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Code from "Taking Hunting to the Next Level: Hunting in Memory" presentation at SANS Threat Hunting Summit 2017 by Jared Atkinson and Joe Desimone
function Get-InjectedThread
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Looks for threads that were created as a result of code injection.
.DESCRIPTION
Memory resident malware (fileless malware) often uses a form of memory injection to get code execution. Get-InjectedThread looks at each running thread to determine if it is the result of memory injection.
Common memory injection techniques that *can* be caught using this method include:
- Classic Injection (OpenProcess, VirtualAllocEx, WriteProcessMemory, CreateRemoteThread)
- Reflective DLL Injection
- Memory Module
NOTE: Nothing in security is a silver bullet. An attacker could modify their tactics to avoid detection using this methodology.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.EXAMPLE
PS > Get-InjectedThread
ProcessName : ThreadStart.exe
ProcessId : 7784
Path : C:\Users\tester\Desktop\ThreadStart.exe
KernelPath : C:\Users\tester\Desktop\ThreadStart.exe
CommandLine : "C:\Users\tester\Desktop\ThreadStart.exe"
PathMismatch : False
ThreadId : 14512
AllocatedMemoryProtection : PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE
MemoryProtection : PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE
MemoryState : MEM_COMMIT
MemoryType : MEM_PRIVATE
BasePriority : 8
IsUniqueThreadToken : False
Integrity : MEDIUM_MANDATORY_LEVEL
Privilege : SeChangeNotifyPrivilege
LogonId : 999
SecurityIdentifier : S-1-5-21-386661145-2656271985-3844047388-1001
UserName : DESKTOP-HMTGQ0R\SYSTEM
LogonSessionStartTime : 3/15/2017 5:45:38 PM
LogonType : System
AuthenticationPackage : NTLM
BaseAddress : 4390912
Size : 4096
Bytes : {144, 195, 0, 0...}
#>
[CmdletBinding()]
param
(
)
$hSnapshot = CreateToolhelp32Snapshot -ProcessId 0 -Flags 4
$Thread = Thread32First -SnapshotHandle $hSnapshot
do
{
$proc = Get-Process -Id $Thread.th32OwnerProcessId
if($Thread.th32OwnerProcessId -ne 0 -and $Thread.th32OwnerProcessId -ne 4)
{
$hThread = OpenThread -ThreadId $Thread.th32ThreadID -DesiredAccess $THREAD_ALL_ACCESS -InheritHandle $false
if($hThread -ne 0)
{
$BaseAddress = NtQueryInformationThread -ThreadHandle $hThread
$hProcess = OpenProcess -ProcessId $Thread.th32OwnerProcessID -DesiredAccess $PROCESS_ALL_ACCESS -InheritHandle $false
if($hProcess -ne 0)
{
$memory_basic_info = VirtualQueryEx -ProcessHandle $hProcess -BaseAddress $BaseAddress
$AllocatedMemoryProtection = $memory_basic_info.AllocationProtect -as $MemProtection
$MemoryProtection = $memory_basic_info.Protect -as $MemProtection
$MemoryState = $memory_basic_info.State -as $MemState
$MemoryType = $memory_basic_info.Type -as $MemType
if($MemoryState -eq $MemState::MEM_COMMIT -and $MemoryType -ne $MemType::MEM_IMAGE)
{
$buf = ReadProcessMemory -ProcessHandle $hProcess -BaseAddress $BaseAddress -Size 100
$proc = Get-WmiObject Win32_Process -Filter "ProcessId = '$($Thread.th32OwnerProcessID)'"
$KernelPath = QueryFullProcessImageName -ProcessHandle $hProcess
$PathMismatch = $proc.Path.ToLower() -ne $KernelPath.ToLower()
# check if thread has unique token
try
{
$hThreadToken = OpenThreadToken -ThreadHandle $hThread -DesiredAccess $TOKEN_ALL_ACCESS
$SID = GetTokenInformation -TokenHandle $hThreadToken -TokenInformationClass 1
$Privs = GetTokenInformation -TokenHandle $hThreadToken -TokenInformationClass 3
$LogonSession = GetTokenInformation -TokenHandle $hThreadToken -TokenInformationClass 17
$Integrity = GetTokenInformation -TokenHandle $hThreadToken -TokenInformationClass 25
$IsUniqueThreadToken = $true
}
catch
{
$hProcessToken = OpenProcessToken -ProcessHandle $hProcess -DesiredAccess $TOKEN_ALL_ACCESS
$SID = GetTokenInformation -TokenHandle $hProcessToken -TokenInformationClass 1
$Privs = GetTokenInformation -TokenHandle $hProcessToken -TokenInformationClass 3
$LogonSession = GetTokenInformation -TokenHandle $hProcessToken -TokenInformationClass 17
$Integrity = GetTokenInformation -TokenHandle $hProcessToken -TokenInformationClass 25
$IsUniqueThreadToken = $false
}
$ThreadDetail = New-Object PSObject
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name ProcessName -Value $proc.Name
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name ProcessId -Value $proc.ProcessId
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name Path -Value $proc.Path
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name KernelPath -Value $KernelPath
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name CommandLine -Value $proc.CommandLine
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name PathMismatch -Value $PathMismatch
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name ThreadId -Value $Thread.th32ThreadId
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name AllocatedMemoryProtection -Value $AllocatedMemoryProtection
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name MemoryProtection -Value $MemoryProtection
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name MemoryState -Value $MemoryState
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name MemoryType -Value $MemoryType
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name BasePriority -Value $Thread.tpBasePri
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name IsUniqueThreadToken -Value $IsUniqueThreadToken
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name Integrity -Value $Integrity
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name Privilege -Value $Privs
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name LogonId -Value $LogonSession.LogonId
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name SecurityIdentifier -Value $SID
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name UserName -Value "$($LogonSession.Domain)\$($LogonSession.UserName)"
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name LogonSessionStartTime -Value $LogonSession.StartTime
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name LogonType -Value $LogonSession.LogonType
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name AuthenticationPackage -Value $LogonSession.AuthenticationPackage
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name BaseAddress -Value $BaseAddress
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name Size -Value $memory_basic_info.RegionSize
$ThreadDetail | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty -Name Bytes -Value $buf
Write-Output $ThreadDetail
}
CloseHandle($hProcess)
}
}
CloseHandle($hThread)
}
} while($Kernel32::Thread32Next($hSnapshot, [ref]$Thread))
CloseHandle($hSnapshot)
}
function Stop-Thread
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Terminates a specified Thread.
.DESCRIPTION
The Stop-Thread function can stop an individual thread in a process. This is quite useful in situations where code injection (dll injection) techniques have been used by attackers. If an attacker runs their malicious code in a thread within a critical process, then Stop-Thread can kill the malicious thread without hurting the critical process.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.EXAMPLE
PS > Stop-Thread -ThreadId 1776
#>
[CmdletBinding()]
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true, Position = 0)]
[UInt32]
$ThreadId
)
$hThread = OpenThread -ThreadId $ThreadId -DesiredAccess $THREAD_TERMINATE
TerminateThread -ThreadHandle $hThread
CloseHandle -Handle $hThread
}
<#
Author: Lee Christensen (@tifkin_)
License: BSD 3-Clause
Required Dependencies: None
Optional Dependencies: None
#>
function Get-LogonSession
{
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[UInt32]
$LogonId
)
$LogonMap = @{}
Get-WmiObject Win32_LoggedOnUser | %{
$Identity = $_.Antecedent | Select-String 'Domain="(.*)",Name="(.*)"'
$LogonSession = $_.Dependent | Select-String 'LogonId="(\d+)"'
$LogonMap[$LogonSession.Matches[0].Groups[1].Value] = New-Object PSObject -Property @{
Domain = $Identity.Matches[0].Groups[1].Value
UserName = $Identity.Matches[0].Groups[2].Value
}
}
Get-WmiObject Win32_LogonSession -Filter "LogonId = `"$($LogonId)`"" | %{
$LogonType = $Null
switch($_.LogonType) {
$null {$LogonType = 'None'}
0 { $LogonType = 'System' }
2 { $LogonType = 'Interactive' }
3 { $LogonType = 'Network' }
4 { $LogonType = 'Batch' }
5 { $LogonType = 'Service' }
6 { $LogonType = 'Proxy' }
7 { $LogonType = 'Unlock' }
8 { $LogonType = 'NetworkCleartext' }
9 { $LogonType = 'NewCredentials' }
10 { $LogonType = 'RemoteInteractive' }
11 { $LogonType = 'CachedInteractive' }
12 { $LogonType = 'CachedRemoteInteractive' }
13 { $LogonType = 'CachedUnlock' }
default { $LogonType = $_.LogonType}
}
New-Object PSObject -Property @{
UserName = $LogonMap[$_.LogonId].UserName
Domain = $LogonMap[$_.LogonId].Domain
LogonId = $_.LogonId
LogonType = $LogonType
AuthenticationPackage = $_.AuthenticationPackage
Caption = $_.Caption
Description = $_.Description
InstallDate = $_.InstallDate
Name = $_.Name
StartTime = $_.ConvertToDateTime($_.StartTime)
}
}
}
#region PSReflect
function New-InMemoryModule
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Creates an in-memory assembly and module
Author: Matthew Graeber (@mattifestation)
License: BSD 3-Clause
Required Dependencies: None
Optional Dependencies: None
.DESCRIPTION
When defining custom enums, structs, and unmanaged functions, it is
necessary to associate to an assembly module. This helper function
creates an in-memory module that can be passed to the 'enum',
'struct', and Add-Win32Type functions.
