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WP: Query $args

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<?php
/**
* WordPress Query Comprehensive Reference
* Compiled by luetkemj - luetkemj.com
*
* CODEX: http://codex.wordpress.org/Class_Reference/WP_Query
* Source: http://core.trac.wordpress.org/browser/tags/3.3.1/wp-includes/query.php
*/
$args = array(
//////Author Parameters - Show posts associated with certain author.
'author' => 1,2,3, //(int) - use author id [use minus (-) to exclude authors by ID ex. 'author' => -1,-2,-3,]
'author_name' => 'luetkemj', //(string) - use 'user_nicename' (NOT name)
//////Category Parameters - Show posts associated with certain categories.
'cat' => 5,//(int) - use category id.
'category_name' => 'staff', 'news', //(string) - use category slug (NOT name).
'category__and' => array( 2, 6 ), //(array) - use category id.
'category__in' => array( 2, 6 ), //(array) - use category id.
'category__not_in' => array( 2, 6 ), //(array) - use category id.
//////Tag Parameters - Show posts associated with certain tags.
'tag' => 'cooking', //(string) - use tag slug.
'tag_id' => 5, //(int) - use tag id.
'tag__and' => array( 2, 6), //(array) - use tag ids.
'tag__in' => array( 2, 6), //(array) - use tag ids.
'tag__not_in' => array( 2, 6), //(array) - use tag ids.
'tag_slug__and' => array( 2, 6), //(array) - use tag slugs.
'tag_slug__in' => array( 2, 6), //(array) - use tag slugs.
//////Taxonomy Parameters - Show posts associated with certain taxonomy.
//Important Note: tax_query takes an array of tax query arguments arrays (it takes an array of arrays)
//This construct allows you to query multiple taxonomies by using the relation parameter in the first (outer) array to describe the boolean relationship between the taxonomy queries.
'tax_query' => array( //(array) - use taxonomy parameters (available with Version 3.1).
'relation' => 'AND', //(string) - Possible values are 'AND' or 'OR' and is the equivalent of ruuning a JOIN for each taxonomy
array(
'taxonomy' => 'color', //(string) - Taxonomy.
'field' => 'slug', //(string) - Select taxonomy term by ('id' or 'slug')
'terms' => array( 'red', 'blue' ), //(int/string/array) - Taxonomy term(s).
'include_children' => true, //(bool) - Whether or not to include children for hierarchical taxonomies. Defaults to true.
'operator' => 'IN' //(string) - Operator to test. Possible values are 'IN', 'NOT IN', 'AND'.
),
array(
'taxonomy' => 'actor',
'field' => 'id',
'terms' => array( 103, 115, 206 ),
'include_children' => false,
'operator' => 'NOT IN'
),
 
//////Post & Page Parameters - Display content based on post and page parameters.
'p' => 1, //(int) - use post id.
'name' => 'hello-world', //(string) - use post slug.
'page_id' => 1, //(int) - use page id.
'pagename' => 'sample-page', //(string) - use page slug.
'pagename' => 'contact_us/canada', //(string) - Display child page using the slug of the parent and the child page, separated by a slash
'post_parent' => 1, //(int) - use page id. Return just the child Pages.
'post__in' => array(1,2,3), //(array) - use post ids. Specify posts to retrieve.
'post__not_in' => array(1,2,3), //(array) - use post ids. Specify post NOT to retrieve.
//NOTE: you cannot combine 'post__in' and 'post__not_in' in the same query
 
