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Last active Oct 28, 2019

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rk30xx loader image unpacker

Obtaining RK3066 boot ROM.

Here are my steps.

At first, I took a look to RK30xxLoader(L)_V1.18.bin. This file appears in update.img for my device. So, I unpacked update.img using rk29Kitchen.

strings on that file returns nothing interesting, so I assumed the file is crypted

Next step was to get IDA pro, and disassemble RKAndroidTool.fexe - utility from rockchip for flashing device firmware. In disassembly I found, that loader is scrambled using RC4. File is split to 0x200 chunks and every chunk is scrambled.

So, I wrote unpack_loader.pl script, which gave me output of 4 files.

1   14a  321c 30_LPDDR2_300MHz_DD
2  3366  c914 rk30usbplug
4  fc7a  3400 FlashData
4 1307a 1ac00 FlashBoot

Fortunately, there were meaningful names for those files in loader.bin.

30_LPDDR2_300MHz_DD is a dram init procedure FlashData is a copy of dram init procedure, aligned to 512 bytes (flash block size)

rk30usbplug is MaskRom mode handler FlashBoot is stage2 for booting from NAND, and also it contains handler for DFU mode.

Those files were disassembled too, and in FlashBoot I found that there is command in DFU mode to obtain data from any DDR RAM region. So, my idea was to inject code in FlashBoot, which will copy bootrom to some address, accessible in DFU mode. But there was a problem, FlashBoot is overwriting memory at address 0 - it is where bootrom is located at power on. So, all I need is to copy 0x2800 bytes (boot ROM size) starting from 0x0 before FlasfhBoot overwrites it, and there you are -> bootrom.bin

So I wrote a set of tools for that. patch_loader.sh injects code pack_loader.pl resembles lFoader from parts and sign it with rkcrc.

So, all was done with this script.

perl unpack_loader.pl RK30xxLoader\(L\)_V1.18.bin write
sh patch_loader.sh FlashBoot.bin
perl pack_loader.pl dram=30_LPDDR2_300MHz_DD.bin boot=FlashBoot.bin.patched data=FlashData.bin usbplug=rk30usbplug.bin out=patchedLoader.bin

Flash patchedLoader.bin with RKAndroidTool.exe, and obtain loader with rkflashtool m 0x64000000 0x2800 > bootrom.bin

I uploaded bootrom.hex. Execute xxd -rp bootrom.hex > bootrom.bin to get bootrom.bin

Now, when all parts of loader are descrambled and could be disassembled, it is matter of time to port u-boot to this SoC, and boot any OS native.

RK3066 boot sequence

At power, rk30 starts from 0x0 offset in bootrom.

bootrom copies itself to SRAM, and proceeds to find dram init handler in idbrom
bootrom loads dram init handler in memory and executes it
bootroms search for flashboot and load it to memory
if flashboot could not be found, bootrom search for usbplug and load it

