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GitHub Markup Reference

GitHub Markup Reference

GitHub supports a number of lightweight markup languages (see GitHub Markup).

Note that after rendering, GitHub performs aggressive sanitization on the resulting HTML, including removal of script tags, style attributes, class attributes, etc. See the GitHub Markup repository for more information.

License

Creative Commons License

GitHub Markup Reference by Chris Tollefson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY-4.0) License. See z_LICENSE.md.

Copyright © 2017-2020 Chris Tollefson

GitHub Markdown Reference

  1. Introduction
  2. Headings and Thematic Breaks
  3. Paragraphs and Line Breaks
  4. Text Formatting
  5. Hyperlinks
  6. Images
  7. Code Formatting
  8. Quotations
  9. Lists
  10. Tables
  11. HTML
  12. References
  13. License

Introduction

GitHub will render Markdown files:

  • .md
  • .mkdn
  • .mdown
  • .markdown

Markdown is a markup for composing documents using a lightweight syntax for basic formatting. GitHub support for Markdown markup is extensive, including syntax highlighting in source editors. Inline HTML is generally supported.

TODO:

  • describe structure of this document, code examples

Testing...

Heading? SOMETIMES following html tag can't be indented more than 3 spaces.

More text.

regular markdown? OK for following html tag to be indented.


More text.

HR? SOMETIMES following tag can't be indented more than 3 spaces.

html tags can be indented, but the first tag of a block can't be indented too far, otherwise by markdown it will be treated as a code block.

blank line to break out of html block and revert to markdown.

html blocks can be resumed after markdown, and even indented beyond code blocks. exception: after heading/hr markdown, resuming html block can't be indented too far

TODO - headings and thematic breaks TODO - document html attributes TODO - tables - markdown, rendered html, display example

Headings and Thematic Breaks

Atx Headings

Markdown Code Rendered HTML Code
# Atx Heading 1

## Atx Heading 2

### Atx Heading 3

#### Atx Heading 4

##### Atx Heading 5

###### Atx Heading 6

####### Not a heading.
<h1><a ...section link code />Atx Heading 1</h1>
<h2><a ...section link code />Atx Heading 2</h2>
<h3><a ...section link code />Atx Heading 3</h3>
<h4><a ...section link code />Atx Heading 4</h4>
<h5><a ...section link code />Atx Heading 5</h5>
<h6><a ...section link code />Atx Heading 6</h6>
<p>####### Not a heading.</p>
Rendered Output                                                                                                                                                                                

Atx Heading 1

Atx Heading 2

Atx Heading 3

Atx Heading 4

Atx Heading 5
Atx Heading 6

####### Not a heading.

Notes:
  • The line begins with 0 to 3 spaces ( ).
  • Followed by 1 to 6 number signs (#).
  • Optionally followed by heading text, which, if included, must be preceded by 1 or more spaces ( ).
  • Optionally followed by 1 or more number signs (#), which, if included, must be preceded by 1 or more spaces ( ).
  • Optionally followed by trailing whitespace.
  • Some Markdown works within the heading text.
Reference:

🔝

Setext Headings

Markdown Code Rendered HTML Code
Setext Heading 1
================

Setext Heading 2
----------------
<h1><a ...section link code />Setext Heading 1</h1>
<h2><a ...section link code />Setext Heading 2</h2>
Rendered Output                                                                                                                                                                                

Setext Heading 1

Setext Heading 2

Notes:
  • A preceding blank line is necessary in some cases.
  • Heading text lines:
    • Preceded by 0 to 3 spaces ( ).
    • Followed by optional trailing whitespace.
    • Some Markdown works within the heading text.
  • Multiple text lines are permitted, but no blank lines between heading text lines and/or underline.
  • Underline:
    • The line begins with 0 to 3 spaces ( ).
    • Followed by either:
      • 1 or more equal signs (=) for larger heading. Or...
      • 1 or more hyphens (-) for smaller heading.
    • Followed by optional trailing whitespace.
Reference:

🔝

HTML Headings

Markdown Code Rendered HTML Code
<h1>HTML Heading 1</h1>

<h2>HTML Heading 2</h2>

<h3>HTML Heading 3</h3>

<h4>HTML Heading 4</h4>

<h5>HTML Heading 5</h5>

<h6>HTML Heading 6</h6>

<h7>Not a heading...</h7>

<h8>...just a paragraph.</h8>

<div itemscope>
  <h1 accesskey="A"
      align="center"
      dir="ltr"
      itemprop="heading"
      lang="en-US"
      tabindex="1"
      title="Example heading">
    Heading with attributes
  </h1>
</div>
<h1><a ...section link code />HTML Heading 1</h1>
<h2><a ...section link code />HTML Heading 2</h2>
<h3><a ...section link code />HTML Heading 3</h3>
<h4><a ...section link code />HTML Heading 4</h4>
<h5><a ...section link code />HTML Heading 5</h5>
<h6><a ...section link code />HTML Heading 6</h6>
<p>Not a heading...</p>
<p>...just a paragraph.</p>
<div itemscope="">
  <h1 accesskey="A" align="center" dir="ltr" itemprop="heading" lang="en-US" tabindex="1" title="Example heading"><a ...section link code />
    Heading with attributes
  </h1>
</div>
Rendered Output                                                                                                                                                                                

HTML Heading 1

HTML Heading 2

HTML Heading 3

HTML Heading 4

HTML Heading 5
HTML Heading 6

Not a heading...

...just a paragraph.

Heading with attributes

Reference:

🔝

Horizontal Rules

Markdown Code Rendered HTML Code
---

***

___

<hr>

<div itemscope>
  <hr accesskey="B"
      align="right"
      color="red"
      dir="ltr"
      itemprop="horizontalrule"
      lang="en-US"
      noshade
      size="1px"
      tabindex="2"
      title="Example horizontal rule"
      width="50%">
</div>
<hr>
<hr>
<hr>
<hr>
<div itemscope="">
  <hr accesskey="B" align="right" color="red" dir="ltr" itemprop="horizontalrule" lang="en-US" noshade="" size="1px" tabindex="2" title="Example horizontal rule" width="50%">
</div>
Rendered Output                                                                                                                                                                                





Notes:
  • For hyphens (-), the line must be preceded by a blank line.
  • The line begins with 0 to 3 spaces ( ).
  • Followed by either:
    • 3 or more hyphens (-), optionally interspersed with 0 or more spaces ( ). Or...
    • 3 or more asterisks (*), optionally interspersed with 0 or more spaces ( ). Or...
    • 3 or more underscores (_), optionally interspersed with 0 or more spaces ( ).
  • Followed by optional trailing whitespace.
Reference:

🔝

Paragraphs and Line Breaks

Markdown Code Rendered HTML Code
A line ending with two spaces (`  `) will produce a line-break.  
A line ending with a back-slash (`\`) will produce a line-break.\
A line ending with an HTML `<br>` tag will produce a line-break.<br>
Otherwise, consecutive lines ending with normal new-lines
will continue the same line and paragraph.

