%28Ontario%29">Minister of Education</a>, <a href="Bette%20Stephenson">Bette Stephenson</a>, announced the need for computer literacy for all students and formed the Advisory Committee on Computers in Education to guide their efforts. She stated that:
It is now clear that one of the major goals that education must add to its list of purposes, is computer literacy. The world of the very near future requires that all of
us have some understanding of the processes and uses of computers."
According to several contemporary sources, Stephenson was the driving force behind the project; "whenever there was a problem she appears to have 'moved heaven and earth' to get it back on the tracks."
The Ministry recognized that a small proportion of teachers and other school personnel were already quite involved with microcomputers and that some schools were acquiring first-generation machines. These acquisitions were uneven, varying in brand and model not just between school boards, but among schools within boards and even classroom to classroom. Among the most popular were the <a href="Commodore%20PET">Commodore PET</a> which had a strong following in the new <a href="computer%20programming">computer programming</a> classes due to its tough all-in-one construction and built-in support for <a href="Microsoft%20BASIC">Microsoft BASIC</a>, and the <a href="Apple%20II">Apple II</a> which had a wide variety of educational software, mostly aimed at early education.
The Ministry wanted to encourage uses of microcomputers that supported its curriculum guidelines and was willing to underwrite the development of software for that purpose. However, the wide variety of machines being used meant that development costs had to be spread over several platforms. Additionally, many of the curriculum topics they wanted to cover required more storage or graphics capability than at least some of the machines then in use, if not all of them. Educational software was in its infancy, and many hardware acquisitions were made without a clear provision for educational software or a plan for use.
A series of Policy Memos followed outlining the Committee's views. Policy Memo 47 stated that computers are to be used creatively, and for information retrieval; at the time most systems were used solely for programming. They also announced funding for the development of educational software on an estimated 6000 machines. The Ministry decided that standardizing the computers would reduce maintenance costs, and allow for the development of consistent educational software. The Ministry contracted the Canadian Advanced Technology Alliance (CATA) to help develop specifications for the new system.
Policy Memos 68-73 followed in early 1983, stating that none of the existing platforms had all the qualities needed to be truly universal. The idea of a new machine quickly gained currency, with the added bonus that it would help develop a local microcomputer industry. In order to make the new machine attractive, the Ministry agreed to fund up 75% of the purchase price from their own budget. When the plan was first announced there was widespread concern among educators. Their main complaint is that the Ministry would select a standard that was not powerful enough for their needs. A secondary concern was that the time delay between announcing and introducing the computer would be lengthy, a period in which existing purchases could be funded instead.
The first set of concerns were rendered moot when the specifications were introduced in March 1983 in the "Functional Requirements for Microcomputers for Educational Use in Ontario Schools--Stage I." The physical design required a PET-like all-in-one case, headphones output for voice and sound effects, and a <a href="trackball">trackball</a> for mouse-like pointing support. Inside the case, the specification called for a processor and support systems to allow a <a href="multitasking">multitasking</a> <a href="operating%20system">operating system</a> to be used, selecting the <a href="Intel%2080186">Intel 80186</a> as the CPU. Color graphics were specified, at least as an option, along with monochrome and color monitors on top. Voice synthesis was built in, and the keyboard provided for accented characters. Additionally, the systems would include no local storage at all, and would instead rely on a <a href="computer%20network">networked</a> <a href="file%20server">file server</a> containing a <a href="hard%20drive">hard drive</a>.
The specification was considerably in advance of the <a href="state%20of%20the%20art">state of the art</a> of the time, and when it was delivered commentators immediately reversed their earlier concerns and suggested the machine was too powerful, and would therefore be available in too small numbers.
To deliver such a machine, Robert Arn, a member of the CATA team, set up CEMCORP, the "Canadian Educational Microprocessor Corporation". When the specification was announced in 1983, CEMCORP was announced as the winner of a $10 million contract to develop and supply the initial machines. An additional $5 million in funding was announced to cover development of new software applications, while the <a href="Ontario%20Institute%20for%20Studies%20in%20Education">Ontario Institute for Studies in Education</a> (OISE) was asked to convert 30 existing programs to the new machine. In order to be able to afford what was expected to be an expensive machine, the Ministry announced a special "Recognized Extraordinary Expenditure" (REE) grant that would provide for up to 75% of the purchase costs of machines meeting the "Grant Eligible Microcomputer Systems" or "G.E.M.S." specifications.
At the time, only the ICON met the GEMS requirements, which cut its purchase price from around $2500 to a mere $495 ($2700/$696 USD) -- less expensive than most existing microcomputers. The entire program was politically explosive throughout its gestation as a result, causing a continual stream of news stories. Critics complained that other machines could be bought for half the cost, but supporters pushed back that no other machine at that price point supported the GEMS specifications. The release of the <a href="IBM%20Personal%20Computer/AT">PC/AT</a> in 1984 made nightly news as it used the same processor as the ICON, reopening the debate. Around this time other platforms, such as the <a href="Waterloo%20PORT">Waterloo PORT</a> networking system, gained approval for the government support that had originally been the province of the ICON.
