e1000e Linux* Base Driver for Intel® Network Connection
January 13, 2014
- Building and Installation
- Command Line Parameters
- Speed and Duplex Configuration
- Known Issues
The e1000e Linux base driver supports the 2.4.x, 2.6.x, and 3.x kernels, and includes support for Itanium® 2-based systems. It is only supported as a loadable module. Intel is not supplying patches against the kernel source to allow for static linking of the drivers. For questions related to hardware requirements, refer to the documentation supplied with your Intel Gigabit adapter. All hardware requirements listed apply to use with Linux.
The following features are now available in supported kernels:
- Native VLANs
- Channel Bonding (teaming)
Channel Bonding documentation can be found in the Linux kernel source: /documentation/networking/bonding.txt
The driver information previously displayed in the /proc file system is not supported in this release. Alternatively, you can use ethtool (version 1.6 or later), lspci, and ifconfig to obtain the same information. Instructions on updating ethtool can be found in the section Additional Configurations later in this document.
NOTE: The Intel® 82562v 10/100 Network Connection only provides 10/100 support.
If you currently have the e1000 driver installed and need to install e1000e, perform the following:
If your version of e1000 is 18.104.22.168 or less, upgrade to e1000 version 8.x, using the instructions in the e1000 README.
Install the e1000e driver using the instructions in the Building and Installation section below.
Modify /etc/modprobe.conf to point your PCIe devices to use the new e1000e driver using alias ethX e1000e, or use your distribution's specific method for configuring network adapters like RedHat's setup/system-config-network or SuSE's yast2.
Building and Installation
To build a binary RPM* package of this driver, run 'rpmbuild -tb e1000e.tar.gz'.
- For the build to work properly, the currently running kernel MUST match the version and configuration of the installed kernel sources. If you have just recompiled the kernel reboot the system now.
- RPM functionality has only been tested in Red Hat distributions.
Move the base driver tar file to the directory of your choice. For example, use '/home/username/e1000e' or '/usr/local/src/e1000e'.
Untar/unzip the archive, where <x.x.x> is the version number for the driver tar file:
tar zxf e1000e-<x.x.x>.tar.gz
Change to the driver src directory, where <x.x.x> is the version number for the driver tar: cd e1000e-<x.x.x>/src/
Compile the driver module:
The binary will be installed as: /lib/modules//kernel/drivers/net/e1000e/e1000e.[k]o
The install location listed above is the default location. This may differ for various Linux distributions.
Load the module using the modprobe command: modprobe e1000e
With 2.6 based and newer kernels also make sure that older e1000e drivers are removed from the kernel, before loading the new module: rmmod e1000e; modprobe e1000e
Assign an IP address to the interface by entering the following, where x is the interface number: ifconfig eth <IP_address>
Verify that the interface works. Enter the following, where IP_address is the IP address for another machine on the same subnet as the interface that is being tested: ping <IP_address>
TROUBLESHOOTING: Some systems have trouble supporting MSI and/or MSI-X interrupts. If you believe your system needs to disable this style of interrupt, the driver can be built and installed with the command:
make CFLAGS_EXTRA=-DDISABLE_PCI_MSI install
Normally the driver will generate an interrupt every two seconds, so if you can see that you are no longer getting interrupts in cat /proc/interrupts for the ethX e1000e device, then this workaround may be necessary.
Command Line Parameters
If the driver is built as a module, the following optional parameters are used by entering them on the command line with the modprobe command using this syntax: modprobe e1000e [=,,...]
There needs to be a <VAL#> for each network port in the system supported by this driver. The values will be applied to each instance, in function order. For example: modprobe e1000e InterruptThrottleRate=16000,16000
In this case, there are two network ports supported by e1000e in the system. The default value for each parameter is generally the recommended setting, unless otherwise noted.
- For more information about the InterruptThrottleRate, RxIntDelay, TxIntDelay, RxAbsIntDelay, and TxAbsIntDelay parameters, see the application note at: http://www.intel.com/design/network/applnots/ap450.htm.
- A descriptor describes a data buffer and attributes related to the data buffer. This information is accessed by the hardware.