A line preceded by a blank line will produce a new paragraph.
<p>Text within HTML <code>&lt;p&gt;</code> tags will produce a new paragraph.</p>

<div itemscope="">
  <p accesskey="C"
     align="right"
     dir="ltr"
     itemprop="paragraph"
     lang="en-US"
     tabindex="3"
     title="Example paragraph">
    A paragraph with a line break
    <br accesskey="D"
        clear="none"
        dir="ltr"
        itemprop="break"
        lang="en-US"
        tabindex="4"
        title="Example break">
    and attributes.
  </p>
</div>
<p>A line ending with two spaces (<code>  </code>) will produce a line-break.<br>
A line ending with a back-slash (<code>\</code>) will produce a line-break.<br>
A line ending with an HTML <code>&lt;br&gt;</code> tag will produce a line-break.<br>
Otherwise, consecutive lines ending with normal new-lines
will continue the same line and paragraph.</p>
<p>A line preceded by a blank line will produce a new paragraph.</p>
<p>Text within HTML <code>&lt;p&gt;</code> tags will produce a new paragraph.</p>
<div itemscope="">
  <p accesskey="C" align="right" dir="ltr" itemprop="paragraph" lang="en-US" tabindex="3" title="Example paragraph">
    A paragraph with a line break
    <br accesskey="D" clear="none" dir="ltr" itemprop="break" lang="en-US" tabindex="4" title="Example break">
    and attributes.
  </p>
</div>
Rendered Output                                                                                                                                                                                

A line ending with two spaces ( ) will produce a line-break.
A line ending with a back-slash (\) will produce a line-break.
A line ending with an HTML <br> tag will produce a line-break.
Otherwise, consecutive lines ending with normal new-lines will continue the same line and paragraph.

A line preceded by a blank line will produce a new paragraph.

Text within HTML <p> tags will produce a new paragraph.

A paragraph with a line break
and attributes.

Notes:
  • A preceding blank line is necessary in some cases.
  • The first line of a paragraph begins with 0 to 3 spaces ( ).
  • Subsequent lines within the same paragraph may begin with 0 or more spaces ( ).
  • Multiple consecutive spaces within the text will be consolidated into a single space ( ).
  • The final line of a paragraph may optionally be followed by trailing whitespace.
  • Multiple consecutive blank lines will be consolidated to produce a single new paragraph.
Reference:

🔝

Text Formatting

Code:
**Bold** or
__bold__ or
<b>bold</b> or
<strong>bold</strong>.

*Italic* or
_italic_ or
<i>italic</i> or
<em>italic</em>.

*Mix and match **nested** formatting.*

<ins cite="https://example.com/optional-reference">Underline</ins>.

~~Strikethrough~~ or
<s>strikethrough</s> or
<del cite="https://example.com/optional-reference">strikethrough</del> or
<strike>strikethrough (deprecated in HTML5)</strike>.

Super<sup>script</sup> or
sub<sub>script</sub>.

HTML named character entities, like&nbsp;non&#160;breaking&#x00A0;spaces.

Emoji, by Markdown code like :smiley:,
Unicode hexadecimal like &#x1F603;,
Unicode decimal like &#128515;,
or literal like 😃.

<ruby>Ruby annotations <rp>(</rp><rt>Usually used as pronunciation guide for East Asian writing</rt><rp>)</rp></ruby>.
Example:

Bold or bold or bold or bold.

Italic or italic or italic or italic.

Mix and match nested formatting.

Underline.

Strikethrough or strikethrough or strikethrough or strikethrough (deprecated in HTML5).

Superscript or subscript.

HTML named character entities, like non breaking spaces.

Emoji, by Markdown code like 😃, Unicode hexadecimal like 😃, Unicode decimal like 😃, or literal like 😃.

Ruby annotations (Usually used as pronunciation guide for East Asian writing).

Reference:

🔝

Escaping Markdown Code

Code:
Markdown control characters can be \*escaped\* with back-slashes.
Example:

Markdown control characters can be *escaped* with back-slashes.

Reference:

🔝

Hyperlinks

Code:
Autolink to <https://www.example.com/> or just https://www.example.com/

Autolink to <someone@example.com> or just someone@example.com

[Inline link to some URL](<https://www.example.com/> "Optional title")

[Inline link to some email address](<mailto:someone@example.com> "Optional title")

<a href="https://www.example.com/" title="Optional title">HTML link to some URL</a>

<a href="mailto:someone@example.com" title="Optional title">HTML link to some email address</a>
Example:

Autolink to https://www.example.com/ or just https://www.example.com/

Autolink to someone@example.com or just someone@example.com

Inline link to some URL

Inline link to some email address

HTML link to some URL

HTML link to some email address

Reference:

🔝

Relative Links

Code:
[Relative link](<./a3af6d902a74a0afd1c2d79aadc9bb3f> "Optional title")

[Link to site root](</> "Optional title")

[Link to this directory's parent directory](<..> "Optional title")

[Link to this document's directory](<.> "Optional title")

[Section link](<#relative-links> "Optional title")

[Link to the top of this document](<#> "Optional title")

<a href="./a3af6d902a74a0afd1c2d79aadc9bb3f" title="Optional title">HTML relative link</a>

<a href="/" title="Optional title">HTML link to site root</a>

<a href=".." title="Optional title">HTML link to this directory's parent directory</a>

<a href="." title="Optional title">HTML link to this document's directory</a>

<a href="#relative-links" title="Optional title">HTML section link</a>

<a href="#" title="Optional title">HTML link to the top of this document</a>
Example:

Relative link

Link to site root

Link to this directory's parent directory

Link to this document's directory

Section link

Link to the top of this document

HTML relative link

HTML link to site root

HTML link to this directory's parent directory

HTML link to this document's directory

HTML section link

HTML link to the top of this document

Reference:

🔝

Reference Links

Code:
Put the [reference link text][Reference link ID] inline within the document text.

If the link text matches the [Reference link ID][], then the link ID can be left blank.

Or, if the link text matches the [Reference link ID], then the link ID can be omitted entirely — but it cannot be followed by a colon (`:`), otherwise it will be treated as a reference URL instead, and will be stripped from the rendered document.