The basic ICON design had reached "beta quality" after just over a year, using off the shelf parts, the hardware manufactured by Microtel and <a href="operating%20system">operating system</a> from <a href="QNX">Quantum Software Systems</a>. The original Microtel machines were first introduced to Ontario schools in 1984 in small numbers, packaged in a short-lived dark brown case. At this point <a href="Burroughs%20Corporation">Burroughs Canada</a> was brought in to sell and support the machine. It wasn't long after this that <a href="Sperry%20Corporation">Sperry</a> and Burroughs merged to form <a href="Unisys">Unisys</a> in 1986. Several generations of ICON machines were produced, evolving steadily to become more and more PC-like. They were built into the early 1990s, but by this point were used almost entirely for running DOS and Windows programs.
Throughout the project's lifetime it was subject to continual debate and much political rhetoric. A 1992 article on the topic complained that
Bette Stephenson favoured top-down decision making and as a result got trapped by her tunnel vision. Her ICON computer fiasco drained millions from the provincial
treasury and created a white elephant scorned by boards and shunned by teachers... Computer resources were forced upon the school system as a result of a top-down government decision that was taken precipitously and without research.
The Ministry ceased all support for the ICON in 1994, and <a href="Archives%20Ontario">Archives Ontario</a> declined to take ICON hardware and copies of the ICON software, which were destroyed. This was controversial in its own right, as others maintained that it could be sent to other schools that lacked extensive Information Technology. Despite the development of the ICON program, equality among schools was not assured because each school community could afford different capital outlays depending on the parents' affluence.
The ICON system was based on a <a href="workstation">workstation</a>/<a href="file%20server">file server</a> model, with no storage local to the workstations. Both the workstations and the servers were similar internally, based on <a href="Intel%2080186">Intel 80186</a> <a href="microprocessor">microprocessor</a>s, and connected to each other using <a href="ARCNET">ARCNET</a>. Several upgrades were introduced into the ICON line over time. The ICON2 sported a redesigned case, a detached keyboard with integrated trackball, expanded RAM, and facilities for an internal hard disk. The CPU was upgraded to the 386 in the Series III, while an "ICON-on-a-card" for PCs also appeared.
The original ICON workstations were housed in a large wedge-shaped steel case, with a full-sized keyboard mounted slightly left-of-center and a trackball mounted to the right. A rubber bumper-strip ran along the front edge, a precaution against a particular type of cut users sometimes got from the PET's sharp case. The <a href="Enhanced%20Graphics%20Adapter">EGA</a> monitor was mounted on top of a tilt-and-swivel mount, a welcome improvement on the PET. It also included <a href="Texas%20Instruments">TI</a>'s TMS 5220 speech chip, originally designed for the <a href="TI-99">TI-99</a>, and would speak the vaguely <a href="obscene">obscene</a> word "dhtick" when starting up. Early Microtel machines were dark brown, but the vast majority of examples in the classroom were a more nondescript beige.
The fileserver, sometimes referred to as the LexICON, was a simple box with an internal 10MB <a href="hard%20drive">hard drive</a> and a 5.25" <a href="floppy%20drive">floppy drive</a> opening to the front, and parallel port for a shared printer. Later Lexicons included a 64MB hard disk, divided into two partitions. Unlike the PET's floppy system, however, users of the ICON used Unix commands to copy data to their personal floppy disks from its "natural" location in the user's home directory on the hard drive.
Both the client and server ran the <a href="Unix-like">Unix-like</a> <a href="QNX">QNX</a> as their operating system with the addition of network file-sharing, the basic portions of it embedded in <a href="Read-only%20memory">ROM</a>. To this they added a <a href="NAPLPS">NAPLPS</a>/Telidon-based graphics system, which was intended to be used with the trackball to make interactive programs. The system included a Paint programme that used the trackball, but did not include a usable <a href="GUI">GUI</a>, although there were several attempts to produce one. QNX 2.0.1 included a modest one called "House", and another was built at least to the prototype stage by <a href="Helicon%20Systems">Helicon Systems</a> in Toronto and appeared in one form as Ambience, though its capabilities were limited. A later upgrade called ICONLook improved upon this greatly, but it was apparently too slow to use realistically. <a href="Helicon%20Systems">Helicon Systems</a> also produced a <a href="MIDI">MIDI</a> interface for the original ICON.
The biggest problem for the machine was a lack of software. The ICON was originally designed to let teachers create and share their own lessonware, using a simple hypertext-based system where pages could either link to other pages or run programs written in "C". The "anyone can create lessonware" model was rejected by the Ministry of Education before the ICON shipped (in favour of a model where the Ministry funded and controlled all lessonware), leaving the ICON with only the QNX command line interface and the Cemcorp-developed text editor application.
