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Population Pyramid

This diagram shows the distribution of age groups in the United States over the last 150 years. Use the arrow keys to observe the changing population. Data from the Minnesota Population Center. Use the arrow keys to change the displayed year. The blue bars are the male population for each five-year age bracket, while the pink bars are the female population; the bars are partially transparent so that you can see how they overlap, unlike the traditional side-by-side display which makes it difficult to compare the relative distribution of the sexes.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<meta charset="utf-8">
<style>
svg {
font: 10px sans-serif;
}
.y.axis path {
display: none;
}
.y.axis line {
stroke: #fff;
stroke-opacity: .2;
shape-rendering: crispEdges;
}
.y.axis .zero line {
stroke: #000;
stroke-opacity: 1;
}
.title {
font: 300 78px Helvetica Neue;
fill: #666;
}
.birthyear,
.age {
text-anchor: middle;
}
.birthyear {
fill: #fff;
}
rect {
fill-opacity: .6;
fill: #e377c2;
}
rect:first-child {
fill: #1f77b4;
}
</style>
<body>
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/d3/3.5.5/d3.min.js"></script>
<script>
var margin = {top: 20, right: 40, bottom: 30, left: 20},
width = 960 - margin.left - margin.right,
height = 500 - margin.top - margin.bottom,
barWidth = Math.floor(width / 19) - 1;
var x = d3.scale.linear()
.range([barWidth / 2, width - barWidth / 2]);
var y = d3.scale.linear()
.range([height, 0]);
var yAxis = d3.svg.axis()
.scale(y)
.orient("right")
.tickSize(-width)
.tickFormat(function(d) { return Math.round(d / 1e6) + "M"; });
// An SVG element with a bottom-right origin.
var svg = d3.select("body").append("svg")
.attr("width", width + margin.left + margin.right)
.attr("height", height + margin.top + margin.bottom)
.append("g")
.attr("transform", "translate(" + margin.left + "," + margin.top + ")");
// A sliding container to hold the bars by birthyear.
var birthyears = svg.append("g")
.attr("class", "birthyears");
// A label for the current year.
var title = svg.append("text")
.attr("class", "title")
.attr("dy", ".71em")
.text(2000);
d3.csv("population.csv", function(error, data) {
// Convert strings to numbers.
data.forEach(function(d) {
d.people = +d.people;
d.year = +d.year;
d.age = +d.age;
});
// Compute the extent of the data set in age and years.
var age1 = d3.max(data, function(d) { return d.age; }),
year0 = d3.min(data, function(d) { return d.year; }),
year1 = d3.max(data, function(d) { return d.year; }),
year = year1;
// Update the scale domains.
x.domain([year1 - age1, year1]);
y.domain([0, d3.max(data, function(d) { return d.people; })]);
// Produce a map from year and birthyear to [male, female].
data = d3.nest()
.key(function(d) { return d.year; })
.key(function(d) { return d.year - d.age; })
.rollup(function(v) { return v.map(function(d) { return d.people; }); })
.map(data);
// Add an axis to show the population values.
svg.append("g")
.attr("class", "y axis")
.attr("transform", "translate(" + width + ",0)")
.call(yAxis)
.selectAll("g")
.filter(function(value) { return !value; })
.classed("zero", true);
// Add labeled rects for each birthyear (so that no enter or exit is required).
var birthyear = birthyears.selectAll(".birthyear")
.data(d3.range(year0 - age1, year1 + 1, 5))
.enter().append("g")
.attr("class", "birthyear")
.attr("transform", function(birthyear) { return "translate(" + x(birthyear) + ",0)"; });
birthyear.selectAll("rect")
.data(function(birthyear) { return data[year][birthyear] || [0, 0]; })
.enter().append("rect")
.attr("x", -barWidth / 2)
.attr("width", barWidth)
.attr("y", y)
.attr("height", function(value) { return height - y(value); });
// Add labels to show birthyear.
birthyear.append("text")
.attr("y", height - 4)
.text(function(birthyear) { return birthyear; });
// Add labels to show age (separate; not animated).
