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// Backbone.js 0.9.2
 
// (c) 2010-2012 Jeremy Ashkenas, DocumentCloud Inc.
// Backbone may be freely distributed under the MIT license.
// For all details and documentation:
// http://backbonejs.org
 
// Use a factory function to attach Backbone properties to an exports value.
// Code at the end of this file creates the right define, require and exports
// values to allow Backbone to run in a CommonJS or AMD container or in the
// default browser environment.
(function(root, define) { define('backbone', function(require, exports) {
 
// Initial Setup
// -------------
 
// Save a reference to the global object (`window` in the browser, `global`
// on the server).
//var root = this;
 
// Save the previous value of the `Backbone` variable, so that it can be
// restored later on, if `noConflict` is used.
var previousBackbone = root.Backbone;
 
// Create a local reference to slice/splice.
var slice = Array.prototype.slice;
var splice = Array.prototype.splice;
 
// The top-level namespace. All public Backbone classes and modules will
// be attached to this. Exported for both CommonJS and the browser.
var Backbone;
if (typeof exports !== 'undefined') {
Backbone = exports;
} else {
Backbone = root.Backbone = {};
}
 
// Current version of the library. Keep in sync with `package.json`.
Backbone.VERSION = '0.9.2';
 
// Require Underscore, if we're on the server, and it's not already present.
var _ = root._;
if (!_ && (typeof require !== 'undefined')) _ = require('underscore');
 
// For Backbone's purposes, jQuery, Zepto, or Ender owns the `$` variable.
//var $ = root.jQuery || root.Zepto || root.ender;
var $ = require('jquery');
 
// Set the JavaScript library that will be used for DOM manipulation and
// Ajax calls (a.k.a. the `$` variable). By default Backbone will use: jQuery,
// Zepto, or Ender; but the `setDomLibrary()` method lets you inject an
// alternate JavaScript library (or a mock library for testing your views
// outside of a browser).
Backbone.setDomLibrary = function(lib) {
$ = lib;
};
 
// Runs Backbone.js in *noConflict* mode, returning the `Backbone` variable
// to its previous owner. Returns a reference to this Backbone object.
Backbone.noConflict = function() {
root.Backbone = previousBackbone;
//return this;
return exports;
};
 
// Turn on `emulateHTTP` to support legacy HTTP servers. Setting this option
// will fake `"PUT"` and `"DELETE"` requests via the `_method` parameter and
// set a `X-Http-Method-Override` header.
Backbone.emulateHTTP = false;
 
// Turn on `emulateJSON` to support legacy servers that can't deal with direct
// `application/json` requests ... will encode the body as
// `application/x-www-form-urlencoded` instead and will send the model in a
// form param named `model`.
Backbone.emulateJSON = false;
 
// Backbone.Events
// -----------------
 
// Regular expression used to split event strings
var eventSplitter = /\s+/;
 
// A module that can be mixed in to *any object* in order to provide it with
// custom events. You may bind with `on` or remove with `off` callback functions
// to an event; trigger`-ing an event fires all callbacks in succession.
//
// var object = {};
// _.extend(object, Backbone.Events);
// object.on('expand', function(){ alert('expanded'); });
// object.trigger('expand');
//
var Events = Backbone.Events = {
 
// Bind one or more space separated events, `events`, to a `callback`
// function. Passing `"all"` will bind the callback to all events fired.
on: function(events, callback, context) {
 
var calls, event, node, tail, list;
if (!callback) return this;
events = events.split(eventSplitter);
calls = this._callbacks || (this._callbacks = {});
 
// Create an immutable callback list, allowing traversal during
// modification. The tail is an empty object that will always be used
// as the next node.
while (event = events.shift()) {
list = calls[event];
node = list ? list.tail : {};
node.next = tail = {};
node.context = context;
node.callback = callback;
calls[event] = {tail: tail, next: list ? list.next : node};
}
 
return this;
},
 
// Remove one or many callbacks. If `context` is null, removes all callbacks
// with that function. If `callback` is null, removes all callbacks for the
// event. If `events` is null, removes all bound callbacks for all events.
off: function(events, callback, context) {
var event, calls, node, tail, cb, ctx;
 
// No events, or removing *all* events.
if (!(calls = this._callbacks)) return;
if (!(events || callback || context)) {
delete this._callbacks;
return this;
}
 
// Loop through the listed events and contexts, splicing them out of the
// linked list of callbacks if appropriate.
events = events ? events.split(eventSplitter) : _.keys(calls);
while (event = events.shift()) {
node = calls[event];
delete calls[event];
if (!node || !(callback || context)) continue;
// Create a new list, omitting the indicated callbacks.
tail = node.tail;
while ((node = node.next) !== tail) {
cb = node.callback;
ctx = node.context;
if ((callback && cb !== callback) || (context && ctx !== context)) {
this.on(event, cb, ctx);
}
}
}
 
return this;
},
 
// Trigger one or many events, firing all bound callbacks. Callbacks are
// passed the same arguments as `trigger` is, apart from the event name
// (unless you're listening on `"all"`, which will cause your callback to
// receive the true name of the event as the first argument).
trigger: function(events) {
var event, node, calls, tail, args, all, rest;
if (!(calls = this._callbacks)) return this;
all = calls.all;
events = events.split(eventSplitter);
rest = slice.call(arguments, 1);
 
// For each event, walk through the linked list of callbacks twice,
// first to trigger the event, then to trigger any `"all"` callbacks.
while (event = events.shift()) {
if (node = calls[event]) {
tail = node.tail;
while ((node = node.next) !== tail) {
node.callback.apply(node.context || this, rest);
}
}
if (node = all) {
tail = node.tail;
args = [event].concat(rest);
while ((node = node.next) !== tail) {
node.callback.apply(node.context || this, args);
}
}
}
 
return this;
}
 
};
 
// Aliases for backwards compatibility.
Events.bind = Events.on;
Events.unbind = Events.off;
 
// Backbone.Model
// --------------
 
// Create a new model, with defined attributes. A client id (`cid`)
// is automatically generated and assigned for you.
var Model = Backbone.Model = function(attributes, options) {
var defaults;
attributes || (attributes = {});
if (options && options.parse) attributes = this.parse(attributes);
if (defaults = getValue(this, 'defaults')) {
attributes = _.extend({}, defaults, attributes);
}
if (options && options.collection) this.collection = options.collection;
this.attributes = {};
this._escapedAttributes = {};
this.cid = _.uniqueId('c');
this.changed = {};
this._silent = {};
this._pending = {};
this.set(attributes, {silent: true});
// Reset change tracking.
this.changed = {};
this._silent = {};
this._pending = {};
this._previousAttributes = _.clone(this.attributes);
this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
};
 
// Attach all inheritable methods to the Model prototype.
_.extend(Model.prototype, Events, {
 
// A hash of attributes whose current and previous value differ.
changed: null,
 
// A hash of attributes that have silently changed since the last time
// `change` was called. Will become pending attributes on the next call.
_silent: null,
 
// A hash of attributes that have changed since the last `'change'` event
// began.
_pending: null,
 
// The default name for the JSON `id` attribute is `"id"`. MongoDB and
// CouchDB users may want to set this to `"_id"`.
idAttribute: 'id',
 
// Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
// initialization logic.
initialize: function(){},
 
// Return a copy of the model's `attributes` object.
toJSON: function(options) {
return _.clone(this.attributes);
},
 
// Get the value of an attribute.
get: function(attr) {
return this.attributes[attr];
},
 
// Get the HTML-escaped value of an attribute.
escape: function(attr) {
var html;
if (html = this._escapedAttributes[attr]) return html;
var val = this.get(attr);
return this._escapedAttributes[attr] = _.escape(val == null ? '' : '' + val);
},
 
// Returns `true` if the attribute contains a value that is not null
// or undefined.
has: function(attr) {
return this.get(attr) != null;
},
 
// Set a hash of model attributes on the object, firing `"change"` unless
// you choose to silence it.
set: function(key, value, options) {
var attrs, attr, val;
 
// Handle both `"key", value` and `{key: value}` -style arguments.
if (_.isObject(key) || key == null) {
attrs = key;
options = value;
} else {
attrs = {};
attrs[key] = value;
}
 
// Extract attributes and options.
options || (options = {});
if (!attrs) return this;
if (attrs instanceof Model) attrs = attrs.attributes;
if (options.unset) for (attr in attrs) attrs[attr] = void 0;
 
// Run validation.
if (!this._validate(attrs, options)) return false;
 
// Check for changes of `id`.
if (this.idAttribute in attrs) this.id = attrs[this.idAttribute];
 
var changes = options.changes = {};
var now = this.attributes;
var escaped = this._escapedAttributes;
var prev = this._previousAttributes || {};
 
// For each `set` attribute...
for (attr in attrs) {
val = attrs[attr];
 
// If the new and current value differ, record the change.
if (!_.isEqual(now[attr], val) || (options.unset && _.has(now, attr))) {
delete escaped[attr];
(options.silent ? this._silent : changes)[attr] = true;
}
 
// Update or delete the current value.
options.unset ? delete now[attr] : now[attr] = val;
 
// If the new and previous value differ, record the change. If not,
// then remove changes for this attribute.
if (!_.isEqual(prev[attr], val) || (_.has(now, attr) != _.has(prev, attr))) {
this.changed[attr] = val;
if (!options.silent) this._pending[attr] = true;
} else {
delete this.changed[attr];
delete this._pending[attr];
}
}
 