The various <a href="Watcom">Watcom</a> programming languages were quickly ported to the system, but beyond that, the educational software teachers expected was few and far between. The Ministry contracted for a number of applications, but the small target market and the sometimes-difficult procedure required to secure such contracts were significant obstacles for realistic commercial development.
Although the Icon was terminated, the <a href="QNX">QNX</a> operating system is alive and well, if particularly different from its earliest versions. It is in over 100 vehicle models (<a href="automotive%20navigation%20system">navigation systems</a>, <a href="telematics">telematics</a>, <a href="speech%20recognition">speech recognition</a>, <a href="bluetooth">bluetooth</a> hands-free systems), and powers the <a href="Cisco%20Systems">Cisco</a> <a href="Cisco%20CRS-1">CRS-1</a> and <a href="BlackBerry">BlackBerry</a>'s <a href="BlackBerry%20Tablet%20OS">BlackBerry Tablet OS</a> and <a href="BlackBerry%2010">BlackBerry 10</a> operating systems.
</doc>
<doc id="90542" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90542" title="Candida">
Candida
Candida may refer to:
</doc>
<doc id="90544" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90544" title="Côte-d'Or">
Côte-d'Or
Côte-d'Or (; literally, "golden <a href="wiktionary%3Ac%C3%B4te%23French">slope</a>") is a <a href="departments%20of%20France">department</a> in the eastern part of France.
Côte-d'Or is one of the original 83 departments created during the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> on 4 March 1790. It was formed from part of the former <a href="province%20of%20France">province</a> of <a href="Burgundy%20%28historical%20region%29">Burgundy</a>.
The department is part of the current <a href="regions%20of%20France">region</a> of <a href="Bourgogne-Franche-Comt%C3%A9">Bourgogne-Franche-Comté</a>. It is surrounded by the departments of <a href="Yonne">Yonne</a>, <a href="Ni%C3%A8vre">Nièvre</a>, <a href="Sa%C3%B4ne-et-Loire">Saône-et-Loire</a>, <a href="Jura%20%28department%29">Jura</a>, <a href="Aube">Aube</a>, and <a href="Haute-Marne">Haute-Marne</a>.
A chain of hills called the <a href="Plateau%20de%20Langres">Plateau de Langres</a> runs from north-east to south-west through the department to the north of Dijon and continues south-westwards as the <a href="C%C3%B4te%20d%27Or%20%28escarpment%29">Côte d'Or escarpment</a>, which takes its name from that of the department. It is the south-east facing slope of this <a href="escarpment">escarpment</a> which is the site of the celebrated <a href="Burgundy%20wine">Burgundy</a> <a href="vineyard">vineyard</a>s. To the west of the Plateau de Langres, towards <a href="Champagne%20%28province%29">Champagne</a>, lies the densely wooded district of <a href="Ch%C3%A2tillonais">Châtillonais</a>. To the south-east of the plateau and escarpment, the department lies in the broad, flat-bottomed valley of the middle course of the <a href="River%20Sa%C3%B4ne">Saône</a>.
Rivers include:
The climate of the department is temperate, with abundant rain on the west side of the central range.
The President of the General Council is <a href="Fran%C3%A7ois%20Sauvadet">François Sauvadet</a> of the <a href="New%20Centre">New Centre</a>.
This is a premier <a href="wine-growing%20region">wine-growing region</a> of France. It produces what are arguably the world's finest, and definitely most expensive <a href="Pinot%20noir">Pinot noir</a> and <a href="Chardonnay">Chardonnay</a> wines from some of the most rigorously and painstakingly (thanks to the region's many monasteries) classified vineyards in the world. Wine from the Côte-d'Or was a favorite of the emperor Charlemagne. Other crops include cereal grains and potatoes. Sheep and cattle are also raised in the department. The region is famous for its <a href="Dijon">Dijon</a> <a href="Mustard%20%28condiment%29">mustard</a>.
There are coal mines and heavy industry, including steel, machinery, and earthenware.
The industries most developed in Côte-d'Or are
The big works are generally in the conurbation of Dijon although biggest (CEA Valduc) is at <a href="Salives">Salives</a> in the Plateau de Langres. There is also the SEB metal works at Selongey below the plateau on the margin of the Saône plain and the Valourec metalworking group at <a href="Montbard">Montbard</a> in the west of the department on the River Brenne near its confluence with the Armançon.
The <a href="Pharmaceutical%20industry">Pharmaceutical industry</a> has shown the greatest growth in recent years.
However, since the Dijon employment statistics zone includes the urban and administrative centre of the <a href="Bourgogne">Burgundy region</a>, the <a href="service%20sector">service sector</a> is proportionately bigger there in relation to the industrial, than in the other three zones of Côte-d'Or.