svg.selectAll(".age")
.data(d3.range(0, age1 + 1, 5))
.enter().append("text")
.attr("class", "age")
.attr("x", function(age) { return x(year - age); })
.attr("y", height + 4)
.attr("dy", ".71em")
.text(function(age) { return age; });
// Allow the arrow keys to change the displayed year.
window.focus();
d3.select(window).on("keydown", function() {
switch (d3.event.keyCode) {
case 37: year = Math.max(year0, year - 10); break;
case 39: year = Math.min(year1, year + 10); break;
}
update();
});
function update() {
if (!(year in data)) return;
title.text(year);
birthyears.transition()
.duration(750)
.attr("transform", "translate(" + (x(year1) - x(year)) + ",0)");
birthyear.selectAll("rect")
.data(function(birthyear) { return data[year][birthyear] || [0, 0]; })
.transition()
.duration(750)
.attr("y", y)
.attr("height", function(value) { return height - y(value); });
}
});
</script>
year age sex people
1850 0 1 1483789
1850 0 2 1450376
1850 5 1 1411067
1850 5 2 1359668
1850 10 1 1260099
1850 10 2 1216114
1850 15 1 1077133
1850 15 2 1110619
1850 20 1 1017281
1850 20 2 1003841
1850 25 1 862547
1850 25 2 799482
1850 30 1 730638
1850 30 2 639636
1850 35 1 588487
1850 35 2 505012
1850 40 1 475911
1850 40 2 428185
1850 45 1 384211
1850 45 2 341254
1850 50 1 321343
1850 50 2 286580
1850 55 1 194080
1850 55 2 187208
1850 60 1 174976
1850 60 2 162236
1850 65 1 106827
1850 65 2 105534
1850 70 1 73677
1850 70 2 71762
1850 75 1 40834
1850 75 2 40229
1850 80 1 23449
1850 80 2 22949
1850 85 1 8186
1850 85 2 10511
1850 90 1 5259
1850 90 2 6569
1860 0 1 2120846
1860 0 2 2092162
1860 5 1 1804467
1860 5 2 1778772
1860 10 1 1612640
1860 10 2 1540350
1860 15 1 1438094
1860 15 2 1495999
1860 20 1 1351121
1860 20 2 1370462
1860 25 1 1217615
1860 25 2 1116373
1860 30 1 1043174
1860 30 2 936055
1860 35 1 866910
1860 35 2 737136
1860 40 1 699434
1860 40 2 616826
1860 45 1 552404
1860 45 2 461739
1860 50 1 456176
1860 50 2 407305
1860 55 1 292417
1860 55 2 267224
1860 60 1 260887
1860 60 2 249735
1860 65 1 149331
1860 65 2 141405
1860 70 1 98465
1860 70 2 101778
1860 75 1 56699
1860 75 2 57597
1860 80 1 29007
1860 80 2 29506
1860 85 1 10434
1860 85 2 14053
1860 90 1 7232
1860 90 2 6622
1870 0 1 2800083
1870 0 2 2717102
1870 5 1 2428469
1870 5 2 2393680
1870 10 1 2427341
1870 10 2 2342670
1870 15 1 1958390
1870 15 2 2077248
1870 20 1 1805303
1870 20 2 1909382
1870 25 1 1509059
1870 25 2 1574285
1870 30 1 1251534
1870 30 2 1275629
1870 35 1 1185336
1870 35 2 1137490
1870 40 1 968861
1870 40 2 944401
1870 45 1 852672
1870 45 2 747916
1870 50 1 736387
1870 50 2 637801
1870 55 1 486036
1870 55 2 407819
1870 60 1 399264
1870 60 2 374801
1870 65 1 260829
1870 65 2 239080
1870 70 1 173364
1870 70 2 165501
1870 75 1 86929
1870 75 2 89540