.PARAMETER ModuleName
Specifies the desired name for the in-memory assembly and module. If
ModuleName is not provided, it will default to a GUID.
.EXAMPLE
$Module = New-InMemoryModule -ModuleName Win32
#>
Param
(
[Parameter(Position = 0)]
[ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
[String]
$ModuleName = [Guid]::NewGuid().ToString()
)
$AppDomain = [Reflection.Assembly].Assembly.GetType('System.AppDomain').GetProperty('CurrentDomain').GetValue($null, @())
$LoadedAssemblies = $AppDomain.GetAssemblies()
foreach ($Assembly in $LoadedAssemblies) {
if ($Assembly.FullName -and ($Assembly.FullName.Split(',')[0] -eq $ModuleName)) {
return $Assembly
}
}
$DynAssembly = New-Object Reflection.AssemblyName($ModuleName)
$Domain = $AppDomain
$AssemblyBuilder = $Domain.DefineDynamicAssembly($DynAssembly, 'Run')
$ModuleBuilder = $AssemblyBuilder.DefineDynamicModule($ModuleName, $False)
return $ModuleBuilder
}
# A helper function used to reduce typing while defining function
# prototypes for Add-Win32Type.
function func
{
Param
(
[Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $True)]
[String]
$DllName,
[Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $True)]
[string]
$FunctionName,
[Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $True)]
[Type]
$ReturnType,
[Parameter(Position = 3)]
[Type[]]
$ParameterTypes,
[Parameter(Position = 4)]
[Runtime.InteropServices.CallingConvention]
$NativeCallingConvention,
[Parameter(Position = 5)]
[Runtime.InteropServices.CharSet]
$Charset,
[String]
$EntryPoint,
[Switch]
$SetLastError
)
$Properties = @{
DllName = $DllName
FunctionName = $FunctionName
ReturnType = $ReturnType
}
if ($ParameterTypes) { $Properties['ParameterTypes'] = $ParameterTypes }
if ($NativeCallingConvention) { $Properties['NativeCallingConvention'] = $NativeCallingConvention }
if ($Charset) { $Properties['Charset'] = $Charset }
if ($SetLastError) { $Properties['SetLastError'] = $SetLastError }
if ($EntryPoint) { $Properties['EntryPoint'] = $EntryPoint }
New-Object PSObject -Property $Properties
}
function Add-Win32Type
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Creates a .NET type for an unmanaged Win32 function.
Author: Matthew Graeber (@mattifestation)
License: BSD 3-Clause
Required Dependencies: None
Optional Dependencies: func
.DESCRIPTION
Add-Win32Type enables you to easily interact with unmanaged (i.e.
Win32 unmanaged) functions in PowerShell. After providing
Add-Win32Type with a function signature, a .NET type is created
using reflection (i.e. csc.exe is never called like with Add-Type).
The 'func' helper function can be used to reduce typing when defining
multiple function definitions.
.PARAMETER DllName
The name of the DLL.
.PARAMETER FunctionName
The name of the target function.
.PARAMETER EntryPoint
The DLL export function name. This argument should be specified if the
specified function name is different than the name of the exported
function.
.PARAMETER ReturnType
The return type of the function.
.PARAMETER ParameterTypes
The function parameters.
.PARAMETER NativeCallingConvention
Specifies the native calling convention of the function. Defaults to
stdcall.
.PARAMETER Charset
If you need to explicitly call an 'A' or 'W' Win32 function, you can
specify the character set.
.PARAMETER SetLastError
Indicates whether the callee calls the SetLastError Win32 API
function before returning from the attributed method.
.PARAMETER Module
The in-memory module that will host the functions. Use
New-InMemoryModule to define an in-memory module.
.PARAMETER Namespace
An optional namespace to prepend to the type. Add-Win32Type defaults
to a namespace consisting only of the name of the DLL.
.EXAMPLE
$Mod = New-InMemoryModule -ModuleName Win32
$FunctionDefinitions = @(
(func kernel32 GetProcAddress ([IntPtr]) @([IntPtr], [String]) -Charset Ansi -SetLastError),
(func kernel32 GetModuleHandle ([Intptr]) @([String]) -SetLastError),
(func ntdll RtlGetCurrentPeb ([IntPtr]) @())
)
$Types = $FunctionDefinitions | Add-Win32Type -Module $Mod -Namespace 'Win32'
$Kernel32 = $Types['kernel32']
$Ntdll = $Types['ntdll']
$Ntdll::RtlGetCurrentPeb()
$ntdllbase = $Kernel32::GetModuleHandle('ntdll')
$Kernel32::GetProcAddress($ntdllbase, 'RtlGetCurrentPeb')
.NOTES
Inspired by Lee Holmes' Invoke-WindowsApi http://poshcode.org/2189
When defining multiple function prototypes, it is ideal to provide
Add-Win32Type with an array of function signatures. That way, they
are all incorporated into the same in-memory module.
