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Mac App Store Receipt Validation Sample (Mac OS X 10.7)
//
// RVNReceiptValidation.m
//
// Created by Satoshi Numata on 12/06/30.
// Copyright (c) 2012 Sazameki and Satoshi Numata, Ph.D. All rights reserved.
//
// This sample shows how to write the Mac App Store receipt validation code.
// Replace kRVNBundleID and kRVNBundleVersion with your own ones.
//
// This sample is provided because the coding sample found in "Validating Mac App Store Receipts"
// is somehow out-of-date today and some functions are deprecated in Mac OS X 10.7.
// (cf. Validating Mac App Store Receipts: )
//
// You must want to make it much more robustness with some techniques, such as obfuscation
// with your "own" way. If you use and share the same codes with your friends, attackers
// will be able to make a special tool to patch application binaries so easily.
// Again, this sample gives you the very basic idea that which APIs can be used for the validation.
//
// Don't forget to add IOKit.framework and Security.framework to your project.
// The main() function should be replaced with the (commented out) main() code at the bottom of this sample.
// This sample assume that you are using Automatic Reference Counting for memory management.
//
// Have a nice Cocoa flavor, guys!!
//
#import "RVNReceiptValidation.h"
// RVNReceiptValidation.h contains only one function declaration:
// int RVNValidateAndRunApplication(int argc, char *argv[]);
#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>
#import <CommonCrypto/CommonDigest.h>
#import <Security/CMSDecoder.h>
#import <Security/SecAsn1Coder.h>
#import <Security/SecAsn1Templates.h>
#import <Security/SecRequirement.h>
#import <IOKit/IOKitLib.h>
static NSString *kRVNBundleID = @"jp.sazameki.MyGreatApp";
static NSString *kRVNBundleVersion = @"1.0";
typedef struct {
size_t length;
unsigned char *data;
} ASN1_Data;
typedef struct {
ASN1_Data type; // INTEGER
ASN1_Data version; // INTEGER
ASN1_Data value; // OCTET STRING
} RVNReceiptAttribute;
typedef struct {
RVNReceiptAttribute **attrs;
} RVNReceiptPayload;
// ASN.1 receipt attribute template
static const SecAsn1Template kReceiptAttributeTemplate[] = {
{ SEC_ASN1_SEQUENCE, 0, NULL, sizeof(RVNReceiptAttribute) },
{ SEC_ASN1_INTEGER, offsetof(RVNReceiptAttribute, type), NULL, 0 },
{ SEC_ASN1_INTEGER, offsetof(RVNReceiptAttribute, version), NULL, 0 },
{ SEC_ASN1_OCTET_STRING, offsetof(RVNReceiptAttribute, value), NULL, 0 },
{ 0, 0, NULL, 0 }
};
// ASN.1 receipt template set
static const SecAsn1Template kSetOfReceiptAttributeTemplate[] = {
{ SEC_ASN1_SET_OF, 0, kReceiptAttributeTemplate, sizeof(RVNReceiptPayload) },
{ 0, 0, NULL, 0 }
};
enum {
kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeBundleID = 2,
kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeApplicationVersion = 3,
kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeOpaqueValue = 4,
kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeSHA1Hash = 5,
kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppPurchaseReceipt = 17,
kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppQuantity = 1701,
kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppProductID = 1702,
kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppTransactionID = 1703,
kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppPurchaseDate = 1704,
kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppOriginalTransactionID = 1705,
kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppOriginalPurchaseDate = 1706,
};
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyBundleID = @"Bundle ID";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyBundleIDData = @"Bundle ID Data";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyApplicationVersion = @"Application Version";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyApplicationVersionData = @"Application Version Data";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyOpaqueValue = @"Opaque Value";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeySHA1Hash = @"SHA-1 Hash";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppPurchaseReceipt = @"In App Purchase Receipt";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppProductID = @"In App Product ID";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppTransactionID = @"In App Transaction ID";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppOriginalTransactionID = @"In App Original Transaction ID";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppPurchaseDate = @"In App Purchase Date";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppOriginalPurchaseDate = @"In App Original Purchase Date";
