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Aggregation of research on Cave Story's file formats and important hacks for modding

Cave Story Research Compendium

A guide to Cave Story's file formats and important hacks

by fdeitylink

Last updated 2019-10-23

Rationale

  • Learning more about Cave Story for my own edification
  • File formats & important hacks weren't all published and collected
    • Actually, they are included with Miza, but I hadn't realized this when beginning

Notes

  • Some information may be incorrect - S.P. Gardebiter's guides are a bit old. Feel free to tell me of any information that is incorrect or in need of an update.
  • Cave Story was made for Windows and x86 architecture, which leads to some nuances to look out for
    • Newlines are encoded as \r\n (affects TSC)
    • Multibyte data is encoded in little endian format

Credits

Big thanks to all of the following people for much of the following information!

  • Carrotlord for the TSC file format
  • q3hardcore for the (C)Pixel requirement removal hack
  • S.P. Gardebiter for the PXA file format values, the executable mapdata format, and the npc.tbl format
  • Noxid for Booster's Lab
    • Used to determine how particular edits affected the files
    • Provided newest information, especially tileset and sound values for npc.tbl

WIthout further ado, let's begin!

Flags

Setting Flags

Bitwise OR the current flags with the flag to set

flags |= flag

Unsetting Flags

Bitwise XOR the flag to set with 0b1111_1111

Bitwise AND the current flags with that result

flags &= (flag ^ 0xFF)

Checking Flags

Bitwise AND the current flags with the flag to check

Returns flag if it is set, 0 otherwise

is_set = (flags & flag)

TSC File Format

  • The encoding character is the middle character in the file (i.e. the character at floor(file_size / 2).
    • For example, if the file size is 313 bytes, the encoding character is at the 156th byte.
  • During encoding, all characters in the file, except for the encoding character itself, have the value of the encoding character added to them.
    • To be clear, the encoding character itself, at the middle of the file, is not encoding, but other instances of it can be. If the encoding character was a, that one instance of a would not be encoded, but others would be.
  • To encode a TSC file, add the value of the encoding character to all characters except for the encoding character.
    • To be clear, do not encode the middle byte of the file
  • It then follows that to decode a TSC file, subtract the value of the encoding character from each character
  • Also note that newlines in TSC files are Windows-style ("\r\n"), so they take up two bytes that should each be treated as independent characters when encoding and decoding.

Removing the (C)Pixel Requirement

Offset Old Value New Value
0x1136C 0x74 0xEB
0x8C4D8 0x28 0x00

In every .pbm file, find the (C)Pixel at the end and replace the ( with the null character (0x00)

Enabling bitmaps

Offset Old Value New Value
0x8C286, 0x8C30A, 0x8C32E 0x70 0x62
0x8C287, 0x8C30B, 0x8C32F 0x62 0x6D
0x8C288, 0x8C30C, 0x8C330 0x6D 0x70

npc.tbl Format

  • Cave Story has 361 (0x169) entities numbered from 0 to 360
  • npc.tbl contains 11 sets of data. The starting address of each set is a multiple of 0x169.
  • Each set of data contains the corresponding value for each entity, in order.
    • For example: At offset 0x02D2 is the Health data for entity 0. At offset 0x02D4 is the Health data for entity 1.
Offset Description Size per Entity (bytes)
0x0000 Flags 2
0x02D2 Health 2
0x05A4 Tileset Number 1
0x070D Death Sound 1
0x0876 Hurt Sound 1
0x09DF Death Smoke 1
0x0B48 Experience 4
0x10EC Damage 4
0x1690 Collision Bounding Box 4
0x1C34 Display Bounding Box 4

Flags

Byte 1

  • 0x01: Solid
  • 0x02: No effect about Tile 44
  • 0x04: Invulnerable (Blink Sound)
  • 0x08: Ignore solid
  • 0x10: Bouncing at top
  • 0x20: Shootable
  • 0x40: Special Solid
  • 0x80: Rear and top no damage