#>
[OutputType([Hashtable])]
Param(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $True, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $True)]
[String]
$DllName,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $True, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $True)]
[String]
$FunctionName,
[Parameter(ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $True)]
[String]
$EntryPoint,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $True, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $True)]
[Type]
$ReturnType,
[Parameter(ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $True)]
[Type[]]
$ParameterTypes,
[Parameter(ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $True)]
[Runtime.InteropServices.CallingConvention]
$NativeCallingConvention = [Runtime.InteropServices.CallingConvention]::StdCall,
[Parameter(ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $True)]
[Runtime.InteropServices.CharSet]
$Charset = [Runtime.InteropServices.CharSet]::Auto,
[Parameter(ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $True)]
[Switch]
$SetLastError,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $True)]
[ValidateScript({($_ -is [Reflection.Emit.ModuleBuilder]) -or ($_ -is [Reflection.Assembly])})]
$Module,
[ValidateNotNull()]
[String]
$Namespace = ''
)
BEGIN
{
$TypeHash = @{}
}
PROCESS
{
if ($Module -is [Reflection.Assembly])
{
if ($Namespace)
{
$TypeHash[$DllName] = $Module.GetType("$Namespace.$DllName")
}
else
{
$TypeHash[$DllName] = $Module.GetType($DllName)
}
}
else
{
# Define one type for each DLL
if (!$TypeHash.ContainsKey($DllName))
{
if ($Namespace)
{
$TypeHash[$DllName] = $Module.DefineType("$Namespace.$DllName", 'Public,BeforeFieldInit')
}
else
{
$TypeHash[$DllName] = $Module.DefineType($DllName, 'Public,BeforeFieldInit')
}
}
$Method = $TypeHash[$DllName].DefineMethod(
$FunctionName,
'Public,Static,PinvokeImpl',
$ReturnType,
$ParameterTypes)
# Make each ByRef parameter an Out parameter
$i = 1
foreach($Parameter in $ParameterTypes)
{
if ($Parameter.IsByRef)
{
[void] $Method.DefineParameter($i, 'Out', $null)
}
$i++
}
$DllImport = [Runtime.InteropServices.DllImportAttribute]
$SetLastErrorField = $DllImport.GetField('SetLastError')
$CallingConventionField = $DllImport.GetField('CallingConvention')
$CharsetField = $DllImport.GetField('CharSet')
$EntryPointField = $DllImport.GetField('EntryPoint')
if ($SetLastError) { $SLEValue = $True } else { $SLEValue = $False }
if ($PSBoundParameters['EntryPoint']) { $ExportedFuncName = $EntryPoint } else { $ExportedFuncName = $FunctionName }
# Equivalent to C# version of [DllImport(DllName)]
$Constructor = [Runtime.InteropServices.DllImportAttribute].GetConstructor([String])
$DllImportAttribute = New-Object Reflection.Emit.CustomAttributeBuilder($Constructor,
$DllName, [Reflection.PropertyInfo[]] @(), [Object[]] @(),
[Reflection.FieldInfo[]] @($SetLastErrorField,
$CallingConventionField,
$CharsetField,
$EntryPointField),
[Object[]] @($SLEValue,
([Runtime.InteropServices.CallingConvention] $NativeCallingConvention),
([Runtime.InteropServices.CharSet] $Charset),
$ExportedFuncName))
$Method.SetCustomAttribute($DllImportAttribute)
}
}
END
{
if ($Module -is [Reflection.Assembly])
{
return $TypeHash
}
$ReturnTypes = @{}
foreach ($Key in $TypeHash.Keys)
{
$Type = $TypeHash[$Key].CreateType()
$ReturnTypes[$Key] = $Type
}
return $ReturnTypes
}
}
function psenum
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Creates an in-memory enumeration for use in your PowerShell session.
Author: Matthew Graeber (@mattifestation)
License: BSD 3-Clause
Required Dependencies: None
Optional Dependencies: None
.DESCRIPTION
The 'psenum' function facilitates the creation of enums entirely in
memory using as close to a "C style" as PowerShell will allow.
.PARAMETER Module
The in-memory module that will host the enum. Use
New-InMemoryModule to define an in-memory module.
.PARAMETER FullName
The fully-qualified name of the enum.
.PARAMETER Type
The type of each enum element.
.PARAMETER EnumElements
A hashtable of enum elements.
.PARAMETER Bitfield
Specifies that the enum should be treated as a bitfield.
.EXAMPLE
$Mod = New-InMemoryModule -ModuleName Win32
$ImageSubsystem = psenum $Mod PE.IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM UInt16 @{
UNKNOWN = 0
NATIVE = 1 # Image doesn't require a subsystem.
WINDOWS_GUI = 2 # Image runs in the Windows GUI subsystem.
WINDOWS_CUI = 3 # Image runs in the Windows character subsystem.
OS2_CUI = 5 # Image runs in the OS/2 character subsystem.
POSIX_CUI = 7 # Image runs in the Posix character subsystem.
NATIVE_WINDOWS = 8 # Image is a native Win9x driver.
WINDOWS_CE_GUI = 9 # Image runs in the Windows CE subsystem.
EFI_APPLICATION = 10
EFI_BOOT_SERVICE_DRIVER = 11
EFI_RUNTIME_DRIVER = 12
EFI_ROM = 13
XBOX = 14
WINDOWS_BOOT_APPLICATION = 16
}
.NOTES
PowerShell purists may disagree with the naming of this function but
again, this was developed in such a way so as to emulate a "C style"
definition as closely as possible. Sorry, I'm not going to name it
New-Enum. :P
#>
[OutputType([Type])]
Param
(
[Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $True)]
[ValidateScript({($_ -is [Reflection.Emit.ModuleBuilder]) -or ($_ -is [Reflection.Assembly])})]
$Module,
[Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $True)]
[ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
[String]
$FullName,
[Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $True)]
[Type]
$Type,
[Parameter(Position = 3, Mandatory = $True)]
[ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
[Hashtable]
$EnumElements,
[Switch]
$Bitfield
)
if ($Module -is [Reflection.Assembly])
{
return ($Module.GetType($FullName))
}
$EnumType = $Type -as [Type]
$EnumBuilder = $Module.DefineEnum($FullName, 'Public', $EnumType)
if ($Bitfield)
{
$FlagsConstructor = [FlagsAttribute].GetConstructor(@())
$FlagsCustomAttribute = New-Object Reflection.Emit.CustomAttributeBuilder($FlagsConstructor, @())
$EnumBuilder.SetCustomAttribute($FlagsCustomAttribute)
}
foreach ($Key in $EnumElements.Keys)
{
# Apply the specified enum type to each element
$null = $EnumBuilder.DefineLiteral($Key, $EnumElements[$Key] -as $EnumType)
}
$EnumBuilder.CreateType()
}
# A helper function used to reduce typing while defining struct
# fields.
function field
{
Param
(
[Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $True)]
[UInt16]
$Position,
[Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $True)]
[Type]
$Type,
[Parameter(Position = 2)]
[UInt16]
$Offset,
[Object[]]
$MarshalAs
)
@{
Position = $Position
Type = $Type -as [Type]
Offset = $Offset
MarshalAs = $MarshalAs
}
}
function struct
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Creates an in-memory struct for use in your PowerShell session.
Author: Matthew Graeber (@mattifestation)
License: BSD 3-Clause
Required Dependencies: None
Optional Dependencies: field
.DESCRIPTION
The 'struct' function facilitates the creation of structs entirely in
memory using as close to a "C style" as PowerShell will allow. Struct
fields are specified using a hashtable where each field of the struct
is comprosed of the order in which it should be defined, its .NET
type, and optionally, its offset and special marshaling attributes.
One of the features of 'struct' is that after your struct is defined,
it will come with a built-in GetSize method as well as an explicit
converter so that you can easily cast an IntPtr to the struct without
relying upon calling SizeOf and/or PtrToStructure in the Marshal
class.
.PARAMETER Module
The in-memory module that will host the struct. Use
New-InMemoryModule to define an in-memory module.
.PARAMETER FullName
The fully-qualified name of the struct.
.PARAMETER StructFields
A hashtable of fields. Use the 'field' helper function to ease
defining each field.
.PARAMETER PackingSize
Specifies the memory alignment of fields.
.PARAMETER ExplicitLayout
Indicates that an explicit offset for each field will be specified.
.EXAMPLE
$Mod = New-InMemoryModule -ModuleName Win32
$ImageDosSignature = psenum $Mod PE.IMAGE_DOS_SIGNATURE UInt16 @{
DOS_SIGNATURE = 0x5A4D
OS2_SIGNATURE = 0x454E
OS2_SIGNATURE_LE = 0x454C
VXD_SIGNATURE = 0x454C
}
$ImageDosHeader = struct $Mod PE.IMAGE_DOS_HEADER @{
e_magic = field 0 $ImageDosSignature
e_cblp = field 1 UInt16
e_cp = field 2 UInt16
e_crlc = field 3 UInt16
e_cparhdr = field 4 UInt16
e_minalloc = field 5 UInt16
e_maxalloc = field 6 UInt16
e_ss = field 7 UInt16
e_sp = field 8 UInt16
e_csum = field 9 UInt16
e_ip = field 10 UInt16
e_cs = field 11 UInt16
e_lfarlc = field 12 UInt16
e_ovno = field 13 UInt16
e_res = field 14 UInt16[] -MarshalAs @('ByValArray', 4)
e_oemid = field 15 UInt16
e_oeminfo = field 16 UInt16
e_res2 = field 17 UInt16[] -MarshalAs @('ByValArray', 10)