// Fire the `"change"` events.
if (!options.silent) this.change(options);
return this;
},
 
// Remove an attribute from the model, firing `"change"` unless you choose
// to silence it. `unset` is a noop if the attribute doesn't exist.
unset: function(attr, options) {
(options || (options = {})).unset = true;
return this.set(attr, null, options);
},
 
// Clear all attributes on the model, firing `"change"` unless you choose
// to silence it.
clear: function(options) {
(options || (options = {})).unset = true;
return this.set(_.clone(this.attributes), options);
},
 
// Fetch the model from the server. If the server's representation of the
// model differs from its current attributes, they will be overriden,
// triggering a `"change"` event.
fetch: function(options) {
options = options ? _.clone(options) : {};
var model = this;
var success = options.success;
options.success = function(resp, status, xhr) {
if (!model.set(model.parse(resp, xhr), options)) return false;
if (success) success(model, resp);
};
options.error = Backbone.wrapError(options.error, model, options);
return (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, 'read', this, options);
},
 
// Set a hash of model attributes, and sync the model to the server.
// If the server returns an attributes hash that differs, the model's
// state will be `set` again.
save: function(key, value, options) {
var attrs, current;
 
// Handle both `("key", value)` and `({key: value})` -style calls.
if (_.isObject(key) || key == null) {
attrs = key;
options = value;
} else {
attrs = {};
attrs[key] = value;
}
options = options ? _.clone(options) : {};
 
// If we're "wait"-ing to set changed attributes, validate early.
if (options.wait) {
if (!this._validate(attrs, options)) return false;
current = _.clone(this.attributes);
}
 
// Regular saves `set` attributes before persisting to the server.
var silentOptions = _.extend({}, options, {silent: true});
if (attrs && !this.set(attrs, options.wait ? silentOptions : options)) {
return false;
}
 
// After a successful server-side save, the client is (optionally)
// updated with the server-side state.
var model = this;
var success = options.success;
options.success = function(resp, status, xhr) {
var serverAttrs = model.parse(resp, xhr);
if (options.wait) {
delete options.wait;
serverAttrs = _.extend(attrs || {}, serverAttrs);
}
if (!model.set(serverAttrs, options)) return false;
if (success) {
success(model, resp);
} else {
model.trigger('sync', model, resp, options);
}
};
 
// Finish configuring and sending the Ajax request.
options.error = Backbone.wrapError(options.error, model, options);
var method = this.isNew() ? 'create' : 'update';
var xhr = (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, method, this, options);
if (options.wait) this.set(current, silentOptions);
return xhr;
},
 
// Destroy this model on the server if it was already persisted.
// Optimistically removes the model from its collection, if it has one.
// If `wait: true` is passed, waits for the server to respond before removal.
destroy: function(options) {
options = options ? _.clone(options) : {};
var model = this;
var success = options.success;
 
var triggerDestroy = function() {
model.trigger('destroy', model, model.collection, options);
};
 
if (this.isNew()) {
triggerDestroy();
return false;
}
 
options.success = function(resp) {
if (options.wait) triggerDestroy();
if (success) {
success(model, resp);
} else {
model.trigger('sync', model, resp, options);
}
};
 
options.error = Backbone.wrapError(options.error, model, options);
var xhr = (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, 'delete', this, options);
if (!options.wait) triggerDestroy();
return xhr;
},
 
// Default URL for the model's representation on the server -- if you're
// using Backbone's restful methods, override this to change the endpoint
// that will be called.
url: function() {
var base = getValue(this, 'urlRoot') || getValue(this.collection, 'url') || urlError();
if (this.isNew()) return base;
return base + (base.charAt(base.length - 1) == '/' ? '' : '/') + encodeURIComponent(this.id);
},
 
// **parse** converts a response into the hash of attributes to be `set` on
// the model. The default implementation is just to pass the response along.
parse: function(resp, xhr) {
return resp;
},
 
// Create a new model with identical attributes to this one.
clone: function() {
return new this.constructor(this.attributes);
},
 
// A model is new if it has never been saved to the server, and lacks an id.
isNew: function() {
return this.id == null;
},
 
// Call this method to manually fire a `"change"` event for this model and
// a `"change:attribute"` event for each changed attribute.
// Calling this will cause all objects observing the model to update.
change: function(options) {
options || (options = {});
var changing = this._changing;
this._changing = true;
 
// Silent changes become pending changes.
for (var attr in this._silent) this._pending[attr] = true;
 
// Silent changes are triggered.
var changes = _.extend({}, options.changes, this._silent);
this._silent = {};
for (var attr in changes) {
this.trigger('change:' + attr, this, this.get(attr), options);
}
if (changing) return this;
 
// Continue firing `"change"` events while there are pending changes.
while (!_.isEmpty(this._pending)) {
this._pending = {};
this.trigger('change', this, options);
// Pending and silent changes still remain.
for (var attr in this.changed) {
if (this._pending[attr] || this._silent[attr]) continue;
delete this.changed[attr];
}
this._previousAttributes = _.clone(this.attributes);
}
 
this._changing = false;
return this;
},
 
// Determine if the model has changed since the last `"change"` event.
// If you specify an attribute name, determine if that attribute has changed.
hasChanged: function(attr) {
if (!arguments.length) return !_.isEmpty(this.changed);
return _.has(this.changed, attr);
},
 
// Return an object containing all the attributes that have changed, or
// false if there are no changed attributes. Useful for determining what
// parts of a view need to be updated and/or what attributes need to be
// persisted to the server. Unset attributes will be set to undefined.
// You can also pass an attributes object to diff against the model,
// determining if there *would be* a change.
changedAttributes: function(diff) {
if (!diff) return this.hasChanged() ? _.clone(this.changed) : false;
var val, changed = false, old = this._previousAttributes;
for (var attr in diff) {
if (_.isEqual(old[attr], (val = diff[attr]))) continue;
(changed || (changed = {}))[attr] = val;
}
return changed;
},
 
// Get the previous value of an attribute, recorded at the time the last
// `"change"` event was fired.
previous: function(attr) {
if (!arguments.length || !this._previousAttributes) return null;
return this._previousAttributes[attr];
},
 
// Get all of the attributes of the model at the time of the previous
// `"change"` event.
previousAttributes: function() {
return _.clone(this._previousAttributes);
},
 
// Check if the model is currently in a valid state. It's only possible to
// get into an *invalid* state if you're using silent changes.
isValid: function() {
return !this.validate(this.attributes);
},
 
// Run validation against the next complete set of model attributes,
// returning `true` if all is well. If a specific `error` callback has
// been passed, call that instead of firing the general `"error"` event.
_validate: function(attrs, options) {
if (options.silent || !this.validate) return true;
attrs = _.extend({}, this.attributes, attrs);
var error = this.validate(attrs, options);
if (!error) return true;
if (options && options.error) {
options.error(this, error, options);
} else {
this.trigger('error', this, error, options);
}
return false;
}
 
});
 
// Backbone.Collection
// -------------------
 
// Provides a standard collection class for our sets of models, ordered
// or unordered. If a `comparator` is specified, the Collection will maintain
// its models in sort order, as they're added and removed.
var Collection = Backbone.Collection = function(models, options) {
options || (options = {});
if (options.model) this.model = options.model;
if (options.comparator) this.comparator = options.comparator;
this._reset();
this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
if (models) this.reset(models, {silent: true, parse: options.parse});
};
 
// Define the Collection's inheritable methods.
_.extend(Collection.prototype, Events, {
 
// The default model for a collection is just a **Backbone.Model**.
// This should be overridden in most cases.
model: Model,
 
// Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
// initialization logic.
initialize: function(){},
 
// The JSON representation of a Collection is an array of the
// models' attributes.
toJSON: function(options) {
return this.map(function(model){ return model.toJSON(options); });
},
 
// Add a model, or list of models to the set. Pass **silent** to avoid
// firing the `add` event for every new model.
add: function(models, options) {
var i, index, length, model, cid, id, cids = {}, ids = {}, dups = [];
options || (options = {});
models = _.isArray(models) ? models.slice() : [models];
 
// Begin by turning bare objects into model references, and preventing
// invalid models or duplicate models from being added.
for (i = 0, length = models.length; i < length; i++) {
if (!(model = models[i] = this._prepareModel(models[i], options))) {
throw new Error("Can't add an invalid model to a collection");
}
cid = model.cid;
id = model.id;
if (cids[cid] || this._byCid[cid] || ((id != null) && (ids[id] || this._byId[id]))) {
dups.push(i);
continue;
}
cids[cid] = ids[id] = model;
}
 
// Remove duplicates.
i = dups.length;
while (i--) {
models.splice(dups[i], 1);
}
 
// Listen to added models' events, and index models for lookup by
// `id` and by `cid`.
for (i = 0, length = models.length; i < length; i++) {
(model = models[i]).on('all', this._onModelEvent, this);
this._byCid[model.cid] = model;
if (model.id != null) this._byId[model.id] = model;
}
 
// Insert models into the collection, re-sorting if needed, and triggering
// `add` events unless silenced.
this.length += length;
index = options.at != null ? options.at : this.models.length;
splice.apply(this.models, [index, 0].concat(models));
if (this.comparator) this.sort({silent: true});
if (options.silent) return this;
for (i = 0, length = this.models.length; i < length; i++) {
if (!cids[(model = this.models[i]).cid]) continue;
options.index = i;
model.trigger('add', model, this, options);
}
return this;
},
 