static NSString *kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppQuantity = @"In App Quantity";
inline static void RVNCheckBundleIDAndVersion(void)
{
NSDictionary *bundleInfo = [[NSBundle mainBundle] infoDictionary];
NSString *bundleID = [bundleInfo valueForKey:@"CFBundleIdentifier"];
if (![bundleID isEqualToString:kRVNBundleID]) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to check bundle ID.", nil];
}
NSString *bundleVersion = [bundleInfo valueForKey:@"CFBundleShortVersionString"];
if (![bundleVersion isEqualToString:kRVNBundleVersion]) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to check bundle Version.", nil];
}
}
inline static void RVNCheckBundleSignature(void)
{
NSURL *bundleURL = [[NSBundle mainBundle] bundleURL];
SecStaticCodeRef staticCode = NULL;
OSStatus status = SecStaticCodeCreateWithPath((__bridge CFURLRef)bundleURL, kSecCSDefaultFlags, &staticCode);
if (status != errSecSuccess) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to validate bundle signature: Create a static code", nil];
}
NSString *requirementText = @"anchor apple generic"; // For code signed by Apple
SecRequirementRef requirement = NULL;
status = SecRequirementCreateWithString((__bridge CFStringRef)requirementText, kSecCSDefaultFlags, &requirement);
if (status != errSecSuccess) {
if (staticCode) CFRelease(staticCode);
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to validate bundle signature: Create a requirement", nil];
}
status = SecStaticCodeCheckValidity(staticCode, kSecCSDefaultFlags, requirement);
if (status != errSecSuccess) {
if (staticCode) CFRelease(staticCode);
if (requirement) CFRelease(requirement);
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to validate bundle signature: Check the static code validity", nil];
}
if (staticCode) CFRelease(staticCode);
if (requirement) CFRelease(requirement);
}
inline static NSData *RVNGetReceiptData(void)
{
NSURL *receiptURL = [[NSBundle mainBundle] appStoreReceiptURL];
NSData *receiptData = [NSData dataWithContentsOfURL:receiptURL];
if (!receiptData) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to fetch the MacAppStore receipt.", nil];
}
return receiptData;
}
inline static NSData *RVNDecodeReceiptData(NSData *receiptData)
{
CMSDecoderRef decoder = NULL;
SecPolicyRef policyRef = NULL;
SecTrustRef trustRef = NULL;
@try {
// Create a decoder
OSStatus status = CMSDecoderCreate(&decoder);
if (status) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to decode receipt data: Create a decoder", nil];
}
// Decrypt the message (1)
status = CMSDecoderUpdateMessage(decoder, receiptData.bytes, receiptData.length);
if (status) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to decode receipt data: Update message", nil];
}
// Decrypt the message (2)
status = CMSDecoderFinalizeMessage(decoder);
if (status) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to decode receipt data: Finalize message", nil];
}
// Get the decrypted content
NSData *ret = nil;
CFDataRef dataRef = NULL;
status = CMSDecoderCopyContent(decoder, &dataRef);
if (status) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to decode receipt data: Get decrypted content", nil];
}
ret = [NSData dataWithData:(__bridge NSData *)dataRef];
CFRelease(dataRef);
// Check the signature
size_t numSigners;
status = CMSDecoderGetNumSigners(decoder, &numSigners);
if (status) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to check receipt signature: Get singer count", nil];
}
if (numSigners == 0) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to check receipt signature: No signer found", nil];
}
policyRef = SecPolicyCreateBasicX509();
CMSSignerStatus signerStatus;
OSStatus certVerifyResult;
status = CMSDecoderCopySignerStatus(decoder, 0, policyRef, TRUE, &signerStatus, &trustRef, &certVerifyResult);
if (status) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to check receipt signature: Get signer status", nil];
}
if (signerStatus != kCMSSignerValid) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to check receipt signature: No valid signer", nil];
}
return ret;
} @catch (NSException *e) {
@throw e;
} @finally {
if (policyRef) CFRelease(policyRef);
if (trustRef) CFRelease(trustRef);
if (decoder) CFRelease(decoder);
}
}
inline static NSData *RVNGetASN1RawData(ASN1_Data asn1Data)
{
return [NSData dataWithBytes:asn1Data.data length:asn1Data.length];
}
inline static int RVNGetIntValueFromASN1Data(const ASN1_Data *asn1Data)
{
int ret = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < asn1Data->length; i++) {
ret = (ret << 8) | asn1Data->data[i];
}
return ret;
}