Put the reference URL anywhere in the document (for example, at the very bottom); it will not be visible in the rendered document.  Relative URLs and section URLs are valid.

[Reference link ID]: <https://example.com/> "Optional title"
Example:

Put the reference link text inline within the document text.

If the link text matches the Reference link ID, then the link ID can be left blank.

Or, if the link text matches the Reference link ID, then the link ID can be omitted entirely — but it cannot be followed by a colon (:), otherwise it will be treated as a reference URL instead, and will be stripped from the rendered document.

Put the reference URL anywhere in the document (for example, at the very bottom); it will not be visible in the rendered document. Relative URLs and section URLs are valid.

Reference:

🔝

Issues, PRs, Commits, Mentions

TODO

Mentioning a @username or @organization/team-name in GitHub will trigger a notification to that user/team in some cases.

🔝

Images

Handy 16x16 icons:

github trac npm pypi www wiki

Code:
Inline image:

![Inline image alt text](<https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/30203863/71215319-517d2a80-22af-11ea-9ca8-206a2162c1cb.png> "Optional image title")

Reference image:

![Reference image alt text][Reference image ID]

The reference image URL can be specified anywhere in the document; it will not be visible in the rendered document.

[Reference image ID]: <https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/30203863/71215319-517d2a80-22af-11ea-9ca8-206a2162c1cb.png> "Optional image title"

HTML image:

<img src="https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/30203863/71215319-517d2a80-22af-11ea-9ca8-206a2162c1cb.png"
     alt="HTML image alt text"
     title="Optional image title"
/>
Example:

Inline image:

Inline image alt text

Reference image:

Reference image alt text

The reference image URL can be specified anywhere in the document; it will not be visible in the rendered document.

HTML image:

HTML image alt text

HACK: To host an image on GitHub, drag and drop the image file into a "Comment" box (for example, in issues, pull requests, at the bottom of Gists, etc.). This will cause the image file to be uploaded to GitHub's servers, and will generate the Markdown code for the image file. Copy the generated Markdown code, and paste it into your Markdown file. (No need to actually post the comment once the image file has already been uploaded.)

Uploading images to GitHub

Reference:

🔝

Image Alignment and Size

TODO: br clear

Code:
Center-aligned, and resized:

<div align="center">
  <img src="https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/30203863/71215319-517d2a80-22af-11ea-9ca8-206a2162c1cb.png"
       alt="HTML image alt text"
       title="Optional image title"
       width="100px"
  />
</div>

NOTE: Center-alignment doesn't work when applied to the `<img>` element directly; it must be applied to a surrounding block-level element such as `<div>` or `<p>`.

Right-aligned, and resized:

<img src="https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/30203863/71215319-517d2a80-22af-11ea-9ca8-206a2162c1cb.png"
     alt="HTML image alt text"
     title="Optional image title"
     align="right"
     width="100px"
/>
Example:

Center-aligned, and resized:

HTML image alt text

NOTE: Center-alignment doesn't work when applied to the <img> element directly; it must be applied to a surrounding block-level element such as <div> or <p>.

Right-aligned, and resized:

HTML image alt text

Reference:

🔝

Image Links

Code:
To make an image into a link, start with the normal format for a hyperlink, then replace the link's text with the code for an image:

[![Image alt text](<https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/30203863/71215319-517d2a80-22af-11ea-9ca8-206a2162c1cb.png> "Optional image title")](<https://octodex.github.com/> "Optional link title")

Or use HTML:

<a href="https://octodex.github.com/" title="Optional link title">
  <img alt="Image alt text"
       title="Optional image title"
       src="https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/30203863/71215319-517d2a80-22af-11ea-9ca8-206a2162c1cb.png"
  />
</a>
Example:

To make an image into a link, start with the normal format for a hyperlink, then replace the link's text with the code for an image:

Image alt text

Or use HTML:

Image alt text
Reference:

🔝

Code Formatting

Comments in Markdown Source

Code:
Here are some code comments:

<!-- HTML/XML comments might not get displayed, but might or might not still show up in the HTML source of the rendered document. -->

[#]: # "HACK: To prevent the comments from appearing in the rendered document source, use Markdown reference links.  These get stripped from the rendered document completely."

[//]: # "The URL of the link must be valid.  You can use a number sign (`#`) for the URL, which is a valid link to the top of the document."

[//]: # "The ID of the link can be anything valid, but it shouldn't interfere with any actual reference links in your document, so you may want to choose a common prefix for comments, such as two forward-slashes (`//`)."

[--]: # 'The comment text is actually the link title, so it must be enclosed between double-quotes (`"`), single quotes (`\'`), or parentheses (`()`), escaping nested symbols as necessary.'

[REM]: # (In some cases, the comment line may need to be preceded by, and/or followed by, a blank line, otherwise the Markdown parser might display it in the rendered document.)

Inspect the page's HTML to see if/how these comments appear in the rendered document source.
Example:

Here are some code comments:

Inspect the page's HTML to see if/how these comments appear in the rendered document source.

Reference

🔝

Code Blocks

Code:
```
A block of code is enclosed within
at least three back-ticks, before and after.
```
~~~
Or it can be enclosed within
at least three tildes, before and after.
~~~
    Or indent it
    by 4 spaces.
<pre>
Or it can be enclosed within
HTML &lt;pre&gt; tags.
</pre>
Example:
A block of code is enclosed within
at least three back-ticks, before and after.
Or it can be enclosed within
at least three tildes, before and after.
Or indent it
by 4 spaces.
Or it can be enclosed within
HTML <pre> tags.
Reference:

🔝

Code Blocks of Code Blocks

Code:
````
```
Code blocks must start with *at least* three back-ticks (`) or tildes (~),
and must end with *at least* the same number of back-ticks or tildes (respectively).

So to include a block of Markdown code within a block of Markdown code,
use three back-ticks (or tildes) for the inner block of code,
and use four or more back-ticks (or tildes, respectively) for the surrounding block of code.
```
````
~~~
```
Or alternate between the various code block styles.
```
~~~
Example:
```
Code blocks must start with *at least* three back-ticks (`) or tildes (~),
and must end with *at least* the same number of back-ticks or tildes (respectively).

So to include a block of Markdown code within a block of Markdown code,
use three back-ticks (or tildes) for the inner block of code,
and use four or more back-ticks (or tildes, respectively) for the surrounding block of code.
```
```
Or alternate between the various code block styles.
```

🔝

Syntax Highlighting

Code:
```JavaScript
var message = "Hello World!";
alert(message);
```
Example:
var message = "Hello World!";
alert(message);
Reference:

🔝

Inline Code

Code:
Inline code is enclosed between `single back-ticks`, or between HTML tags such as:
- <code>&lt;code&gt;</code>
- <samp>&lt;sample&gt;</samp>
- <var>&lt;var&gt;</var>
- <kbd>&lt;kdb&gt;</kbd>
- <tt>&lt;tt&gt;</tt> (deprecated in HTML 5)
Example:

Inline code is enclosed between single back-ticks, or between HTML tags such as:

  • <code>
  • <sample>
  • <var>
  • <kdb>
  • <tt> (deprecated in HTML 5)
Reference:

🔝

Quotations

Code:
Inline quotes are enclosed within <q cite="https://example.com/optional-reference">HTML <code>&lt;q&gt;</code></q> tags.