The inhabitants of the department are called "Costaloriens".
Some of the major tourist attractions are the Gothic abbey church of <a href="Saint-Seine-l%27Abbaye">Saint-Seine-l'Abbaye</a> and the Romanesque abbey church at <a href="Saulieu">Saulieu</a>, as well the Château de Bussy Rabutin at <a href="Bussy-le-Grand">Bussy-le-Grand</a>. The <a href="Abbey%20of%20C%C3%AEteaux">Abbey of Cîteaux</a>, headquarters of the <a href="Cistercian%20Order">Cistercian Order</a>, lies to the east of <a href="Nuits-Saint-Georges">Nuits-Saint-Georges</a> in the south of the department.
</doc>
<doc id="90549" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90549" title="John Kennedy (disambiguation)">
John Kennedy (disambiguation)
<a href="John%20F.%20Kennedy">John F. Kennedy</a> (1917–1963) was the 35th President of the United States (1961–1963).
John Kennedy may also refer to:
</doc>
<doc id="90550" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90550" title="Robin">
Robin
Robin may refer to:
Other "robins" are unrelated red-breasted songbirds:
</doc>
<doc id="90551" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90551" title="Creuse">
Creuse
Creuse (; ) is a <a href="departments%20of%20France">department</a> in central France named after the <a href="Creuse%20River">Creuse River</a>.
Creuse is one of the original 83 departments created during the <a href="French%20Revolution">French Revolution</a> on 4 March 1790. It was created from the former <a href="provinces%20of%20France">province</a> of <a href="County%20of%20Marche">La Marche</a>.
The County of Marche () was a <a href="France%20in%20the%20Middle%20Ages">medieval French county</a>, approximately corresponding to the modern "département" of Creuse. Marche first appeared as a separate fief about the middle of the 10th century, when <a href="William%20III%2C%20Duke%20of%20Aquitaine">William III, Duke of Aquitaine</a>, gave it to one of his vassals named Boso, who took the title of count. In the 12th century, the countship passed to the family of <a href="Lusignan">Lusignan</a>. They also were sometimes <a href="Counts%20and%20dukes%20of%20Angoul%C3%AAme">counts of Angoulême</a> and counts of <a href="Limousin%20%28province%29">Limousin</a>. With the death of the childless Count Guy in 1308, his possessions in La Marche were seized by <a href="Philip%20IV%20of%20France">Philip IV of France</a>. In 1316 the king made La Marche an "<a href="appanage">appanage</a>" for his youngest son the Prince, afterwards <a href="Charles%20IV%20of%20France">Charles IV</a>. Several years later in 1327, La Marche passed into the hands of the <a href="House%20of%20Bourbon">House of Bourbon</a>. The family of <a href="House%20of%20Armagnac">Armagnac</a> held it from 1435 to 1477, when it reverted to the Bourbons. In 1527 La Marche was seized by <a href="Francis%20I%20of%20France">Francis I</a> and became part of the domains of the French crown. It was divided into "Haute Marche" and "Basse Marche", the estates of the former continuing until the 17th century. From 1470 until the Revolution, the province was under the jurisdiction of the <a href="parlement%20of%20Paris">parlement of Paris</a>.
In 1886 , located in a remote part of Creuse, became somewhat improbably the third town in France to receive a public electricity supply. Three years later, in 1889, the construction of a primitive hydro-electric factory at on the little at <a href="Saint-Martin-Ch%C3%A2teau">Saint-Martin-Château</a>, away, established a more reliable electricity supply for the little town. The creation of a power line from the plant to Bourganeuf was supervised by a pioneering engineer called <a href="Marcel%20Deprez">Marcel Deprez</a>: this was the first time that a power line over such a long distance had been constructed in France. The achievement was crowned with the region's first telephone line, installed in order to permit instant communication between the generating station and the newly illuminated town.
Creuse is part of the <a href="regions%20of%20France">region</a> of <a href="Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes">Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes</a> and is surrounded by the departments of <a href="Corr%C3%A8ze">Corrèze</a>, <a href="Haute-Vienne">Haute-Vienne</a>, <a href="Allier">Allier</a>, <a href="Puy-de-D%C3%B4me">Puy-de-Dôme</a>, <a href="Cher%20%28d%C3%A9partement%29">Cher</a>, and <a href="Indre">Indre</a>.
It is in the <a href="Massif%20Central">Massif Central</a> and permeated by the <a href="Creuse%20River">Creuse River</a> and its tributaries. The river is dammed at several locations both for water supply and <a href="hydroelectricity">hydroelectricity</a> generation. As is typical for an inland area of continental Europe, Creuse has relatively cold winters with some snowfall into April, but also hot summers. Rain falls throughout the year because of the relatively high elevation.