Byte 2

  • 0x01: Call Event on Contact
  • 0x02: Call Event on Death
  • 0x04: Drop Hearts and EXP [Unused]
  • 0x08: Visible if FlagID is set
  • 0x10: Spawn with Alternate Direction
  • 0x20: Call Event on Interaction
  • 0x40: Invisible if FlagID is set
  • 0x80: Show Damage Numbers ? ("Interactable" in Booster's Lab)

Tilesets

  • 0x00: title.pbm
  • 0x01: '2004.12 Studio Pixel'
  • 0x02: Current map tileset
  • 0x03: [Unused]
  • 0x04: [Unused]
  • 0x05: [Unused]
  • 0x06: Fade.pbm
  • 0x07: [Unused]
  • 0x08: ItemImage.pbm
  • 0x09: Map System Buffer
  • 0x0A: Screen Buffer
  • 0x0B: Arms.pbm
  • 0x0C: ArmsImage.pbm
  • 0x0D: MNA Text Buffer
  • 0x0E: StageImage.pbm
  • 0x0F: Loading.pbm
  • 0x10: MyChar.pbm
  • 0x11: Bullet.pbm
  • 0x12: [Unused]
  • 0x13: Caret.pbm
  • 0x14: Npc/NpcSym.pbm
  • 0x15: Map NPC Set 1
  • 0x16: Map NPC Set 2
  • 0x17: Npc/NpcRegu.pbm
  • 0x18: [Unused]
  • 0x19: [Unused]
  • 0x1A: TextBox.pbm
  • 0x1B: Face.pbm
  • 0x1C: Current Map BG
  • 0x1D: Damage # Buffer
  • 0x1E: Textbox Buffer 1
  • 0x1F: Textbox Buffer 2
  • 0x20: Textbox Buffer 3
  • 0x21: [???]
  • 0x22: [Unused]
  • 0x23: Credits Buffer 1
  • 0x24: Credits Buffer 2
  • 0x25: Credits Buffer 3
  • 0x26: [Unused]
  • 0x27: [Unused]