inline static NSNumber *RVNDecodeIntNumberFromASN1Data(SecAsn1CoderRef decoder, ASN1_Data srcData)
{
ASN1_Data asn1Data;
OSStatus status = SecAsn1Decode(decoder, srcData.data, srcData.length, kSecAsn1IntegerTemplate, &asn1Data);
if (status) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to get receipt information: Decode integer value", nil];
}
return [NSNumber numberWithInt:RVNGetIntValueFromASN1Data(&asn1Data)];
}
inline static NSString *RVNDecodeUTF8StringFromASN1Data(SecAsn1CoderRef decoder, ASN1_Data srcData)
{
ASN1_Data asn1Data;
OSStatus status = SecAsn1Decode(decoder, srcData.data, srcData.length, kSecAsn1UTF8StringTemplate, &asn1Data);
if (status) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to get receipt information: Decode UTF-8 string", nil];
}
return [[NSString alloc] initWithBytes:asn1Data.data length:asn1Data.length encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];
}
inline static NSDate *RVNDecodeDateFromASN1Data(SecAsn1CoderRef decoder, ASN1_Data srcData)
{
NSDateFormatter *dateFormatter = [[NSDateFormatter alloc] init];
[dateFormatter setDateFormat:@"yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mm:ssZ"];
ASN1_Data asn1Data;
OSStatus status = SecAsn1Decode(decoder, srcData.data, srcData.length, kSecAsn1IA5StringTemplate, &asn1Data);
if (status) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to get receipt information: Decode date (IA5 string)", nil];
}
NSString *dateStr = [[NSString alloc] initWithBytes:asn1Data.data length:asn1Data.length encoding:NSASCIIStringEncoding];
return [dateFormatter dateFromString:dateStr];
}
inline static NSDictionary *RVNGetReceiptPayload(NSData *payloadData)
{
SecAsn1CoderRef asn1Decoder = NULL;
@try {
NSMutableDictionary *ret = [NSMutableDictionary dictionary];
// Create the ASN.1 parser
OSStatus status = SecAsn1CoderCreate(&asn1Decoder);
if (status) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to get receipt information: Create ASN.1 decoder", nil];
}
// Decode the receipt payload
RVNReceiptPayload payload = { NULL };
status = SecAsn1Decode(asn1Decoder, payloadData.bytes, payloadData.length, kSetOfReceiptAttributeTemplate, &payload);
if (status) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to get receipt information: Decode payload", nil];
}
// Fetch all attributes
RVNReceiptAttribute *anAttr;
for (int i = 0; (anAttr = payload.attrs[i]); i++) {
int type = RVNGetIntValueFromASN1Data(&anAttr->type);
switch (type) {
// UTF-8 String
case kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeBundleID:
[ret setValue:RVNDecodeUTF8StringFromASN1Data(asn1Decoder, anAttr->value) forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyBundleID];
[ret setValue:RVNGetASN1RawData(anAttr->value) forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyBundleIDData];
break;
case kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeApplicationVersion:
[ret setValue:RVNDecodeUTF8StringFromASN1Data(asn1Decoder, anAttr->value) forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyApplicationVersion];
[ret setValue:RVNGetASN1RawData(anAttr->value) forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyApplicationVersionData];
break;
case kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppProductID:
[ret setValue:RVNDecodeUTF8StringFromASN1Data(asn1Decoder, anAttr->value) forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppProductID];
break;
case kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppTransactionID:
[ret setValue:RVNDecodeUTF8StringFromASN1Data(asn1Decoder, anAttr->value) forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppTransactionID];
break;
case kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppOriginalTransactionID:
[ret setValue:RVNDecodeUTF8StringFromASN1Data(asn1Decoder, anAttr->value) forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppOriginalTransactionID];
break;
// Purchase Date (As IA5 String (almost identical to the ASCII String))
case kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppPurchaseDate:
[ret setValue:RVNDecodeDateFromASN1Data(asn1Decoder, anAttr->value) forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppPurchaseDate];
break;
case kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppOriginalPurchaseDate:
[ret setValue:RVNDecodeDateFromASN1Data(asn1Decoder, anAttr->value) forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppOriginalPurchaseDate];
break;
// Quantity (Integer Value)
case kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppQuantity:
[ret setValue:RVNDecodeIntNumberFromASN1Data(asn1Decoder, anAttr->value)
forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppQuantity];