//////Type & Status Parameters - Show posts associated with certain type or status.
'post_type' => array( //(string / array) - use post types. Retrieves posts by Post Types, default value is 'post';
'post', // - a post.
'page', // - a page.
'revision', // - a revision.
'attachment', // - an attachment. The default WP_Query sets 'post_status'=>'published', but attachments default to 'post_status'=>'inherit' so you'll need to set the status to 'inherit' or 'any'.
'any', // - retrieves any type except revisions and types with 'exclude_from_search' set to true.
'my-post-type' // - Custom Post Types (e.g. movies)
),
'post_status' => array( //(string / array) - use post status. Retrieves posts by Post Status, default value is 'publish'.
'publish', // - a published post or page.
'pending', // - post is pending review.
'draft', // - a post in draft status.
'auto-draft' // - a newly created post, with no content.
'future' // - a post to publish in the future.
'private' // - not visible to users who are not logged in.
'inherit' // - a revision. see get_children.
'trash' // - post is in trashbin (available with Version 2.9).
'any' // - retrieves any status except those from post types with 'exclude_from_search' set to true.
),
//////Pagination Parameters
'posts_per_page' => 10, //(int) - number of post to show per page (available with Version 2.1). Use 'posts_per_page'=>-1 to show all posts. Note if the query is in a feed, wordpress overwrites this parameter with the stored 'posts_per_rss' option. To reimpose the limit, try using the 'post_limits' filter, or filter 'pre_option_posts_per_rss' and return -1
'posts_per_archive_page' => 10, //(int) - number of posts to show per page - on archive pages only. Over-rides showposts and posts_per_page on pages where is_archive() or is_search() would be true
'nopaging' => false, //(bool) - show all posts or use pagination. Default value is 'false', use paging.
'paged' => get_query_var('page'), //(int) - number of page. Show the posts that would normally show up just on page X when using the "Older Entries" link.
//NOTE: You should set get_query_var( 'page' ); if you want your query to work with pagination. Since Wordpress 3.0.2, you do get_query_var( 'page' ) instead of get_query_var( 'paged' ). The pagination parameter 'paged' for WP_Query() remains the same.
 
//////Offset Parameter
'offset' => 3, //(int) - number of post to displace or pass over.
 
//////Order & Orderby Parameters - Sort retrieved posts.
'order' => 'DESC', //(string) - Designates the ascending or descending order of the 'orderby' parameter. Defaults to 'DESC'.
//Possible Values:
//'ASC' - ascending order from lowest to highest values (1, 2, 3; a, b, c).
//'DESC' - descending order from highest to lowest values (3, 2, 1; c, b, a).
'orderby' => 'date', //(string) - Sort retrieved posts by parameter. Defaults to 'date'.
//Possible Values://
//'none' - No order (available with Version 2.8).
//'ID' - Order by post id. Note the captialization.
//'author' - Order by author.
//'title' - Order by title.
//'date' - Order by date.
//'modified' - Order by last modified date.
//'parent' - Order by post/page parent id.
//'rand' - Random order.
//'comment_count' - Order by number of comments (available with Version 2.9).
//'menu_order' - Order by Page Order. Used most often for Pages (Order field in the Edit Page Attributes box) and for Attachments (the integer fields in the Insert / Upload Media Gallery dialog), but could be used for any post type with distinct 'menu_order' values (they all default to 0).
//'meta_value' - Note that a 'meta_key=keyname' must also be present in the query. Note also that the sorting will be alphabetical which is fine for strings (i.e. words), but can be unexpected for numbers (e.g. 1, 3, 34, 4, 56, 6, etc, rather than 1, 3, 4, 6, 34, 56 as you might naturally expect).
//'meta_value_num' - Order by numeric meta value (available with Version 2.8). Also note that a 'meta_key=keyname' must also be present in the query. This value allows for numerical sorting as noted above in 'meta_value'.
//////Sticky Post Parameters - Show Sticky Posts or ignore them.
'ignore_sticky_posts' => false, //(bool) - ignore sticky posts or not. Default value is false, don't ignore. Ignore/exclude sticky posts being included at the beginning of posts returned, but the sticky post will still be returned in the natural order of that list of posts returned.
//NOTE: For more info on sticky post queries see: http://codex.wordpress.org/Class_Reference/WP_Query#Sticky_Post_Parameters
//////Time Parameters - Show posts associated with a certain time period.
'year' => 2012, //(int) - 4 digit year (e.g. 2011).
'monthnum' => 3, //(int) - Month number (from 1 to 12).
'w' => 25, //(int) - Week of the year (from 0 to 53). Uses the MySQL WEEK command. The mode is dependent on the "start_of_week" option.
'day' => 17, //(int) - Day of the month (from 1 to 31).
'hour' => 13, //(int) - Hour (from 0 to 23).
'minute' => 19, //(int) - Minute (from 0 to 60).
'second' => 30, //(int) - Second (0 to 60).
 