Hurt / Death Sounds

  • 0x00: [Nothing]
  • 0x01: Blip
  • 0x02: Message Typing
  • 0x03: Bonk
  • 0x04: Weapon Switching
  • 0x05: Menu Prompt?
  • 0x06: Critter hop
  • 0x07: Silent?
  • 0x08: Low charge sound
  • 0x09: [Nothing?]
  • 0x0A: [Nothing?]
  • 0x0B: Door
  • 0x0C: Block Destroy
  • 0x0D: [Nothing?]
  • 0x0E: Get EXP
  • 0x0F: Quote Jump
  • 0x10: Taking Damage
  • 0x11: Death
  • 0x12: [Menu?]
  • 0x13: [Nothing?]
  • 0x14: Health/Ammo Refill
  • 0x15: Bubble
  • 0x16: Chest open
  • 0x17: Thud
  • 0x18: Walking
  • 0x19: Enemy killed?
  • 0x1A: Quake
  • 0x1B: Level up
  • 0x1C: Shot hit
  • 0x1D: Teleport
  • 0x1E: Critter jump
  • 0x1F: Ting
  • 0x20: Polar Star lvl
  • 0x21: Fireball
  • 0x22: Fireball bounce
  • 0x23: Explosion
  • 0x24: [Nothing?]
  • 0x25: No Ammo
  • 0x26: Get item?
  • 0x27: [bvng] Em fire? - taken from BL, what is em?
  • 0x28: Water
  • 0x29: Water
  • 0x2A: Get Missile [Beep]
  • 0x2B: Computer [Beep]
  • 0x2C: Missile Hit
  • 0x2D: EXP Bounce
  • 0x2E: Ironhead Shot
  • 0x2F: Explosion 2?
  • 0x30: Bubble pop
  • 0x31: Spur lvl 1
  • 0x32: Sqeek!
  • 0x33: Squeal!
  • 0x34: Roar
  • 0x35: Eyoww
  • 0x36: Thud
  • 0x37: Squeek
  • 0x38: Splash
  • 0x39: Little damage sound
  • 0x3A: [chik]
  • 0x3B: Spur Charge (lowest)
  • 0x3C: Spur Charge (lower)
  • 0x3D: Spur Charge (higher)
  • 0x3E: Spur lvl 2
  • 0x3F: Spur lvl 3
  • 0x40: Spur MAX
  • 0x41: Spur full?
  • 0x42: [Nothing?]
  • 0x43: [Nothing?]
  • 0x44: [Nothing?]
  • 0x45: [Nothing?]
  • 0x46: Tiny Explosion
  • 0x47: Medium Explosion
  • 0x48: Large Explosion
  • 0x49: [Nothing?]
  • 0x4A: [Nothing?]
  • 0x4B: [Nothing?]
  • 0x4C: [Nothing?]
  • 0x4D: [Nothing?]
  • 0x4E: [Nothing?]
  • 0x4F: [Nothing?]
  • 0x50: [Nothing?]
  • 0x51: [Nothing?]
  • 0x52: [Nothing?]
  • 0x53: [Nothing?]
  • 0x54: [Nothing?]
  • 0x55: [Nothing?]
  • 0x56: [Nothing?]
  • 0x57: [Nothing?]
  • 0x58: [Nothing?]
  • 0x59: [Nothing?]
  • 0x5A: [Nothing?]
  • 0x5B: [Nothing?]
  • 0x5C: [Nothing?]
  • 0x5D: [Nothing?]
  • 0x5E: [Nothing?]
  • 0x5F: [Nothing?]
  • 0x60: [Nothing?]
  • 0x61: [Nothing?]
  • 0x62: [Nothing?]
  • 0x63: [Nothing?]
  • 0x64: Bubbler lvl 3
  • 0x65: Lightning
  • 0x66: Sandcroc Bite
  • 0x67: Curly Charge
  • 0x68: Hit Invisible Block
  • 0x69: Puppy Bark
  • 0x6A: Blade whoosh
  • 0x6B: Block Move
  • 0x6C: Power Critter Jump
  • 0x6D: Critter Fly
  • 0x6E: Power Critter Fly
  • 0x6F: Thud
  • 0x70: Bigger thud
  • 0x71: [pshew] Helicopter?
  • 0x72: Core hurt
  • 0x73: Core thrust
  • 0x74: Core super charge
  • 0x75: Nemesis?
  • 0x76: [Nothing?]
  • 0x77: [Nothing?]
  • 0x78: [Nothing?]
  • 0x79: [Nothing?]
  • 0x7A: [Nothing?]
  • 0x7B: [Nothing?]
  • 0x7C: [Nothing?]
  • 0x7D: [Nothing?]
  • 0x7E: [Nothing?]
  • 0x7F: [Nothing?]
  • 0x80: [Nothing?]
  • 0x81: [Nothing?]
  • 0x82: [Nothing?]
  • 0x83: [Nothing?]
  • 0x84: [Nothing?]
  • 0x85: [Nothing?]
  • 0x86: [Nothing?]
  • 0x87: [Nothing?]
  • 0x88: [Nothing?]
  • 0x89: [Nothing?]
  • 0x90: [Nothing?]
  • 0x91: [Nothing?]
  • 0x92: [Nothing?]
  • 0x93: [Nothing?]
  • 0x94: [Nothing?]
  • 0x95: [Nothing?]
  • 0x96: BASS01
  • 0x97: SNARE01
  • 0x98: HICLOSE
  • 0x99: HIOPEN
  • 0x9A: TOM01
  • 0x9B: PER01

Smoke

  • 0x01: None
  • 0x02: Small amount
  • 0x03: Medium amount
  • 0x04: Large amount