Valid Range: 0,1,3,4, 100-100000 (0=off, 1=dynamic, 3=dynamic conservative, 4=simplified balancing)
Default Value: 3
The driver can limit the amount of interrupts per second that the adapter will generate for incoming packets. It does this by writing a value to the adapter that is based on the maximum amount of interrupts that the adapter will generate per second.
Setting InterruptThrottleRate to a value greater or equal to 100 will program the adapter to send out a maximum of that many interrupts per second, even if more packets have come in. This reduces interrupt load on the system and can lower CPU utilization under heavy load, but will increase latency as packets are not processed as quickly.
The default behavior of the driver previously assumed a static InterruptThrottleRate value of 8000, providing a good fallback value for all traffic types, but lacking in small packet performance and latency.
The driver has two adaptive modes (setting 1 or 3) in which it dynamically adjusts the InterruptThrottleRate value based on the traffic that it receives. After determining the type of incoming traffic in the last timeframe, it will adjust the InterruptThrottleRate to an appropriate value for that traffic.
The algorithm classifies the incoming traffic every interval into classes. Once the class is determined, the InterruptThrottleRate value is adjusted to suit that traffic type the best. There are three classes defined:
- "Bulk traffic", for large amounts of packets of normal size
- "Low latency", for small amounts of traffic and/or a significant percentage of small packets
- "Lowest latency", for almost completely small packets or minimal traffic
In dynamic conservative mode, the InterruptThrottleRate value is set to 4000 for traffic that falls in class "Bulk traffic". If traffic falls in the "Low latency" or "Lowest latency" class, the InterruptThrottleRate is increased stepwise to 20000. This default mode is suitable for most applications.
For situations where low latency is vital, such as cluster or grid computing, the algorithm can reduce latency even more when InterruptThrottleRate is set to mode 1. In this mode, which operates the same as mode 3, the InterruptThrottleRate will be increased stepwise to 70000 for traffic in class "Lowest latency".
In simplified mode, the interrupt rate is based on the ratio of transmit and receive traffic. If the bytes per second rate is approximately equal, the interrupt rate will drop as low as 2000 interrupts per second. If the traffic is mostly transmit or mostly receive, the interrupt rate could be as high as 8000.
Setting InterruptThrottleRate to 0 turns off any interrupt moderation and may improve small packet latency, but is generally not suitable for bulk throughput traffic.
NOTE: InterruptThrottleRate takes precedence over the TxAbsIntDelay and RxAbsIntDelay parameters. In other words, minimizing the receive and/or transmit absolute delays does not force the controller to generate more interrupts than what the Interrupt Throttle Rate allows.
NOTE: When e1000e is loaded with default settings and multiple adapters are in use simultaneously, the CPU utilization may increase nonlinearly. In order to limit the CPU utilization without impacting the overall throughput, we recommend that you load the driver as follows: modprobe e1000e InterruptThrottleRate=3000,3000,3000
This sets the InterruptThrottleRate to 3000 interrupts/sec for the first, second, and third instances of the driver. The range of 2000 to 3000 interrupts per second works on a majority of systems and is a good starting point, but the optimal value will be platform-specific. If CPU utilization is not a concern, use RX_POLLING (NAPI) and default driver settings.
Valid Range: 0-65535 (0=off)
Default Value: 0
This value delays the generation of receive interrupts in units of 1.024 microseconds. Receive interrupt reduction can improve CPU efficiency if properly tuned for specific network traffic. Increasing this value adds extra latency to frame reception and can end up decreasing the throughput of TCP traffic. If the system is reporting dropped receives, this value may be set too high, causing the driver to run out of available receive descriptors.
CAUTION: When setting RxIntDelay to a value other than 0, adapters may hang (stop transmitting) under certain network conditions. If this occurs a NETDEV WATCHDOG message is logged in the system event log. In addition, the controller is automatically reset, restoring the network connection. To eliminate the potential for the hang ensure that RxIntDelay is set to 0.