// Remove a model, or a list of models from the set. Pass silent to avoid
// firing the `remove` event for every model removed.
remove: function(models, options) {
var i, l, index, model;
options || (options = {});
models = _.isArray(models) ? models.slice() : [models];
for (i = 0, l = models.length; i < l; i++) {
model = this.getByCid(models[i]) || this.get(models[i]);
if (!model) continue;
delete this._byId[model.id];
delete this._byCid[model.cid];
index = this.indexOf(model);
this.models.splice(index, 1);
this.length--;
if (!options.silent) {
options.index = index;
model.trigger('remove', model, this, options);
}
this._removeReference(model);
}
return this;
},
 
// Add a model to the end of the collection.
push: function(model, options) {
model = this._prepareModel(model, options);
this.add(model, options);
return model;
},
 
// Remove a model from the end of the collection.
pop: function(options) {
var model = this.at(this.length - 1);
this.remove(model, options);
return model;
},
 
// Add a model to the beginning of the collection.
unshift: function(model, options) {
model = this._prepareModel(model, options);
this.add(model, _.extend({at: 0}, options));
return model;
},
 
// Remove a model from the beginning of the collection.
shift: function(options) {
var model = this.at(0);
this.remove(model, options);
return model;
},
 
// Get a model from the set by id.
get: function(id) {
if (id == null) return void 0;
return this._byId[id.id != null ? id.id : id];
},
 
// Get a model from the set by client id.
getByCid: function(cid) {
return cid && this._byCid[cid.cid || cid];
},
 
// Get the model at the given index.
at: function(index) {
return this.models[index];
},
 
// Return models with matching attributes. Useful for simple cases of `filter`.
where: function(attrs) {
if (_.isEmpty(attrs)) return [];
return this.filter(function(model) {
for (var key in attrs) {
if (attrs[key] !== model.get(key)) return false;
}
return true;
});
},
 
// Force the collection to re-sort itself. You don't need to call this under
// normal circumstances, as the set will maintain sort order as each item
// is added.
sort: function(options) {
options || (options = {});
if (!this.comparator) throw new Error('Cannot sort a set without a comparator');
var boundComparator = _.bind(this.comparator, this);
if (this.comparator.length == 1) {
this.models = this.sortBy(boundComparator);
} else {
this.models.sort(boundComparator);
}
if (!options.silent) this.trigger('reset', this, options);
return this;
},
 
// Pluck an attribute from each model in the collection.
pluck: function(attr) {
return _.map(this.models, function(model){ return model.get(attr); });
},
 
// When you have more items than you want to add or remove individually,
// you can reset the entire set with a new list of models, without firing
// any `add` or `remove` events. Fires `reset` when finished.
reset: function(models, options) {
models || (models = []);
options || (options = {});
for (var i = 0, l = this.models.length; i < l; i++) {
this._removeReference(this.models[i]);
}
this._reset();
this.add(models, _.extend({silent: true}, options));
if (!options.silent) this.trigger('reset', this, options);
return this;
},
 
// Fetch the default set of models for this collection, resetting the
// collection when they arrive. If `add: true` is passed, appends the
// models to the collection instead of resetting.
fetch: function(options) {
options = options ? _.clone(options) : {};
if (options.parse === undefined) options.parse = true;
var collection = this;
var success = options.success;
options.success = function(resp, status, xhr) {
collection[options.add ? 'add' : 'reset'](collection.parse(resp, xhr), options);
if (success) success(collection, resp);
};
options.error = Backbone.wrapError(options.error, collection, options);
return (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, 'read', this, options);
},
 
// Create a new instance of a model in this collection. Add the model to the
// collection immediately, unless `wait: true` is passed, in which case we
// wait for the server to agree.
create: function(model, options) {
var coll = this;
options = options ? _.clone(options) : {};
model = this._prepareModel(model, options);
if (!model) return false;
if (!options.wait) coll.add(model, options);
var success = options.success;
options.success = function(nextModel, resp, xhr) {
if (options.wait) coll.add(nextModel, options);
if (success) {
success(nextModel, resp);
} else {
nextModel.trigger('sync', model, resp, options);
}
};
model.save(null, options);
return model;
},
 
// **parse** converts a response into a list of models to be added to the
// collection. The default implementation is just to pass it through.
parse: function(resp, xhr) {
return resp;
},
 
// Proxy to _'s chain. Can't be proxied the same way the rest of the
// underscore methods are proxied because it relies on the underscore
// constructor.
chain: function () {
return _(this.models).chain();
},
 
// Reset all internal state. Called when the collection is reset.
_reset: function(options) {
this.length = 0;
this.models = [];
this._byId = {};
this._byCid = {};
},
 
// Prepare a model or hash of attributes to be added to this collection.
_prepareModel: function(model, options) {
options || (options = {});
if (!(model instanceof Model)) {
var attrs = model;
options.collection = this;
model = new this.model(attrs, options);
if (!model._validate(model.attributes, options)) model = false;
} else if (!model.collection) {
model.collection = this;
}
return model;
},
 
// Internal method to remove a model's ties to a collection.
_removeReference: function(model) {
if (this == model.collection) {
delete model.collection;
}
model.off('all', this._onModelEvent, this);
},
 
// Internal method called every time a model in the set fires an event.
// Sets need to update their indexes when models change ids. All other
// events simply proxy through. "add" and "remove" events that originate
// in other collections are ignored.
_onModelEvent: function(event, model, collection, options) {
if ((event == 'add' || event == 'remove') && collection != this) return;
if (event == 'destroy') {
this.remove(model, options);
}
if (model && event === 'change:' + model.idAttribute) {
delete this._byId[model.previous(model.idAttribute)];
this._byId[model.id] = model;
}
this.trigger.apply(this, arguments);
}
 
});
 
// Underscore methods that we want to implement on the Collection.
var methods = ['forEach', 'each', 'map', 'reduce', 'reduceRight', 'find',
'detect', 'filter', 'select', 'reject', 'every', 'all', 'some', 'any',
'include', 'contains', 'invoke', 'max', 'min', 'sortBy', 'sortedIndex',
'toArray', 'size', 'first', 'initial', 'rest', 'last', 'without', 'indexOf',
'shuffle', 'lastIndexOf', 'isEmpty', 'groupBy'];
 
// Mix in each Underscore method as a proxy to `Collection#models`.
_.each(methods, function(method) {
Collection.prototype[method] = function() {
return _[method].apply(_, [this.models].concat(_.toArray(arguments)));
};
});
 
// Backbone.Router
// -------------------
 
// Routers map faux-URLs to actions, and fire events when routes are
// matched. Creating a new one sets its `routes` hash, if not set statically.
var Router = Backbone.Router = function(options) {
options || (options = {});
if (options.routes) this.routes = options.routes;
this._bindRoutes();
this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
};
 
// Cached regular expressions for matching named param parts and splatted
// parts of route strings.
var namedParam = /:\w+/g;
var splatParam = /\*\w+/g;
var escapeRegExp = /[-[\]{}()+?.,\\^$|#\s]/g;
 
// Set up all inheritable **Backbone.Router** properties and methods.
_.extend(Router.prototype, Events, {
 
// Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
// initialization logic.
initialize: function(){},
 
// Manually bind a single named route to a callback. For example:
//
// this.route('search/:query/p:num', 'search', function(query, num) {
// ...
// });
//
route: function(route, name, callback) {
Backbone.history || (Backbone.history = new History);
if (!_.isRegExp(route)) route = this._routeToRegExp(route);
if (!callback) callback = this[name];
Backbone.history.route(route, _.bind(function(fragment) {
var args = this._extractParameters(route, fragment);
callback && callback.apply(this, args);
this.trigger.apply(this, ['route:' + name].concat(args));
Backbone.history.trigger('route', this, name, args);
}, this));
return this;
},
 
// Simple proxy to `Backbone.history` to save a fragment into the history.
navigate: function(fragment, options) {
Backbone.history.navigate(fragment, options);
},
 
// Bind all defined routes to `Backbone.history`. We have to reverse the
// order of the routes here to support behavior where the most general
// routes can be defined at the bottom of the route map.
_bindRoutes: function() {
if (!this.routes) return;
var routes = [];
for (var route in this.routes) {
routes.unshift([route, this.routes[route]]);
}
for (var i = 0, l = routes.length; i < l; i++) {
this.route(routes[i][0], routes[i][1], this[routes[i][1]]);
}
},
 
// Convert a route string into a regular expression, suitable for matching
// against the current location hash.
_routeToRegExp: function(route) {
route = route.replace(escapeRegExp, '\\$&')
.replace(namedParam, '([^\/]+)')
.replace(splatParam, '(.*?)');
return new RegExp('^' + route + '$');
},
 
// Given a route, and a URL fragment that it matches, return the array of
// extracted parameters.
_extractParameters: function(route, fragment) {
return route.exec(fragment).slice(1);
}
 
});
 
// Backbone.History
// ----------------
 
// Handles cross-browser history management, based on URL fragments. If the
// browser does not support `onhashchange`, falls back to polling.
var History = Backbone.History = function() {
this.handlers = [];
_.bindAll(this, 'checkUrl');
};
 