Bounding Box Addresses

From the beginning of each entity's section

  • 0x00: Left
  • 0x01: Top
  • 0x02: Right
  • 0x03: Bottom

Map Formats

Map Metadata

  • Applies to freeware executable and CS+ stage.tbl file
  • Begins at offset 0x937B0 in freeware executable
Offset (from beginning of each map section) Description Size (bytes)
0x00 Tileset name 32
0x20 Filename 32
0x40 Background Scrolling Type 4
0x44 Background Name 32
0x64 NPC Spritesheet 1 32
0x84 NPC Spritesheet 2 32
0xA4 Major Boss 1
0xA5 Map Name 35

Background Scrolling Types

  • 0x00: No Scrolling
  • 0x01: Slow Scrolling
  • 0x02: Equal Scrolling
  • 0x03: Water-Style
  • 0x04: Null
  • 0x05: Auto Scrolling
  • 0x06: Cloud-Style [Gravity: Left]
  • 0x07: Cloud-Style [Gravity: Normal]

Major Bosses

  • 0x00: No Major Boss
  • 0x01: Omega
  • 0x02: Balfrog
  • 0x03: Monster X
  • 0x04: The Core
  • 0x05: Iron Head
  • 0x06: Dragon Sisters
  • 0x07: Undead Core
  • 0x08: Heavy Press
  • 0x09: Ballos

PXM File Format

Note: Maps must have a minimum size of 21x16

Offset Description Size (bytes)
0x00 "PXM" 3
0x03 0x10 1
0x04 Map length 2
0x06 Map height 2
Rest of the file Tile index (left to right then top to bottom) 1

PXE File Format

Offset Description Size (bytes)
0x00 "PXE" 3
0x03 0x00 1
0x04 Entity count 4
Rest of the file Entity 12

Entity Format

Offset (from beginning of each entity section) Description Size (bytes)
0x00 x coordinate 2
0x02 y coordinate 2
0x06 flag number 2
0x08 event number 2
0x0A type 2
0x0C flags 2

PXA File Format

  • No header
  • Array of tile types corresponding to tiles in a tileset (left to right then top to bottom)
  • Tilesets have up to 16x16 tiles, so PXA files are always 256 bytes - fill in 0x00 for tiles not in the tileset

Flags

  • 0x01: Special
  • 0x02: Special
  • 0x04: Special
  • 0x08: Special
  • 0x10: Slope
  • 0x20: Water
  • 0x40: Foreground
  • 0x80: Wind

Null (0x00)

  • 0x00: Null
  • 0x01: Background Tile
  • 0x02: Background Water
  • 0x03: Background NPC-Blocker Tile [Unused]
  • 0x04: Background NPC-Blocker Tile [Unused]
  • 0x05: Background Shoot-Passer Tile [Unused]
  • 0x06: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x07: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x08: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x09: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x0A: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x0B: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x0C: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x0D: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x0E: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x0F: Background Tile [Unused]

Slope (0x10)

  • 0x10: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x11: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x12: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x13: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x14: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x15: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x16: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x17: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x18: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x19: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x1A: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x1B: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x1C: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x1D: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x1E: Background Tile [Unused]
  • 0x1F: Background Tile [Unused]

Water (0x20)

  • 0x20: Null [Unused]
  • 0x21: Null [Unused]
  • 0x22: Null [Unused]
  • 0x23: Null [Unused]
  • 0x24: Null [Unused]
  • 0x25: Null [Unused]
  • 0x26: Null [Unused]
  • 0x27: Null [Unused]
  • 0x28: Null [Unused]
  • 0x29: Null [Unused]
  • 0x2A: Null [Unused]
  • 0x2B: Null [Unused]
  • 0x2C: Null [Unused]
  • 0x2D: Null [Unused]
  • 0x2E: Null [Unused]
  • 0x2F: Null [Unused]

Slope + Water (0x30)

