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defrecord is one of my favorite examples of the usefulness of macros in Clojure. This particular use demonstrates adding some mild syntax and generating a lot of boiler plate. Let's see what all it does.
4837 ◯ lein new macrofun
Generating a project called macrofun based on the 'default' template.
To see other templates (app, lein plugin, etc), try `lein help new`.
hobiecat ओम् /tmp:
4838 ◯ cd macrofun
hobiecat ओम् /tmp/macrofun:
4839 ◯ lein repl
nREPL server started on port 48544
REPL-y 0.1.0-beta10
Clojure 1.4.0
Exit: Control+D or (exit) or (quit)
Commands: (user/help)
Docs: (doc function-name-here)
(find-doc "part-of-name-here")
Source: (source function-name-here)
(user/sourcery function-name-here)
Javadoc: (javadoc java-object-or-class-here)
Examples from clojuredocs.org: [clojuredocs or cdoc]
(user/clojuredocs name-here)
(user/clojuredocs "ns-here" "name-here")
user=> (pprint (macroexpand-1 '(defrecord Person [name email address phone])))
(clojure.core/let
[]
(clojure.core/declare ->Person)
(clojure.core/declare map->Person)
(deftype*
Person
user.Person
[name email address phone __meta __extmap]
:implements
[clojure.lang.IRecord
clojure.lang.IObj
clojure.lang.ILookup
clojure.lang.IKeywordLookup
clojure.lang.IPersistentMap
java.util.Map
java.io.Serializable]
(clojure.core/entrySet
[this__5608__auto__]
(clojure.core/set this__5608__auto__))
(clojure.core/values
[this__5607__auto__]
(clojure.core/vals this__5607__auto__))
(clojure.core/keySet
[this__5606__auto__]
(clojure.core/set (clojure.core/keys this__5606__auto__)))
(clojure.core/clear
[this__5605__auto__]
(throw (java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException.)))
(clojure.core/putAll
[this__5603__auto__ m__5604__auto__]
(throw (java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException.)))
(clojure.core/remove
[this__5601__auto__ k__5602__auto__]
(throw (java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException.)))
(clojure.core/put
[this__5598__auto__ k__5599__auto__ v__5600__auto__]
(throw (java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException.)))
(clojure.core/get
[this__5596__auto__ k__5597__auto__]
(.valAt this__5596__auto__ k__5597__auto__))
(clojure.core/containsValue
[this__5594__auto__ v__5595__auto__]
(clojure.core/boolean
(clojure.core/some
#{v__5595__auto__}
(clojure.core/vals this__5594__auto__))))
(clojure.core/isEmpty
[this__5593__auto__]
(clojure.core/= 0 (.count this__5593__auto__)))
(clojure.core/size [this__5592__auto__] (.count this__5592__auto__))
(clojure.core/without
[this__5590__auto__ k__5591__auto__]
(if
(clojure.core/contains?
#{:name :phone :email :address}
k__5591__auto__)
(clojure.core/dissoc
(clojure.core/with-meta
(clojure.core/into {} this__5590__auto__)
__meta)
k__5591__auto__)
(new
Person
name
email
address
phone
__meta
(clojure.core/not-empty
(clojure.core/dissoc __extmap k__5591__auto__)))))
(clojure.core/assoc
[this__5588__auto__ k__5589__auto__ G__948]
(clojure.core/condp
clojure.core/identical?