// Cached regex for cleaning leading hashes and slashes .
var routeStripper = /^[#\/]/;
 
// Cached regex for detecting MSIE.
var isExplorer = /msie [\w.]+/;
 
// Has the history handling already been started?
History.started = false;
 
// Set up all inheritable **Backbone.History** properties and methods.
_.extend(History.prototype, Events, {
 
// The default interval to poll for hash changes, if necessary, is
// twenty times a second.
interval: 50,
 
// Gets the true hash value. Cannot use location.hash directly due to bug
// in Firefox where location.hash will always be decoded.
getHash: function(windowOverride) {
var loc = windowOverride ? windowOverride.location : window.location;
var match = loc.href.match(/#(.*)$/);
return match ? match[1] : '';
},
 
// Get the cross-browser normalized URL fragment, either from the URL,
// the hash, or the override.
getFragment: function(fragment, forcePushState) {
if (fragment == null) {
if (this._hasPushState || forcePushState) {
fragment = window.location.pathname;
var search = window.location.search;
if (search) fragment += search;
} else {
fragment = this.getHash();
}
}
if (!fragment.indexOf(this.options.root)) fragment = fragment.substr(this.options.root.length);
return fragment.replace(routeStripper, '');
},
 
// Start the hash change handling, returning `true` if the current URL matches
// an existing route, and `false` otherwise.
start: function(options) {
if (History.started) throw new Error("Backbone.history has already been started");
History.started = true;
 
// Figure out the initial configuration. Do we need an iframe?
// Is pushState desired ... is it available?
this.options = _.extend({}, {root: '/'}, this.options, options);
this._wantsHashChange = this.options.hashChange !== false;
this._wantsPushState = !!this.options.pushState;
this._hasPushState = !!(this.options.pushState && window.history && window.history.pushState);
var fragment = this.getFragment();
var docMode = document.documentMode;
var oldIE = (isExplorer.exec(navigator.userAgent.toLowerCase()) && (!docMode || docMode <= 7));
 
if (oldIE) {
this.iframe = $('<iframe src="javascript:0" tabindex="-1" />').hide().appendTo('body')[0].contentWindow;
this.navigate(fragment);
}
 
// Depending on whether we're using pushState or hashes, and whether
// 'onhashchange' is supported, determine how we check the URL state.
if (this._hasPushState) {
$(window).bind('popstate', this.checkUrl);
} else if (this._wantsHashChange && ('onhashchange' in window) && !oldIE) {
$(window).bind('hashchange', this.checkUrl);
} else if (this._wantsHashChange) {
this._checkUrlInterval = setInterval(this.checkUrl, this.interval);
}
 
// Determine if we need to change the base url, for a pushState link
// opened by a non-pushState browser.
this.fragment = fragment;
var loc = window.location;
var atRoot = loc.pathname == this.options.root;
 
// If we've started off with a route from a `pushState`-enabled browser,
// but we're currently in a browser that doesn't support it...
if (this._wantsHashChange && this._wantsPushState && !this._hasPushState && !atRoot) {
this.fragment = this.getFragment(null, true);
window.location.replace(this.options.root + '#' + this.fragment);
// Return immediately as browser will do redirect to new url
return true;
 
// Or if we've started out with a hash-based route, but we're currently
// in a browser where it could be `pushState`-based instead...
} else if (this._wantsPushState && this._hasPushState && atRoot && loc.hash) {
this.fragment = this.getHash().replace(routeStripper, '');
window.history.replaceState({}, document.title, loc.protocol + '//' + loc.host + this.options.root + this.fragment);
}
 
if (!this.options.silent) {
return this.loadUrl();
}
},
 
// Disable Backbone.history, perhaps temporarily. Not useful in a real app,
// but possibly useful for unit testing Routers.
stop: function() {
$(window).unbind('popstate', this.checkUrl).unbind('hashchange', this.checkUrl);
clearInterval(this._checkUrlInterval);
History.started = false;
},
 
// Add a route to be tested when the fragment changes. Routes added later
// may override previous routes.
route: function(route, callback) {
this.handlers.unshift({route: route, callback: callback});
},
 
// Checks the current URL to see if it has changed, and if it has,
// calls `loadUrl`, normalizing across the hidden iframe.
checkUrl: function(e) {
var current = this.getFragment();
if (current == this.fragment && this.iframe) current = this.getFragment(this.getHash(this.iframe));
if (current == this.fragment) return false;
if (this.iframe) this.navigate(current);
this.loadUrl() || this.loadUrl(this.getHash());
},
 
// Attempt to load the current URL fragment. If a route succeeds with a
// match, returns `true`. If no defined routes matches the fragment,
// returns `false`.
loadUrl: function(fragmentOverride) {
var fragment = this.fragment = this.getFragment(fragmentOverride);
var matched = _.any(this.handlers, function(handler) {
if (handler.route.test(fragment)) {
handler.callback(fragment);
return true;
}
});
return matched;
},
 
// Save a fragment into the hash history, or replace the URL state if the
// 'replace' option is passed. You are responsible for properly URL-encoding
// the fragment in advance.
//
// The options object can contain `trigger: true` if you wish to have the
// route callback be fired (not usually desirable), or `replace: true`, if
// you wish to modify the current URL without adding an entry to the history.
navigate: function(fragment, options) {
if (!History.started) return false;
if (!options || options === true) options = {trigger: options};
var frag = (fragment || '').replace(routeStripper, '');
if (this.fragment == frag) return;
 
// If pushState is available, we use it to set the fragment as a real URL.
if (this._hasPushState) {
if (frag.indexOf(this.options.root) != 0) frag = this.options.root + frag;
this.fragment = frag;
window.history[options.replace ? 'replaceState' : 'pushState']({}, document.title, frag);
 
// If hash changes haven't been explicitly disabled, update the hash
// fragment to store history.
} else if (this._wantsHashChange) {
this.fragment = frag;
this._updateHash(window.location, frag, options.replace);
if (this.iframe && (frag != this.getFragment(this.getHash(this.iframe)))) {
// Opening and closing the iframe tricks IE7 and earlier to push a history entry on hash-tag change.
// When replace is true, we don't want this.
if(!options.replace) this.iframe.document.open().close();
this._updateHash(this.iframe.location, frag, options.replace);
}
 
// If you've told us that you explicitly don't want fallback hashchange-
// based history, then `navigate` becomes a page refresh.
} else {
window.location.assign(this.options.root + fragment);
}
if (options.trigger) this.loadUrl(fragment);
},
 
// Update the hash location, either replacing the current entry, or adding
// a new one to the browser history.
_updateHash: function(location, fragment, replace) {
if (replace) {
location.replace(location.toString().replace(/(javascript:|#).*$/, '') + '#' + fragment);
} else {
location.hash = fragment;
}
}
});
 
// Backbone.View
// -------------
 
// Creating a Backbone.View creates its initial element outside of the DOM,
// if an existing element is not provided...
var View = Backbone.View = function(options) {
this.cid = _.uniqueId('view');
this._configure(options || {});
this._ensureElement();
this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
this.delegateEvents();
};
 
// Cached regex to split keys for `delegate`.
var delegateEventSplitter = /^(\S+)\s*(.*)$/;
 
// List of view options to be merged as properties.
var viewOptions = ['model', 'collection', 'el', 'id', 'attributes', 'className', 'tagName'];
 
// Set up all inheritable **Backbone.View** properties and methods.
_.extend(View.prototype, Events, {
 
// The default `tagName` of a View's element is `"div"`.
tagName: 'div',
 
// jQuery delegate for element lookup, scoped to DOM elements within the
// current view. This should be prefered to global lookups where possible.
$: function(selector) {
return this.$el.find(selector);
},
 
// Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
// initialization logic.
initialize: function(){},
 
// **render** is the core function that your view should override, in order
// to populate its element (`this.el`), with the appropriate HTML. The
// convention is for **render** to always return `this`.
render: function() {
return this;
},
 
// Remove this view from the DOM. Note that the view isn't present in the
// DOM by default, so calling this method may be a no-op.
remove: function() {
this.$el.remove();
return this;
},
 
// For small amounts of DOM Elements, where a full-blown template isn't
// needed, use **make** to manufacture elements, one at a time.
//
// var el = this.make('li', {'class': 'row'}, this.model.escape('title'));
//
make: function(tagName, attributes, content) {
var el = document.createElement(tagName);
if (attributes) $(el).attr(attributes);
if (content) $(el).html(content);
return el;
},
 
// Change the view's element (`this.el` property), including event
// re-delegation.
setElement: function(element, delegate) {
if (this.$el) this.undelegateEvents();
this.$el = (element instanceof $) ? element : $(element);
this.el = this.$el[0];
if (delegate !== false) this.delegateEvents();
return this;
},
 
// Set callbacks, where `this.events` is a hash of
//
// *{"event selector": "callback"}*
//
// {
// 'mousedown .title': 'edit',
// 'click .button': 'save'
// 'click .open': function(e) { ... }
// }
//
// pairs. Callbacks will be bound to the view, with `this` set properly.
// Uses event delegation for efficiency.
// Omitting the selector binds the event to `this.el`.
// This only works for delegate-able events: not `focus`, `blur`, and
// not `change`, `submit`, and `reset` in Internet Explorer.
delegateEvents: function(events) {
if (!(events || (events = getValue(this, 'events')))) return;
this.undelegateEvents();
for (var key in events) {
var method = events[key];
if (!_.isFunction(method)) method = this[events[key]];
if (!method) throw new Error('Method "' + events[key] + '" does not exist');
var match = key.match(delegateEventSplitter);
var eventName = match[1], selector = match[2];
method = _.bind(method, this);
eventName += '.delegateEvents' + this.cid;
if (selector === '') {
this.$el.bind(eventName, method);
} else {
this.$el.delegate(selector, eventName, method);
}
}
},
 