  • 0x30: Null [Unused]
  • 0x31: Null [Unused]
  • 0x32: Null [Unused]
  • 0x33: Null [Unused]
  • 0x34: Null [Unused]
  • 0x35: Null [Unused]
  • 0x36: Null [Unused]
  • 0x37: Null [Unused]
  • 0x38: Null [Unused]
  • 0x39: Null [Unused]
  • 0x3A: Null [Unused]
  • 0x3B: Null [Unused]
  • 0x3C: Null [Unused]
  • 0x3D: Null [Unused]
  • 0x3E: Null [Unused]
  • 0x3F: Null [Unused]

Foreground (0x40)

  • 0x40: Foreground Tile
  • 0x41: Solid Tile
  • 0x42: 10 Damage Foreground Tile
  • 0x43: Special Block Tile
  • 0x44: Foreground NPC-Blocker Tile
  • 0x45: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x46: Character-Blocker Tile [Unused]
  • 0x47: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x48: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x49: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x4A: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x4B: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x4C: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x4D: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x4E: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x4F: Foreground Tile [Unused]

Foreground + Slope (0x50)

  • 0x50: Slope Tile
  • 0x51: Slope Tile
  • 0x52: Slope Tile
  • 0x53: Slope Tile
  • 0x54: Slope Tile
  • 0x55: Slope Tile
  • 0x56: Slope Tile
  • 0x57: Slope Tile
  • 0x58: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x59: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x5A: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x5B: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x5C: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x5D: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x5E: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x5F: Foreground Tile [Unused]

Foreground + Water (0x60)

  • 0x60: Foreground Water
  • 0x61: Solid Tile [Unused]
  • 0x62: 10 Damage Foreground Water Tile [Red]
  • 0x63: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x64: Foreground NPC-Blocker Tile [Unused]
  • 0x65: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x66: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x67: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x68: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x69: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x6A: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x6B: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x6C: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x6D: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x6E: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x6F: Foreground Tile [Unused]

Foreground + Slope + Water (0x70)

  • 0x70: Slope Tile [Water]
  • 0x71: Slope Tile [Water]
  • 0x72: Slope Tile [Water]
  • 0x73: Slope Tile [Water]
  • 0x74: Slope Tile [Water]
  • 0x75: Slope Tile [Water]
  • 0x76: Slope Tile [Water]
  • 0x77: Slope Tile [Water]
  • 0x78: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x79: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x7A: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x7B: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x7C: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x7D: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x7E: Foreground Tile [Unused]
  • 0x7F: Foreground Tile [Unused]

Wind (0x80)

  • 0x80: Wind [Left]
  • 0x81: Wind [Up]
  • 0x82: Wind [Right]
  • 0x83: Wind [Down]
  • 0x84: Null [Unused]
  • 0x85: Null [Unused]
  • 0x86: Null [Unused]
  • 0x87: Null [Unused]
  • 0x88: Null [Unused]
  • 0x89: Null [Unused]
  • 0x8A: Null [Unused]
  • 0x8B: Null [Unused]
  • 0x8C: Null [Unused]
  • 0x8D: Null [Unused]
  • 0x8E: Null [Unused]
  • 0x8F: Null [Unused]

Wind + Slope (0x90)

  • 0x90: Null [Unused]
  • 0x91: Null [Unused]
  • 0x92: Null [Unused]
  • 0x93: Null [Unused]
  • 0x94: Null [Unused]
  • 0x95: Null [Unused]
  • 0x96: Null [Unused]
  • 0x97: Null [Unused]
  • 0x98: Null [Unused]
  • 0x99: Null [Unused]
  • 0x9A: Null [Unused]
  • 0x9B: Null [Unused]
  • 0x9C: Null [Unused]
  • 0x9D: Null [Unused]
  • 0x9E: Null [Unused]
  • 0x9F: Null [Unused]

Wind + Water (0xA0)