break;
// Opaque Value (Octet Data)
case kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeOpaqueValue:
[ret setValue:RVNGetASN1RawData(anAttr->value) forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyOpaqueValue];
break;
// SHA-1 Hash (Octet Data)
case kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeSHA1Hash:
[ret setValue:RVNGetASN1RawData(anAttr->value) forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeySHA1Hash];
break;
// In App Purchases Receipt
case kRVNReceiptAttributeTypeInAppPurchaseReceipt: {
NSMutableArray *inAppPurchases = [ret valueForKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppPurchaseReceipt];
if (!inAppPurchases) {
inAppPurchases = [NSMutableArray array];
[ret setValue:inAppPurchases forKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyInAppPurchaseReceipt];
}
NSData *inAppData = [NSData dataWithBytes:anAttr->value.data length:anAttr->value.length];
NSDictionary *inAppInfo = RVNGetReceiptPayload(inAppData);
[inAppPurchases addObject:inAppInfo];
break;
}
// Otherwise
default:
break;
}
}
return ret;
} @catch (NSException *e) {
@throw e;
} @finally {
if (asn1Decoder) SecAsn1CoderRelease(asn1Decoder);
}
}
inline static NSData *RVLGetMacAddress(void)
{
mach_port_t masterPort;
kern_return_t result = IOMasterPort(MACH_PORT_NULL, &masterPort);
if (result != KERN_SUCCESS) {
return nil;
}
CFMutableDictionaryRef matchingDict = IOBSDNameMatching(masterPort, 0, "en0");
if (!matchingDict) {
return nil;
}
io_iterator_t iterator;
result = IOServiceGetMatchingServices(masterPort, matchingDict, &iterator);
if (result != KERN_SUCCESS) {
return nil;
}
CFDataRef macAddressDataRef = nil;
io_object_t aService;
while ((aService = IOIteratorNext(iterator)) != 0) {
io_object_t parentService;
result = IORegistryEntryGetParentEntry(aService, kIOServicePlane, &parentService);
if (result == KERN_SUCCESS) {
if (macAddressDataRef) CFRelease(macAddressDataRef);
macAddressDataRef = (CFDataRef)IORegistryEntryCreateCFProperty(parentService, (CFStringRef)@"IOMACAddress", kCFAllocatorDefault, 0);
IOObjectRelease(parentService);
}
IOObjectRelease(aService);
}
IOObjectRelease(iterator);
NSData *ret = nil;
if (macAddressDataRef) {
ret = [NSData dataWithData:(__bridge NSData *)macAddressDataRef];
CFRelease(macAddressDataRef);
}
return ret;
}
inline static void RVNCheckReceiptIDAndVersion(NSDictionary *receiptInfo)
{
NSString *bundleID = [receiptInfo valueForKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyBundleID];
if (![bundleID isEqualToString:kRVNBundleID]) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to check receipt ID.", nil];
}
NSString *bundleVersion = [receiptInfo objectForKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyApplicationVersion];
if (![bundleVersion isEqualToString:kRVNBundleVersion]) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to check receipt version.", nil];
}
}
inline static void RVNCheckReceiptHash(NSDictionary *receiptInfo)
{
NSData *macAddressData = RVLGetMacAddress();
if (!macAddressData) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to get the primary MAC Address for checking receipt hash.", nil];
}
NSData *data1 = [receiptInfo valueForKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyOpaqueValue];
NSData *data2 = [receiptInfo valueForKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeyBundleIDData];
NSMutableData *digestData = [NSMutableData dataWithData:macAddressData];
[digestData appendData:data1];
[digestData appendData:data2];
unsigned char digestBuffer[CC_SHA1_DIGEST_LENGTH];
CC_SHA1(digestData.bytes, (CC_LONG)digestData.length, digestBuffer);
NSData *hashData = [receiptInfo valueForKey:kRVNReceiptInfoKeySHA1Hash];
if (memcmp(digestBuffer, hashData.bytes, CC_SHA1_DIGEST_LENGTH) != 0) {
[NSException raise:@"MacAppStore Receipt Validation Error" format:@"Failed to check receipt hash.", nil];
}
}
int RVNValidateAndRunApplication(int argc, char *argv[])
{
@try {
///// Check the bundle information
RVNCheckBundleIDAndVersion();
RVNCheckBundleSignature();
///// Check the receipt information
NSData *receiptData = RVNGetReceiptData();
NSData *receiptDataDecoded = RVNDecodeReceiptData(receiptData);
NSDictionary *receiptInfo = RVNGetReceiptPayload(receiptDataDecoded);
#if DEBUG
NSLog(@"receiptInfo=%@", receiptInfo);
#endif
RVNCheckReceiptIDAndVersion(receiptInfo);
RVNCheckReceiptHash(receiptInfo);
return NSApplicationMain(argc, (const char **)argv);
} @catch (NSException *e) {
NSLog(@"%@", e.reason);
exit(173);
}
}
//int main(int argc, char *argv[])
//{
// @autoreleasepool {
// return RVNValidateAndRunApplication(argc, argv);
// }
//}
@lunarbase