1870 80 1 47427
1870 80 2 54190
1870 85 1 15891
1870 85 2 19302
1870 90 1 8649
1870 90 2 13068
1880 0 1 3533662
1880 0 2 3421597
1880 5 1 3297503
1880 5 2 3179142
1880 10 1 2911924
1880 10 2 2813550
1880 15 1 2457734
1880 15 2 2527818
1880 20 1 2547780
1880 20 2 2512803
1880 25 1 2119393
1880 25 2 1974241
1880 30 1 1749107
1880 30 2 1596772
1880 35 1 1540772
1880 35 2 1483717
1880 40 1 1237347
1880 40 2 1239435
1880 45 1 1065973
1880 45 2 1003711
1880 50 1 964484
1880 50 2 863012
1880 55 1 679147
1880 55 2 594843
1880 60 1 580298
1880 60 2 526956
1880 65 1 369398
1880 65 2 346303
1880 70 1 255422
1880 70 2 251860
1880 75 1 141628
1880 75 2 143513
1880 80 1 67526
1880 80 2 77290
1880 85 1 22437
1880 85 2 31227
1880 90 1 10272
1880 90 2 15451
1900 0 1 4619544
1900 0 2 4589196
1900 5 1 4465783
1900 5 2 4390483
1900 10 1 4057669
1900 10 2 4001749
1900 15 1 3774846
1900 15 2 3801743
1900 20 1 3694038
1900 20 2 3751061
1900 25 1 3389280
1900 25 2 3236056
1900 30 1 2918964
1900 30 2 2665174
1900 35 1 2633883
1900 35 2 2347737
1900 40 1 2261070
1900 40 2 2004987
1900 45 1 1868413
1900 45 2 1648025
1900 50 1 1571038
1900 50 2 1411981
1900 55 1 1161908
1900 55 2 1064632
1900 60 1 916571
1900 60 2 887508
1900 65 1 672663
1900 65 2 640212
1900 70 1 454747
1900 70 2 440007
1900 75 1 268211
1900 75 2 265879
1900 80 1 127435
1900 80 2 132449
1900 85 1 44008
1900 85 2 48614
1900 90 1 15164
1900 90 2 20093
1910 0 1 5296823
1910 0 2 5287477
1910 5 1 4991803
1910 5 2 4866139
1910 10 1 4650747
1910 10 2 4471887
1910 15 1 4566154
1910 15 2 4592269
1910 20 1 4637632
1910 20 2 4447683
1910 25 1 4257755
1910 25 2 3946153
1910 30 1 3658125
1910 30 2 3295220
1910 35 1 3427518
1910 35 2 3088990
1910 40 1 2860229
1910 40 2 2471267
1910 45 1 2363801
1910 45 2 2114930
1910 50 1 2126516
1910 50 2 1773592
1910 55 1 1508358
1910 55 2 1317651
1910 60 1 1189421
1910 60 2 1090697
1910 65 1 850159
1910 65 2 813868
1910 70 1 557936
1910 70 2 547623
1910 75 1 322679
1910 75 2 350900
1910 80 1 161715
1910 80 2 174315
1910 85 1 59699
1910 85 2 62725
1910 90 1 23929
1910 90 2 28965
1920 0 1 5934792
1920 0 2 5694244
1920 5 1 5789008
1920 5 2 5693960
1920 10 1 5401156
1920 10 2 5293057
1920 15 1 4724365
1920 15 2 4779936
1920 20 1 4549411
1920 20 2 4742632
1920 25 1 4565066
1920 25 2 4529382
1920 30 1 4110771
1920 30 2 3982426
1920 35 1 4081543
1920 35 2 3713810
1920 40 1 3321923
1920 40 2 3059757
1920 45 1 3143891
1920 45 2 2669089
1920 50 1 2546035
1920 50 2 2200491
1920 55 1 1880975
1920 55 2 1674672
1920 60 1 1587549
1920 60 2 1382877
1920 65 1 1095956
1920 65 2 989901
1920 70 1 714618
1920 70 2 690097
1920 75 1 417292
1920 75 2 439465
1920 80 1 187000
1920 80 2 211110
1920 85 1 75991
1920 85 2 92829
1920 90 1 22398