 
//////Custom Field Parameters - Show posts associated with a certain custom field.
'meta_key' => 'key', //(string) - Custom field key.
'meta_value' => 'value', //(string) - Custom field value.
'meta_value_num' => 10, //(number) - Custom field value.
'meta_compare' => '=', //(string) - Operator to test the 'meta_value'. Possible values are '!=', '>', '>=', '<', or '<='. Default value is '='.
'meta_query' => array( //(array) - Custom field parameters (available with Version 3.1).
array(
'key' => 'color', //(string) - Custom field key.
'value' => 'blue' //(string/array) - Custom field value (Note: Array support is limited to a compare value of 'IN', 'NOT IN', 'BETWEEN', or 'NOT BETWEEN')
'type' => 'CHAR', //(string) - Custom field type. Possible values are 'NUMERIC', 'BINARY', 'CHAR', 'DATE', 'DATETIME', 'DECIMAL', 'SIGNED', 'TIME', 'UNSIGNED'. Default value is 'CHAR'.
'compare' => '=' //(string) - Operator to test. Possible values are '=', '!=', '>', '>=', '<', '<=', 'LIKE', 'NOT LIKE', 'IN', 'NOT IN', 'BETWEEN', 'NOT BETWEEN'. Default value is '='.
),
array(
'key' => 'price',
'value' => array( 1,200 ),
'compare' => 'NOT LIKE'
)
//////Permission Parameters - Display published posts, as well as private posts, if the user has the appropriate capability:
'perm' => 'readable' //(string) Possible values are 'readable', 'editable' (possible more ie all capabilities although I have not tested)
 
//////Parameters relating to caching
'no_found_rows' => false, //(bool) Default is false. WordPress uses SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS in most queries in order to implement pagination. Even when you don’t need pagination at all. By Setting this parameter to true you are telling wordPress not to count the total rows and reducing load on the DB. Pagination will NOT WORK when this parameter is set to true. For more information see: http://flavio.tordini.org/speed-up-wordpress-get_posts-and-query_posts-functions
'cache_results' => true, //(bool) Default is true
'update_post_term_cache' => true, //(bool) Default is true
'update_post_meta_cache' => true //(bool) Default is true
//NOTE Caching is a good thing. Setting these to false is generally not advised. For more info on usage see: http://codex.wordpress.org/Class_Reference/WP_Query#Permission_Parameters
 
//////Post Field Parameters
//Not sure what these do. For more info see: http://codex.wordpress.org/Class_Reference/WP_Query#Post_Field_Parameters
 
//////Filters
//For more information on available Filters see: http://codex.wordpress.org/Class_Reference/WP_Query#Filters
 
);
 
$the_query = new WP_Query( $args );
 
// The Loop
if ( $the_query->have_posts() ) :
while ( $the_query->have_posts() ) : $the_query->the_post();
// Do Stuff
endwhile;
endif;
 
// Reset Post Data
wp_reset_postdata();
 
?>

Of course you would never use a query like this. It's just a comprehensive grouping for quick reference.
Also formatting in the github and raw view sucks. best to copy the raw and past in a code editor. I wrote this in SublimeText if that helps.
EDIT: Fixed formatting issues

You're missing the undocumented no_found_rows parameter. It takes a boolean value so I usually use true instead of 1 in this example: http://flavio.tordini.org/speed-up-wordpress-get_posts-and-query_posts-functions

Thanks Ryan, I added no_found_rows into the caching section at the bottom. If you think it belongs somewhere else I'm open to suggestions. Regarding using true/false vs 1/0 for booleans, is that just a preference or is there a best practice or other reason in there to choose one over the other?