k__5589__auto__
:name
(new Person G__948 email address phone __meta __extmap)
:email
(new Person name G__948 address phone __meta __extmap)
:address
(new Person name email G__948 phone __meta __extmap)
:phone
(new Person name email address G__948 __meta __extmap)
(new
Person
name
email
address
phone
__meta
(clojure.core/assoc __extmap k__5589__auto__ G__948))))
(clojure.core/iterator
[this__5587__auto__]
(clojure.lang.SeqIterator. (.seq this__5587__auto__)))
(clojure.core/seq
[this__5586__auto__]
(clojure.core/seq
(clojure.core/concat
[(new clojure.lang.MapEntry :name name)
(new clojure.lang.MapEntry :email email)
(new clojure.lang.MapEntry :address address)
(new clojure.lang.MapEntry :phone phone)]
__extmap)))
(clojure.core/entryAt
[this__5582__auto__ k__5583__auto__]
(clojure.core/let
[v__5584__auto__
(.valAt this__5582__auto__ k__5583__auto__ this__5582__auto__)]
(clojure.core/when-not
(clojure.core/identical? this__5582__auto__ v__5584__auto__)
(clojure.lang.MapEntry. k__5583__auto__ v__5584__auto__))))
(clojure.core/containsKey
[this__5580__auto__ k__5581__auto__]
(clojure.core/not
(clojure.core/identical?
this__5580__auto__
(.valAt this__5580__auto__ k__5581__auto__ this__5580__auto__))))
(clojure.core/equiv
[this__5579__auto__ G__948]
(clojure.core/boolean
(clojure.core/or
(clojure.core/identical? this__5579__auto__ G__948)
(clojure.core/when
(clojure.core/identical?
(clojure.core/class this__5579__auto__)
(clojure.core/class G__948))
(clojure.core/let
[G__948 G__948]
(clojure.core/and
(clojure.core/= name (. G__948 -name))
(clojure.core/= email (. G__948 -email))
(clojure.core/= address (. G__948 -address))
(clojure.core/= phone (. G__948 -phone))
(clojure.core/= __extmap (. G__948 __extmap))))))))
(clojure.core/cons
[this__5577__auto__ e__5578__auto__]
(#'clojure.core/imap-cons this__5577__auto__ e__5578__auto__))
(clojure.core/empty
[this__5576__auto__]
(throw
(java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException.
(clojure.core/str "Can't create empty: " "user.Person"))))
(clojure.core/count
[this__5575__auto__]
(clojure.core/+ 4 (clojure.core/count __extmap)))
(clojure.core/getLookupThunk
[this__5573__auto__ k__5574__auto__]
(clojure.core/let
[gclass (clojure.core/class this__5573__auto__)]
(clojure.core/case
k__5574__auto__
:name
(clojure.core/reify
clojure.lang.ILookupThunk
(clojure.core/get
[thunk gtarget]
(if
(clojure.core/identical? (clojure.core/class gtarget) gclass)
(. gtarget -name)
thunk)))
:email
(clojure.core/reify
clojure.lang.ILookupThunk
(clojure.core/get
[thunk gtarget]
(if
(clojure.core/identical? (clojure.core/class gtarget) gclass)
(. gtarget -email)
thunk)))
:address
(clojure.core/reify
clojure.lang.ILookupThunk
(clojure.core/get
[thunk gtarget]
(if
(clojure.core/identical? (clojure.core/class gtarget) gclass)
(. gtarget -address)
thunk)))
:phone
(clojure.core/reify
clojure.lang.ILookupThunk
(clojure.core/get
[thunk gtarget]
(if
(clojure.core/identical? (clojure.core/class gtarget) gclass)
(. gtarget -phone)
thunk)))
nil)))
(clojure.core/valAt
[this__5570__auto__ k__5571__auto__ else__5572__auto__]
(clojure.core/case
k__5571__auto__
:name
name
:email
email
:address
address
:phone
phone
(clojure.core/get __extmap k__5571__auto__ else__5572__auto__)))
(clojure.core/valAt
[this__5568__auto__ k__5569__auto__]
(.valAt this__5568__auto__ k__5569__auto__ nil))
(clojure.core/withMeta
[this__5567__auto__ G__948]
(new Person name email address phone G__948 __extmap))
(clojure.core/meta [this__5566__auto__] __meta)
(clojure.core/equals
[this__5565__auto__ G__948]
(clojure.lang.APersistentMap/mapEquals this__5565__auto__ G__948))
(clojure.core/hashCode
[this__5564__auto__]
(clojure.lang.APersistentMap/mapHash this__5564__auto__)))
(clojure.core/import user.Person)
(clojure.core/defn
->Person
"Positional factory function for class user.Person."