// Clears all callbacks previously bound to the view with `delegateEvents`.
// You usually don't need to use this, but may wish to if you have multiple
// Backbone views attached to the same DOM element.
undelegateEvents: function() {
this.$el.unbind('.delegateEvents' + this.cid);
},
 
// Performs the initial configuration of a View with a set of options.
// Keys with special meaning *(model, collection, id, className)*, are
// attached directly to the view.
_configure: function(options) {
if (this.options) options = _.extend({}, this.options, options);
for (var i = 0, l = viewOptions.length; i < l; i++) {
var attr = viewOptions[i];
if (options[attr]) this[attr] = options[attr];
}
this.options = options;
},
 
// Ensure that the View has a DOM element to render into.
// If `this.el` is a string, pass it through `$()`, take the first
// matching element, and re-assign it to `el`. Otherwise, create
// an element from the `id`, `className` and `tagName` properties.
_ensureElement: function() {
if (!this.el) {
var attrs = getValue(this, 'attributes') || {};
if (this.id) attrs.id = this.id;
if (this.className) attrs['class'] = this.className;
this.setElement(this.make(this.tagName, attrs), false);
} else {
this.setElement(this.el, false);
}
}
 
});
 
// The self-propagating extend function that Backbone classes use.
var extend = function (protoProps, classProps) {
var child = inherits(this, protoProps, classProps);
child.extend = this.extend;
return child;
};
 
// Set up inheritance for the model, collection, and view.
Model.extend = Collection.extend = Router.extend = View.extend = extend;
 
// Backbone.sync
// -------------
 
// Map from CRUD to HTTP for our default `Backbone.sync` implementation.
var methodMap = {
'create': 'POST',
'update': 'PUT',
'delete': 'DELETE',
'read': 'GET'
};
 
// Override this function to change the manner in which Backbone persists
// models to the server. You will be passed the type of request, and the
// model in question. By default, makes a RESTful Ajax request
// to the model's `url()`. Some possible customizations could be:
//
// * Use `setTimeout` to batch rapid-fire updates into a single request.
// * Send up the models as XML instead of JSON.
// * Persist models via WebSockets instead of Ajax.
//
// Turn on `Backbone.emulateHTTP` in order to send `PUT` and `DELETE` requests
// as `POST`, with a `_method` parameter containing the true HTTP method,
// as well as all requests with the body as `application/x-www-form-urlencoded`
// instead of `application/json` with the model in a param named `model`.
// Useful when interfacing with server-side languages like **PHP** that make
// it difficult to read the body of `PUT` requests.
Backbone.sync = function(method, model, options) {
var type = methodMap[method];
 
// Default options, unless specified.
options || (options = {});
 
// Default JSON-request options.
var params = {type: type, dataType: 'json'};
 
// Ensure that we have a URL.
if (!options.url) {
params.url = getValue(model, 'url') || urlError();
}
 
// Ensure that we have the appropriate request data.
if (!options.data && model && (method == 'create' || method == 'update')) {
params.contentType = 'application/json';
params.data = JSON.stringify(model.toJSON());
}
 
// For older servers, emulate JSON by encoding the request into an HTML-form.
if (Backbone.emulateJSON) {
params.contentType = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded';
params.data = params.data ? {model: params.data} : {};
}
 
// For older servers, emulate HTTP by mimicking the HTTP method with `_method`
// And an `X-HTTP-Method-Override` header.
if (Backbone.emulateHTTP) {
if (type === 'PUT' || type === 'DELETE') {
if (Backbone.emulateJSON) params.data._method = type;
params.type = 'POST';
params.beforeSend = function(xhr) {
xhr.setRequestHeader('X-HTTP-Method-Override', type);
};
}
}
 
// Don't process data on a non-GET request.
if (params.type !== 'GET' && !Backbone.emulateJSON) {
params.processData = false;
}
 
// Make the request, allowing the user to override any Ajax options.
return $.ajax(_.extend(params, options));
};
 
// Wrap an optional error callback with a fallback error event.
Backbone.wrapError = function(onError, originalModel, options) {
return function(model, resp) {
resp = model === originalModel ? resp : model;
if (onError) {
onError(originalModel, resp, options);
} else {
originalModel.trigger('error', originalModel, resp, options);
}
};
};
 
// Helpers
// -------
 
// Shared empty constructor function to aid in prototype-chain creation.
var ctor = function(){};
 
// Helper function to correctly set up the prototype chain, for subclasses.
// Similar to `goog.inherits`, but uses a hash of prototype properties and
// class properties to be extended.
var inherits = function(parent, protoProps, staticProps) {
var child;
 
// The constructor function for the new subclass is either defined by you
// (the "constructor" property in your `extend` definition), or defaulted
// by us to simply call the parent's constructor.
if (protoProps && protoProps.hasOwnProperty('constructor')) {
child = protoProps.constructor;
} else {
child = function(){ parent.apply(this, arguments); };
}
 
// Inherit class (static) properties from parent.
_.extend(child, parent);
 
// Set the prototype chain to inherit from `parent`, without calling
// `parent`'s constructor function.
ctor.prototype = parent.prototype;
child.prototype = new ctor();
 
// Add prototype properties (instance properties) to the subclass,
// if supplied.
if (protoProps) _.extend(child.prototype, protoProps);
 
// Add static properties to the constructor function, if supplied.
if (staticProps) _.extend(child, staticProps);
 
// Correctly set child's `prototype.constructor`.
child.prototype.constructor = child;
 
// Set a convenience property in case the parent's prototype is needed later.
child.__super__ = parent.prototype;
 
return child;
};
 
// Helper function to get a value from a Backbone object as a property
// or as a function.
var getValue = function(object, prop) {
if (!(object && object[prop])) return null;
return _.isFunction(object[prop]) ? object[prop]() : object[prop];
};
 
// Throw an error when a URL is needed, and none is supplied.
var urlError = function() {
throw new Error('A "url" property or function must be specified');
};
 
})}).call(this, this, typeof define === 'function' && define.amd ? define : function(id, factory) {
 
if (typeof exports !== 'undefined') {
// CommonJS has require and exports, use them and execute
// the factory function immediately. Provide a wrapper
// for require to deal with jQuery.
factory(function(id) {
// jQuery most likely cannot be loaded
// in a CommonJS environment, unless the developer
// also uses a browser shim like jsdom. Allow
// for that possibility, but do not blow
// up if it does not work. Use of a
// try/catch has precedent in Node modules
// for this kind of situation.
try {
return require(id);
} catch (e) {
// Do not bother returning a value, just absorb
// the error, the caller will receive undefined
// for the value.
}
}, exports);
} else {
// Plain browser. Grab the global.
var root = this;
 
// Create an object to hold the exported properties for Backbone.
// Do not use "exports" for the variable name, since var hoisting
// means it will shadow CommonJS exports in that environmetn.
var exportValue = {};
 
// Create a global for Backbone.
// Call the factory function to attach the Backbone
// properties to the exports value.
factory(function(id) {
if (id === 'jquery') {
// Support libraries that support the portions of
// the jQuery API used by Backbone.
return root.jQuery || root.Zepto || root.ender;
} else {
// Only other dependency is underscore.
return root._;
}
}, exportValue);
 
// Create the global only after running the factory,
// so that the previousBackbone for noConflict is found correctly.
root.Backbone = exportValue;
}
});
underscore.js
JavaScript
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// Underscore.js 1.3.3
// (c) 2009-2012 Jeremy Ashkenas, DocumentCloud Inc.
// Underscore is freely distributable under the MIT license.
// Portions of Underscore are inspired or borrowed from Prototype,
// Oliver Steele's Functional, and John Resig's Micro-Templating.
// For all details and documentation:
// http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore
 
// Use a factory function to attach Underscore properties to an exports value.
// Code at the end of this file creates the right define, require and exports
// values to allow Underscore to run in a CommonJS or AMD container or in the
// default browser environment.
(function(root, define) { define('underscore', function(require, exports, module) {
 
// Baseline setup
// --------------
 
// Establish the root object, `window` in the browser, or `global` on the server.
//var root = this;
 
// Save the previous value of the `_` variable.
var previousUnderscore = root._;
 
// Establish the object that gets returned to break out of a loop iteration.
var breaker = {};
 
// Save bytes in the minified (but not gzipped) version:
var ArrayProto = Array.prototype, ObjProto = Object.prototype, FuncProto = Function.prototype;
 
// Create quick reference variables for speed access to core prototypes.
var slice = ArrayProto.slice,
unshift = ArrayProto.unshift,
toString = ObjProto.toString,
hasOwnProperty = ObjProto.hasOwnProperty;
 