Mark,
I'd agree caching is probably an appropriate place for it.

As far as the booleans, I think it's best practice. 0/1 works in most applications, but it's expecting a truth value AKA TRUE/FALSE. PHP will translate 0 to false and 1 to true, but it's seen as a string so you can run in to problems. For example 0.00 will return true instead of false because it's seen as a string and it doesn't explicitly match "0". For that reason, I've always specified TRUE/FALSE when a boolean is expected because it makes sense and is easier to think about in the literal sense rather than 0/1. More on PHP's handling of booleans here: http://php.net/manual/en/language.types.boolean.php

Thanks Ryan, good call on writing out the keywords True/False. Makes a lot of sense. Will be updating the code shortly.

This is solid, thanks for posting!

It seems a the closing parenthesis for the whole array is missing on the 'tax_query' array

Thanks PotterSys, fixing now.
EDIT: Closed tax query array properly per PotterSys comment ^

Great reference, thanks! :)

Thanks for sharing!

First of all You did a great job compiling this in one file, congrats and thanks for it.
I have posted your work on my site http://updateox.com/wordpress/wp-query-quick-reference-with-all-its-parameters/ with all of your reference of course. I hope you won't mind it.

@rabinbiswas Thanks! Don't mind at all, nice to see others find it useful.

@luetkemj -- there is nothing better, IMHO, than a pathological example to know what's going on. The next thing would be comprehensive examples, but that would be a whole lot more work.

I did notice small error. Well, its theoretically correct, but probably isn't given what preceeds. In tag_slug__and and tag_slug__in have arrays of ints for their values but I think you want an array of strings.

@adsmart, that is def an error, thanks for the catch!

Nice! Just wanted to note that you're missing the 's' parameter for searching the post title and content.

More or less passing along the search from the query string ($s) into the query...

new WP_Query("s=$s&showposts=-1");

I didn't know about that one! Very interesting, will add it tomorrow.

Added "Search Parameter " section based on r-a-y and ryanduff's suggestions.

Great job, thanks for sharing!

Very handy reference. Good job.

I just noticed that WordPress treats the 'any' value for 'post_type' differently to other values. It is treated as a special "keyword" and it cannot be in an array e.g.

$my_query = new WP_Query(array('post_type' => array('post'))); // Works
$my_query = new WP_Query(array('post_type' => array('post','page'))); // Works
$my_query = new WP_Query(array('post_type' => array('any'))); // Does not work
$my_query = new WP_Query(array('post_type' => 'any')); // Works

I think it would be worth updating this gist to reflect that.
cheers
/Eoin/

@eoinkelly
Very interesting, thanks for the catch, Gist has been updated.

I would like you to add this if you don't mind.
with :]-> 's' => $s
compare is very useful
[{ compare (string) - Operator to test. Possible values are '=', '!=', '>', '>=', '<', '<=', 'LIKE', 'NOT LIKE', 'IN', 'NOT IN', 'BETWEEN', 'NOT BETWEEN'. Default value is '='.}]

And also sentence is very useful if we want users to search for exact words (like "why search for exact words") if we use sentence = true then wordpress will search the whole sentence & depending upon the compare parameter. But if we don't use sentence parameter wordpress will split each word and search for each word in database depending upon the compare.

I hope my comment makes sense to you. I am not good with words though ;)

@saas786

Thanks for these! Will take a closer look on monday and add them.

@saas786

I added the additions you mentioned. Please review and let me know if they are accurate. From some research I found an old post that mentions an "exact" flag as well: http://wordpress.org/support/topic/how-to-search-phrases

I didn't add this as it seems that you could do the same thing with the compare parameters. Have you used "exact" before? Currently I'm leaning towards not including it here.

@luetkemj

Thanks for adding it. Yes "exact" flag / parameter is correct. @Otto is an experienced guy, so his comments are valid. I further explored it and found that compare has no impact on search query instead exact is used for comparison.