flashboot init NAND, search for parameter file, load kernel to DRAM and boot it

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30323131313131303156
use strict;
use 5.010;
if ($#ARGV == -1) {
say "$0 dram=DRAM_INIT usbplug=USB_PLUG boot=FLASHBOOT data=FLASHDATA out=NAME";
exit;
}
my @VALID = qw/dram usbplug boot data out/;
my $parts = { map { /^(.+?)=(.+)$/ } @ARGV };
if (@_ = grep { not exists $parts->{$_} } @VALID) {
say "Specify parts: ", join(',', @_);
exit;
}
my $KEY = q/7C4E0304550509072D2C7B38170D1711/;
my $SCRAMBLE = qq/openssl rc4 -K $KEY/;
my $SCRAMBLE_PARTS = qq/split -b 512 --filter='$SCRAMBLE'/;
my $to_write = [];
my $fn = $ARGV[0];
open FILE, '>', $parts->{out};
binmode(FILE);
my $header_len = 102;
my $recsize = 0x39;
print FILE
pack(
'@0A4' . # magic
'@4S' . # length
'@6L' . # version
'@10L' . # var2
'@14S' . # year
'@16C5' . # date
'@21L' . # var1
'CLC'x3, # num off size
'BOOT', $header_len, 0x0118, 0x1030000,
2012, 10, 19, 12, 2, 25,
#2012, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0,
0x60,
1, $header_len, $recsize,
1, $header_len+$recsize, $recsize,
2, $header_len+$recsize*2, $recsize
);
fill($header_len);
my $file_offset = 0x14a;
addPart(1, 'full', $parts->{dram});
addPart(2, 'full', $parts->{usbplug});
addPart(4, 'part', $parts->{data});
addPart(4, 'part', $parts->{boot});
fill(0x14a);
sub fill {
my $fill = $_[0] - tell FILE;
print FILE "\x0" x $fill if $fill > 0;
}
sub get_fn {
my $fn = shift;
$fn =~ s/\..+$//;
(join "\x00", split '', $fn),
}
sub addPart {
my ($no, $scramble, $fn) = @_;
my $fsize = -s $fn;
printf "%3d %5x %5x %s\n", $no, $file_offset, $fsize, $fn;
print FILE pack(
'@0C' . # len
'@1L' . # num
'@5a40' . # name
'@45LLL', # offset size unknown
$recsize, $no, get_fn($fn), $file_offset, $fsize, 0
);
$file_offset += $fsize;
push @$to_write, [ $fn, $scramble ];
}
close FILE;
for (@$to_write) {
my $cmd = qq/cat '$_->[0]' | /
. ($_->[1] eq 'part' ? $SCRAMBLE_PARTS : $SCRAMBLE)
. qq/ >> $parts->{out}/;
say $cmd;
system $cmd;
}
for ( qq[./rkcrc $parts->{out} $parts->{out}.crc],
qq[mv $parts->{out}.crc $parts->{out}] ) { say $_; system $_; }
#!/bin/bash
OFFSET=$((0xA0))
INJECT=$((0x224))
JUMP1=$(( (0x2B0 - (OFFSET + 3*4) - 8) / 4 ))
JUMP1=$(printf "0xEB00%04X" $JUMP1)
cat <<END_PATCH | arm-linux-gnueabi-as -mcpu=cortex-a9 -march=armv7-a -o _patch
MOV R0, #0
MOV R1, #0x64000000
ADD R2, R1, #0x2800
.word $JUMP1
LDR R0, =0x10080000
LDR PC, =0x60000228
END_PATCH
arm-linux-gnueabi-objcopy -O binary _patch _patch.bin
FN=$1
SIZE=$(stat -c %s $FN)
PATCHSIZE=$(stat -c %s _patch.bin)
PATCHED=$FN".patched"
JUMP=$(( 0xFFFFFF - (INJECT - OFFSET + 8) / 4 + 1))
JUMP=$(printf "%06X" $JUMP | sed 's/\(..\)\(..\)\(..\)/\3\2\1/')
dd if=$FN ibs=1 count=$OFFSET of=$PATCHED 2>&-
cat _patch.bin >> $PATCHED
dd if=$FN ibs=1 skip=$(( OFFSET+PATCHSIZE )) count=$(( INJECT - (OFFSET+PATCHSIZE) )) of=$PATCHED oflag=append conv=notrunc 2>&-
echo $JUMP | xxd -r -p >> $PATCHED
echo "EA" | xxd -r -p >> $PATCHED
dd if=$FN ibs=1 skip=$((INJECT+4)) of=$PATCHED oflag=append conv=notrunc 2>&-
rm _patch _patch.bin
/* rkflashtool - for RK2808, RK2818 and RK2918 based tablets
*
* Copyright (C) 2011 Ivo van Poorten (complete rewrite for libusb)
* Copyright (C) 2010 FUKAUMI Naoki (reverse engineering of protocol)
*
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
* are met:
* 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
* documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
*
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
* IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
* OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.
* IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
* INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT
* NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
* DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
* THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
* (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF
* THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
*
* Build with:
*
* gcc -o rkflashtool rkflashtool.c -lusb-1.0 -O2 -W -Wall -s
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <libusb-1.0/libusb.h>
#define RKFLASHTOOL_VERSION 2
#define RKFT_BLOCKSIZE 0x4000 /* must be multiple of 512 */
#define RKFT_IDB_BLOCKSIZE 0x210
#define RKFT_IDB_INCR 0x20
#define RKFT_MEM_INCR 0x80
#define RKFT_OFF_INCR (RKFT_BLOCKSIZE>>9)
#define RKFT_CID 4
#define RKFT_FLAG 12
#define RKFT_COMMAND 13
#define RKFT_OFFSET 17
#define RKFT_SIZE 23
#define SETBE32(a, v) ((uint8_t*)a)[3] = v & 0xff; \
((uint8_t*)a)[2] = (v>>8 ) & 0xff; \
((uint8_t*)a)[1] = (v>>16) & 0xff; \
((uint8_t*)a)[0] = (v>>24) & 0xff
static uint8_t cmd[31] = { 'U', 'S', 'B', 'C', };
static uint8_t res[13];
static uint8_t buf[RKFT_BLOCKSIZE], cid;
static int tmp;
static const char *const strings[2] = { "info", "fatal" };
static void info_and_fatal(const int s, char *f, ...) {
va_list ap;
va_start(ap,f);
fprintf(stderr, "rkflashtool: %s: ", strings[s]);
vfprintf(stderr, f, ap);
va_end(ap);
if (s) exit(s);
}
#define info(...) info_and_fatal(0, __VA_ARGS__)
#define fatal(...) info_and_fatal(1, __VA_ARGS__)
static void usage(void) {
fatal("usage:\n"
"\trkflashtool b \treboot device\n"
"\trkflashtool m offset size >file \tread 0x80 bytes DRAM\n"
"\trkflashtool i offset blocks >file \tread IDB flash\n"
"\trkflashtool r offset size >file \tread flash\n"
"\trkflashtool w offset size <file \twrite flash\n\n"
"\toffset and size are in units of 512 bytes\n");
}
static void send_cmd(libusb_device_handle *h, int e, uint8_t flag,
uint32_t command, uint32_t offset, uint8_t size) {
cmd[RKFT_CID ] = cid++;
cmd[RKFT_FLAG] = flag;
cmd[RKFT_SIZE] = size;
SETBE32(&cmd[RKFT_COMMAND], command);
SETBE32(&cmd[RKFT_OFFSET ], offset );
libusb_bulk_transfer(h, e|LIBUSB_ENDPOINT_OUT, cmd, sizeof(cmd), &tmp, 0);
}
#define send_buf(h,e,s) libusb_bulk_transfer(h, e|LIBUSB_ENDPOINT_OUT, \
buf, s, &tmp, 0)
#define recv_res(h,e) libusb_bulk_transfer(h, e|LIBUSB_ENDPOINT_IN, \
res, sizeof(res), &tmp, 0)
#define recv_buf(h,e,s) libusb_bulk_transfer(h, e|LIBUSB_ENDPOINT_IN, \
buf, s, &tmp, 0)
#define NEXT do { argc--;argv++; }while(0)
int main(int argc, char **argv) {
libusb_context *c;
libusb_device_handle *h;
int offset = 0, size = 0;
char action;
NEXT; if (!argc) usage();
action = **argv; NEXT;
switch(action) {
case 'b': if (argc ) usage(); break;
case 'm': case 'i': case 'r': case 'w': if (argc!=2) usage();
offset = strtoul(argv[0], NULL, 0);
size = strtoul(argv[1], NULL, 0);
break;
default:
usage();
}
if (libusb_init(&c)) fatal("cannot init libusb\n");
libusb_set_debug(c, 3);
if (!(h = libusb_open_device_with_vid_pid(c, 0x2207, 0x300a)))
if (!(h = libusb_open_device_with_vid_pid(c, 0x2207, 0x281a)))
fatal("cannot open device\n");
if (libusb_kernel_driver_active(h, 0) == 1) {
info("kernel driver active\n");
if (!libusb_detach_kernel_driver(h, 0))
info("driver detached\n");
}
if (libusb_claim_interface(h, 0)<0) fatal("cannot claim interface\n");
info("interface claimed\n");
send_cmd(h, 2, 0x80, 0x00060000, 0x00000000, 0x00); // INIT