1920 90 2 32085
1930 0 1 5875250
1930 0 2 5662530
1930 5 1 6542592
1930 5 2 6129561
1930 10 1 6064820
1930 10 2 5986529
1930 15 1 5709452
1930 15 2 5769587
1930 20 1 5305992
1930 20 2 5565382
1930 25 1 4929853
1930 25 2 5050229
1930 30 1 4424408
1930 30 2 4455213
1930 35 1 4576531
1930 35 2 4593776
1930 40 1 4075139
1930 40 2 3754022
1930 45 1 3633152
1930 45 2 3396558
1930 50 1 3128108
1930 50 2 2809191
1930 55 1 2434077
1930 55 2 2298614
1930 60 1 1927564
1930 60 2 1783515
1930 65 1 1397275
1930 65 2 1307312
1930 70 1 919045
1930 70 2 918509
1930 75 1 536375
1930 75 2 522716
1930 80 1 246708
1930 80 2 283579
1930 85 1 88978
1930 85 2 109210
1930 90 1 30338
1930 90 2 43483
1940 0 1 5294628
1940 0 2 5124653
1940 5 1 5468378
1940 5 2 5359099
1940 10 1 5960416
1940 10 2 5868532
1940 15 1 6165109
1940 15 2 6193701
1940 20 1 5682414
1940 20 2 5896002
1940 25 1 5438166
1940 25 2 5664244
1940 30 1 5040048
1940 30 2 5171522
1940 35 1 4724804
1940 35 2 4791809
1940 40 1 4437392
1940 40 2 4394061
1940 45 1 4190187
1940 45 2 4050290
1940 50 1 3785735
1940 50 2 3488396
1940 55 1 2972069
1940 55 2 2810000
1940 60 1 2370232
1940 60 2 2317790
1940 65 1 1897678
1940 65 2 1911117
1940 70 1 1280023
1940 70 2 1287711
1940 75 1 713875
1940 75 2 764915
1940 80 1 359418
1940 80 2 414761
1940 85 1 127303
1940 85 2 152131
1940 90 1 42263
1940 90 2 58119
1950 0 1 8211806
1950 0 2 7862267
1950 5 1 6706601
1950 5 2 6450863
1950 10 1 5629744
1950 10 2 5430835
1950 15 1 5264129
1950 15 2 5288742
1950 20 1 5573308
1950 20 2 5854227
1950 25 1 6007254
1950 25 2 6317332
1950 30 1 5676022
1950 30 2 5895178
1950 35 1 5511364
1950 35 2 5696261
1950 40 1 5076985
1950 40 2 5199224
1950 45 1 4533177
1950 45 2 4595842
1950 50 1 4199164
1950 50 2 4147295
1950 55 1 3667351
1950 55 2 3595158
1950 60 1 3035038
1950 60 2 3009768
1950 65 1 2421234
1950 65 2 2548250
1950 70 1 1627920
1950 70 2 1786831
1950 75 1 1006530
1950 75 2 1148469
1950 80 1 511727
1950 80 2 637717
1950 85 1 182821
1950 85 2 242798
1950 90 1 54836
1950 90 2 90766
1960 0 1 10374975
1960 0 2 10146999
1960 5 1 9495503
1960 5 2 9250741
1960 10 1 8563700
1960 10 2 8310764
1960 15 1 6620902
1960 15 2 6617493
1960 20 1 5268384
1960 20 2 5513495
1960 25 1 5311805
1960 25 2 5548259
1960 30 1 5801342
1960 30 2 6090862
1960 35 1 6063063
1960 35 2 6431337
1960 40 1 5657943
1960 40 2 5940520
1960 45 1 5345658
1960 45 2 5516028
1960 50 1 4763364
1960 50 2 4928844
1960 55 1 4170581
1960 55 2 4402878
1960 60 1 3405293
1960 60 2 3723839
1960 65 1 2859371
1960 65 2 3268699
1960 70 1 2115763
1960 70 2 2516479
1960 75 1 1308913
1960 75 2 1641371
1960 80 1 619923
1960 80 2 856952
1960 85 1 253245
1960 85 2 384572
1960 90 1 75908
1960 90 2 135774
1970 0 1 8685121
1970 0 2 8326887
1970 5 1 10411131