  • 0xA0: Water Wind [Left]
  • 0xA1: Water Wind [Up]
  • 0xA2: Water Wind [Right]
  • 0xA3: Water Wind [Down]
  • 0xA4: Null [Unused]
  • 0xA5: Null [Unused]
  • 0xA6: Null [Unused]
  • 0xA7: Null [Unused]
  • 0xA8 :Null [Unused]
  • 0xA9: Null [Unused]
  • 0xAA: Null [Unused]
  • 0xAB: Null [Unused]
  • 0xAC: Null [Unused]
  • 0xAD: Null [Unused]
  • 0xAE: Null [Unused]
  • 0xAF: Null [Unused]

Wind + Slope + Water (0xB0)

  • 0xB0: Null [Unused]
  • 0xB1: Null [Unused]
  • 0xB2: Null [Unused]
  • 0xB3: Null [Unused]
  • 0xB4: Null [Unused]
  • 0xB5: Null [Unused]
  • 0xB6: Null [Unused]
  • 0xB7: Null [Unused]
  • 0xB8: Null [Unused]
  • 0xB9: Null [Unused]
  • 0xBA: Null [Unused]
  • 0xBB: Null [Unused]
  • 0xBC: Null [Unused]
  • 0xBD: Null [Unused]
  • 0xBE: Null [Unused]
  • 0xBF: Null [Unused]

Wind + Foreground (0xC0)

  • 0xC0: Null [Unused]
  • 0xC1: Null [Unused]
  • 0xC2: Null [Unused]
  • 0xC3: Null [Unused]
  • 0xC4: Null [Unused]
  • 0xC5: Null [Unused]
  • 0xC6: Null [Unused]
  • 0xC7: Null [Unused]
  • 0xC8: Null [Unused]
  • 0xC9: Null [Unused]
  • 0xCA: Null [Unused]
  • 0xCB: Null [Unused]
  • 0xCC: Null [Unused]
  • 0xCD: Null [Unused]
  • 0xCE: Null [Unused]
  • 0xCF: Null [Unused]

Wind + Foreground + Slope (0xD0)

  • 0xD0: Null [Unused]
  • 0xD1: Null [Unused]
  • 0xD2: Null [Unused]
  • 0xD3: Null [Unused]
  • 0xD4: Null [Unused]
  • 0xD5: Null [Unused]
  • 0xD6: Null [Unused]
  • 0xD7: Null [Unused]
  • 0xD8: Null [Unused]
  • 0xD9: Null [Unused]
  • 0xDA: Null [Unused]
  • 0xDB: Null [Unused]
  • 0xDC: Null [Unused]
  • 0xDD: Null [Unused]
  • 0xDE: Null [Unused]
  • 0xDF: Null [Unused]

Wind + Foreground + Water (0xE0)

  • 0xE0: Null [Unused]
  • 0xE1: Null [Unused]
  • 0xE2: Null [Unused]
  • 0xE3: Null [Unused]
  • 0xE4: Null [Unused]
  • 0xE5: Null [Unused]
  • 0xE6: Null [Unused]
  • 0xE7: Null [Unused]
  • 0xE8: Null [Unused]
  • 0xE9: Null [Unused]
  • 0xEA: Null [Unused]
  • 0xEB: Null [Unused]
  • 0xEC: Null [Unused]
  • 0xED: Null [Unused]
  • 0xEE: Null [Unused]
  • 0xEF: Null [Unused]

Wind + Foreground + Slope + Water (0xF0)

  • 0xF0: Null [Unused]
  • 0xF1: Null [Unused]
  • 0xF2: Null [Unused]
  • 0xF3: Null [Unused]
  • 0xF4: Null [Unused]
  • 0xF5: Null [Unused]
  • 0xF6: Null [Unused]
  • 0xF7: Null [Unused]
  • 0xF8: Null [Unused]
  • 0xF9: Null [Unused]
  • 0xFA: Null [Unused]
  • 0xFB: Null [Unused]
  • 0xFC: Null [Unused]
  • 0xFD: Null [Unused]
  • 0xFE: Null [Unused]
  • 0xFF: Null [Unused]
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