e_lfanew = field 18 Int32
}
# Example of using an explicit layout in order to create a union.
$TestUnion = struct $Mod TestUnion @{
field1 = field 0 UInt32 0
field2 = field 1 IntPtr 0
} -ExplicitLayout
.NOTES
PowerShell purists may disagree with the naming of this function but
again, this was developed in such a way so as to emulate a "C style"
definition as closely as possible. Sorry, I'm not going to name it
New-Struct. :P
#>
[OutputType([Type])]
Param
(
[Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $True)]
[ValidateScript({($_ -is [Reflection.Emit.ModuleBuilder]) -or ($_ -is [Reflection.Assembly])})]
$Module,
[Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $True)]
[ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
[String]
$FullName,
[Parameter(Position = 3, Mandatory = $True)]
[ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
[Hashtable]
$StructFields,
[Reflection.Emit.PackingSize]
$PackingSize = [Reflection.Emit.PackingSize]::Unspecified,
[Switch]
$ExplicitLayout
)
if ($Module -is [Reflection.Assembly])
{
return ($Module.GetType($FullName))
}
[Reflection.TypeAttributes] $StructAttributes = 'AnsiClass,
Class,
Public,
Sealed,
BeforeFieldInit'
if ($ExplicitLayout)
{
$StructAttributes = $StructAttributes -bor [Reflection.TypeAttributes]::ExplicitLayout
}
else
{
$StructAttributes = $StructAttributes -bor [Reflection.TypeAttributes]::SequentialLayout
}
$StructBuilder = $Module.DefineType($FullName, $StructAttributes, [ValueType], $PackingSize)
$ConstructorInfo = [Runtime.InteropServices.MarshalAsAttribute].GetConstructors()[0]
$SizeConst = @([Runtime.InteropServices.MarshalAsAttribute].GetField('SizeConst'))
$Fields = New-Object Hashtable[]($StructFields.Count)
# Sort each field according to the orders specified
# Unfortunately, PSv2 doesn't have the luxury of the
# hashtable [Ordered] accelerator.
foreach ($Field in $StructFields.Keys)
{
$Index = $StructFields[$Field]['Position']
$Fields[$Index] = @{FieldName = $Field; Properties = $StructFields[$Field]}
}
foreach ($Field in $Fields)
{
$FieldName = $Field['FieldName']
$FieldProp = $Field['Properties']
$Offset = $FieldProp['Offset']
$Type = $FieldProp['Type']
$MarshalAs = $FieldProp['MarshalAs']
$NewField = $StructBuilder.DefineField($FieldName, $Type, 'Public')
if ($MarshalAs)
{
$UnmanagedType = $MarshalAs[0] -as ([Runtime.InteropServices.UnmanagedType])
if ($MarshalAs[1])
{
$Size = $MarshalAs[1]
$AttribBuilder = New-Object Reflection.Emit.CustomAttributeBuilder($ConstructorInfo,
$UnmanagedType, $SizeConst, @($Size))
}
else
{
$AttribBuilder = New-Object Reflection.Emit.CustomAttributeBuilder($ConstructorInfo, [Object[]] @($UnmanagedType))
}
$NewField.SetCustomAttribute($AttribBuilder)
}
if ($ExplicitLayout) { $NewField.SetOffset($Offset) }
}
# Make the struct aware of its own size.
# No more having to call [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf!
$SizeMethod = $StructBuilder.DefineMethod('GetSize',
'Public, Static',
[Int],
[Type[]] @())
$ILGenerator = $SizeMethod.GetILGenerator()
# Thanks for the help, Jason Shirk!
$ILGenerator.Emit([Reflection.Emit.OpCodes]::Ldtoken, $StructBuilder)
$ILGenerator.Emit([Reflection.Emit.OpCodes]::Call,
[Type].GetMethod('GetTypeFromHandle'))
$ILGenerator.Emit([Reflection.Emit.OpCodes]::Call,
[Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal].GetMethod('SizeOf', [Type[]] @([Type])))
$ILGenerator.Emit([Reflection.Emit.OpCodes]::Ret)
# Allow for explicit casting from an IntPtr
# No more having to call [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure!
$ImplicitConverter = $StructBuilder.DefineMethod('op_Implicit',
'PrivateScope, Public, Static, HideBySig, SpecialName',
$StructBuilder,
[Type[]] @([IntPtr]))
$ILGenerator2 = $ImplicitConverter.GetILGenerator()
$ILGenerator2.Emit([Reflection.Emit.OpCodes]::Nop)
$ILGenerator2.Emit([Reflection.Emit.OpCodes]::Ldarg_0)
$ILGenerator2.Emit([Reflection.Emit.OpCodes]::Ldtoken, $StructBuilder)
$ILGenerator2.Emit([Reflection.Emit.OpCodes]::Call,
[Type].GetMethod('GetTypeFromHandle'))
$ILGenerator2.Emit([Reflection.Emit.OpCodes]::Call,
[Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal].GetMethod('PtrToStructure', [Type[]] @([IntPtr], [Type])))
$ILGenerator2.Emit([Reflection.Emit.OpCodes]::Unbox_Any, $StructBuilder)
$ILGenerator2.Emit([Reflection.Emit.OpCodes]::Ret)
$StructBuilder.CreateType()
}
#endregion PSReflect
#region PSReflect Definitions (Thread)
$Mod = New-InMemoryModule -ModuleName Thread
$LuidAttributes = psenum $Mod Thread.LuidAttributes UInt32 @{
DISABLED = '0x00000000'
SE_PRIVILEGE_ENABLED_BY_DEFAULT = '0x00000001'
SE_PRIVILEGE_ENABLED = '0x00000002'
SE_PRIVILEGE_REMOVED = '0x00000004'
SE_PRIVILEGE_USED_FOR_ACCESS = '0x80000000'
} -Bitfield
$MemProtection = psenum $Mod Thread.MemProtection UInt32 @{
PAGE_EXECUTE = 0x10
PAGE_EXECUTE_READ = 0x20
PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE = 0x40
PAGE_EXECUTE_WRITECOPY = 0x80
PAGE_NOACCESS = 0x01
PAGE_READONLY = 0x02
PAGE_READWRITE = 0x04
PAGE_WRITECOPY = 0x08
PAGE_TARGETS_INVALID = 0x40000000
PAGE_TARGETS_NO_UPDATE = 0x40000000
PAGE_GUARD = 0x100
PAGE_NOCACHE = 0x200
PAGE_WRITECOMBINE = 0x400
} -Bitfield
$MemState = psenum $Mod Thread.MemState UInt32 @{
MEM_COMMIT = 0x1000
MEM_RESERVE = 0x2000
MEM_FREE = 0x10000
}
$MemType = psenum $Mod Thread.MemType UInt32 @{
MEM_PRIVATE = 0x20000
MEM_MAPPED = 0x40000
MEM_IMAGE = 0x1000000
}
$SecurityEntity = psenum $Mod Thread.SecurityEntity UInt32 @{
SeCreateTokenPrivilege = 1
SeAssignPrimaryTokenPrivilege = 2
SeLockMemoryPrivilege = 3
SeIncreaseQuotaPrivilege = 4
SeUnsolicitedInputPrivilege = 5
SeMachineAccountPrivilege = 6
SeTcbPrivilege = 7
SeSecurityPrivilege = 8
SeTakeOwnershipPrivilege = 9
SeLoadDriverPrivilege = 10
SeSystemProfilePrivilege = 11
SeSystemtimePrivilege = 12
SeProfileSingleProcessPrivilege = 13
SeIncreaseBasePriorityPrivilege = 14
SeCreatePagefilePrivilege = 15
SeCreatePermanentPrivilege = 16
SeBackupPrivilege = 17
SeRestorePrivilege = 18
SeShutdownPrivilege = 19