> Block quotes are preceded with a "greater-than" character (`>`),
  which can optionally be omitted on subsequent lines.
Indentation is also optional on subsequent lines.

> For paragraphs within a quote,
>
> separate them with a "greater-than" character (`>`) on a line by itself.

> Block quotes...
>> ...can be nested.

<blockquote cite="https://example.com/optional-reference">
Block quotes can be enclosed
between HTML <code>&lt;blockquote&gt;</code> tags.
</blockquote>
Example:

Inline quotes are enclosed within HTML <q> tags.

Block quotes are preceded with a "greater-than" character (>), which can optionally be omitted on subsequent lines. Indentation is also optional on subsequent lines.

For paragraphs within a quote,

separate them with a "greater-than" character (>) on a line by itself.

Block quotes...

...can be nested.

Block quotes can be enclosed between HTML <blockquote> tags.
Reference:

🔝

Collapsible Blocks

Code:
<details>
  <summary>Click here to expand/collapse.</summary>
  <p>The details will be revealed/hidden.</p>
</details>
Example:
Click here to expand/collapse.

The details will be revealed/hidden.

Reference:

🔝

Lists

Unordered Lists

Code:
- An unordered list item.

  Markdown elements (such as paragraphs and other lists) can be nested within a list item by indenting them to match the list item.

- Another unordered list item.

<ul>
  <li>An HTML unordered list item.</li>
  <li>Another HTML list item.</li>
</ul>
Example:
  • An unordered list item.

    Markdown elements (such as paragraphs and other lists) can be nested within a list item by indenting them to match the list item.

  • Another unordered list item.

  • An HTML unordered list item.
  • Another HTML list item.
Reference:

🔝

Ordered Lists

Code:
 3. An ordered list item can start at any number.
 2. But consecutive list items are ordered sequentially, regardless of the numbering.
10. [ ] Checklist items can be included in numbered lists, but the numbers don't appear.
10. Regardless, checklist items still count toward the numbering.
    1. Ordered lists can be nested...
    3. ...but they must start at 1.

<ol>
  <li>An HTML ordered list item</li>
  <li>Another HTML list item.</li>
</ol>
Example:
  1. An ordered list item can start at any number.
  2. But consecutive list items are ordered sequentially, regardless of the numbering.
  3. Checklist items can be included in numbered lists, but the numbers don't appear.
  4. Regardless, checklist items still count toward the numbering.
    1. Ordered lists can be nested...
    2. ...but they must start at 1.
  1. An HTML ordered list item
  2. Another HTML list item.
Reference:

🔝

Task Lists

Code:
- [ ] A checklist item.
- [x] Checklist items can be completed.
  - [ ] Checklists can be nested.
Example:
  • A checklist item.
  • Checklist items can be completed.
    • Checklists can be nested.
Reference:

[<top>]

Description Lists

Code:
<dl>
  <dt>Item 1</dt>
  <dd>Description 1</dd>
  <dt>Item 2</dt>
  <dd>Description 2</dd>
</dl>
Example:
Item 1
Description 1
Item 2
Description 2
Reference:

🔝

List Restarting/Continuation/Spacing

Code:
1. To start a new list after finishing an existing list...

1. ...it's not enough to separate them with blank lines.

The lists must be separated by some other element, such as a paragraph or heading.

1. That will cause a new list to be created.
- Unordered list items can begin with a hyphen (`-`).
* Unordered list items can begin with an asterisk (`*`) instead.
+ Unordered list items can begin with a plus sign (`+`) instead.
+ All items in the same list must use the same format, otherwise separate lists will be created for each.
1. Ordered list items can begin with a number and a period (`.`).
1) Ordered list items can begin with a number and a closing parenthesis (`)`) instead.
1) All items in the same list must use the same format, otherwise separate lists will be created for each.
- If *any* item of the same list is separated from the others by a blank line...

- ...it causes *all* items in that list to be put into paragraphs.
- This may affect the spacing of the list items.
Example:
  1. To start a new list after finishing an existing list...

  2. ...it's not enough to separate them with blank lines.

The lists must be separated by some other element, such as a paragraph or heading.

  1. That will cause a new list to be created.
  • Unordered list items can begin with a hyphen (-).
  • Unordered list items can begin with an asterisk (*) instead.
  • Unordered list items can begin with a plus sign (+) instead.
  • All items in the same list must use the same format, otherwise separate lists will be created for each.
  1. Ordered list items can begin with a number and a period (.).
  1. Ordered list items can begin with a number and a closing parenthesis ()) instead.
  2. All items in the same list must use the same format, otherwise separate lists will be created for each.
  • If any item of the same list is separated from the others by a blank line...

  • ...it causes all items in that list to be put into paragraphs.

  • This may affect the spacing of the list items.

Reference:

🔝

Tables

Code:
Header Separator | Hyphens | Column Separators | Vertical Bars | Markdown formatting
---|---|---|---|---
Use a line of hyphens | Each section of the | Use vertical bars | Opening and | Markdown formatting
(`-`) to separate the | header line must | (`\|`) to separate | closing vertical | *is* permitted.
header row from the | contain at least | columns. | bars (`\|`) on each
table rows. | 3 hyphens (`---`). | | line are optional.
Example:
Header Separator Hyphens Column Separators Vertical Bars Markdown formatting
Use a line of hyphens Each section of the Use vertical bars Opening and Markdown formatting
(-) to separate the header line must (|) to separate closing vertical is permitted.
header row from the contain at least columns. bars (|) on each
table rows. 3 hyphens (---). line are optional.
Reference:

