Skip to content

Instantly share code, notes, and snippets.

Embed
What would you like to do?
Google Test Floating Point Equality
// Copyright 2005, Google Inc.
// All rights reserved.
//
// Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
// modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
// met:
//
// * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
// notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
// * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
// copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer
// in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
// distribution.
// * Neither the name of Google Inc. nor the names of its
// contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
// this software without specific prior written permission.
//
// THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
// "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
// LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
// A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
// OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
// SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
// LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
// DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
// THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
// (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
// OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
//
// Authors: wan@google.com (Zhanyong Wan), eefacm@gmail.com (Sean Mcafee)
//
// The Google C++ Testing Framework (Google Test)
//
// This header file declares functions and macros used internally by
// Google Test. They are subject to change without notice.
#pragma once
#include <limits>
// This template class serves as a compile-time function from size to
// type. It maps a size in bytes to a primitive type with that
// size. e.g.
//
// TypeWithSize<4>::UInt
//
// is typedef-ed to be unsigned int (unsigned integer made up of 4
// bytes).
//
// Such functionality should belong to STL, but I cannot find it
// there.
//
// Google Test uses this class in the implementation of floating-point
// comparison.
//
// For now it only handles UInt (unsigned int) as that's all Google Test
// needs. Other types can be easily added in the future if need
// arises.
template <size_t size>
class TypeWithSize {
public:
// This prevents the user from using TypeWithSize<N> with incorrect
// values of N.
typedef void UInt;
};
// The specialization for size 4.
template <>
class TypeWithSize<4> {
public:
// unsigned int has size 4 in both gcc and MSVC.
//
// As base/basictypes.h doesn't compile on Windows, we cannot use
// uint32, uint64, and etc here.
typedef int Int;
typedef unsigned int UInt;
};
// The specialization for size 8.
template <>
class TypeWithSize<8> {
public:
#if _MSC_VER
typedef __int64 Int;
typedef unsigned __int64 UInt;
#else
typedef long long Int; // NOLINT
typedef unsigned long long UInt; // NOLINT
#endif // _MSC_VER
};
// This template class represents an IEEE floating-point number
// (either single-precision or double-precision, depending on the
// template parameters).
//
// The purpose of this class is to do more sophisticated number
// comparison. (Due to round-off error, etc, it's very unlikely that
// two floating-points will be equal exactly. Hence a naive
// comparison by the == operation often doesn't work.)
//
// Format of IEEE floating-point:
//
// The most-significant bit being the leftmost, an IEEE
// floating-point looks like
//
// sign_bit exponent_bits fraction_bits
//
// Here, sign_bit is a single bit that designates the sign of the
// number.
//
// For float, there are 8 exponent bits and 23 fraction bits.
//
// For double, there are 11 exponent bits and 52 fraction bits.
//
// More details can be found at
// http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_floating-point_standard.
//
// Template parameter:
//
// RawType: the raw floating-point type (either float or double)
template <typename RawType>
class FloatingPoint {
public:
// Defines the unsigned integer type that has the same size as the
// floating point number.
typedef typename TypeWithSize<sizeof(RawType)>::UInt Bits;
// Constants.
// # of bits in a number.
static const size_t kBitCount = 8 * sizeof(RawType);
// # of fraction bits in a number.
static const size_t kFractionBitCount =
std::numeric_limits<RawType>::digits - 1;
// # of exponent bits in a number.
static const size_t kExponentBitCount = kBitCount - 1 - kFractionBitCount;
// The mask for the sign bit.
static const Bits kSignBitMask = static_cast<Bits>(1) << (kBitCount - 1);
// The mask for the fraction bits.
static const Bits kFractionBitMask =
~static_cast<Bits>(0) >> (kExponentBitCount + 1);
// The mask for the exponent bits.
static const Bits kExponentBitMask = ~(kSignBitMask | kFractionBitMask);
// How many ULP's (Units in the Last Place) we want to tolerate when
// comparing two numbers. The larger the value, the more error we
// allow. A 0 value means that two numbers must be exactly the same
// to be considered equal.
//
// The maximum error of a single floating-point operation is 0.5
// units in the last place. On Intel CPU's, all floating-point
// calculations are done with 80-bit precision, while double has 64
// bits. Therefore, 4 should be enough for ordinary use.