SeDebugPrivilege = 20
SeAuditPrivilege = 21
SeSystemEnvironmentPrivilege = 22
SeChangeNotifyPrivilege = 23
SeRemoteShutdownPrivilege = 24
SeUndockPrivilege = 25
SeSyncAgentPrivilege = 26
SeEnableDelegationPrivilege = 27
SeManageVolumePrivilege = 28
SeImpersonatePrivilege = 29
SeCreateGlobalPrivilege = 30
SeTrustedCredManAccessPrivilege = 31
SeRelabelPrivilege = 32
SeIncreaseWorkingSetPrivilege = 33
SeTimeZonePrivilege = 34
SeCreateSymbolicLinkPrivilege = 35
}
$SidNameUser = psenum $Mod Thread.SID_NAME_USE UInt32 @{
SidTypeUser = 1
SidTypeGroup = 2
SidTypeDomain = 3
SidTypeAlias = 4
SidTypeWellKnownGroup = 5
SidTypeDeletedAccount = 6
SidTypeInvalid = 7
SidTypeUnknown = 8
SidTypeComputer = 9
}
$TokenInformationClass = psenum $Mod Thread.TOKEN_INFORMATION_CLASS UInt16 @{
TokenUser = 1
TokenGroups = 2
TokenPrivileges = 3
TokenOwner = 4
TokenPrimaryGroup = 5
TokenDefaultDacl = 6
TokenSource = 7
TokenType = 8
TokenImpersonationLevel = 9
TokenStatistics = 10
TokenRestrictedSids = 11
TokenSessionId = 12
TokenGroupsAndPrivileges = 13
TokenSessionReference = 14
TokenSandBoxInert = 15
TokenAuditPolicy = 16
TokenOrigin = 17
TokenElevationType = 18
TokenLinkedToken = 19
TokenElevation = 20
TokenHasRestrictions = 21
TokenAccessInformation = 22
TokenVirtualizationAllowed = 23
TokenVirtualizationEnabled = 24
TokenIntegrityLevel = 25
TokenUIAccess = 26
TokenMandatoryPolicy = 27
TokenLogonSid = 28
TokenIsAppContainer = 29
TokenCapabilities = 30
TokenAppContainerSid = 31
TokenAppContainerNumber = 32
TokenUserClaimAttributes = 33
TokenDeviceClaimAttributes = 34
TokenRestrictedUserClaimAttributes = 35
TokenRestrictedDeviceClaimAttributes = 36
TokenDeviceGroups = 37
TokenRestrictedDeviceGroups = 38
TokenSecurityAttributes = 39
TokenIsRestricted = 40
MaxTokenInfoClass = 41
}
$LUID = struct $Mod Thread.Luid @{
LowPart = field 0 $SecurityEntity
HighPart = field 1 Int32
}
$LUID_AND_ATTRIBUTES = struct $Mod Thread.LuidAndAttributes @{
Luid = field 0 $LUID
Attributes = field 1 UInt32
}
$MEMORYBASICINFORMATION = struct $Mod Thread.MEMORY_BASIC_INFORMATION @{
BaseAddress = field 0 UIntPtr
AllocationBase = field 1 UIntPtr
AllocationProtect = field 2 UInt32
RegionSize = field 3 UIntPtr
State = field 4 UInt32
Protect = field 5 UInt32
Type = field 6 UInt32
}
$SID_AND_ATTRIBUTES = struct $Mod Thread.SidAndAttributes @{
Sid = field 0 IntPtr
Attributes = field 1 UInt32
}
$THREADENTRY32 = struct $Mod Thread.THREADENTRY32 @{
dwSize = field 0 UInt32
cntUsage = field 1 UInt32
th32ThreadID = field 2 UInt32
th32OwnerProcessID = field 3 UInt32
tpBasePri = field 4 UInt32
tpDeltaPri = field 5 UInt32
dwFlags = field 6 UInt32
}
$TOKEN_MANDATORY_LABEL = struct $Mod Thread.TokenMandatoryLabel @{
Label = field 0 $SID_AND_ATTRIBUTES;
}
$TOKEN_ORIGIN = struct $Mod Thread.TokenOrigin @{
OriginatingLogonSession = field 0 UInt64
}
$TOKEN_PRIVILEGES = struct $Mod Thread.TokenPrivileges @{
PrivilegeCount = field 0 UInt32
Privileges = field 1 $LUID_AND_ATTRIBUTES.MakeArrayType() -MarshalAs @('ByValArray', 50)
}
$TOKEN_USER = struct $Mod Thread.TOKEN_USER @{
User = field 0 $SID_AND_ATTRIBUTES
}
$FunctionDefinitions = @(
(func kernel32 CloseHandle ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr] #_In_ HANDLE hObject
) -SetLastError),
(func advapi32 ConvertSidToStringSid ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr] #_In_ PSID Sid,
[IntPtr].MakeByRefType() #_Out_ LPTSTR *StringSid
) -SetLastError),
(func kernel32 CreateToolhelp32Snapshot ([IntPtr]) @(
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD dwFlags,
[UInt32] #_In_ DWORD th32ProcessID
) -SetLastError),
(func advapi32 GetTokenInformation ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE TokenHandle
[Int32], #_In_ TOKEN_INFORMATION_CLASS TokenInformationClass
[IntPtr], #_Out_opt_ LPVOID TokenInformation
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD TokenInformationLength
[UInt32].MakeByRefType() #_Out_ PDWORD ReturnLength
) -SetLastError),
(func ntdll NtQueryInformationThread ([UInt32]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE ThreadHandle,
[Int32], #_In_ THREADINFOCLASS ThreadInformationClass,
[IntPtr], #_Inout_ PVOID ThreadInformation,
[Int32], #_In_ ULONG ThreadInformationLength,
[IntPtr] #_Out_opt_ PULONG ReturnLength
)),
(func kernel32 OpenProcess ([IntPtr]) @(
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD dwDesiredAccess,
[bool], #_In_ BOOL bInheritHandle,
[UInt32] #_In_ DWORD dwProcessId
) -SetLastError),
(func advapi32 OpenProcessToken ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE ProcessHandle
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD DesiredAccess
[IntPtr].MakeByRefType() #_Out_ PHANDLE TokenHandle
) -SetLastError),
(func kernel32 OpenThread ([IntPtr]) @(
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD dwDesiredAccess,
[bool], #_In_ BOOL bInheritHandle,
[UInt32] #_In_ DWORD dwThreadId
) -SetLastError),
(func advapi32 OpenThreadToken ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE ThreadHandle
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD DesiredAccess
[bool], #_In_ BOOL OpenAsSelf
[IntPtr].MakeByRefType() #_Out_ PHANDLE TokenHandle
) -SetLastError),
(func kernel32 QueryFullProcessImageName ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr] #_In_ HANDLE hProcess
[UInt32] #_In_ DWORD dwFlags,
[System.Text.StringBuilder] #_Out_ LPTSTR lpExeName,
[UInt32].MakeByRefType() #_Inout_ PDWORD lpdwSize
) -SetLastError),
(func kernel32 ReadProcessMemory ([Bool]) @(
[IntPtr], # _In_ HANDLE hProcess
[IntPtr], # _In_ LPCVOID lpBaseAddress
[Byte[]], # _Out_ LPVOID lpBuffer
[Int], # _In_ SIZE_T nSize
[Int].MakeByRefType() # _Out_ SIZE_T *lpNumberOfBytesRead
) -SetLastError),
(func kernel32 TerminateThread ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr], # _InOut_ HANDLE hThread
[UInt32] # _In_ DWORD dwExitCode
) -SetLastError),
(func kernel32 Thread32First ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE hSnapshot,
$THREADENTRY32.MakeByRefType() #_Inout_ LPTHREADENTRY32 lpte
