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python 多线程模拟竞态
import urllib2
import time
from threading import Thread
#define a global variable
some_var = 0
class IncrementThread(Thread):
def run(self):
#we want to read a global variable
#and then increment it
global some_var
read_value = some_var
print "some_var in %s is %d" % (self.name, read_value)
some_var = read_value + 1
print "some_var in %s after increment is %d" % (self.name, some_var)
def use_increment_thread():
threads = []
for i in range(50):
t = IncrementThread()
threads.append(t)
t.start()
for t in threads:
t.join()
print "After 50 modifications, some_var should have become 50"
print "After 50 modifications, some_var is %d" % (some_var,)
if __name__ == '__main__':
use_increment_thread()
@zhyq0826

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commented Sep 5, 2016

Explanation:

  • There is a global variable and all the threads will modify it.
  • All threads should add 1 to the existing value of the variable.
  • There are 50 threads, so at end the value of some_var should become 50, but it doesn't.

Why some_var didn't reach 50?

  • At some point thread t1 read the value of some_var as 15 and then processor took the control from this thread and gave it to thread t2.
  • t2 also reads some_var as 15.
  • Both t1 and t2 reset the value of some_var to 15+1 i.e 16.
  • But when two threads act on some_var we expected it's value to be increased by 2.
  • So, we have a race condition here.
  • A similar race condition might have occurred few more times and so value of some_var at end remains something like 41 or 42 or anything less than 50.
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commented Sep 5, 2016

import urllib2
import time

from threading import Thread, Lock

#define a global variable
some_var = 0
lock = Lock()

class IncrementThread(Thread):
    def run(self):
        #we want to read a global variable
        #and then increment it
        global some_var
        lock.acquire()
        read_value = some_var
        print "some_var in %s is %d" % (self.name, read_value)
        some_var = read_value + 1 
        print "some_var in %s after increment is %d" % (self.name, some_var)
        lock.release()


def use_increment_thread():
    threads = []
    for i in range(50):
        t = IncrementThread()
        threads.append(t)
        t.start()
    for t in threads:
        t.join()
    print "After 50 modifications, some_var should have become 50"
    print "After 50 modifications, some_var is %d" % (some_var,)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    use_increment_thread()

使用锁来解决多线程带来的资源竞争

  • Lock is used to guard against race condition.
  • If thread t1 has acquired the lock before performing a set of operations, no other thread can perform the same set of operation until t1 releases the lock.
  • We want to make sure that once t1 has read some_var, no other thread can read some_var until t1 is done with modifying the value of some_var.
  • So reading some_var and modifying it are logically related operations here.
  • And that is why we keep read and modify part of some_var guarded by a Lock instance.
  • Lock is a separate object and it will be acquired by the thread from whose context it is called.
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