The topography is principally rolling hills intersected by often steep valleys. The terrestrial ecology is typically cool <a href="temperate">temperate</a> with a species mix common in the western UK: with <a href="oak">oak</a>, <a href="Ash%20tree">ash</a>, <a href="chestnut">chestnut</a>, <a href="hazel">hazel</a> and "<a href="Prunus">Prunus</a>" species dominating the woodlands. There are no commercial <a href="vineyard">vineyard</a>s. Much of the farming is beef cattle: <a href="Charolais%20cattle">Charolais</a> and <a href="Limousin%20%28cattle%29">Limousin</a>, and also sheep.
The inhabitants of the department are called "Creusois".
The population peaked at 287,075 in 1851, after which it declined gently until the First World War. During and after the war, the decline in population became much more rapid both because of the death and disruption that characterised the war years and because of the higher wages available to any workers with marketable skills in the economically more dynamic towns and cities outside Creuse. By 1921 the registered population had slumped by almost 38,000 (approximately 14%) in ten years to 228,244, and the decline continued throughout the twentieth century.
Over the last four decades of the twentieth century Creuse experienced the greatest proportional population decline of any French department, from 164,000 in 1960 to 124,000 in 1999 – a decrease of 24%.
The President of the General Council is <a href="Jean-Jacques%20Lozach">Jean-Jacques Lozach</a> of the <a href="Socialist%20Party%20%28France%29">Socialist Party</a>.
A historically rich and traditionally rural rather lightly populated area with beautiful preserved landscapes, ancient and typical "art de vivre", original stone architecture, no major urban center and many heritage site such as <a href="castles">castles</a>, <a href="abbeys">abbeys</a> and <a href="Dolmen">Celtic stone monuments</a>: the Creuse department has become a <a href="Green%20tourism">Green tourism</a> destination since the late 1990s. Creuse enjoyed a <a href="temperate%20climate">temperate climate</a> with mild springs and autumns, rather cold and snowy but sunny winters, and relatively warm and sunny summers, but not as hot as in the southern parts of France. Thanks to its preserved forested landscape, little pollution and wonderful stone buildings, many foreigners (notably British and Dutch, but also German and Belgian) have sought to buy holiday homes in Creuse.
The major tourist attractions are the <a href="tapestry">tapestry</a> museum in <a href="Aubusson%2C%20Creuse">Aubusson</a> and the many castles, notably those of Villemonteix, <a href="Boussac%2C%20Creuse">Boussac</a>, and Banizette. The monastery of <a href="Moutier-d%27Ahun">Moutier-d'Ahun</a> has exceptional wood carvings from the 17th century. (). After World War 1, some towns in France set up pacifist war memorials. Instead of commemorating the glorious dead, these memorials denounce war with figures of grieving widows and children rather than soldiers. Such memorials provoked anger among veterans and the military in general. The most famous is at <a href="Gentioux-Pigerolles">Gentioux-Pigerolles</a> in the department (see picture on the left). Below the column which lists the name of the fallen, stands an orphan in bronze pointing to an inscription ‘Maudite soit la guerre’ (Cursed be war). Feelings ran so high that the memorial was not officially inaugurated until 1990 and soldiers at the nearby army camp were under orders to turn their heads when they walked past.
<a href="Gu%C3%A9ret">Guéret</a>, Creuse is also home to a large nearby animal park named <a href="http%3A//www.loups-chabrieres.com/">Les Loups de Chabrières</a> containing some of France's few remaining wolves, held in semi-captivity. It includes 24 European Grey Wolves , two Canadian White Wolves and two Canadian Black Wolves in five distinct enclosures
Motor racing Mas du Clos It is twelve kilometers from Aubusson at the foot of the family castle of <a href="Saint-Avit-de-Tardes">Saint-Avit-de-Tardes</a> Pierre Bardinon creates all pieces in 1963.
</doc>
<doc id="90554" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90554" title="Suppletion">
Suppletion
In <a href="linguistics">linguistics</a> and <a href="etymology">etymology</a>, suppletion is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the <a href="inflection">inflected</a> form of another word when the two words are not <a href="cognate">cognate</a>. For those learning a language, suppletive forms will be seen as "irregular" or even "highly irregular". The term "suppletion" implies that a gap in the paradigm was filled by a form "supplied" by a different paradigm. Instances of suppletion are overwhelmingly restricted to the most commonly used <a href="lexical%20item">lexical item</a>s in a language.