🔝

Column Alignment

Code:
| Left-Aligned               | Center-Aligned              | Right-Aligned              | Default Alignment      |
|:---------------------------|:---------------------------:|---------------------------:|------------------------|
| For left-aligned columns,  | For center-aligned columns, | For right-aligned columns, | For default alignment, |
| put a colon at the left    | put a colon at both ends    | put a colon at the right   | omit colons from       |
| end of the hyphens in that | of the hyphens in that      | end of the hyphens in that | that section of the    |
| section of the header      | section of the header       | section of the header      | header separator       |
| separator line (`:---`).   | separator line (`:---:`).   | separator line (`---:`).   | line (`---`).          |
Example:
Left-Aligned Center-Aligned Right-Aligned Default Alignment
For left-aligned columns, For center-aligned columns, For right-aligned columns, For default alignment,
put a colon at the left put a colon at both ends put a colon at the right omit colons from
end of the hyphens in that of the hyphens in that end of the hyphens in that that section of the
section of the header section of the header section of the header header separator
separator line (:---). separator line (:---:). separator line (---:). line (---).
Reference:

🔝

HTML Tables

Code:
<table>
  <thead>
    <tr>
      <th>Header</th>
      <th>Row</th>
    </tr>
  </thead>
  <tbody>
    <tr>
      <td rowspan="2">HTML tables</td>
      <td>are</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>supported.</td>
    </tr>
  </tbody>
  <tfoot>
    <tr>
      <td colspan="2">Footer Row</td>
    </tr>
  </tfoot>
</table>
Example:
Header Row
HTML tables are
supported.
Footer Row
Reference:

🔝

HTML

Code:
HTML tags and attributes must be <a href="https://github.github.com/gfm/#raw-html">valid and well-formed</a>,
otherwise they < em>might not be parsed as HTML< /em>.

[Inline](<#supported-inline-level-html-elements>) HTML tags can be used <em>within</em> Markdown code.

<p>
  <a href="#supported-block-level-html-elements">Block-level</a> HTML tags start an
  "<a href="https://github.github.com/gfm/#html-blocks">HTML block</a>".  But:
  <ol>
    <li>
      Markdown code will _not_ be parsed within an HTML block.
    </li>
    <li>

So to break out of an HTML block and revert to _Markdown_ processing, a blank line is needed.
    </li>
    <li>
      The HTML block can be resumed after that.
    </li>
  </ol>
</p>
Example:

HTML tags and attributes must be valid and well-formed, otherwise they < em>might not be parsed as HTML< /em>.

Inline HTML tags can be used within Markdown code.

Block-level HTML tags start an "HTML block". But:

  1. Markdown code will _not_ be parsed within an HTML block.
  2. So to break out of an HTML block and revert to Markdown processing, a blank line is needed.

  3. The HTML block can be resumed after that.

Reference:

🔝

Supported Block-Level HTML Elements

Only the following block-level HTML elements are supported in the GitHub HTML::Pipeline (despite the GitHub Flavored Markdown Spec). Unsupported tags will be converted to <p> tags.

🔝

Supported Inline HTML Elements

Only the following inline HTML elements are supported in the GitHub HTML::Pipeline (despite the GitHub Flavored Markdown Spec). Unsupported tags will be converted to <p> tags.

🔝

Disallowed HTML Elements

The following HTML elements are specifically disallowed by the tagfilter extension to the GitHub Flavored Markdown Spec. They will be escaped and rendered as literal text in the resulting document.

🔝

Supported HTML Attributes

In addition to the element-specific HTML attributes mentioned above, the attributes below should also be preserved on any element in the GitHub HTML::Pipeline. The attributes on crossed out HTML elements are obsolete in HTML 5, but they might still work in web browsers.

For example, center-alignment and right-alignment of text/images wouldn't normally be possible in Markdown, because the style attributes and <style> elements for CSS are stripped from the rendered output. But it can still be done using the align attribute, even though this has been deprecated on the relevent HTML elements.

(The HTML elements in smaller text will be stripped/rendered as <p> in the GitHub HTML::Pipeline; they are included for reference only.)