Fantastic. Thanks. Do you plan to create something similar to iOS?

@agilemicro

I am trying to use this code with a Cocoa app targeting OSX 10.8. My app terminates before the RVNValidateAndRunApplication function is called. I am unable to see any NSLog entires, nor can I catch the termination in Xcode debugger. Do I need to do something different in 10.8 ? Thanks!1

@patr1ck

Hi! Thanks for sharing this code.

Question: Regardless of how you were to use this code in your "own" way, isn't it still a bad idea to rely on cryptographic checks from a dynamic library like CommonCrypto? While it's certainly simpler than having to build and link a static OpenSSL in your project, don't you run the risk of having CommonCrypto patched by a hacked system?

It's easy to see how a malicious user (or jailbreaker, if you prefer) could modify CMSDecoderCopySignerStatus() to always set signerStatus to kCMSSignerValid and render the above code (or any variation of it, across multiple apps) ineffectual.

I'm not a cryptography expert, so maybe I'm missing something here. I'd love to know what you think. Thanks!

@raymo960

This is great code and a great help to this very confusing topic. However, I am not sure I understand the point of RVNCheckReceiptIDAndVersion where it checks the hard coded value for the bundle ID and version against what is in the plist file. This seems erroneous and would require the hard coded version to be updated every time the version is updated (in the plist). Instead, why not just get the bundle id and version out of the plist and compare with the receipt. I have made this change in my version of these sources but curious to know if I am missing something.
Again, thanks for the great code.

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