An irregular paradigm is one in which the derived forms of a word cannot be deduced by simple rules from the base form. For example, someone who knows only a little English can deduce that the plural of "girl" is "girls" but cannot deduce that the plural of "man" is "men". Language learners are often most aware of <a href="irregular%20verb">irregular verb</a>s, but any part of speech with inflections can be irregular. For most synchronic purposes — first-language acquisition studies, <a href="psycholinguistics">psycholinguistics</a>, language-teaching theory — it suffices to note that these forms are irregular. However, historical linguistics seeks to explain how they came to be so and distinguishes different kinds of irregularity according to their origins. Most irregular paradigms (like "man:men") can be explained by philological developments that affected one form of a word but not another (in this case, <a href="Germanic%20umlaut">Germanic umlaut</a>). In other cases, the historical antecedents of the current forms once constituted a regular paradigm. Historical linguists adopted the term "suppletion"
to distinguish irregularities like "person:people" or "<a href="cattle">cow:cattle</a>" that cannot be so explained because the parts of the paradigm have not evolved out of a single form.
Most of the examples below are from <a href="Indo-European%20languages">Indo-European languages</a>, but suppletion is hardly restricted to these languages. For example, in <a href="Georgian%20language">Georgian</a>, the paradigm for the verb "to come" is composed of four different roots ("di-" / "-val-" / "-vid-" / "-sul-"). Similarly, in <a href="Modern%20Standard%20Arabic">Modern Standard Arabic</a>, the verb "jāʾ" "come" usually uses the form "taʿāl" for its imperative, and the plural of "marʾah" "woman" is "nisāʾ" (related to "nās" "people"). Nonetheless, some of the more archaic Indo-European languages are particularly known for suppletion. <a href="Ancient%20Greek">Ancient Greek</a>, for example, has some 20 verbs with suppletive paradigms, many with 3 separate roots. (See <a href="Ancient%20Greek%20verbs%23Suppletive%20verbs">Ancient Greek verbs#Suppletive verbs</a>.)
^ *"z", "przy", "w", and "wy" are <a href="prefix">prefix</a>es and are not part of the root
Strictly speaking, suppletion occurs when different "inflections" of a lexeme (i.e., with the same <a href="lexical%20category">lexical category</a>) have etymologically "unrelated" stems. The term is also used in looser senses, albeit less formally.
The term "suppletion" is also used in the looser sense when there is a semantic link between words but not an etymological one; unlike the strict inflectional sense, these may be in different <a href="lexical%20category">lexical categories</a>, such as noun/verb.
English noun/adjective pairs such as father/paternal or cow/bovine are also referred to as <a href="collateral%20adjectives">collateral adjectives</a>. In this sense of the term, father/fatherly is non-suppletive. "Fatherly" is <a href="Derivation%20%28linguistics%29">derived</a> from "father", while father/paternal is suppletive. Likewise cow/cowy is non-suppletive, while cow/bovine is suppletive.
In these cases, father/pater- and cow/bov- are cognate via <a href="Proto-Indo-European%20language">Proto-Indo-European</a>, but 'paternal' and 'bovine' are borrowings into English (via Old French and Latin). The pairs are distantly etymologically related, but the words are not from a single Modern English stem.
The term "weak suppletion" is sometimes used in contemporary synchronic morphology in regard to sets of stems (or affixes) whose alternations cannot be accounted for by current phonological rules. For example, stems in the word pair "oblige/obligate" are related by meaning but the stem-final alternation is not related by any synchronic phonological process. This makes the pair appear to be suppletive, except that they are related etymologically. In historical linguistics "suppletion" is sometimes limited to reference to etymologically unrelated stems. Current usage of the term "weak suppletion" in synchronic morphology is not fixed.
</doc>
<doc id="90558" url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90558" title="Corn Laws">
Corn Laws
The Corn Laws were measures enforced in the <a href="United%20Kingdom">United Kingdom</a> between 1815 and 1846, which imposed restrictions and <a href="trade%20barrier">tariffs</a> on imported <a href="grain">grain</a>. They were designed to keep grain prices high to favour domestic producers. The laws did indeed raise food prices and became the focus of opposition from urban groups who had far less political power than rural Britain. The Corn Laws imposed steep <a href="import%20duties">import duties</a>, making it too expensive to import grain from abroad, even when food supplies were short. The laws were supported by <a href="Conservative%20Party%20%28UK%29">Conservative</a> landowners and opposed by <a href="Whigs%20%28British%20political%20party%29">Whig</a> industrialists and workers. The <a href="Anti-Corn%20Law%20League">Anti-Corn Law League</a> was responsible for turning public and elite opinion against the laws. It was a large, nationwide middle-class moral crusade with a Utopian vision, according to historian <a href="Asa%20Briggs">Asa Briggs</a>; its leading advocate <a href="Richard%20Cobden">Richard Cobden</a> promised that repeal would settle four great problems simultaneously:
First, it would guarantee the prosperity of the manufacturer by affording him outlets for his products. Second, it would relieve the <a href="Condition%20of%20England%20question">Condition of England question</a> by cheapening the price of food and ensuring more regular employment. Third, it would make English agriculture more efficient by stimulating demand for its products in urban and industrial areas. Fourth, it would introduce through mutually advantageous international trade a new era of international fellowship and peace. The only barrier to these four beneficent solutions was the ignorant self-interest of the landlords, the "bread-taxing oligarchy, unprincipled, unfeeling, rapacious and plundering."
