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How To Add Visual Testing To Existing Selenium Tests

The Problem

In previous write-ups I covered what automated visual testing is and how to do it. Unfortunately, based on the examples demonstrated, it may be unclear how automated visual testing fits into your existing automated testing practice.

Do you need to write and maintain a separate set of tests? What about your existing Selenium tests? What do you do if there isn't a sufficient library for the programming language you're currently using?

A Solution

You can rest easy knowing that you can build automated visual testing checks into your existing Selenium tests. By leveraging a third-party platform like Applitools Eyes, this is a simple feat.

And when coupled with Sauce Labs, you can quickly add coverage for those hard to reach browser, device, and platform combinations.

Let's step through an example.

An Example

NOTE: This example is written in Java with the JUnit testing framework.

Let's start with an existing Selenium test. A simple one that logs into a website.

// filename: Login.java

import org.junit.After;
import org.junit.Assert;
import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;

public class Login {

    private WebDriver driver;

    @Before
    public void setup() {
        driver =  new FirefoxDriver();
    }

    @Test
    public void succeeded() {
        driver.get("http://the-internet.herokuapp.com/login");
        driver.findElement(By.id("username")).sendKeys("tomsmith");
        driver.findElement(By.id("password")).sendKeys("SuperSecretPassword!");
        driver.findElement(By.id("login")).submit();
        Assert.assertTrue("success message should be present after logging in",
                driver.findElement(By.cssSelector(".flash.success")).isDisplayed());
    }

    @After
    public void teardown() {
        driver.quit();
    }
}

In it we're loading an instance of Firefox, visiting the login page on the-internet, inputting the username & password, submitting the form, asserting that we reached a logged in state, and closing the browser.

Now let's add in Applitools Eyes support.

If you haven't already done so, you'll need to create a free Applitools Eyes account (no credit-card required). You'll then need to install the Applitools Eyes Java SDK and import it into the test.

// filename: pom.xml

<dependency>
  <groupId>com.applitools</groupId>
  <artifactId>eyes-selenium-java</artifactId>
  <version>RELEASE</version>
</dependency>
// filename: Login.java

import com.applitools.eyes.Eyes;
...

Next, we'll need to add a variable (to store the instance of Applitools Eyes) and modify our test setup.

// filename: Login.java
...
public class Login {

    private WebDriver driver;
    private Eyes eyes;

    @Before
    public void setup() {
        WebDriver browser =  new FirefoxDriver();
        eyes = new Eyes();
        eyes.setApiKey("YOUR_APPLITOOLS_API_KEY");
        driver = eyes.open(browser, "the-internet", "Login succeeded");
    }
...

Rather than storing the Selenium instance in the driver variable, we're now storing it in a local browser variable and passing it into eyes.open -- storing the WebDriver object that eyes.open returns in the driver variable instead.

This way the Eyes platform will be able to capture what our test is doing when we ask it to capture a screenshot. The Selenium actions in our test will not need to be modified.

Before calling eyes.open we provide the API key (which can be found on your Account Details page in Applitools). When calling eyes.open, we pass it the Selenium instance, the name of the app we're testing (e.g., "the-internet"), and the name of the test (e.g., "Login succeeded").

Now we're ready to add some visual checks to our test.

// filename: Login.java
...
    @Test
    public void succeeded() {
        driver.get("http://the-internet.herokuapp.com/login");
        eyes.checkWindow("Login");
        driver.findElement(By.id("username")).sendKeys("tomsmith");
        driver.findElement(By.id("password")).sendKeys("SuperSecretPassword!");
        driver.findElement(By.id("login")).submit();
        eyes.checkWindow("Logged In");
        Assert.assertTrue("success message should be present after logging in",
                driver.findElement(By.cssSelector(".flash.success")).isDisplayed());
        eyes.close();
    }
...

With eyes.checkWindow(); we are specifying when in the test's workflow we'd like Applitools Eyes to capture a screenshot (along with some description text). For this test we want to check the page before logging in, and then the screen just after logging in -- so we use eyes.checkWindow(); two times.

NOTE: These visual checks are effectively doing the same work as the pre-existing assertion (e.g., where we're asking Selenium if a success notification is displayed and asserting on the Boolean result) -- in addition to reviewing other visual aspects of the page. So once we verify that our test is working correctly we can remove this assertion and still be covered.

We end the test with eyes.close. You may feel the urge to place this in teardown, but in addition to closing the session with Eyes, it acts like an assertion. If Eyes finds a failure in the app (or if a baseline image approval is required), then eyes.close will throw an exception; failing the test. So it's best suited to live in the test.

NOTE: An exceptions from eyes.close will include a URL to the Applitools Eyes job in your test output. The job will include screenshots from each test step and enable you to play back the keystrokes and mouse movements from your Selenium tests.

When an exception gets thrown by eyes.close, the Eyes session will close. But if an exception occurs before eyes.close can fire, the session will remain open. To handle that, we'll need to add an additional command to our teardown.

// filename: Login.java
...
    @After
    public void teardown() {
        eyes.abortIfNotClosed();
        driver.quit();
    }
}

eyes.abortIfNotClosed(); will make sure the Eyes session terminates properly regardless of what happens in the test.

Now when we run the test, it will execute locally while also performing visual checks in Applitools Eyes.