// All **ECMAScript 5** native function implementations that we hope to use
// are declared here.
var
nativeForEach = ArrayProto.forEach,
nativeMap = ArrayProto.map,
nativeReduce = ArrayProto.reduce,
nativeReduceRight = ArrayProto.reduceRight,
nativeFilter = ArrayProto.filter,
nativeEvery = ArrayProto.every,
nativeSome = ArrayProto.some,
nativeIndexOf = ArrayProto.indexOf,
nativeLastIndexOf = ArrayProto.lastIndexOf,
nativeIsArray = Array.isArray,
nativeKeys = Object.keys,
nativeBind = FuncProto.bind;
 
// Create a safe reference to the Underscore object for use below.
var _ = function(obj) { return new wrapper(obj); };
 
// Export the Underscore object for **Node.js**, with
// backwards-compatibility for the old `require()` API. If we're in
// the browser, add `_` as a global object via a string identifier,
// for Closure Compiler "advanced" mode.
if (typeof exports !== 'undefined') {
if (typeof module !== 'undefined' && module.exports) {
exports = module.exports = _;
}
exports._ = _;
} else {
root['_'] = _;
}
 
// Current version.
_.VERSION = '1.3.3';
 
// Collection Functions
// --------------------
 
// The cornerstone, an `each` implementation, aka `forEach`.
// Handles objects with the built-in `forEach`, arrays, and raw objects.
// Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `forEach` if available.
var each = _.each = _.forEach = function(obj, iterator, context) {
if (obj == null) return;
if (nativeForEach && obj.forEach === nativeForEach) {
obj.forEach(iterator, context);
} else if (obj.length === +obj.length) {
for (var i = 0, l = obj.length; i < l; i++) {
if (i in obj && iterator.call(context, obj[i], i, obj) === breaker) return;
}
} else {
for (var key in obj) {
if (_.has(obj, key)) {
if (iterator.call(context, obj[key], key, obj) === breaker) return;
}
}
}
};
 
// Return the results of applying the iterator to each element.
// Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `map` if available.
_.map = _.collect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
var results = [];
if (obj == null) return results;
if (nativeMap && obj.map === nativeMap) return obj.map(iterator, context);
each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
results[results.length] = iterator.call(context, value, index, list);
});
if (obj.length === +obj.length) results.length = obj.length;
return results;
};
 
// **Reduce** builds up a single result from a list of values, aka `inject`,
// or `foldl`. Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `reduce` if available.
_.reduce = _.foldl = _.inject = function(obj, iterator, memo, context) {
var initial = arguments.length > 2;
if (obj == null) obj = [];
if (nativeReduce && obj.reduce === nativeReduce) {
if (context) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
return initial ? obj.reduce(iterator, memo) : obj.reduce(iterator);
}
each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
if (!initial) {
memo = value;
initial = true;
} else {
memo = iterator.call(context, memo, value, index, list);
}
});
if (!initial) throw new TypeError('Reduce of empty array with no initial value');
return memo;
};
 
// The right-associative version of reduce, also known as `foldr`.
// Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `reduceRight` if available.
_.reduceRight = _.foldr = function(obj, iterator, memo, context) {
var initial = arguments.length > 2;
if (obj == null) obj = [];
if (nativeReduceRight && obj.reduceRight === nativeReduceRight) {
if (context) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
return initial ? obj.reduceRight(iterator, memo) : obj.reduceRight(iterator);
}
var reversed = _.toArray(obj).reverse();
if (context && !initial) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
return initial ? _.reduce(reversed, iterator, memo, context) : _.reduce(reversed, iterator);
};
 
// Return the first value which passes a truth test. Aliased as `detect`.
_.find = _.detect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
var result;
any(obj, function(value, index, list) {
if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) {
result = value;
return true;
}
});
return result;
};
 
// Return all the elements that pass a truth test.
// Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `filter` if available.
// Aliased as `select`.
_.filter = _.select = function(obj, iterator, context) {
var results = [];
if (obj == null) return results;
if (nativeFilter && obj.filter === nativeFilter) return obj.filter(iterator, context);
each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) results[results.length] = value;
});
return results;
};
 
// Return all the elements for which a truth test fails.
_.reject = function(obj, iterator, context) {
var results = [];
if (obj == null) return results;
each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
if (!iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) results[results.length] = value;
});
return results;
};
 
// Determine whether all of the elements match a truth test.
// Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `every` if available.
// Aliased as `all`.
_.every = _.all = function(obj, iterator, context) {
var result = true;
if (obj == null) return result;
if (nativeEvery && obj.every === nativeEvery) return obj.every(iterator, context);
each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
if (!(result = result && iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
});
return !!result;
};
 
// Determine if at least one element in the object matches a truth test.
// Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `some` if available.
// Aliased as `any`.
var any = _.some = _.any = function(obj, iterator, context) {
iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
var result = false;
if (obj == null) return result;
if (nativeSome && obj.some === nativeSome) return obj.some(iterator, context);
each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
if (result || (result = iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
});
return !!result;
};
 
// Determine if a given value is included in the array or object using `===`.
// Aliased as `contains`.
_.include = _.contains = function(obj, target) {
var found = false;
if (obj == null) return found;
if (nativeIndexOf && obj.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return obj.indexOf(target) != -1;
found = any(obj, function(value) {
return value === target;
});
return found;
};
 
// Invoke a method (with arguments) on every item in a collection.
_.invoke = function(obj, method) {
var args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
return _.map(obj, function(value) {
return (_.isFunction(method) ? method || value : value[method]).apply(value, args);
});
};
 
// Convenience version of a common use case of `map`: fetching a property.
_.pluck = function(obj, key) {
return _.map(obj, function(value){ return value[key]; });
};
 
// Return the maximum element or (element-based computation).
_.max = function(obj, iterator, context) {
if (!iterator && _.isArray(obj) && obj[0] === +obj[0]) return Math.max.apply(Math, obj);
if (!iterator && _.isEmpty(obj)) return -Infinity;
var result = {computed : -Infinity};
each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
var computed = iterator ? iterator.call(context, value, index, list) : value;
computed >= result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});
});
return result.value;
};
 
// Return the minimum element (or element-based computation).
_.min = function(obj, iterator, context) {
if (!iterator && _.isArray(obj) && obj[0] === +obj[0]) return Math.min.apply(Math, obj);
if (!iterator && _.isEmpty(obj)) return Infinity;
var result = {computed : Infinity};
each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
var computed = iterator ? iterator.call(context, value, index, list) : value;
computed < result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});
});
return result.value;
};
 
// Shuffle an array.
_.shuffle = function(obj) {
var shuffled = [], rand;
each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
rand = Math.floor(Math.random() * (index + 1));
shuffled[index] = shuffled[rand];
shuffled[rand] = value;
});
return shuffled;
};
 
// Sort the object's values by a criterion produced by an iterator.
_.sortBy = function(obj, val, context) {
var iterator = _.isFunction(val) ? val : function(obj) { return obj[val]; };
return _.pluck(_.map(obj, function(value, index, list) {
return {
value : value,
criteria : iterator.call(context, value, index, list)
};
}).sort(function(left, right) {
var a = left.criteria, b = right.criteria;
if (a === void 0) return 1;
if (b === void 0) return -1;
return a < b ? -1 : a > b ? 1 : 0;
}), 'value');
};
 
// Groups the object's values by a criterion. Pass either a string attribute
// to group by, or a function that returns the criterion.
_.groupBy = function(obj, val) {
var result = {};
var iterator = _.isFunction(val) ? val : function(obj) { return obj[val]; };
each(obj, function(value, index) {
var key = iterator(value, index);
(result[key] || (result[key] = [])).push(value);
});
return result;
};
 
// Use a comparator function to figure out at what index an object should
// be inserted so as to maintain order. Uses binary search.
_.sortedIndex = function(array, obj, iterator) {
iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
var low = 0, high = array.length;
while (low < high) {
var mid = (low + high) >> 1;
iterator(array[mid]) < iterator(obj) ? low = mid + 1 : high = mid;
}
return low;
};
 
// Safely convert anything iterable into a real, live array.
_.toArray = function(obj) {
if (!obj) return [];
if (_.isArray(obj)) return slice.call(obj);
if (_.isArguments(obj)) return slice.call(obj);
if (obj.toArray && _.isFunction(obj.toArray)) return obj.toArray();
return _.values(obj);
};
 
// Return the number of elements in an object.
_.size = function(obj) {
return _.isArray(obj) ? obj.length : _.keys(obj).length;
};
 
// Array Functions
// ---------------
 
// Get the first element of an array. Passing **n** will return the first N
// values in the array. Aliased as `head` and `take`. The **guard** check
// allows it to work with `_.map`.
_.first = _.head = _.take = function(array, n, guard) {
return (n != null) && !guard ? slice.call(array, 0, n) : array[0];
};
 
// Returns everything but the last entry of the array. Especcialy useful on
// the arguments object. Passing **n** will return all the values in
// the array, excluding the last N. The **guard** check allows it to work with
// `_.map`.
_.initial = function(array, n, guard) {
return slice.call(array, 0, array.length - ((n == null) || guard ? 1 : n));
};
 
// Get the last element of an array. Passing **n** will return the last N
// values in the array. The **guard** check allows it to work with `_.map`.
_.last = function(array, n, guard) {
if ((n != null) && !guard) {
return slice.call(array, Math.max(array.length - n, 0));
} else {
return array[array.length - 1];
}
};
 
// Returns everything but the first entry of the array. Aliased as `tail`.
// Especially useful on the arguments object. Passing an **index** will return
// the rest of the values in the array from that index onward. The **guard**
// check allows it to work with `_.map`.
_.rest = _.tail = function(array, index, guard) {
return slice.call(array, (index == null) || guard ? 1 : index);
};
 