) -SetLastError)
(func kernel32 Thread32Next ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE hSnapshot,
$THREADENTRY32.MakeByRefType() #_Out_ LPTHREADENTRY32 lpte
) -SetLastError),
(func kernel32 VirtualQueryEx ([Int32]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE hProcess,
[IntPtr], #_In_opt_ LPCVOID lpAddress,
$MEMORYBASICINFORMATION.MakeByRefType(), #_Out_ PMEMORY_BASIC_INFORMATION lpBuffer,
[UInt32] #_In_ SIZE_T dwLength
) -SetLastError)
)
$Types = $FunctionDefinitions | Add-Win32Type -Module $Mod -Namespace 'Win32SysInfo'
$Kernel32 = $Types['kernel32']
$Ntdll = $Types['ntdll']
$Advapi32 = $Types['advapi32']
$DELETE = 0x00010000
$READ_CONTROL = 0x00020000
$SYNCHRONIZE = 0x00100000
$WRITE_DAC = 0x00040000
$WRITE_OWNER = 0x00080000
$PROCESS_CREATE_PROCESS = 0x0080
$PROCESS_CREATE_THREAD = 0x0002
$PROCESS_DUP_HANDLE = 0x0040
$PROCESS_QUERY_INFORMATION = 0x0400
$PROCESS_QUERY_LIMITED_INFORMATION = 0x1000
$PROCESS_SET_INFORMATION = 0x0200
$PROCESS_SET_QUOTA = 0x0100
$PROCESS_SUSPEND_RESUME = 0x0800
$PROCESS_TERMINATE = 0x0001
$PROCESS_VM_OPERATION = 0x0008
$PROCESS_VM_READ = 0x0010
$PROCESS_VM_WRITE = 0x0020
$PROCESS_ALL_ACCESS = $DELETE -bor
$READ_CONTROL -bor
$SYNCHRONIZE -bor
$WRITE_DAC -bor
$WRITE_OWNER -bor
$PROCESS_CREATE_PROCESS -bor
$PROCESS_CREATE_THREAD -bor
$PROCESS_DUP_HANDLE -bor
$PROCESS_QUERY_INFORMATION -bor
$PROCESS_QUERY_LIMITED_INFORMATION -bor
$PROCESS_SET_INFORMATION -bor
$PROCESS_SET_QUOTA -bor
$PROCESS_SUSPEND_RESUME -bor
$PROCESS_TERMINATE -bor
$PROCESS_VM_OPERATION -bor
$PROCESS_VM_READ -bor
$PROCESS_VM_WRITE
$THREAD_DIRECT_IMPERSONATION = 0x0200
$THREAD_GET_CONTEXT = 0x0008
$THREAD_IMPERSONATE = 0x0100
$THREAD_QUERY_INFORMATION = 0x0040
$THREAD_QUERY_LIMITED_INFORMATION = 0x0800
$THREAD_SET_CONTEXT = 0x0010
$THREAD_SET_INFORMATION = 0x0020
$THREAD_SET_LIMITED_INFORMATION = 0x0400
$THREAD_SET_THREAD_TOKEN = 0x0080
$THREAD_SUSPEND_RESUME = 0x0002
$THREAD_TERMINATE = 0x0001
$THREAD_ALL_ACCESS = $DELETE -bor
$READ_CONTROL -bor
$SYNCHRONIZE -bor
$WRITE_DAC -bor
$WRITE_OWNER -bor
$THREAD_DIRECT_IMPERSONATION -bor
$THREAD_GET_CONTEXT -bor
$THREAD_IMPERSONATE -bor
$THREAD_QUERY_INFORMATION -bor
$THREAD_QUERY_LIMITED_INFORMATION -bor
$THREAD_SET_CONTEXT -bor
$THREAD_SET_LIMITED_INFORMATION -bor
$THREAD_SET_THREAD_TOKEN -bor
$THREAD_SUSPEND_RESUME -bor
$THREAD_TERMINATE
$STANDARD_RIGHTS_REQUIRED = 0x000F0000
$TOKEN_ASSIGN_PRIMARY = 0x0001
$TOKEN_DUPLICATE = 0x0002
$TOKEN_IMPERSONATE = 0x0004
$TOKEN_QUERY = 0x0008
$TOKEN_QUERY_SOURCE = 0x0010
$TOKEN_ADJUST_PRIVILEGES = 0x0020
$TOKEN_ADJUST_GROUPS = 0x0040
$TOKEN_ADJUST_DEFAULT = 0x0080
$TOKEN_ADJUST_SESSIONID = 0x0100
$TOKEN_ALL_ACCESS = $STANDARD_RIGHTS_REQUIRED -bor
$TOKEN_ASSIGN_PRIMARY -bor
$TOKEN_DUPLICATE -bor
$TOKEN_IMPERSONATE -bor
$TOKEN_QUERY -bor
$TOKEN_QUERY_SOURCE -bor
$TOKEN_ADJUST_PRIVILEGES -bor
$TOKEN_ADJUST_GROUPS -bor
$TOKEN_ADJUST_DEFAULT
$UNTRUSTED_MANDATORY_LEVEL = "S-1-16-0"
$LOW_MANDATORY_LEVEL = "S-1-16-4096"
$MEDIUM_MANDATORY_LEVEL = "S-1-16-8192"
$MEDIUM_PLUS_MANDATORY_LEVEL = "S-1-16-8448"
$HIGH_MANDATORY_LEVEL = "S-1-16-12288"
$SYSTEM_MANDATORY_LEVEL = "S-1-16-16384"
$PROTECTED_PROCESS_MANDATORY_LEVEL = "S-1-16-20480"
$SECURE_PROCESS_MANDATORY_LEVEL = "S-1-16-28672"
#endregion PSReflect Definitions (Thread)
#region Win32 API Abstractions
function CloseHandle
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Closes an open object handle.
.DESCRIPTION
The CloseHandle function closes handles to the following objects:
- Access token
- Communications device
- Console input
- Console screen buffer
- Event
- File
- File mapping
- I/O completion port
- Job
- Mailslot
- Memory resource notification
- Mutex
- Named pipe
- Pipe
- Process
- Semaphore
- Thread
- Transaction
- Waitable timer
The documentation for the functions that create these objects indicates that CloseHandle should be used when you are finished with the object, and what happens to pending operations on the object after the handle is closed. In general, CloseHandle invalidates the specified object handle, decrements the object's handle count, and performs object retention checks. After the last handle to an object is closed, the object is removed from the system.
.PARAMETER Handle
A valid handle to an open object.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms724211(v=vs.85).aspx
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$Handle
)
<#
(func kernel32 CloseHandle ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr] #_In_ HANDLE hObject
) -SetLastError)
#>
$Success = $Kernel32::CloseHandle($Handle); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if(-not $Success)
{
Write-Debug "Close Handle Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
}
function ConvertSidToStringSid
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
The ConvertSidToStringSid function converts a security identifier (SID) to a string format suitable for display, storage, or transmission.
.DESCRIPTION
The ConvertSidToStringSid function uses the standard S-R-I-S-S… format for SID strings.
.PARAMETER SidPointer
A pointer to the SID structure to be converted.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa376399(v=vs.85).aspx
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$SidPointer
)
<#
(func advapi32 ConvertSidToStringSid ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr] #_In_ PSID Sid,
[IntPtr].MakeByRefType() #_Out_ LPTSTR *StringSid
) -SetLastError)
#>
$StringPtr = [IntPtr]::Zero
$Success = $Advapi32::ConvertSidToStringSid($SidPointer, [ref]$StringPtr); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if(-not $Success)
{
Write-Debug "ConvertSidToStringSid Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
Write-Output ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($StringPtr))
}
function CreateToolhelp32Snapshot
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Takes a snapshot of the specified processes, as well as the heaps, modules, and threads used by these processes.