The first two years of the <a href="Great%20Famine%20%28Ireland%29">Irish famine</a> of 1845–1852 forced a resolution because of the urgent need for new food supplies. Prime Minister Sir <a href="Robert%20Peel">Robert Peel</a>, a Conservative, achieved repeal with the support of the Whigs in Parliament, overcoming the opposition of most of his own party.
"<a href="Corn%20%28disambiguation%29%23Cereals">Corn</a>" included any grain that requires grinding, especially wheat. The laws were introduced by the Importation Act 1815 (55 Geo. 3 c. 26) and repealed by the Importation Act 1846 (9 & 10 Vict. c. 22). The laws are often considered examples of British <a href="mercantilism">mercantilism</a>.
The economic issue was food prices. The price of grain was central to the price of the most important <a href="staple%20food">staple food</a>, bread, and the working man spent much of his wages on bread.
The political issue was a dispute between landowners (a long-established class, who were heavily over-represented in Parliament) and the new class of manufacturers and industrial workers (who were under-represented). The former desired to maximise their profits from agriculture by keeping the price at which they could sell their grain high. The latter wished to maximise their profits from manufacture by reducing the wages they paid to their factory workers—the difficulty being that men could not work in the factories if a factory wage was not enough to feed them and their families; hence, in practice, high grain prices kept factory wages high also.
The Corn Laws enhanced the profits and political power associated with <a href="land%20ownership">land ownership</a>. Their abolition saw a significant increase of <a href="free%20trade">free trade</a>.
In 1689, traders were provided <a href="Export%20subsidy">bounties for exporting</a> <a href="rye">rye</a>, <a href="malt">malt</a> and <a href="wheat">wheat</a> (all classified as corn at the time), and the same commodities were taxed when imported into England.
In 1813, a <a href="British%20House%20of%20Commons">House of Commons</a> Committee recommended excluding foreign-grown corn until the price of domestically grown corn increased to 80 shillings (£4) (2010 equivalent: £202.25) per quarter (1 quarter = 28lb). The political economist <a href="Thomas%20Malthus">Thomas Malthus</a> believed this to be a <a href="fair%20price">fair price</a>, and that it would be dangerous for Britain to rely on imported corn because lower prices would reduce labourers' <a href="wages">wages</a>, and manufacturers would lose out due to the decrease of purchasing power of landlords and farmers.
Nevertheless, the ceiling price of 80 shillings a quarter for domestic grain was so high that, between 1815 and 1848, it was never reached. <a href="David%20Ricardo">David Ricardo</a>, however, espoused <a href="free%20trade">free trade</a> so that Britain could use its capital and population to its <a href="comparative%20advantage">comparative advantage</a>. With the advent of peace in 1814, corn prices decreased, and the <a href="Conservative%20Party%20%28UK%29">Tory</a> government of <a href="Robert%20Jenkinson%2C%202nd%20Earl%20of%20Liverpool">Lord Liverpool</a> passed the 1815 Corn Law to keep bread prices high. This resulted in serious rioting in London.
Soon afterwards, repercussions of the 10 April <a href="1815%20eruption%20of%20Mount%20Tambora">1815 eruption of Mount Tambora</a> in Indonesia, compounded by <a href="Year%20Without%20a%20Summer%23Causes">four preceding big eruptions</a>, caused the 1816 <a href="Year%20Without%20a%20Summer">Year Without a Summer</a> and caused famine by disastrously reducing crop yields.
In 1820, the Merchants' Petition, written by <a href="Thomas%20Tooke">Thomas Tooke</a>, was presented to the House of Commons. The petition demanded free trade and an end to protective tariffs. The Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, who (falsely) claimed to be in favour of free trade, blocked the petition. He argued, speciously, that complicated restrictions made it difficult to repeal protectionist laws. He added, though, that he believed Britain's economic dominance grew in spite of, not because of, the protectionist system. In 1821 the <a href="President%20of%20the%20Board%20of%20Trade">President of the Board of Trade</a>, <a href="William%20Huskisson">William Huskisson</a>, composed a Commons Committee report which recommended a return to the "practically free" trade of the pre-1815 years.
The Importation Act 1822 decreed that corn could be imported when the price of domestically harvested corn rose to <a href="shilling">80/-</a> per quarter but that the import of corn would again be prohibited when the price fell to 70/- per quarter. After this Act was passed, the corn price never rose to 80/- until 1828. In 1827 the landlords rejected Huskisson's proposals for a sliding scale, and during the next year Huskisson and the new <a href="Prime%20Minister%20of%20the%20United%20Kingdom">Prime Minister</a>, the <a href="Arthur%20Wellesley%2C%201st%20Duke%20of%20Wellington">Duke of Wellington</a>, devised a new sliding scale for the Importation of Corn Act of 1828 whereby, when domestic corn was 52/- per quarter or less, the duty would be 34/8, and when the price increased to 73/-, the duty decreased to 1/-.