Attribute Valid HTML Elements and Values
abbr <td>, <th>
Table cell abbreviation.
accept (<form>, <input>)
Hint for acceptable input.
MIME type
Filename extension
"audio/*", "video/*", "image/*"
accept-charset (<form>)
Character encoding for form submission.
accesskey Any element.
Keyboard shortcut character.
Windows/Linux usage: alt+accesskey (Chrome), or alt+shift+accesskey (Firefox)
macOS usage: control+option+accesskey
action (<form>)
URL for form submission.
align (obsolete) <div>, <hr>, <h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5>, <h6>, <img>, <p>, <table>, <tbody>, <tfoot>, <thead>, <td>, <th>, <tr>
(and <caption>, <col>, <embed>, <iframe>, <input>, <legend>, <object>)
Horizontal alignment:
"left", "center", "right", "justify" (for some), "char" (for some)
Vertical alignment (for some):
"top", "middle", "bottom"
alt <img>
(and <area>, <input>)
Fallback text.
axis (obsolete) <td>, <th>
Table cell categorization.
border (obsolete) <img>, <table>
(and <input>, <object>)
Border width.
cellpadding (obsolete) <table>
Table cell content padding.
cellspacing (obsolete) <table>
Spacing between table cells.
char (obsolete) <tbody>, <tfoot>, <thead>, <td>, <th>, <tr>
(and <col>)
Table cell alignment to character.
charoff (obsolete) <tbody>, <tfoot>, <thead>, <td>, <th>, <tr>
(and <col>)
Table cell character alignment offset.
charset <a>
(and <link>, <meta>, <script>)
Character encoding.
checked (<input>)
Whether a checkbox/option is checked/selected:
Boolean
clear (obsolete) <br>
Position relative to floating content:
"all", "left", "right", "none"
color <hr>
(and <link>)
Color of the element.
cols (<textarea>)
Number of characters per line.
colspan <td>, <th>
Number of columns the table cell should span horizontally.
compact (obsolete) <dl>, <ol>, <ul>
(and <menu>)
Reduce indentation/line spacing:
Boolean
coords <a>
(and <area>)
Image map coordinates.
datetime <del>, <ins>
(and <time>)
Date/time of an occurrence.
dir Any element.
Text direction:
"ltr" (left-to-right), "rtl" (right-to-left), "auto"
disabled (<button>, <input>, <select>, <textarea>, <fieldset>, <optgroup>, <option>
Whether a form control is disabled):
Boolean
enctype (<form>)
Which type of encoding for the form:
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded", "multipart/form-data", "text/plain"
for (<label>, <output>, <script>)
Specifies the associated form control.
frame (obsolete) <table>
Which outside table borders to show:
"void", (none) "border" (all), "box" (all)
"above" (top), "below" (bottom), "hsides" (top and bottom horizontal borders)
"lhs" (left), "rhs" (right), "vsides" (left and right vertical borders)
headers <td>, <th>
Associate table cells with table headers.
height <img>, <table>, <td>, <th>, <tr>
(and <canvas>, <embed>, <iframe>, <input>, <object>, <video>)
Vertical size.
hreflang <a>
(and <area>, <link>)
Language of the linked reference.
hspace (obsolete) <img>
(and <embed>, <iframe>, <input>, <object>)
Size of horizontal whitespace surrounding the element.
ismap <img>
(and <input>)
Whether the containing link is an image map:
Boolean
itemprop Any element.
Microdata property.
label (<menu>, <optgroup>, <option>, <track>)
Display text.
lang Any element.
Language of the element's content.
maxlength (<input>, <textarea>)
Maximum string length of input.
media (<link>, <source>, <style>)
Which media the element applies to.
method (<form>)
The HTTP method to submit the form:
"get", "post", "dialog"
multiple (<input>, <select>)
Enables multiple selections:
Boolean
name <a>, <img>
(and <button>, <fieldset>, <input>, <output>, <select>, <textarea>, <embed>, <form>, <iframe>, <map>, <meta>, <object>, <option>, <param>, <slot>)
The name of the control for form submission, nested content, reference, metadata, property, etc.
nohref (obsolete) (<area>)
The map area has no associated link:
Boolean
noshade (obsolete) <hr>
Use solid color:
Boolean
nowrap (obsolete) <td>, <th>
Prevent content wrapping in table cells:
Boolean
open <details>
(and <dialog>)
Whether content is initially shown/expanded:
Boolean
prompt (obsolete) (<isindex>)
Prompt message for the input.
readonly (<input>, <textarea>)
The input can't be edited:
Boolean
rel <a>
(and <area>, <link>)
Relationship between document and reference.
rev (obsolete) <a>
(and <link>)
Reverse relationship between document and reference.
rows (<textarea>)
Number of lines to show.
rowspan <td>, <th>
Number of rows the table cell should span vertically.
rules (obsolete) <table>
Which inside table borders are visible:
"none", "groups" (column/row groups), "rows", "cols", "all"
scope <td>, <th>
Associates table headers with cells.
selected (<option>)
Whether an option is selected:
Boolean
shape <a>
(and <area>)
The shape of an image map:
"default", "circle", "circ", "rectangle", "rect", "polygon", "poly"
size <hr>
(and <input>, <select>)
The height (for <hr>) or number of characters/members to show (for others).
span (<col>, <colgroup>)
Number of columns to span.
start <ol>
Starting value for list numbering.
summary (obsolete) <table>
Table content summary.
tabindex Any element.
Specify order/type of sequential tab focus.
target <a>
(and <area>, <base>, <form>, <link>)
Browser context name for navigation, or browser context keyword:
"_blank", "_self", "_parent", "_top"
title Any element.
(and specific meanings for <abbr>, <dfn>, <input>, <link>, <style>)
Tooltip text, advisory/commentary content, etc.
type <a>, <li>, <ol>, <ul>
(and <area>, <button>, <embed>, <input>, <link>, <menu>, <object>, <param>, <script>, <source>, <style>)
MIME type, list marker type, input type, media type, etc.
usemap <img>
(and <input>, <object>)
Reference to image map.
valign (obsolete) <tbody>, <tfoot>, <thead>, <td>, <th>, <tr>
(and <col>)
Vertical alignment of table content:
"top", "middle", "bottom", "baseline" (text baseline)
value <li>
(and <button>, <data>, <input>, <meter>, <option>, <param>, <progress>)
List number, form value, parameter/data value, etc.
vspace (obsolete) <img>
(and <embed>, <iframe>, <input>, <object>)
Size of vertical whitespace surrounding the element.
width <hr>, <img>, <pre>, <table>, <td>, <th>
(and <canvas>, <col>, <embed>, <iframe>, <input>, <object>, <video>)
Horizontal size.

🔝

HTML Summary

Summary of HTML elements and their attributes that will be retained/have an effect in the rendered output of GitHub Flavored Markdown and HTML::Pipeline. (As of this writing, works on my machine in Firefox 71 and Chrome 79.)

Element Attributes
Any accesskey (ex: "A")
dir ("ltr", "rtl", "auto")
itemprop (when element is within a <div itemscope>)
lang (ex: "en-US")
tabindex (ex: "1")
title (tool-tip text)
<br> (void) clear ("all", "left", "right", "none")
<h1>
<h2>
<h3>
<h4>
<h5>
<h6>
align ("left", "center", "right", "justify")
<hr> (void) width
<p> align ("left", "center", "right", "justify")

Test:

Left

Center

Right

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

🔝

References

Guides and Tutorials

🔝

Specifications

🔝

Charts, Tables, Lists, and Implementations

🔝

GitHub Textile Reference

GitHub will render Textile files:

  • .textile

Textile is a lightweight syntax for composing HTML. GitHub support for Textile markup is moderate (including syntax highlighting in source editors), including only basic table syntax. Inline HTML is generally supported.

Headings

h1. Heading 1

Heading 1

h2. Heading 2

Heading 2

h3. Heading 3

Heading 3

h4. Heading 4

Heading 4

h5. Heading 5
Heading 5
h6. Heading 6
Heading 6

Paragraphs

 p. A paragraph.
 A line break.
 
 Another paragraph.

A Paragraph
A line break.

Another paragraph.

Special Characters

Ampersand &amp;
Angle brackets &lt; &gt;
Unicode &#233;
Hyphen-minus -
En-dash between whitespace - 
Em-dash between whitespace -- 
Ellipsis ...
Copyright (C)
Trademark (tm)
Registered (R)
Multiplication 1x2
'Single quotes' and "double quotes" are curly.

Ampersand &
Angle brackets < >
Unicode é
Hyphen-minus -
En-dash between whitespace –
Em-dash between whitespace —
Ellipsis …
Copyright ©
Trademark™
Registered®
Multiplication 1×2
‘Single quotes’ and “double quotes” are curly.

Formatting

*Strong* and **bold**.
_Emphasis_ and __italics__.
-Deleted- and +inserted+.
^Superscript^ and ~subscript~.
Formatting with[_in_] words.
%A span.%

Strong and bold.
Emphasis and italics.
Deleted and inserted.
Superscript and subscript.
Formatting within words.
A span.

Escaping Markup

 ==**Not bold.**==
 
 <notextile>**Not bold.**</notextile>
 
 notextile. **Not bold.**

**Not bold.**

**Not bold.**

**Not bold.**

Tables

|_. H1 |_. H2 |_\2. H3, H4 |
|/2. R1C1, R2C1 |\2. R1C2, R1C3 | R1C4 |
| R2C2 | R2C3 | R2C4 |
| R3C1 | R3C2 | R3C3 | R3C4 |
H1 H2 H3, H4
R1C1, R2C1 R1C2, R1C3 R1C4
R2C2 R2C3 R2C4
R3C1 R3C2 R3C3 R3C4

HTML Attributes

 p(#some-id). A paragraph with attribute @id="user-content-some-id"@.
 
 p[some-lang]. A paragraph with attribute @lang="some-lang"@.