.DESCRIPTION
.PARAMETER ProcessId
.PARAMETER Flags
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[UInt32]
$ProcessId,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[UInt32]
$Flags
)
<#
(func kernel32 CreateToolhelp32Snapshot ([IntPtr]) @(
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD dwFlags,
[UInt32] #_In_ DWORD th32ProcessID
) -SetLastError)
#>
$hSnapshot = $Kernel32::CreateToolhelp32Snapshot($Flags, $ProcessId); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if(-not $hSnapshot)
{
Write-Debug "CreateToolhelp32Snapshot Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
Write-Output $hSnapshot
}
function GetTokenInformation
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
.DESCRIPTION
.PARAMETER TokenHandle
.PARAMETER TokenInformationClass
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$TokenHandle,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
$TokenInformationClass
)
<#
(func advapi32 GetTokenInformation ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE TokenHandle
[Int32], #_In_ TOKEN_INFORMATION_CLASS TokenInformationClass
[IntPtr], #_Out_opt_ LPVOID TokenInformation
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD TokenInformationLength
[UInt32].MakeByRefType() #_Out_ PDWORD ReturnLength
) -SetLastError)
#>
# initial query to determine the necessary buffer size
$TokenPtrSize = 0
$Success = $Advapi32::GetTokenInformation($TokenHandle, $TokenInformationClass, 0, $TokenPtrSize, [ref]$TokenPtrSize)
[IntPtr]$TokenPtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($TokenPtrSize)
# retrieve the proper buffer value
$Success = $Advapi32::GetTokenInformation($TokenHandle, $TokenInformationClass, $TokenPtr, $TokenPtrSize, [ref]$TokenPtrSize); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if($Success)
{
switch($TokenInformationClass)
{
1 # TokenUser
{
$TokenUser = $TokenPtr -as $TOKEN_USER
ConvertSidToStringSid -SidPointer $TokenUser.User.Sid
}
3 # TokenPrivilege
{
# query the process token with the TOKEN_INFORMATION_CLASS = 3 enum to retrieve a TOKEN_PRIVILEGES structure
$TokenPrivileges = $TokenPtr -as $TOKEN_PRIVILEGES
$sb = New-Object System.Text.StringBuilder
for($i=0; $i -lt $TokenPrivileges.PrivilegeCount; $i++)
{
if((($TokenPrivileges.Privileges[$i].Attributes -as $LuidAttributes) -band $LuidAttributes::SE_PRIVILEGE_ENABLED) -eq $LuidAttributes::SE_PRIVILEGE_ENABLED)
{
$sb.Append(", $($TokenPrivileges.Privileges[$i].Luid.LowPart.ToString())") | Out-Null
}
}
Write-Output $sb.ToString().TrimStart(', ')
}
17 # TokenOrigin
{
$TokenOrigin = $TokenPtr -as $LUID
Write-Output (Get-LogonSession -LogonId $TokenOrigin.LowPart)
}
22 # TokenAccessInformation
{
}
25 # TokenIntegrityLevel
{
$TokenIntegrity = $TokenPtr -as $TOKEN_MANDATORY_LABEL
switch(ConvertSidToStringSid -SidPointer $TokenIntegrity.Label.Sid)
{
$UNTRUSTED_MANDATORY_LEVEL
{
Write-Output "UNTRUSTED_MANDATORY_LEVEL"
}
$LOW_MANDATORY_LEVEL
{
Write-Output "LOW_MANDATORY_LEVEL"
}
$MEDIUM_MANDATORY_LEVEL
{
Write-Output "MEDIUM_MANDATORY_LEVEL"
}
$MEDIUM_PLUS_MANDATORY_LEVEL
{
Write-Output "MEDIUM_PLUS_MANDATORY_LEVEL"
}
$HIGH_MANDATORY_LEVEL
{
Write-Output "HIGH_MANDATORY_LEVEL"
}
$SYSTEM_MANDATORY_LEVEL
{
Write-Output "SYSTEM_MANDATORY_LEVEL"
}
$PROTECTED_PROCESS_MANDATORY_LEVEL
{
Write-Output "PROTECTED_PROCESS_MANDATORY_LEVEL"
}
$SECURE_PROCESS_MANDATORY_LEVEL
{
Write-Output "SECURE_PROCESS_MANDATORY_LEVEL"
}
}
}
}
}
else
{
Write-Debug "GetTokenInformation Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
try
{
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::FreeHGlobal($TokenPtr)
}
catch
{
}
}
function NtQueryInformationThread
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Retrieves information about the specified thread.
.DESCRIPTION
.PARAMETER ThreadHandle
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$ThreadHandle
)
<#
(func ntdll NtQueryInformationThread ([Int32]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE ThreadHandle,
[Int32], #_In_ THREADINFOCLASS ThreadInformationClass,
[IntPtr], #_Inout_ PVOID ThreadInformation,
[Int32], #_In_ ULONG ThreadInformationLength,
[IntPtr] #_Out_opt_ PULONG ReturnLength
))
#>
$buf = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal([IntPtr]::Size)
$Success = $Ntdll::NtQueryInformationThread($ThreadHandle, 9, $buf, [IntPtr]::Size, [IntPtr]::Zero); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if(-not $Success)
{
Write-Debug "NtQueryInformationThread Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
Write-Output ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::ReadIntPtr($buf))
}
function OpenProcess
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Opens an existing local process object.
.DESCRIPTION
To open a handle to another local process and obtain full access rights, you must enable the SeDebugPrivilege privilege.
The handle returned by the OpenProcess function can be used in any function that requires a handle to a process, such as the wait functions, provided the appropriate access rights were requested.
When you are finished with the handle, be sure to close it using the CloseHandle function.
.PARAMETER ProcessId
The identifier of the local process to be opened.
If the specified process is the System Process (0x00000000), the function fails and the last error code is ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER. If the specified process is the Idle process or one of the CSRSS processes, this function fails and the last error code is ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED because their access restrictions prevent user-level code from opening them.
.PARAMETER DesiredAccess
The access to the process object. This access right is checked against the security descriptor for the process. This parameter can be one or more of the process access rights.
If the caller has enabled the SeDebugPrivilege privilege, the requested access is granted regardless of the contents of the security descriptor.
.PARAMETER InheritHandle
If this value is TRUE, processes created by this process will inherit the handle. Otherwise, the processes do not inherit this handle.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms684320(v=vs.85).aspx
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms684880(v=vs.85).aspx
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[UInt32]
$ProcessId,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[UInt32]
$DesiredAccess,
[Parameter()]
[bool]
$InheritHandle = $false
)
<#
(func kernel32 OpenProcess ([IntPtr]) @(
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD dwDesiredAccess,
[bool], #_In_ BOOL bInheritHandle,
[UInt32] #_In_ DWORD dwProcessId
) -SetLastError)
#>
$hProcess = $Kernel32::OpenProcess($DesiredAccess, $InheritHandle, $ProcessId); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if($hProcess -eq 0)
{
Write-Debug "OpenProcess Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
Write-Output $hProcess
}
function OpenProcessToken
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
The OpenProcessToken function opens the access token associated with a process.
.PARAMETER ProcessHandle
A handle to the process whose access token is opened. The process must have the PROCESS_QUERY_INFORMATION access permission.
.PARAMETER DesiredAccess
Specifies an access mask that specifies the requested types of access to the access token. These requested access types are compared with the discretionary access control list (DACL) of the token to determine which accesses are granted or denied.
For a list of access rights for access tokens, see Access Rights for Access-Token Objects.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa379295(v=vs.85).aspx
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa374905(v=vs.85).aspx
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$ProcessHandle,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[UInt32]
$DesiredAccess
)
<#
(func advapi32 OpenProcessToken ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE ProcessHandle
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD DesiredAccess
[IntPtr].MakeByRefType() #_Out_ PHANDLE TokenHandle
) -SetLastError)
#>
$hToken = [IntPtr]::Zero
$Success = $Advapi32::OpenProcessToken($ProcessHandle, $DesiredAccess, [ref]$hToken); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if(-not $Success)
{
Write-Debug "OpenProcessToken Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
Write-Output $hToken
}
function OpenThread
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Opens an existing thread object.
.DESCRIPTION
The handle returned by OpenThread can be used in any function that requires a handle to a thread, such as the wait functions, provided you requested the appropriate access rights. The handle is granted access to the thread object only to the extent it was specified in the dwDesiredAccess parameter.
When you are finished with the handle, be sure to close it by using the CloseHandle function.
.PARAMETER ThreadId
The identifier of the thread to be opened.
.PARAMETER DesiredAccess
The access to the thread object. This access right is checked against the security descriptor for the thread. This parameter can be one or more of the thread access rights.
If the caller has enabled the SeDebugPrivilege privilege, the requested access is granted regardless of the contents of the security descriptor.
.PARAMETER InheritHandle
If this value is TRUE, processes created by this process will inherit the handle. Otherwise, the processes do not inherit this handle.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms684335(v=vs.85).aspx
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms686769(v=vs.85).aspx
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[UInt32]
$ThreadId,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[UInt32]
$DesiredAccess,
[Parameter()]
[bool]
$InheritHandle = $false
)
<#
(func kernel32 OpenThread ([IntPtr]) @(
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD dwDesiredAccess,
[bool], #_In_ BOOL bInheritHandle,
[UInt32] #_In_ DWORD dwThreadId
) -SetLastError)
#>
$hThread = $Kernel32::OpenThread($DesiredAccess, $InheritHandle, $ThreadId); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if($hThread -eq 0)
{
Write-Debug "OpenThread Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
Write-Output $hThread
}
function OpenThreadToken
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
The OpenThreadToken function opens the access token associated with a thread
.DESCRIPTION
Tokens with the anonymous impersonation level cannot be opened.