The <a href="British%20Whig%20Party">Whig</a> governments, in power for most of the years between 1830 and 1841, decided not to repeal the Corn Laws. However the Liberal Whig MP <a href="Charles%20Pelham%20Villiers">Charles Pelham Villiers</a> proposed motions for repeal in the House of Commons every year from 1837 to 1845. In 1842 the majority against repeal was 303; by 1845 this had fallen to 132. Although he had spoken against repeal until 1845, <a href="Robert%20Peel">Robert Peel</a> voted in favour in 1846. In 1853, when Villiers was made a <a href="Privy%20Counsellor">Privy Counsellor</a>, "<a href="The%20Times">The Times</a>" stated that "it was Mr Charles Villiers who practically originated the Free Trade movement".
In 1838, Villiers spoke at a meeting of 5,000 "working class men" in Manchester. In 1840, under Villiers' direction, the Committee on Import Duties published a <a href="Blue%20book">Blue book</a> examining the effects of the Corn Laws. Tens of thousands of copies were printed in pamphlet form by the <a href="Anti-Corn%20Law%20League">Anti-Corn Law League</a>, founded in 1838. The report was quoted in the major newspapers, reprinted in America, and published in an abridged form by "<a href="The%20Spectator">The Spectator</a>".
In the <a href="United%20Kingdom%20general%20election%2C%201841">1841 election</a> Sir <a href="Robert%20Peel">Robert Peel</a> became Prime Minister and <a href="Richard%20Cobden">Richard Cobden</a>, a major proponent of free trade, was elected for the first time. Peel had studied the works of <a href="Adam%20Smith">Adam Smith</a>, <a href="David%20Hume">David Hume</a> and <a href="David%20Ricardo">David Ricardo</a>, and proclaimed in 1839: "I have read all that has been written by the gravest authorities on political economy on the subject of rent, wages, taxes, tithes". Nevertheless, he voted against repeal each year from 1837 to 1845. In 1842, in response to the Blue book published by Villiers' 1840 Committee on Import Duties, Peel offered a concession by modifying the sliding scale. He reduced the maximum duty to 20/- if the price were to fall to 51/- or less. In 1842, Peel's fellow-Conservative <a href="Richard%20Monckton%20Milnes%2C%201st%20Baron%20Houghton">Monckton Milnes</a> said, at the time of this concession, that Villiers was "the solitary <a href="Robinson%20Crusoe">Robinson Crusoe</a> sitting on the rock of Corn Law repeal".
The landlords claimed that manufacturers like Cobden wanted cheap food so that they could reduce wages and thus maximise their profits, an opinion shared by socialist <a href="Chartism">Chartists</a>. <a href="Karl%20Marx">Karl Marx</a> said: "The campaign for the abolition of the Corn Laws had begun and the workers' help was needed. The advocates of repeal therefore promised, not only a Big Loaf (which was to be doubled in size) but also the passing of the Ten Hours Bill" (to reduce working hours).
The Anti-Corn Law League was agitating peacefully for repeal. They funded writers like <a href="William%20Cooke%20Taylor">William Cooke Taylor</a> to travel the manufacturing regions of northern England to research their cause. Taylor published a number of books as an Anti-Corn Law propagandist, most notably, "The Natural History of Society" (1841), "Notes of a tour in the manufacturing districts of Lancashire" (1842), and "Factories and the Factory System" (1844). Cobden and the rest of the Anti-Corn Law League believed that cheap food meant greater real wages and Cobden praised a speech by a working man who said:
When provisions are high, the people have so much to pay for them that they have little or nothing left to buy clothes with; and when they have little to buy clothes with, there are few clothes sold; and when there are few clothes sold, there are too many to sell, they are very cheap; and when they are very cheap, there cannot be much paid for making them: and that, consequently, the manufacturing working man's wages are reduced, the mills are shut up, business is ruined, and general distress is spread through the country. But when, as now, the working man has the said 25"s". left in his pocket, he buys more clothing with it (ay, and other articles of comfort too), and that increases the demand for them, and the greater the demand...makes them rise in price, and the rising price enables the working man to get higher wages and the masters better profits. This, therefore, is the way I prove that high provisions make lower wages, and cheap provisions make higher wages.
The magazine "<a href="The%20Economist">The Economist</a>" was founded in September 1843 by politician <a href="James%20Wilson%20%28UK%20politician%29">James Wilson</a> with help from the Anti-Corn Law League; his son-in-law <a href="Walter%20Bagehot">Walter Bagehot</a> later became its editor.