Valid Range: 0-65535 (0=off)
Default Value: 8
This value, in units of 1.024 microseconds, limits the delay in which a receive interrupt is generated. This value ensures that an interrupt is generated after the initial packet is received within the set amount of time, which is useful only if RxIntDelay is non-zero. Proper tuning, along with RxIntDelay, may improve traffic throughput in specific network conditions.
Valid Range: 0-65535 (0=off)
Default Value: 8
This value delays the generation of transmit interrupts in units of 1.024 microseconds. Transmit interrupt reduction can improve CPU efficiency if properly tuned for specific network traffic. If the system is reporting dropped transmits, this value may be set too high causing the driver to run out of available transmit descriptors.
Valid Range: 0-65535 (0=off)
Default Value: 32
This value, in units of 1.024 microseconds, limits the delay in which a transmit interrupt is generated. It is useful only if TxIntDelay is non-zero. It ensures that an interrupt is generated after the initial Packet is sent on the wire within the set amount of time. Proper tuning, along with TxIntDelay, may improve traffic throughput in specific network conditions.
Valid Range: 0-xxxxxxx (0=off)
Default Value: 256
The driver copies all packets below or equaling this size to a fresh receive buffer before handing it up the stack.
This parameter differs from other parameters because it is a single (not 1,1,1 etc.) parameter applied to all driver instances and it is also available during runtime at /sys/module/e1000e/parameters/copybreak.
To use copybreak, type
modprobe e1000e.ko copybreak=128
Valid Range: 0-1
Default Value: 0 (disabled)
Allows Phy to turn off in lower power states. The user can turn off this parameter in supported chipsets.
Valid Range: 0-1
Default Value: 1 (enabled)
This workaround skips resetting the Phy at shutdown for the initial silicon releases of ICH8 systems.
Valid Range: 0-2 (0=legacy, 1=MSI, 2=MSI-X)
Default Value: 2
Allows changing the interrupt mode at module load time, without requiring a recompile. If the driver load fails to enable a specific interrupt mode, the driver will try other interrupt modes, from least to most compatible. The interrupt order is MSI-X, MSI, Legacy. If specifying MSI interrupts (IntMode=1), only MSI and Legacy will be attempted.
Valid Range: 0-1
Default Value: 1 (enabled)
Strip the CRC from received packets before sending up the network stack. If you have a machine with a BMC enabled but cannot receive IPMI traffic after loading or enabling the driver, try disabling this feature.
Valid Range: 0-1
Default Value: 1 (enabled for parts supporting EEE)
This option allows for the ability of IEEE802.3az (as known as Energy Efficient Ethernet or EEE) to be advertised to the link partner on parts supporting EEE. EEE saves energy by putting the device into a low-power state when the link is idle, but only when the link partner also supports EEE and after the feature has been enabled during link negotiation. It is not necessary to disable the advertisement of EEE when connected with a link partner that does not support EEE.
Valid Range: 0-n
Default Value: -1 (off)
0 - n: where n is the number of the NUMA node that should be used to allocate memory for this adapter port.
-1: uses the driver default of allocating memory on whichever processor is running modprobe.
The Node parameter allows you to choose which NUMA node you want to have the adapter allocate memory from. All driver structures, in-memory queues, and receive buffers will be allocated on the node specified. This parameter is only useful when interrupt affinity is specified; otherwise, part of the interrupt time could run on a different core than where the memory is allocated causing slower memory access and impacting throughput, CPU, or both.
IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) Hardware Clock (PHC)
Support for the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) Hardware Clock (PHC) is disabled by default in this out-of-tree driver even if it is enabled for the in-kernel driver.
The feature is available only on a subset of devices supported by the driver and can only be enabled on 3.0 and newer kernels that also have the PTP_1588_CLOCK support compiled in statically or as a module. To enable the feature when compiling the driver, add 'CFLAGS_EXTRA=-DE1000E_PTP' to the command line.