recv_res(h, 1);
usleep(20*1000);
switch(action) {
case 'b':
info("rebooting device...\n");
send_cmd(h, 2, 0x00, 0x0006ff00, 0x00000000, 0x00);
recv_res(h, 1);
break;
case 'm':
while (size > 0) {
int sizeRead = size > RKFT_MEM_INCR ? RKFT_MEM_INCR : size;
info("reading memory at offset 0x%08x size %x\n", offset, sizeRead);
send_cmd(h, 2, 0x80, 0x000a1700, offset-0x60000000, sizeRead);
recv_buf(h, 1, sizeRead);
recv_res(h, 1);
write(1, buf, sizeRead);
offset += sizeRead;
size -= sizeRead;
}
break;
case 'i':
while (size > 0) {
int sizeRead = size > RKFT_IDB_INCR ? RKFT_IDB_INCR : size;
info("reading IDB flash memory at offset 0x%08x\n", offset);
send_cmd(h, 2, 0x80, 0x000a0400, offset, sizeRead);
recv_buf(h, 1, RKFT_IDB_BLOCKSIZE * sizeRead);
recv_res(h, 1);
write(1, buf, RKFT_IDB_BLOCKSIZE * sizeRead);
offset += sizeRead;
size -= sizeRead;
}
break;
case 'r':
while (size>0) {
info("reading flash memory at offset 0x%08x\n", offset);
send_cmd(h, 2, 0x80, 0x000a1400, offset, RKFT_OFF_INCR);
recv_buf(h, 1, RKFT_BLOCKSIZE);
recv_res(h, 1);
write(1, buf, RKFT_BLOCKSIZE);
offset += RKFT_OFF_INCR;
size -= RKFT_OFF_INCR;
}
break;
case 'w':
while (size>0) {
info("writing flash memory at offset 0x%08x\n", offset);
memset(buf, 0, RKFT_BLOCKSIZE);
read(0, buf, RKFT_BLOCKSIZE);
send_cmd(h, 2, 0x80, 0x000a1500, offset, RKFT_OFF_INCR);
send_buf(h, 2, RKFT_BLOCKSIZE);
recv_res(h, 1);
offset += RKFT_OFF_INCR;
size -= RKFT_OFF_INCR;
}
break;
default:
break;
}
libusb_release_interface(h, 0);
libusb_close(h);
libusb_exit(c);
return 0;
}
use strict;
use 5.010;
if ($#ARGV == -1) {
say "unpack_loader.pl FILENAME [write]";
exit;
}
my $KEY = q/7C4E0304550509072D2C7B38170D1711/;
my $SCRAMBLE = qq/openssl rc4 -K $KEY/;
my $SCRAMBLE_PARTS = qq/split -b 512 --filter='$SCRAMBLE'/;
my $to_write = [];
my $fn = $ARGV[0];
my $WRITE = $ARGV[1];
open FILE, $fn;
binmode(FILE);
$/ = \0x64;
my ($magic, $len,
$vers, $var2, $year, $mon, $day, $h, $m, $s, $var1,
$c1, $o1, $s1,
$c2, $o2, $s2,
$c3, $o3, $s3) = unpack(
'@0L' . # magic
'@4S' . # length
'@6L' . # version
'@10L' . # var2
'@14S' . # year
'@16C5' . # date
'@21L' . # var1
'CLC'x3 # parts off size
, <FILE>);
printf "Version: %x.%02x\n", $vers >> 8, $vers & 0xFF;
say '=' x 15;
printf "Date: %02d/%02d/%4d %02d:%02d:%02d\n", $day, $mon, $year, $h, $m, $s;;
say '=' x 15;
printf "%3s %5s %5s %s\n", qw/no off size name/;
sub getAllParts { my ($c, $o, $s) = @_; map { getPart($o + $_*$s) } (0..$c-1) }
getAllParts($c1, $o1, $s1);
getAllParts($c2, $o2, $s2);
getAllParts($c3, $o3, $s3);
sub getPart {
my $s = shift;
$/ = \0x39;
seek(FILE, $s, 0);
my ($len, $no, $name, $offset, $size) = unpack
'@0C' . # len
'@1L' . # num
'@5a40' . # name
'@45LLL', <FILE>; # offset size unknown
$name =~ s/\x00//g;
printf "%3d %5x %5x %s\n", $no, $offset, $size, $name;
push @$to_write, [ $name, $offset, $size ];
}
close FILE;
say '=' x 15;
say;
say 'Script for unpacking';
say '=' x 15;
for my $w (@$to_write) {
my $str = qq/dd if='$fn' skip=$w->[1] count=$w->[2] bs=1 |\\\n /;
$str .= $w->[0] =~ /Flash/ ? $SCRAMBLE_PARTS : $SCRAMBLE;
$str .= " > $w->[0].bin";
say $str;
qx{$str} if ($WRITE);
}
@alivefromsomewhere

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alivefromsomewhere commented Jun 7, 2018

Hi, I'm trying to unlock Bootloader of a rk3066 device, and got here, can't understand what to do, can you please put it into steps, for instance I don't know how to write a script and never have dealt with such thing directly. Thank you.

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