//
// See the following article for more details on ULP:
// http://randomascii.wordpress.com/2012/02/25/comparing-floating-point-numbers-2012-edition/
static const size_t kMaxUlps = 4;
// Constructs a FloatingPoint from a raw floating-point number.
//
// On an Intel CPU, passing a non-normalized NAN (Not a Number)
// around may change its bits, although the new value is guaranteed
// to be also a NAN. Therefore, don't expect this constructor to
// preserve the bits in x when x is a NAN.
explicit FloatingPoint(const RawType& x) { u_.value_ = x; }
// Static methods
// Reinterprets a bit pattern as a floating-point number.
//
// This function is needed to test the AlmostEquals() method.
static RawType ReinterpretBits(const Bits bits) {
FloatingPoint fp(0);
fp.u_.bits_ = bits;
return fp.u_.value_;
}
// Returns the floating-point number that represent positive infinity.
static RawType Infinity() {
return ReinterpretBits(kExponentBitMask);
}
// Returns the maximum representable finite floating-point number.
static RawType Max();
// Non-static methods
// Returns the bits that represents this number.
const Bits &bits() const { return u_.bits_; }
// Returns the exponent bits of this number.
Bits exponent_bits() const { return kExponentBitMask & u_.bits_; }
// Returns the fraction bits of this number.
Bits fraction_bits() const { return kFractionBitMask & u_.bits_; }
// Returns the sign bit of this number.
Bits sign_bit() const { return kSignBitMask & u_.bits_; }
// Returns true iff this is NAN (not a number).
bool is_nan() const {
// It's a NAN if the exponent bits are all ones and the fraction
// bits are not entirely zeros.
return (exponent_bits() == kExponentBitMask) && (fraction_bits() != 0);
}
// Returns true iff this number is at most kMaxUlps ULP's away from
// rhs. In particular, this function:
//
// - returns false if either number is (or both are) NAN.
// - treats really large numbers as almost equal to infinity.
// - thinks +0.0 and -0.0 are 0 DLP's apart.
bool AlmostEquals(const FloatingPoint& rhs) const {
// The IEEE standard says that any comparison operation involving
// a NAN must return false.
if (is_nan() || rhs.is_nan()) return false;
return DistanceBetweenSignAndMagnitudeNumbers(u_.bits_, rhs.u_.bits_)
<= kMaxUlps;
}
private:
// The data type used to store the actual floating-point number.
union FloatingPointUnion {
RawType value_; // The raw floating-point number.
Bits bits_; // The bits that represent the number.
};
// Converts an integer from the sign-and-magnitude representation to
// the biased representation. More precisely, let N be 2 to the
// power of (kBitCount - 1), an integer x is represented by the
// unsigned number x + N.
//
// For instance,
//
// -N + 1 (the most negative number representable using
// sign-and-magnitude) is represented by 1;
// 0 is represented by N; and
// N - 1 (the biggest number representable using
// sign-and-magnitude) is represented by 2N - 1.
//
// Read http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signed_number_representations
// for more details on signed number representations.
static Bits SignAndMagnitudeToBiased(const Bits &sam) {
if (kSignBitMask & sam) {
// sam represents a negative number.
return ~sam + 1;
}
else {
// sam represents a positive number.
return kSignBitMask | sam;
}
}
// Given two numbers in the sign-and-magnitude representation,
// returns the distance between them as an unsigned number.
static Bits DistanceBetweenSignAndMagnitudeNumbers(const Bits &sam1,
const Bits &sam2) {
const Bits biased1 = SignAndMagnitudeToBiased(sam1);
const Bits biased2 = SignAndMagnitudeToBiased(sam2);
return (biased1 >= biased2) ? (biased1 - biased2) : (biased2 - biased1);
}
FloatingPointUnion u_;
};
// We cannot use std::numeric_limits<T>::max() as it clashes with the max()
// macro defined by <windows.h>.
template <>
inline float FloatingPoint<float>::Max() { return FLT_MAX; }
template <>
inline double FloatingPoint<double>::Max() { return DBL_MAX; }
template <typename T>
bool AlmostEquals(T first, T second)
{
FloatingPoint<T> firstAsFloatingPoint(first);
FloatingPoint<T> secondAsFloatingPoint(second);
return firstAsFloatingPoint.AlmostEquals(secondAsFloatingPoint);
}
Sign up for free to join this conversation on GitHub. Already have an account? Sign in to comment
You can’t perform that action at this time.