Configuring the Driver on Different Distributions
Configuring a network driver to load properly when the system is started is distribution dependent. Typically, the configuration process involves adding an alias line to /etc/modules.conf or /etc/modprobe.conf as well as editing other system startup scripts and/or configuration files. Many popular Linux distributions ship with tools to make these changes for you. To learn the proper way to configure a network device for your system, refer to your distribution documentation. If during this process you are asked for the driver or module name, the name for the Linux Base Driver for the Intel gigabit family of adapters is e1000e.
As an example, if you install the e1000e driver for two Gigabit adapters (eth0 and eth1) and want to set the interrupt mode to MSI-X and MSI, respectively, add the following to modules.conf or /etc/modprobe.conf: alias eth0 e1000e alias eth1 e1000e options e1000e IntMode=2,1
Viewing Link Messages
Link messages will not be displayed to the console if the distribution is restricting system messages. In order to see network driver link messages on your console, set dmesg to eight by entering the following: dmesg -n 8
NOTE: This setting is not saved across reboots.
Jumbo Frames support is enabled by changing the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) to a value larger than the default value of 1500. Use the ifconfig command to increase the MTU size. For example: ifconfig eth mtu 9000 up
This setting is not saved across reboots. The setting change can be made permanent by adding 'MTU=9000' to the file: /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth. This applies only to Red Hat distributions. Other distributions may store this setting in a different location.
To enable Jumbo Frames, increase the MTU size on the interface beyond 1500.
The maximum MTU setting for Jumbo Frames is 9216. This value coincides with the maximum Jumbo Frames size of 9234 bytes.
Using Jumbo frames at 10 or 100 Mbps is not supported and may result in poor performance or loss of link.
The following adapters limit Jumbo Frames sized packets to a maximum of 4088 bytes:
- Intel(R) 82578DM Gigabit Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82577LM Gigabit Network Connection
The following adapters do not support Jumbo Frames:
- Intel(R) PRO/1000 Gigabit Server Adapter
- Intel(R) PRO/1000 PM Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82562G 10/100 Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82562G-2 10/100 Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82562GT 10/100 Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82562GT-2 10/100 Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82562V-2 10/100 Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82566DC Gigabit Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82566DC-2 Gigabit Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82566DM Gigabit Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82566MC Gigabit Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82566MM Gigabit Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82567V-3 Gigabit Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82577LC Gigabit Network Connection
- Intel(R) 82578DC Gigabit Network Connection
Jumbo Frames cannot be configured on an 82579-based Network device, if MACSec is enabled on the system.
The driver utilizes the ethtool interface for driver configuration and diagnostics, as well as displaying statistical information. ethtool version 3 or later is required for this functionality, although we strongly recommend downloading the latest version at: http://ftp.kernel.org/pub/software/network/ethtool/.
NOTE: When validating enable/disable tests on some parts (for example, 82578), it is necessary to add a few seconds between tests when working with ethtool.
Speed and Duplex Configuration
Speed and Duplex are configured through the ethtool utility. ethtool is included with all versions of Red Hat after Red Hat 7.2. For other Linux distributions, download and install ethtool from the following website: http://ftp.kernel.org/pub/software/network/ethtool/.
Enabling Wake on LAN* (WoL)
WoL is configured through the ethtool utility. ethtool is included with all versions of Red Hat after Red Hat 7.2. For other Linux distributions, download and install ethtool from the following website: http://ftp.kernel.org/pub/software/network/ethtool/.
For instructions on enabling WoL with ethtool, refer to the website listed above.
WoL will be enabled on the system during the next shut down or reboot. For this driver version, in order to enable WoL, the e1000e driver must be loaded prior to shutting down or suspending the system.
NOTE: Wake on LAN is only supported on port A for the following devices:
- Intel(R) PRO/1000 PT Dual Port Network Connection
- Intel(R) PRO/1000 PT Dual Port Server Connection
- Intel(R) PRO/1000 PT Dual Port Server Adapter
- Intel(R) PRO/1000 PF Dual Port Server Adapter
- Intel(R) PRO/1000 PT Quad Port Server Adapter
- Intel(R) Gigabit PT Quad Port Server ExpressModule
NAPI (Rx polling mode) is supported in the e1000e driver. NAPI is enabled by default.