//////Search Parameter
's' => $s,

'exact' => true // if set to true then search will be like "LIKE 'search_term')" if set to false then it will be like "LIKE '%ssearch_term%s')"
'sentance' => true

you can remove the compare parameter from the list and I found no impact on query (I thought it was the compare parameter that made impact on my search query, but instead it was "exact" flag / parameter.

Thanks.

@saas786

Thanks for checking up on that, I didn't have time this morning to do an actual test. I have used a mix of the verbiage from you, myself, and Otto as well a link to the comments here for more info.

You are a good man, luetkemj.

Something I had to do today - Mix/Match Orderby:

Sort a custom post type (people) by last name (by default) or by menu_order (when the posts have a menu order entered).
The title field is always lastnamef, which made me think I could do this:
'orderby' => 'menu_order title',
It doesn't seem to work consistently for my custom post type.

But from this post:
http://wordpress.org/support/topic/order-by-slug-not-work
And from this post:
http://wordpress.stackexchange.com/questions/2969/order-by-menu-order-and-title

I deduced this - which does work:
'orderby' => 'menu_order name',

Might be worth adding.

@charlietriplett, This is really interesting! Do you know if it works to just mix and match any of the orderby options?

This should definitely be added but I want to play around with it first to get a good idea on how to document it.

Thanks!

I don't — and I don't understand why 'menu_order title' isn't just as consistent. Hrmm … But a very useful tool for sorting posts/pages. I'll be incorporating it into some automated child-nav features as well where some degree of custom ordering is desirable.

//NOTE: You should set get_query_var( 'page' ); if you want your query to work with pagination. Since Wordpress 3.0.2, you dget_query_var( 'page' ) instead of get_query_var( 'paged' ). The pagination parameter 'paged' for WP_Query() remains the same.

This is only true for a paginated single post/page and for static front page pagination. I've updated the codex with this information here:
http://codex.wordpress.org/Function_Reference/WP_Query#Pagination_Parameters

Was the codex wrong or did something change recently?

Thanks @keesiemeijer, I've actually been having issues pagination myself lately so this may be the problem. Gist has been updated.

Is there any way to sort by meta_key where the meta_value contains date string in the format mm-dd-yyyy.

@luetkemj 'author' => 1,2,3, should be 'author' => '1,2,3',

'orderby' can now take 'post__in'.

Thank you very much for all your help and useful

You make my day.
And not only this one..
This gist is very helpful.

Thanks a lot @luetkemj

Just used 'post_parent' for the first time, to return child pages. It turns out you must also set 'post_type" => 'page' before it works. That is not well documented. It would be helpful to add that to the 'post_parent' comments.

Is there a typo on line 168 - should "sentance" be "sentence"?
Thanks for the guide - it's exactly what I've being looking for.

Gist updated.

Thanks to @charlietriplett, @wpsmith, and @stvwlf for keeping an eye on this thing.

If anyone notices anything I've missed or things that have been added since 3.5 let me know so I can keep this up to date!

Perhaps I'm overlooking it, but the meta_query array accepts a 'relation' key which can have a value of either 'AND' or 'OR'.

I want make relation between post query and meta query "OR". like post_type = "post" OR (meta_key = "key" AND meta_value = "value") so how can I do that please help me out

@manifestcreative You're correct. In class WP_Meta_Query::__construct, a check for $meta_query['relation'] is made. AND is the default if none is set. The options are AND and OR.

@luetkemj, I must say I'm your number one fan, this page is one of my most consulted. Thanks a lot!!!

this link (line 173)
//Not sure what these do. For more info see: http://codex.wordpress.org/Class_Reference/WP_Query#Post_Field_Parameters

should be changed to this
http://codex.wordpress.org/Class_Reference/WP_Query#Return_Fields_Parameter

What it does is it changes the format of returned result. Say, you can pass 'fields' => 'ids' and it will return just IDs of matching posts.

Bunch of updates per @manifestcreative and @Dimasmagadan comments. Thanks!

Tons of new updates. Bringing the query up to date with things added in 3.5, 3.7, and 3.9.

Holy wow, I was slacking... sorry about that.

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