Complete System Power Estimation using Processor Performance Events https://lca.ece.utexas.edu/pubs/bircher-TC2012.pdf
Power estimate wiki (before 2012) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Run-time_estimation_of_system_and_sub-system_level_power_consumption
We have presented a systematic study on the use of performance counters to estimate power online. We found a subset of counters (# Fetched instructions, L1 hit and Dispatch Stalls) that are suitable for estimating power across multiple architecture types within an error of 5%. This was illustrated using an OOO high performance (HPerf) and an in-order low power (LP) core. At 5% average error, the proposed estimator improves upon prior estimators with error of 9%  and 11.5% .