What About Other Browsers?

If we want to run our test with it's newly added visual checks against other browsers and operating systems, it's simple enough to add in Sauce Labs support.

NOTE: If you don't already have a Sauce Labs account, sign up for a free trial account here.

First we'll need to import the relevant classes.

// filename: Login.java
...
import org.openqa.selenium.Platform;
import org.openqa.selenium.remote.DesiredCapabilities;
import org.openqa.selenium.remote.RemoteWebDriver;
import java.net.URL;
...

We'll then need to modify the test setup to load a Sauce browser instance (via Selenium Remote) instead of a local Firefox one.

// filename: Login.java
...
    @Before
    public void setup() throws Exception {
        DesiredCapabilities capabilities = DesiredCapabilities.internetExplorer();
        capabilities.setCapability("platform", Platform.XP);
        capabilities.setCapability("version", "8");
        capabilities.setCapability("name", "Login succeeded");
        String sauceUrl = String.format(
                "http://%s:%s@ondemand.saucelabs.com:80/wd/hub",
                "YOUR_SAUCE_USERNAME",
                "YOUR_SAUCE_ACCESS_KEY");
        WebDriver browser = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL(sauceUrl), capabilities);
        eyes = new Eyes();
        eyes.setApiKey(System.getenv("APPLITOOLS_API_KEY"));
        driver = eyes.open(browser, "the-internet", "Login succeeded");
    }
...

We tell Sauce what we want in our test instance through DesiredCapabilities. The main things we want to specify are the browser, browser version, operating system (OS), and name of the test. You can see a full list of the available browser and OS combinations here.

In order to connect to Sauce, we need to provide an account username and access key. The access key can be found on your account page. These values get concatenated into a URL that points to Sauce's on-demand Grid.

Once we have the DesiredCapabilities and concatenated URL, we create a Selenium Remote instance with them and store it in a local browser variable. Just like in our previous example, we feed browser to eyes.open and store the return object in the driver variable.

Now when we run this test, it will execute against Internet Explorer 8 on Windows XP. You can see the test while it's running in your Sauce Labs account dashboard. And you can see the images captured on your Applitools account dashboard.

A Small Bit of Cleanup

Both Applitools and Sauce Labs require you to specify a test name. Up until now, we've been hard-coding a value. Let's change it so it gets set automatically.

We can do this by leveraging a JUnit TestWatcher and a public variable.

// filename: Login.java
...
import org.junit.rules.TestRule;
import org.junit.rules.TestWatcher;
import org.junit.runner.Description;
...
public class Login {

    private WebDriver driver;
    private Eyes eyes;
    public String testName;

    @Rule
    public TestRule watcher = new TestWatcher() {
        protected void starting(Description description) {
            testName = description.getDisplayName();
        }
    };
...

Each time a test starts, the TestWatcher starting function will grab the display name of the test and store it in the testName variable.

Let's clean up our setup to use this variable instead of a hard-coded value.

// filename: Login.java
...
    @Before
    public void setup() throws Exception {
        DesiredCapabilities capabilities = DesiredCapabilities.internetExplorer();
        capabilities.setCapability("platform", Platform.XP);
        capabilities.setCapability("version", "8");
        capabilities.setCapability("name", testName);
        String sauceUrl = String.format(
                "http://%s:%s@ondemand.saucelabs.com:80/wd/hub",
                System.getenv("SAUCE_USERNAME"),
                System.getenv("SAUCE_ACCESS_KEY"));
        WebDriver browser = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL(sauceUrl), capabilities);
        eyes = new Eyes();
        eyes.setApiKey(System.getenv("APPLITOOLS_API_KEY"));
        driver = eyes.open(browser, "the-internet", testName);
    }
...

Now when we run our test, the name will automatically appear. This will come in handy with additional tests.

One More Thing

When a job fails in Applitools Eyes, it automatically returns a URL for it in the test output. It would be nice if we could also get the Sauce Labs job URL in the output. So let's add it.

First, we'll need a public variable to store the session ID of the Selenium job.

// filename: Login.java
...
public class Login {

    private WebDriver driver;
    private Eyes eyes;
    public String testName;
    public String sessionId;
...

Next we'll add an additional function to TestWatcher that will trigger when there's a failure. In it, we'll display the Sauce job URL in standard output.

// filename: Login.java
...
    @Rule
    public TestRule watcher = new TestWatcher() {
        protected void starting(Description description) {
            testName = description.getDisplayName();
        }

        @Override
        protected void failed(Throwable e, Description description) {
            System.out.println(String.format("https://saucelabs.com/tests/%s", sessionId));
        }
    };
...

Lastly, we'll grab the session ID from the Sauce browser instance just after it's created.

// filename: Login.java
...
        WebDriver browser = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL(sauceUrl), capabilities);
        sessionId = ((RemoteWebDriver) browser).getSessionId().toString();
...

Now when we run our test, if there's a Selenium failure, a URL to the Sauce job will be returned in the test output.

Expected Outcome

  • Connect to Applitools Eyes
  • Load an instance of Selenium in Sauce Labs
  • Run the test, performing visual checks at specified points
  • Close the Applitools session
  • Close the Sauce Labs session
  • Return a URL to a failed job in either Applitools Eyes or Sauce Labs

Outro

Happy Testing!

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