// Trim out all falsy values from an array.
_.compact = function(array) {
return _.filter(array, function(value){ return !!value; });
};
 
// Return a completely flattened version of an array.
_.flatten = function(array, shallow) {
return _.reduce(array, function(memo, value) {
if (_.isArray(value)) return memo.concat(shallow ? value : _.flatten(value));
memo[memo.length] = value;
return memo;
}, []);
};
 
// Return a version of the array that does not contain the specified value(s).
_.without = function(array) {
return _.difference(array, slice.call(arguments, 1));
};
 
// Produce a duplicate-free version of the array. If the array has already
// been sorted, you have the option of using a faster algorithm.
// Aliased as `unique`.
_.uniq = _.unique = function(array, isSorted, iterator) {
var initial = iterator ? _.map(array, iterator) : array;
var results = [];
// The `isSorted` flag is irrelevant if the array only contains two elements.
if (array.length < 3) isSorted = true;
_.reduce(initial, function (memo, value, index) {
if (isSorted ? _.last(memo) !== value || !memo.length : !_.include(memo, value)) {
memo.push(value);
results.push(array[index]);
}
return memo;
}, []);
return results;
};
 
// Produce an array that contains the union: each distinct element from all of
// the passed-in arrays.
_.union = function() {
return _.uniq(_.flatten(arguments, true));
};
 
// Produce an array that contains every item shared between all the
// passed-in arrays. (Aliased as "intersect" for back-compat.)
_.intersection = _.intersect = function(array) {
var rest = slice.call(arguments, 1);
return _.filter(_.uniq(array), function(item) {
return _.every(rest, function(other) {
return _.indexOf(other, item) >= 0;
});
});
};
 
// Take the difference between one array and a number of other arrays.
// Only the elements present in just the first array will remain.
_.difference = function(array) {
var rest = _.flatten(slice.call(arguments, 1), true);
return _.filter(array, function(value){ return !_.include(rest, value); });
};
 
// Zip together multiple lists into a single array -- elements that share
// an index go together.
_.zip = function() {
var args = slice.call(arguments);
var length = _.max(_.pluck(args, 'length'));
var results = new Array(length);
for (var i = 0; i < length; i++) results[i] = _.pluck(args, "" + i);
return results;
};
 
// If the browser doesn't supply us with indexOf (I'm looking at you, **MSIE**),
// we need this function. Return the position of the first occurrence of an
// item in an array, or -1 if the item is not included in the array.
// Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `indexOf` if available.
// If the array is large and already in sort order, pass `true`
// for **isSorted** to use binary search.
_.indexOf = function(array, item, isSorted) {
if (array == null) return -1;
var i, l;
if (isSorted) {
i = _.sortedIndex(array, item);
return array[i] === item ? i : -1;
}
if (nativeIndexOf && array.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return array.indexOf(item);
for (i = 0, l = array.length; i < l; i++) if (i in array && array[i] === item) return i;
return -1;
};
 
// Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `lastIndexOf` if available.
_.lastIndexOf = function(array, item) {
if (array == null) return -1;
if (nativeLastIndexOf && array.lastIndexOf === nativeLastIndexOf) return array.lastIndexOf(item);
var i = array.length;
while (i--) if (i in array && array[i] === item) return i;
return -1;
};
 
// Generate an integer Array containing an arithmetic progression. A port of
// the native Python `range()` function. See
// [the Python documentation](http://docs.python.org/library/functions.html#range).
_.range = function(start, stop, step) {
if (arguments.length <= 1) {
stop = start || 0;
start = 0;
}
step = arguments[2] || 1;
 
var len = Math.max(Math.ceil((stop - start) / step), 0);
var idx = 0;
var range = new Array(len);
 
while(idx < len) {
range[idx++] = start;
start += step;
}
 
return range;
};
 
// Function (ahem) Functions
// ------------------
 
// Reusable constructor function for prototype setting.
var ctor = function(){};
 
// Create a function bound to a given object (assigning `this`, and arguments,
// optionally). Binding with arguments is also known as `curry`.
// Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `Function.bind` if available.
// We check for `func.bind` first, to fail fast when `func` is undefined.
_.bind = function bind(func, context) {
var bound, args;
if (func.bind === nativeBind && nativeBind) return nativeBind.apply(func, slice.call(arguments, 1));
if (!_.isFunction(func)) throw new TypeError;
args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
return bound = function() {
if (!(this instanceof bound)) return func.apply(context, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
ctor.prototype = func.prototype;
var self = new ctor;
var result = func.apply(self, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
if (Object(result) === result) return result;
return self;
};
};
 
// Bind all of an object's methods to that object. Useful for ensuring that
// all callbacks defined on an object belong to it.
_.bindAll = function(obj) {
var funcs = slice.call(arguments, 1);
if (funcs.length == 0) funcs = _.functions(obj);
each(funcs, function(f) { obj[f] = _.bind(obj[f], obj); });
return obj;
};
 
// Memoize an expensive function by storing its results.
_.memoize = function(func, hasher) {
var memo = {};
hasher || (hasher = _.identity);
return function() {
var key = hasher.apply(this, arguments);
return _.has(memo, key) ? memo[key] : (memo[key] = func.apply(this, arguments));
};
};
 
// Delays a function for the given number of milliseconds, and then calls
// it with the arguments supplied.
_.delay = function(func, wait) {
var args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
return setTimeout(function(){ return func.apply(null, args); }, wait);
};
 
// Defers a function, scheduling it to run after the current call stack has
// cleared.
_.defer = function(func) {
return _.delay.apply(_, [func, 1].concat(slice.call(arguments, 1)));
};
 
// Returns a function, that, when invoked, will only be triggered at most once
// during a given window of time.
_.throttle = function(func, wait) {
var context, args, timeout, throttling, more, result;
var whenDone = _.debounce(function(){ more = throttling = false; }, wait);
return function() {
context = this; args = arguments;
var later = function() {
timeout = null;
if (more) func.apply(context, args);
whenDone();
};
if (!timeout) timeout = setTimeout(later, wait);
if (throttling) {
more = true;
} else {
result = func.apply(context, args);
}
whenDone();
throttling = true;
return result;
};
};
 
// Returns a function, that, as long as it continues to be invoked, will not
// be triggered. The function will be called after it stops being called for
// N milliseconds. If `immediate` is passed, trigger the function on the
// leading edge, instead of the trailing.
_.debounce = function(func, wait, immediate) {
var timeout;
return function() {
var context = this, args = arguments;
var later = function() {
timeout = null;
if (!immediate) func.apply(context, args);
};
if (immediate && !timeout) func.apply(context, args);
clearTimeout(timeout);
timeout = setTimeout(later, wait);
};
};
 
// Returns a function that will be executed at most one time, no matter how
// often you call it. Useful for lazy initialization.
_.once = function(func) {
var ran = false, memo;
return function() {
if (ran) return memo;
ran = true;
return memo = func.apply(this, arguments);
};
};
 
// Returns the first function passed as an argument to the second,
// allowing you to adjust arguments, run code before and after, and
// conditionally execute the original function.
_.wrap = function(func, wrapper) {
return function() {
var args = [func].concat(slice.call(arguments, 0));
return wrapper.apply(this, args);
};
};
 
// Returns a function that is the composition of a list of functions, each
// consuming the return value of the function that follows.
_.compose = function() {
var funcs = arguments;
return function() {
var args = arguments;
for (var i = funcs.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
args = [funcs[i].apply(this, args)];
}
return args[0];
};
};
 
// Returns a function that will only be executed after being called N times.
_.after = function(times, func) {
if (times <= 0) return func();
return function() {
if (--times < 1) { return func.apply(this, arguments); }
};
};
 
// Object Functions
// ----------------
 
// Retrieve the names of an object's properties.
// Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `Object.keys`
_.keys = nativeKeys || function(obj) {
if (obj !== Object(obj)) throw new TypeError('Invalid object');
var keys = [];
for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) keys[keys.length] = key;
return keys;
};
 
// Retrieve the values of an object's properties.
_.values = function(obj) {
return _.map(obj, _.identity);
};
 
// Return a sorted list of the function names available on the object.
// Aliased as `methods`
_.functions = _.methods = function(obj) {
var names = [];
for (var key in obj) {
if (_.isFunction(obj[key])) names.push(key);
}
return names.sort();
};
 
// Extend a given object with all the properties in passed-in object(s).
_.extend = function(obj) {
each(slice.call(arguments, 1), function(source) {
for (var prop in source) {
obj[prop] = source[prop];
}
});
return obj;
};
 
// Return a copy of the object only containing the whitelisted properties.
_.pick = function(obj) {
var result = {};
each(_.flatten(slice.call(arguments, 1)), function(key) {
if (key in obj) result[key] = obj[key];
});
return result;
};
 
// Fill in a given object with default properties.
_.defaults = function(obj) {
each(slice.call(arguments, 1), function(source) {
for (var prop in source) {
if (obj[prop] == null) obj[prop] = source[prop];
}
});
return obj;
};
 
// Create a (shallow-cloned) duplicate of an object.
_.clone = function(obj) {
if (!_.isObject(obj)) return obj;
return _.isArray(obj) ? obj.slice() : _.extend({}, obj);
};
 