1970 5 2 10003293
1970 10 1 10756403
1970 10 2 10343538
1970 15 1 9605399
1970 15 2 9414284
1970 20 1 7729202
1970 20 2 8341830
1970 25 1 6539301
1970 25 2 6903041
1970 30 1 5519879
1970 30 2 5851441
1970 35 1 5396732
1970 35 2 5708021
1970 40 1 5718538
1970 40 2 6129319
1970 45 1 5794120
1970 45 2 6198742
1970 50 1 5298312
1970 50 2 5783817
1970 55 1 4762911
1970 55 2 5222164
1970 60 1 4037643
1970 60 2 4577251
1970 65 1 3142606
1970 65 2 3894827
1970 70 1 2340826
1970 70 2 3138009
1970 75 1 1599269
1970 75 2 2293376
1970 80 1 886155
1970 80 2 1417553
1970 85 1 371123
1970 85 2 658511
1970 90 1 186502
1970 90 2 314929
1980 0 1 8439366
1980 0 2 8081854
1980 5 1 8680730
1980 5 2 8275881
1980 10 1 9452338
1980 10 2 9048483
1980 15 1 10698856
1980 15 2 10410271
1980 20 1 10486776
1980 20 2 10614947
1980 25 1 9624053
1980 25 2 9827903
1980 30 1 8705835
1980 30 2 8955225
1980 35 1 6852069
1980 35 2 7134239
1980 40 1 5692148
1980 40 2 5953910
1980 45 1 5342469
1980 45 2 5697543
1980 50 1 5603709
1980 50 2 6110117
1980 55 1 5485098
1980 55 2 6160229
1980 60 1 4696140
1980 60 2 5456885
1980 65 1 3893510
1980 65 2 4896947
1980 70 1 2857774
1980 70 2 3963441
1980 75 1 1840438
1980 75 2 2951759
1980 80 1 1012886
1980 80 2 1919292
1980 85 1 472338
1980 85 2 1023115
1980 90 1 204148
1980 90 2 499046
1990 0 1 9307465
1990 0 2 8894007
1990 5 1 9274732
1990 5 2 8799955
1990 10 1 8782542
1990 10 2 8337284
1990 15 1 9020572
1990 15 2 8590991
1990 20 1 9436188
1990 20 2 9152644
1990 25 1 10658027
1990 25 2 10587292
1990 30 1 11028712
1990 30 2 11105750
1990 35 1 9853933
1990 35 2 10038644
1990 40 1 8712632
1990 40 2 8928252
1990 45 1 6848082
1990 45 2 7115129
1990 50 1 5553992
1990 50 2 5899925
1990 55 1 4981670
1990 55 2 5460506
1990 60 1 4953822
1990 60 2 5663205
1990 65 1 4538398
1990 65 2 5594108
1990 70 1 3429420
1990 70 2 4610222
1990 75 1 2344932
1990 75 2 3723980
1990 80 1 1342996
1990 80 2 2545730
1990 85 1 588790
1990 85 2 1419494
1990 90 1 238459
1990 90 2 745146
2000 0 1 9735380
2000 0 2 9310714
2000 5 1 10552146
2000 5 2 10069564
2000 10 1 10563233
2000 10 2 10022524
2000 15 1 10237419
2000 15 2 9692669
2000 20 1 9731315
2000 20 2 9324244
2000 25 1 9659493
2000 25 2 9518507
2000 30 1 10205879
2000 30 2 10119296
2000 35 1 11475182
2000 35 2 11635647
2000 40 1 11320252
2000 40 2 11488578
2000 45 1 9925006
2000 45 2 10261253
2000 50 1 8507934
2000 50 2 8911133
2000 55 1 6459082
2000 55 2 6921268
2000 60 1 5123399
2000 60 2 5668961
2000 65 1 4453623
2000 65 2 4804784
2000 70 1 3792145
2000 70 2 5184855
2000 75 1 2912655
2000 75 2 4355644
2000 80 1 1902638
2000 80 2 3221898
2000 85 1 970357
2000 85 2 1981156
2000 90 1 336303
2000 90 2 1064581
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