Close the access token handle returned through the Handle parameter by calling CloseHandle.
.PARAMETER ThreadHandle
A handle to the thread whose access token is opened.
.PARAMETER DesiredAccess
Specifies an access mask that specifies the requested types of access to the access token. These requested access types are reconciled against the token's discretionary access control list (DACL) to determine which accesses are granted or denied.
.PARAMETER OpenAsSelf
TRUE if the access check is to be made against the process-level security context.
FALSE if the access check is to be made against the current security context of the thread calling the OpenThreadToken function.
The OpenAsSelf parameter allows the caller of this function to open the access token of a specified thread when the caller is impersonating a token at SecurityIdentification level. Without this parameter, the calling thread cannot open the access token on the specified thread because it is impossible to open executive-level objects by using the SecurityIdentification impersonation level.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa379296(v=vs.85).aspx
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa374905(v=vs.85).aspx
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$ThreadHandle,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[UInt32]
$DesiredAccess,
[Parameter()]
[bool]
$OpenAsSelf = $false
)
<#
(func advapi32 OpenThreadToken ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE ThreadHandle
[UInt32], #_In_ DWORD DesiredAccess
[bool], #_In_ BOOL OpenAsSelf
[IntPtr].MakeByRefType() #_Out_ PHANDLE TokenHandle
) -SetLastError)
#>
$hToken = [IntPtr]::Zero
$Success = $Advapi32::OpenThreadToken($ThreadHandle, $DesiredAccess, $OpenAsSelf, [ref]$hToken); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if(-not $Success)
{
Write-Debug "OpenThreadToken Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
throw "OpenThreadToken Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
Write-Output $hToken
}
function QueryFullProcessImageName
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Retrieves the full name of the executable image for the specified process.
.PARAMETER ProcessHandle
A handle to the process. This handle must be created with the PROCESS_QUERY_INFORMATION or PROCESS_QUERY_LIMITED_INFORMATION access right.
.PARAMETER Flags
This parameter can be one of the following values.
0x00 - The name should use the Win32 path format.
0x01 - The name should use the native system path format.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms684919(v=vs.85).aspx
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$ProcessHandle,
[Parameter()]
[UInt32]
$Flags = 0
)
$capacity = 2048
$sb = New-Object -TypeName System.Text.StringBuilder($capacity)
$Success = $Kernel32::QueryFullProcessImageName($ProcessHandle, $Flags, $sb, [ref]$capacity); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if(-not $Success)
{
Write-Debug "QueryFullProcessImageName Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
Write-Output $sb.ToString()
}
function ReadProcessMemory
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Reads data from an area of memory in a specified process. The entire area to be read must be accessible or the operation fails.
.DESCRIPTION
ReadProcessMemory copies the data in the specified address range from the address space of the specified process into the specified buffer of the current process. Any process that has a handle with PROCESS_VM_READ access can call the function.
The entire area to be read must be accessible, and if it is not accessible, the function fails.
.PARAMETER ProcessHandle
A handle to the process with memory that is being read. The handle must have PROCESS_VM_READ access to the process.
.PARAMETER BaseAddress
The base address in the specified process from which to read. Before any data transfer occurs, the system verifies that all data in the base address and memory of the specified size is accessible for read access, and if it is not accessible the function fails.
.PARAMETER Size
The number of bytes to be read from the specified process.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms680553(v=vs.85).aspx
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$ProcessHandle,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$BaseAddress,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[Int]
$Size
)
<#
(func kernel32 ReadProcessMemory ([Bool]) @(
[IntPtr], # _In_ HANDLE hProcess
[IntPtr], # _In_ LPCVOID lpBaseAddress
[Byte[]], # _Out_ LPVOID lpBuffer
[Int], # _In_ SIZE_T nSize
[Int].MakeByRefType() # _Out_ SIZE_T *lpNumberOfBytesRead
) -SetLastError) # MSDN states to call GetLastError if the return value is false.
#>
$buf = New-Object byte[]($Size)
[Int32]$NumberOfBytesRead = 0
$Success = $Kernel32::ReadProcessMemory($ProcessHandle, $BaseAddress, $buf, $buf.Length, [ref]$NumberOfBytesRead); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if(-not $Success)
{
Write-Debug "ReadProcessMemory Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
Write-Output $buf
}
function TerminateThread
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Terminates a thread.
.DESCRIPTION
TerminateThread is used to cause a thread to exit. When this occurs, the target thread has no chance to execute any user-mode code. DLLs attached to the thread are not notified that the thread is terminating. The system frees the thread's initial stack.
.PARAMETER ThreadHandle
A handle to the thread to be terminated.
The handle must have the THREAD_TERMINATE access right.
.PARAMETER ExitCode
The exit code for the thread.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms686717(v=vs.85).aspx
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms686769(v=vs.85).aspx
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$ThreadHandle,
[Parameter()]
[UInt32]
$ExitCode = 0
)
<#
(func kernel32 TerminateThread ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr], # _InOut_ HANDLE hThread
[UInt32] # _In_ DWORD dwExitCode
) -SetLastError)
#>
$Success = $Kernel32::TerminateThread($ThreadHandle, $ExitCode); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if(-not $Success)
{
Write-Debug "TerminateThread Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
}
function Thread32First
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Retrieves information about the first thread of any process encountered in a system snapshot.
.PARAMETER SnapshotHandle
A handle to the snapshot returned from a previous call to the CreateToolhelp32Snapshot function.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms686728(v=vs.85).aspx
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$SnapshotHandle
)
<#
(func kernel32 Thread32First ([bool]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE hSnapshot,
$THREADENTRY32.MakeByRefType() #_Inout_ LPTHREADENTRY32 lpte
) -SetLastError)
#>
$Thread = [Activator]::CreateInstance($THREADENTRY32)
$Thread.dwSize = $THREADENTRY32::GetSize()
$Success = $Kernel32::Thread32First($hSnapshot, [Ref]$Thread); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if(-not $Success)
{
Write-Debug "Thread32First Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
}
Write-Output $Thread
}
function VirtualQueryEx
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Retrieves information about a range of pages within the virtual address space of a specified process.
.PARAMETER ProcessHandle
A handle to the process whose memory information is queried. The handle must have been opened with the PROCESS_QUERY_INFORMATION access right, which enables using the handle to read information from the process object.
.PARAMETER BaseAddress
The base address of the region of pages to be queried. This value is rounded down to the next page boundary.
.NOTES
Author - Jared Atkinson (@jaredcatkinson)
.LINK
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa366907(v=vs.85).aspx
.EXAMPLE
#>
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$ProcessHandle,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[IntPtr]
$BaseAddress
)
<#
(func kernel32 VirtualQueryEx ([Int32]) @(
[IntPtr], #_In_ HANDLE hProcess,
[IntPtr], #_In_opt_ LPCVOID lpAddress,
$MEMORYBASICINFORMATION.MakeByRefType(), #_Out_ PMEMORY_BASIC_INFORMATION lpBuffer,
[UInt32] #_In_ SIZE_T dwLength
) -SetLastError)
#>
$memory_basic_info = [Activator]::CreateInstance($MEMORYBASICINFORMATION)
$Success = $Kernel32::VirtualQueryEx($ProcessHandle, $BaseAddress, [Ref]$memory_basic_info, $MEMORYBASICINFORMATION::GetSize()); $LastError = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
if(-not $Success)
{
Write-Debug "VirtualQueryEx Error: $(([ComponentModel.Win32Exception] $LastError).Message)"
#Write-Host "ProcessHandle: $($ProcessHandle)"
#Write-Host "BaseAddress: $($BaseAddress)"
}
Write-Output $memory_basic_info
}
#endregion Win32 API Abstractions

hi Jared,
I ran the code but nothing happen. This is the screenshot of my command:
get-injectedthread

Owner

jaredcatkinson commented Oct 5, 2017

Hi @totorocha,

Sorry for the late reply (I literally just found your comment), but this can generally mean 1 of 2 things:

  1. There is no process injection present on the system
  2. You aren't running the script with administrator rights (if you know there is process injection, then this is probably it)
  • Jared
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