[name email address phone]
(new user.Person name email address phone))
(clojure.core/defn
map->Person
"Factory function for class user.Person, taking a map of keywords to field values."
([m__5665__auto__] (user.Person/create m__5665__auto__)))
user.Person)
nil
user=> (doc defrecord)
-------------------------
clojure.core/defrecord
([name [& fields] & opts+specs])
Macro
Alpha - subject to change
(defrecord name [fields*] options* specs*)
Currently there are no options.
Each spec consists of a protocol or interface name followed by zero
or more method bodies:
protocol-or-interface-or-Object
(methodName [args*] body)*
Dynamically generates compiled bytecode for class with the given
name, in a package with the same name as the current namespace, the
given fields, and, optionally, methods for protocols and/or
interfaces.
The class will have the (immutable) fields named by
fields, which can have type hints. Protocols/interfaces and methods
are optional. The only methods that can be supplied are those
declared in the protocols/interfaces. Note that method bodies are
not closures, the local environment includes only the named fields,
and those fields can be accessed directy.
Method definitions take the form:
(methodname [args*] body)
The argument and return types can be hinted on the arg and
methodname symbols. If not supplied, they will be inferred, so type
hints should be reserved for disambiguation.
Methods should be supplied for all methods of the desired
protocol(s) and interface(s). You can also define overrides for
methods of Object. Note that a parameter must be supplied to
correspond to the target object ('this' in Java parlance). Thus
methods for interfaces will take one more argument than do the
interface declarations. Note also that recur calls to the method
head should *not* pass the target object, it will be supplied
automatically and can not be substituted.
In the method bodies, the (unqualified) name can be used to name the
class (for calls to new, instance? etc).
The class will have implementations of several (clojure.lang)
interfaces generated automatically: IObj (metadata support) and
IPersistentMap, and all of their superinterfaces.
In addition, defrecord will define type-and-value-based =,
and will defined Java .hashCode and .equals consistent with the
contract for java.util.Map.
When AOT compiling, generates compiled bytecode for a class with the
given name (a symbol), prepends the current ns as the package, and
writes the .class file to the *compile-path* directory.
Two constructors will be defined, one taking the designated fields
followed by a metadata map (nil for none) and an extension field
map (nil for none), and one taking only the fields (using nil for
meta and extension fields). Note that the field names __meta
and __extmap are currently reserved and should not be used when
defining your own records.
Given (defrecord TypeName ...), two factory functions will be
defined: ->TypeName, taking positional parameters for the fields,
and map->TypeName, taking a map of keywords to field values.
nil
user=> (doc deftype)
-------------------------
clojure.core/deftype
([name [& fields] & opts+specs])
Macro
Alpha - subject to change
(deftype name [fields*] options* specs*)
Currently there are no options.
Each spec consists of a protocol or interface name followed by zero
or more method bodies:
protocol-or-interface-or-Object
(methodName [args*] body)*
Dynamically generates compiled bytecode for class with the given
name, in a package with the same name as the current namespace, the
given fields, and, optionally, methods for protocols and/or
interfaces.
The class will have the (by default, immutable) fields named by
fields, which can have type hints. Protocols/interfaces and methods
are optional. The only methods that can be supplied are those
declared in the protocols/interfaces. Note that method bodies are
not closures, the local environment includes only the named fields,
and those fields can be accessed directy. Fields can be qualified
with the metadata :volatile-mutable true or :unsynchronized-mutable
true, at which point (set! afield aval) will be supported in method
bodies. Note well that mutable fields are extremely difficult to use
correctly, and are present only to facilitate the building of higher
level constructs, such as Clojure's reference types, in Clojure
itself. They are for experts only - if the semantics and
implications of :volatile-mutable or :unsynchronized-mutable are not
immediately apparent to you, you should not be using them.
Method definitions take the form:
(methodname [args*] body)
The argument and return types can be hinted on the arg and
methodname symbols. If not supplied, they will be inferred, so type
hints should be reserved for disambiguation.