A paragraph with attribute id="user-content-some-id".

A paragraph with attribute lang="some-lang".

H1 H2
R1C1 R1C2

License

CC-BY-4.0

GitHub Textile Reference by Chris Tollefson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY-4.0) License. See z_LICENSE.md.

Copyright © 2020 Chris Tollefson

GitHub RDoc Reference

GitHub will render RDoc files:

  • .rdoc

RDoc is mainly used for documentation comments in Ruby source code. GitHub support for RDoc markup is limited.

Headings and Thematic Breaks

= Heading 1

Heading 1

== Heading 2

Heading 2

=== Heading 3

Heading 3

==== Heading 4

Heading 4

===== Heading 5
Heading 5
====== Heading 6
Heading 6

Horizontal Rules

---

Paragraphs

A
paragraph.

Another
paragraph.

A paragraph.

Another paragraph.

Special Characters

Hyphen-minus -

En-dash --

Em-dash ---

Ellipsis...

Copyright (c)

Registered trademark(r)

Hyphen-minus -

En-dash –

Em-dash —

Ellipsis…

Copyright ©

Registered trademark®

Formatting

*Bold* and <b>bold</b>.

Bold and bold.


_Italic_ and <em>italic</em> and <i>italic</i>.

Italic and italic and italic.

Escaping Markup

\*Not bold.\*

*Not bold.*

www.example.com

https://example.com/

mailto:someone@example.com

www.example.com

example.com/

someone@example.com

Example[https://example.com/]

{Another example}[https://example.com/]

Example

Another example

root[/]

parent-directory[..]

current-directory[.]

section[#section-name]

rdoc-label:section-name

top[#]

root

parent-directory

current-directory

section

section-name

top

Anchors

rdoc-label:target:anchor

{Link to anchor}[#anchor]

Links to target, but also provides an anchor that can be linked to.

target:anchor

Link to anchor

Images

https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/30203863/71215319-517d2a80-22af-11ea-9ca8-206a2162c1cb.png

rdoc-image:https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/30203863/71215319-517d2a80-22af-11ea-9ca8-206a2162c1cb.png

Code Formatting

Code Blocks

Indent with at least one space.

some
code

some
code

Inline Code

+Code+ and <tt>code</tt> and <code>code</code>.

Code and code and code.

Lists

Unordered Lists

- Item one,
  paragraph one.

  Item one,
  paragraph two.

- Item two.
- Item three.
  • Item one, paragraph one.

    Item one, paragraph two.

  • Item two.

  • Item three.


* Another list.
  • Another list.

Ordered Lists

1. Item one,
   paragraph one.

   Item one,
   paragraph two.

1. Item two.
1. Item three.
  1. Item one, paragraph one.

    Item one, paragraph two.

  2. Item two.

  3. Item three.


A. Another list.
  1. Another list.


a. Another list.
  1. Another list.

Description Lists

[Term 1] Item one,
         paragraph one.

         Item one,
         paragraph two.

[Term 2] Item two.
[Term 3] Item three.
Term 1

Item one, paragraph one.

Item one, paragraph two.

Term 2

Item two.

Term 3

Item three.


Term 1:: Another list.
Term 1

Another list.

Nested Lists

1. Item.
   * Subordinate item.
  1. Item.

    • Subordinate item.

License

GitHub RDoc Reference by Chris Tollefson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY-4.0) License. See z_LICENSE.md.

Copyright © 2020 Chris Tollefson

Creative Commons Corporation ("Creative Commons") is not a law firm and does not provide legal services or legal advice. Distribution of Creative Commons public licenses does not create a lawyer-client or other relationship. Creative Commons makes its licenses and related information available on an "as-is" basis. Creative Commons gives no warranties regarding its licenses, any material licensed under their terms and conditions, or any related information. Creative Commons disclaims all liability for damages resulting from their use to the fullest extent possible.

Using Creative Commons Public Licenses

Creative Commons public licenses provide a standard set of terms and conditions that creators and other rights holders may use to share original works of authorship and other material subject to copyright and certain other rights specified in the public license below. The following considerations are for informational purposes only, are not exhaustive, and do not form part of our licenses.

  • Considerations for licensors: Our public licenses are intended for use by those authorized to give the public permission to use material in ways otherwise restricted by copyright and certain other rights. Our licenses are irrevocable. Licensors should read and understand the terms and conditions of the license they choose before applying it. Licensors should also secure all rights necessary before applying our licenses so that the public can reuse the material as expected. Licensors should clearly mark any material not subject to the license. This includes other CC-licensed material, or material used under an exception or limitation to copyright. More considerations for licensors.

  • Considerations for the public: By using one of our public licenses, a licensor grants the public permission to use the licensed material under specified terms and conditions. If the licensor's permission is not necessary for any reason–for example, because of any applicable exception or limitation to copyright–then that use is not regulated by the license. Our licenses grant only permissions under copyright and certain other rights that a licensor has authority to grant. Use of the licensed material may still be restricted for other reasons, including because others have copyright or other rights in the material. A licensor may make special requests, such as asking that all changes be marked or described. Although not required by our licenses, you are encouraged to respect those requests where reasonable. More considerations for the public.


By exercising the Licensed Rights (defined below), You accept and agree to be bound by the terms and conditions of this Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License ("Public License"). To the extent this Public License may be interpreted as a contract, You are granted the Licensed Rights in consideration of Your acceptance of these terms and conditions, and the Licensor grants You such rights in consideration of benefits the Licensor receives from making the Licensed Material available under these terms and conditions.

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Section 2 – Scope

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  2. Exceptions and Limitations. For the avoidance of doubt, where Exceptions and Limitations apply to Your use, this Public License does not apply, and You do not need to comply with its terms and conditions.

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  6. No endorsement. Nothing in this Public License constitutes or may be construed as permission to assert or imply that You are, or that Your use of the Licensed Material is, connected with, or sponsored, endorsed, or granted official status by, the Licensor or others designated to receive attribution as provided in Section 3(a)(1)(A)(i).

b. Other rights.

  1. Moral rights, such as the right of integrity, are not licensed under this Public License, nor are publicity, privacy, and/or other similar personality rights; however, to the extent possible, the Licensor waives and/or agrees not to assert any such rights held by the Licensor to the limited extent necessary to allow You to exercise the Licensed Rights, but not otherwise.