To disable NAPI, compile the driver module, passing in a configuration option:
make CFLAGS_EXTRA=-DE1000E_NO_NAPI install
For more information on NAPI, see ftp://robur.slu.se/pub/Linux/net-development/NAPI/usenix-paper.tgz.
For known hardware and troubleshooting issues, either refer to the "Release Notes" in your User Guide, or for more detailed information, go to http://www.intel.com.
In the search box enter your devices controller ID followed by "spec update" (example, 82599 spec update). The spec update file has complete information on known hardware issues.
NOTE: After installing the driver, if your Intel Network Connection is not working, verify that you have installed the correct driver.
Intel(R) Active Management Technology 2.0, 2.1, 2.5 Not Supported in Conjunction with Linux driver
Detected Tx Unit Hang in Quad Port Adapters
In some cases ports 3 and 4 don't pass traffic and report 'Detected Tx Unit Hang' followed by 'NETDEV WATCHDOG: ethX: transmit timed out' errors. Ports 1 and 2 don't show any errors and will pass traffic.
This issue MAY be resolved by updating to the latest kernel and BIOS. The user is encouraged to run an OS that fully supports MSI interrupts. You can check your system's BIOS by downloading the Linux Firmware Developer Kit that can be obtained at http://www.linuxfirmwarekit.org/.
Adapters with 4 ports Behind a PCIe bridge
Adapters that have 4 ports behind a PCIe bridge may be incompatible with some systems. The user should run the Linux firmware kit from http://www.linuxfirmwarekit.org/ to test their BIOS, if they have interrupt or "missing interface" problems, especially with older kernels.
82573(V/L/E) TX Unit Hang Messages
Several adapters with the 82573 chipset display "TX unit hang" messages during normal operation with the e1000e driver. The issue appears both with TSO enabled and disabled and is caused by a power management function that is enabled in the EEPROM. Early releases of the chipsets to vendors had the EEPROM bit that enabled the feature. After the issue was discovered newer adapters were released with the feature disabled in the EEPROM.
If you encounter the problem in an adapter, and the chipset is an 82573-based one, you can verify that your adapter needs the fix by using ethtool: # ethtool -e eth0
0x0000 00 12 34 56 fe dc 30 0d 46 f7 f4 00 ff ff ff ff 0x0010 ff ff ff ff 6b 02 8c 10 d9 15 8c 10 86 80 de 83 ^^
The value at offset 0x001e (de) has bit 0 unset. This enables the problematic power saving feature. In this case, the EEPROM needs to read "df" at offset 0x001e.
A one-time EEPROM fix is available as a shell script. This script will verify that the adapter is applicable to the fix and if the fix is needed or not. If the fix is required, it applies the change to the EEPROM and updates the checksum. The user must reboot the system after applying the fix if changes were made to the EEPROM.
Example output of the script:
bash fixeep-82573-dspd.sh eth0
eth0: is a "82573E Gigabit Ethernet Controller" This fixup is applicable to your hardware executing command: ethtool -E eth0 magic 0x109a8086 offset 0x1e value 0xdf Change made. You MUST reboot your machine before changes take effect!
The script can be downloaded at http://e1000.sourceforge.net/files/fixeep-82573-dspd.sh.
Dropped Receive Packets on Half-duplex 10/100 Networks
If you have an Intel PCI Express adapter running at 10mbps or 100mbps, half-duplex, you may observe occasional dropped receive packets. There are no workarounds for this problem in this network configuration. The network must be updated to operate in full-duplex, and/or 1000mbps only.
Compiling the Driver
When trying to compile the driver by running make install, the following error may occur: "Linux kernel source not configured - missing version.h"
To solve this issue, create the version.h file by going to the Linux source tree and entering:
Performance Degradation with Jumbo Frames
Degradation in throughput performance may be observed in some Jumbo frames environments. If this is observed, increasing the application's socket buffer size and/or increasing the /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_mem entry values may help. See the specific application manual and /usr/src/linux/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt for more details.
Jumbo Frames on Foundry BigIron 8000 switch
There is a known issue using Jumbo frames when connected to a Foundry BigIron 8000 switch. This is a 3rd party limitation. If you experience loss of packets, lower the MTU size.