Methods should be supplied for all methods of the desired
protocol(s) and interface(s). You can also define overrides for
methods of Object. Note that a parameter must be supplied to
correspond to the target object ('this' in Java parlance). Thus
methods for interfaces will take one more argument than do the
interface declarations. Note also that recur calls to the method
head should *not* pass the target object, it will be supplied
automatically and can not be substituted.
In the method bodies, the (unqualified) name can be used to name the
class (for calls to new, instance? etc).
When AOT compiling, generates compiled bytecode for a class with the
given name (a symbol), prepends the current ns as the package, and
writes the .class file to the *compile-path* directory.
One constructor will be defined, taking the designated fields. Note
that the field names __meta and __extmap are currently reserved and
should not be used when defining your own types.
Given (deftype TypeName ...), a factory function called ->TypeName
will be defined, taking positional parameters for the fields
nil
user=> (comment "Ok...let's expand it all out.")
nil
user=> (pprint (macroexpand '(defrecord Person [name email address phone])))
(let*
[]
(clojure.core/declare ->Person)
(clojure.core/declare map->Person)
(deftype*
Person
user.Person
[name email address phone __meta __extmap]
:implements
[clojure.lang.IRecord
clojure.lang.IObj
clojure.lang.ILookup
clojure.lang.IKeywordLookup
clojure.lang.IPersistentMap
java.util.Map
java.io.Serializable]
(clojure.core/entrySet
[this__5608__auto__]
(clojure.core/set this__5608__auto__))
(clojure.core/values
[this__5607__auto__]
(clojure.core/vals this__5607__auto__))
(clojure.core/keySet
[this__5606__auto__]
(clojure.core/set (clojure.core/keys this__5606__auto__)))
(clojure.core/clear
[this__5605__auto__]
(throw (java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException.)))
(clojure.core/putAll
[this__5603__auto__ m__5604__auto__]
(throw (java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException.)))
(clojure.core/remove
[this__5601__auto__ k__5602__auto__]
(throw (java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException.)))
(clojure.core/put
[this__5598__auto__ k__5599__auto__ v__5600__auto__]
(throw (java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException.)))
(clojure.core/get
[this__5596__auto__ k__5597__auto__]
(.valAt this__5596__auto__ k__5597__auto__))
(clojure.core/containsValue
[this__5594__auto__ v__5595__auto__]
(clojure.core/boolean
(clojure.core/some
#{v__5595__auto__}
(clojure.core/vals this__5594__auto__))))
(clojure.core/isEmpty
[this__5593__auto__]
(clojure.core/= 0 (.count this__5593__auto__)))
(clojure.core/size [this__5592__auto__] (.count this__5592__auto__))
(clojure.core/without
[this__5590__auto__ k__5591__auto__]
(if
(clojure.core/contains?
#{:name :phone :email :address}
k__5591__auto__)
(clojure.core/dissoc
(clojure.core/with-meta
(clojure.core/into {} this__5590__auto__)
__meta)
k__5591__auto__)
(new
Person
name
email
address
phone
__meta
(clojure.core/not-empty
(clojure.core/dissoc __extmap k__5591__auto__)))))
(clojure.core/assoc
[this__5588__auto__ k__5589__auto__ G__955]
(clojure.core/condp
clojure.core/identical?
k__5589__auto__
:name
(new Person G__955 email address phone __meta __extmap)
:email
(new Person name G__955 address phone __meta __extmap)
:address
(new Person name email G__955 phone __meta __extmap)
:phone
(new Person name email address G__955 __meta __extmap)
(new
Person
name
email
address
phone
__meta
(clojure.core/assoc __extmap k__5589__auto__ G__955))))
(clojure.core/iterator
[this__5587__auto__]
(clojure.lang.SeqIterator. (.seq this__5587__auto__)))
(clojure.core/seq
[this__5586__auto__]
(clojure.core/seq
(clojure.core/concat
[(new clojure.lang.MapEntry :name name)
(new clojure.lang.MapEntry :email email)
(new clojure.lang.MapEntry :address address)
(new clojure.lang.MapEntry :phone phone)]
__extmap)))
(clojure.core/entryAt
[this__5582__auto__ k__5583__auto__]
(clojure.core/let
[v__5584__auto__
(.valAt this__5582__auto__ k__5583__auto__ this__5582__auto__)]
(clojure.core/when-not
(clojure.core/identical? this__5582__auto__ v__5584__auto__)
(clojure.lang.MapEntry. k__5583__auto__ v__5584__auto__))))
(clojure.core/containsKey
[this__5580__auto__ k__5581__auto__]
(clojure.core/not
(clojure.core/identical?