  2. Patent and trademark rights are not licensed under this Public License.

  3. To the extent possible, the Licensor waives any right to collect royalties from You for the exercise of the Licensed Rights, whether directly or through a collecting society under any voluntary or waivable statutory or compulsory licensing scheme. In all other cases the Licensor expressly reserves any right to collect such royalties.

Section 3 – License Conditions.

Your exercise of the Licensed Rights is expressly made subject to the following conditions.

a. Attribution.

  1. If You Share the Licensed Material (including in modified form), You must:

    A. retain the following if it is supplied by the Licensor with the Licensed Material:

    i. identification of the creator(s) of the Licensed Material and any others designated to receive attribution, in any reasonable manner requested by the Licensor (including by pseudonym if designated);

    ii. a copyright notice;

    iii. a notice that refers to this Public License;

    iv. a notice that refers to the disclaimer of warranties;

    v. a URI or hyperlink to the Licensed Material to the extent reasonably practicable;

    B. indicate if You modified the Licensed Material and retain an indication of any previous modifications; and

    C. indicate the Licensed Material is licensed under this Public License, and include the text of, or the URI or hyperlink to, this Public License.

  2. You may satisfy the conditions in Section 3(a)(1) in any reasonable manner based on the medium, means, and context in which You Share the Licensed Material. For example, it may be reasonable to satisfy the conditions by providing a URI or hyperlink to a resource that includes the required information.

  3. If requested by the Licensor, You must remove any of the information required by Section 3(a)(1)(A) to the extent reasonably practicable.

  4. If You Share Adapted Material You produce, the Adapter's License You apply must not prevent recipients of the Adapted Material from complying with this Public License.

Section 4 – Sui Generis Database Rights.

Where the Licensed Rights include Sui Generis Database Rights that apply to Your use of the Licensed Material:

a. for the avoidance of doubt, Section 2(a)(1) grants You the right to extract, reuse, reproduce, and Share all or a substantial portion of the contents of the database;

b. if You include all or a substantial portion of the database contents in a database in which You have Sui Generis Database Rights, then the database in which You have Sui Generis Database Rights (but not its individual contents) is Adapted Material; and

c. You must comply with the conditions in Section 3(a) if You Share all or a substantial portion of the contents of the database.

For the avoidance of doubt, this Section 4 supplements and does not replace Your obligations under this Public License where the Licensed Rights include other Copyright and Similar Rights.

Section 5 – Disclaimer of Warranties and Limitation of Liability.

a. UNLESS OTHERWISE SEPARATELY UNDERTAKEN BY THE LICENSOR, TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE, THE LICENSOR OFFERS THE LICENSED MATERIAL AS-IS AND AS-AVAILABLE, AND MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND CONCERNING THE LICENSED MATERIAL, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY, OR OTHER. THIS INCLUDES, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, ABSENCE OF LATENT OR OTHER DEFECTS, ACCURACY, OR THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF ERRORS, WHETHER OR NOT KNOWN OR DISCOVERABLE. WHERE DISCLAIMERS OF WARRANTIES ARE NOT ALLOWED IN FULL OR IN PART, THIS DISCLAIMER MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

b. TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE, IN NO EVENT WILL THE LICENSOR BE LIABLE TO YOU ON ANY LEGAL THEORY (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, NEGLIGENCE) OR OTHERWISE FOR ANY DIRECT, SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE, EXEMPLARY, OR OTHER LOSSES, COSTS, EXPENSES, OR DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THIS PUBLIC LICENSE OR USE OF THE LICENSED MATERIAL, EVEN IF THE LICENSOR HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH LOSSES, COSTS, EXPENSES, OR DAMAGES. WHERE A LIMITATION OF LIABILITY IS NOT ALLOWED IN FULL OR IN PART, THIS LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

c. The disclaimer of warranties and limitation of liability provided above shall be interpreted in a manner that, to the extent possible, most closely approximates an absolute disclaimer and waiver of all liability.

Section 6 – Term and Termination.

a. This Public License applies for the term of the Copyright and Similar Rights licensed here. However, if You fail to comply with this Public License, then Your rights under this Public License terminate automatically.

b. Where Your right to use the Licensed Material has terminated under Section 6(a), it reinstates:

  1. automatically as of the date the violation is cured, provided it is cured within 30 days of Your discovery of the violation; or

  2. upon express reinstatement by the Licensor.

For the avoidance of doubt, this Section 6(b) does not affect any right the Licensor may have to seek remedies for Your violations of this Public License.

c. For the avoidance of doubt, the Licensor may also offer the Licensed Material under separate terms or conditions or stop distributing the Licensed Material at any time; however, doing so will not terminate this Public License.

d. Sections 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8 survive termination of this Public License.

Section 7 – Other Terms and Conditions.

a. The Licensor shall not be bound by any additional or different terms or conditions communicated by You unless expressly agreed.

b. Any arrangements, understandings, or agreements regarding the Licensed Material not stated herein are separate from and independent of the terms and conditions of this Public License.

Section 8 – Interpretation.

a. For the avoidance of doubt, this Public License does not, and shall not be interpreted to, reduce, limit, restrict, or impose conditions on any use of the Licensed Material that could lawfully be made without permission under this Public License.

b. To the extent possible, if any provision of this Public License is deemed unenforceable, it shall be automatically reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make it enforceable. If the provision cannot be reformed, it shall be severed from this Public License without affecting the enforceability of the remaining terms and conditions.

c. No term or condition of this Public License will be waived and no failure to comply consented to unless expressly agreed to by the Licensor.

d. Nothing in this Public License constitutes or may be interpreted as a limitation upon, or waiver of, any privileges and immunities that apply to the Licensor or You, including from the legal processes of any jurisdiction or authority.


Creative Commons is not a party to its public licenses. Notwithstanding, Creative Commons may elect to apply one of its public licenses to material it publishes and in those instances will be considered the "Licensor." The text of the Creative Commons public licenses is dedicated to the public domain under the CC0 Public Domain Dedication. Except for the limited purpose of indicating that material is shared under a Creative Commons public license or as otherwise permitted by the Creative Commons policies published at creativecommons.org/policies, Creative Commons does not authorize the use of the trademark "Creative Commons" or any other trademark or logo of Creative Commons without its prior written consent including, without limitation, in connection with any unauthorized modifications to any of its public licenses or any other arrangements, understandings, or agreements concerning use of licensed material. For the avoidance of doubt, this paragraph does not form part of the public licenses.

Creative Commons may be contacted at creativecommons.org.

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