Allocating Rx Buffers when Using Jumbo Frames
Allocating Rx buffers when using Jumbo Frames on 2.6.x kernels may fail if the available memory is heavily fragmented. This issue may be seen with PCI-X adapters or with packet split disabled. This can be reduced or eliminated by changing the amount of available memory for receive buffer allocation, by increasing /proc/sys/vm/min_free_kbytes.
Multiple Interfaces on Same Ethernet Broadcast Network
Due to the default ARP behavior on Linux, it is not possible to have one system on two IP networks in the same Ethernet broadcast domain (non-partitioned switch) behave as expected. All Ethernet interfaces will respond to IP traffic for any IP address assigned to the system. This results in unbalanced receive traffic.
If you have multiple interfaces in a server, either turn on ARP filtering by entering: echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/arp_filter
This only works if your kernel's version is higher than 2.4.5.
NOTE: This setting is not saved across reboots. The configuration change can be made permanent by adding the following line to the file /etc/sysctl.conf: net.ipv4.conf.all.arp_filter = 1
Another alternative is to install the interfaces in separate broadcast domains (either in different switches or in a switch partitioned to VLANs).
Disable rx Flow Control with ethtool
In order to disable receive flow control using ethtool, you must turn off auto-negotiation on the same command line: ethtool -A eth? autoneg off rx off
Unplugging Network Cable While ethtool -p is Running
In kernel versions 2.5.50 and newer, unplugging the network cable while ethtool -p is running will cause the system to become unresponsive to keyboard commands, except for control-alt-delete. Restarting the system appears to be the only remedy.
MSI-X Issues with Kernels Between 2.6.19 - 2.6.21 (inclusive)
Kernel panics and instability may be observed on any MSI-X hardware if you use irqbalance with kernels between 2.6.19 and 2.6.21. If such problems are encountered, you may disable the irqbalance daemon or upgrade to a newer kernel.
Rx Page Allocation Errors
'Page allocation failure. order:0' errors may occur under stress with kernels 2.6.25 and newer. This is caused by the way the Linux kernel reports this stressed condition.
Network Throughput Degradation Observed with Onboard Video Versus Add-in Video Card on 82579LM Gigabit Network Connection When Used with Some Older Kernels
This issue can be worked around by specifying "pci=nommconf" in the kernel boot parameter or by using another kernel boot parameter "memmap=128M$0x100000000", which marks 128 MB region at 4 GB as reserved so that the OS will not use these RAM pages.
This issue is fixed in kernel version 2.6.21, where the kernel dynamically detects the mmconfig size by looking at the number of busses that the mmconfig segment maps to.
This issue will not be seen on the 32-bit version of EL5. In that case, the kernel sees that RAM is located around the 256 MB window and avoids using the mmconfig space.
Activity LED Blinks Unexpectedly
If a system based on the 82577, 82578, or 82579 controller is connected to a hub, the Activity LED will blink for all network traffic present on the hub. Connecting the system to a switch or router will filter out most traffic not addressed to the local port.
Link may take longer than expected
With some Phy and switch combinations, link can take longer than expected. This can be an issue on Linux distributions that timeout when checking for link prior to acquiring a DHCP address; however there is usually a way to work around this (for example, set LINKDELAY in the interface configuration on RHEL).
Tx flow control is disabled by default on 82577 and 82578-based adapters
Possible performance degradation on certain 82566 and 82577 devices
Internal stress testing with jumbo frames shows the reliability on some 82566 and 82567 devices is improved in certain corner cases by disabling the Early Receive feature. Doing so can impact Tx performance. To reduce the impact, the packet buffer sizes and relevant flow control settings are modified accordingly.
For general information, go to the Intel support website at: www.intel.com/support/
or the Intel Wired Networking project hosted by Sourceforge at: http://sourceforge.net/projects/e1000
If an issue is identified with the released source code on the supported kernel with a supported adapter, email the specific information related to the issue to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Intel Gigabit Linux driver. Copyright(c) 1999 - 2013 Intel Corporation.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public License, version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
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