this__5580__auto__
(.valAt this__5580__auto__ k__5581__auto__ this__5580__auto__))))
(clojure.core/equiv
[this__5579__auto__ G__955]
(clojure.core/boolean
(clojure.core/or
(clojure.core/identical? this__5579__auto__ G__955)
(clojure.core/when
(clojure.core/identical?
(clojure.core/class this__5579__auto__)
(clojure.core/class G__955))
(clojure.core/let
[G__955 G__955]
(clojure.core/and
(clojure.core/= name (. G__955 -name))
(clojure.core/= email (. G__955 -email))
(clojure.core/= address (. G__955 -address))
(clojure.core/= phone (. G__955 -phone))
(clojure.core/= __extmap (. G__955 __extmap))))))))
(clojure.core/cons
[this__5577__auto__ e__5578__auto__]
(#'clojure.core/imap-cons this__5577__auto__ e__5578__auto__))
(clojure.core/empty
[this__5576__auto__]
(throw
(java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException.
(clojure.core/str "Can't create empty: " "user.Person"))))
(clojure.core/count
[this__5575__auto__]
(clojure.core/+ 4 (clojure.core/count __extmap)))
(clojure.core/getLookupThunk
[this__5573__auto__ k__5574__auto__]
(clojure.core/let
[gclass (clojure.core/class this__5573__auto__)]
(clojure.core/case
k__5574__auto__
:name
(clojure.core/reify
clojure.lang.ILookupThunk
(clojure.core/get
[thunk gtarget]
(if
(clojure.core/identical? (clojure.core/class gtarget) gclass)
(. gtarget -name)
thunk)))
:email
(clojure.core/reify
clojure.lang.ILookupThunk
(clojure.core/get
[thunk gtarget]
(if
(clojure.core/identical? (clojure.core/class gtarget) gclass)
(. gtarget -email)
thunk)))
:address
(clojure.core/reify
clojure.lang.ILookupThunk
(clojure.core/get
[thunk gtarget]
(if
(clojure.core/identical? (clojure.core/class gtarget) gclass)
(. gtarget -address)
thunk)))
:phone
(clojure.core/reify
clojure.lang.ILookupThunk
(clojure.core/get
[thunk gtarget]
(if
(clojure.core/identical? (clojure.core/class gtarget) gclass)
(. gtarget -phone)
thunk)))
nil)))
(clojure.core/valAt
[this__5570__auto__ k__5571__auto__ else__5572__auto__]
(clojure.core/case
k__5571__auto__
:name
name
:email
email
:address
address
:phone
phone
(clojure.core/get __extmap k__5571__auto__ else__5572__auto__)))
(clojure.core/valAt
[this__5568__auto__ k__5569__auto__]
(.valAt this__5568__auto__ k__5569__auto__ nil))
(clojure.core/withMeta
[this__5567__auto__ G__955]
(new Person name email address phone G__955 __extmap))
(clojure.core/meta [this__5566__auto__] __meta)
(clojure.core/equals
[this__5565__auto__ G__955]
(clojure.lang.APersistentMap/mapEquals this__5565__auto__ G__955))
(clojure.core/hashCode
[this__5564__auto__]
(clojure.lang.APersistentMap/mapHash this__5564__auto__)))
(clojure.core/import user.Person)
(clojure.core/defn
->Person
"Positional factory function for class user.Person."
[name email address phone]
(new user.Person name email address phone))
(clojure.core/defn
map->Person
"Factory function for class user.Person, taking a map of keywords to field values."
([m__5665__auto__] (user.Person/create m__5665__auto__)))
user.Person)
nil
user=>
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