// Invokes interceptor with the obj, and then returns obj.
// The primary purpose of this method is to "tap into" a method chain, in
// order to perform operations on intermediate results within the chain.
_.tap = function(obj, interceptor) {
interceptor(obj);
return obj;
};
 
// Internal recursive comparison function.
function eq(a, b, stack) {
// Identical objects are equal. `0 === -0`, but they aren't identical.
// See the Harmony `egal` proposal: http://wiki.ecmascript.org/doku.php?id=harmony:egal.
if (a === b) return a !== 0 || 1 / a == 1 / b;
// A strict comparison is necessary because `null == undefined`.
if (a == null || b == null) return a === b;
// Unwrap any wrapped objects.
if (a._chain) a = a._wrapped;
if (b._chain) b = b._wrapped;
// Invoke a custom `isEqual` method if one is provided.
if (a.isEqual && _.isFunction(a.isEqual)) return a.isEqual(b);
if (b.isEqual && _.isFunction(b.isEqual)) return b.isEqual(a);
// Compare `[[Class]]` names.
var className = toString.call(a);
if (className != toString.call(b)) return false;
switch (className) {
// Strings, numbers, dates, and booleans are compared by value.
case '[object String]':
// Primitives and their corresponding object wrappers are equivalent; thus, `"5"` is
// equivalent to `new String("5")`.
return a == String(b);
case '[object Number]':
// `NaN`s are equivalent, but non-reflexive. An `egal` comparison is performed for
// other numeric values.
return a != +a ? b != +b : (a == 0 ? 1 / a == 1 / b : a == +b);
case '[object Date]':
case '[object Boolean]':
// Coerce dates and booleans to numeric primitive values. Dates are compared by their
// millisecond representations. Note that invalid dates with millisecond representations
// of `NaN` are not equivalent.
return +a == +b;
// RegExps are compared by their source patterns and flags.
case '[object RegExp]':
return a.source == b.source &&
a.global == b.global &&
a.multiline == b.multiline &&
a.ignoreCase == b.ignoreCase;
}
if (typeof a != 'object' || typeof b != 'object') return false;
// Assume equality for cyclic structures. The algorithm for detecting cyclic
// structures is adapted from ES 5.1 section 15.12.3, abstract operation `JO`.
var length = stack.length;
while (length--) {
// Linear search. Performance is inversely proportional to the number of
// unique nested structures.
if (stack[length] == a) return true;
}
// Add the first object to the stack of traversed objects.
stack.push(a);
var size = 0, result = true;
// Recursively compare objects and arrays.
if (className == '[object Array]') {
// Compare array lengths to determine if a deep comparison is necessary.
size = a.length;
result = size == b.length;
if (result) {
// Deep compare the contents, ignoring non-numeric properties.
while (size--) {
// Ensure commutative equality for sparse arrays.
if (!(result = size in a == size in b && eq(a[size], b[size], stack))) break;
}
}
} else {
// Objects with different constructors are not equivalent.
if ('constructor' in a != 'constructor' in b || a.constructor != b.constructor) return false;
// Deep compare objects.
for (var key in a) {
if (_.has(a, key)) {
// Count the expected number of properties.
size++;
// Deep compare each member.
if (!(result = _.has(b, key) && eq(a[key], b[key], stack))) break;
}
}
// Ensure that both objects contain the same number of properties.
if (result) {
for (key in b) {
if (_.has(b, key) && !(size--)) break;
}
result = !size;
}
}
// Remove the first object from the stack of traversed objects.
stack.pop();
return result;
}
 
// Perform a deep comparison to check if two objects are equal.
_.isEqual = function(a, b) {
return eq(a, b, []);
};
 
// Is a given array, string, or object empty?
// An "empty" object has no enumerable own-properties.
_.isEmpty = function(obj) {
if (obj == null) return true;
if (_.isArray(obj) || _.isString(obj)) return obj.length === 0;
for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) return false;
return true;
};
 
// Is a given value a DOM element?
_.isElement = function(obj) {
return !!(obj && obj.nodeType == 1);
};
 
// Is a given value an array?
// Delegates to ECMA5's native Array.isArray
_.isArray = nativeIsArray || function(obj) {
return toString.call(obj) == '[object Array]';
};
 
// Is a given variable an object?
_.isObject = function(obj) {
return obj === Object(obj);
};
 
// Is a given variable an arguments object?
_.isArguments = function(obj) {
return toString.call(obj) == '[object Arguments]';
};
if (!_.isArguments(arguments)) {
_.isArguments = function(obj) {
return !!(obj && _.has(obj, 'callee'));
};
}
 
// Is a given value a function?
_.isFunction = function(obj) {
return toString.call(obj) == '[object Function]';
};
 
// Is a given value a string?
_.isString = function(obj) {
return toString.call(obj) == '[object String]';
};
 
// Is a given value a number?
_.isNumber = function(obj) {
return toString.call(obj) == '[object Number]';
};
 
// Is a given object a finite number?
_.isFinite = function(obj) {
return _.isNumber(obj) && isFinite(obj);
};
 
// Is the given value `NaN`?
_.isNaN = function(obj) {
// `NaN` is the only value for which `===` is not reflexive.
return obj !== obj;
};
 
// Is a given value a boolean?
_.isBoolean = function(obj) {
return obj === true || obj === false || toString.call(obj) == '[object Boolean]';
};
 
// Is a given value a date?
_.isDate = function(obj) {
return toString.call(obj) == '[object Date]';
};
 
// Is the given value a regular expression?
_.isRegExp = function(obj) {
return toString.call(obj) == '[object RegExp]';
};
 
// Is a given value equal to null?
_.isNull = function(obj) {
return obj === null;
};
 
// Is a given variable undefined?
_.isUndefined = function(obj) {
return obj === void 0;
};
 
// Has own property?
_.has = function(obj, key) {
return hasOwnProperty.call(obj, key);
};
 
// Utility Functions
// -----------------
 
// Run Underscore.js in *noConflict* mode, returning the `_` variable to its
// previous owner. Returns a reference to the Underscore object.
_.noConflict = function() {
root._ = previousUnderscore;
//return this;
return exports;
};
 
// Keep the identity function around for default iterators.
_.identity = function(value) {
return value;
};
 
// Run a function **n** times.
_.times = function (n, iterator, context) {
for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) iterator.call(context, i);
};
 
// Escape a string for HTML interpolation.
_.escape = function(string) {
return (''+string).replace(/&/g, '&amp;').replace(/</g, '&lt;').replace(/>/g, '&gt;').replace(/"/g, '&quot;').replace(/'/g, '&#x27;').replace(/\//g,'&#x2F;');
};
 
// If the value of the named property is a function then invoke it;
// otherwise, return it.
_.result = function(object, property) {
if (object == null) return null;
var value = object[property];
return _.isFunction(value) ? value.call(object) : value;
};
 
// Add your own custom functions to the Underscore object, ensuring that
// they're correctly added to the OOP wrapper as well.
_.mixin = function(obj) {
each(_.functions(obj), function(name){
addToWrapper(name, _[name] = obj[name]);
});
};
 
// Generate a unique integer id (unique within the entire client session).
// Useful for temporary DOM ids.
var idCounter = 0;
_.uniqueId = function(prefix) {
var id = idCounter++;
return prefix ? prefix + id : id;
};
 
// By default, Underscore uses ERB-style template delimiters, change the
// following template settings to use alternative delimiters.
_.templateSettings = {
evaluate : /<%([\s\S]+?)%>/g,
interpolate : /<%=([\s\S]+?)%>/g,
escape : /<%-([\s\S]+?)%>/g
};
 
// When customizing `templateSettings`, if you don't want to define an
// interpolation, evaluation or escaping regex, we need one that is
// guaranteed not to match.
var noMatch = /.^/;
 
// Certain characters need to be escaped so that they can be put into a
// string literal.
var escapes = {
'\\': '\\',
"'": "'",
'r': '\r',
'n': '\n',
't': '\t',
'u2028': '\u2028',
'u2029': '\u2029'
};
 
for (var p in escapes) escapes[escapes[p]] = p;
var escaper = /\\|'|\r|\n|\t|\u2028|\u2029/g;
var unescaper = /\\(\\|'|r|n|t|u2028|u2029)/g;
 
// Within an interpolation, evaluation, or escaping, remove HTML escaping
// that had been previously added.
var unescape = function(code) {
return code.replace(unescaper, function(match, escape) {
return escapes[escape];
});
};
 
// JavaScript micro-templating, similar to John Resig's implementation.
// Underscore templating handles arbitrary delimiters, preserves whitespace,
// and correctly escapes quotes within interpolated code.
_.template = function(text, data, settings) {
settings = _.defaults(settings || {}, _.templateSettings);
 
// Compile the template source, taking care to escape characters that
// cannot be included in a string literal and then unescape them in code
// blocks.
var source = "__p+='" + text
.replace(escaper, function(match) {
return '\\' + escapes[match];
})
.replace(settings.escape || noMatch, function(match, code) {
return "'+\n_.escape(" + unescape(code) + ")+\n'";
})
.replace(settings.interpolate || noMatch, function(match, code) {
return "'+\n(" + unescape(code) + ")+\n'";
})
.replace(settings.evaluate || noMatch, function(match, code) {
return "';\n" + unescape(code) + "\n;__p+='";
}) + "';\n";
 
// If a variable is not specified, place data values in local scope.
if (!settings.variable) source = 'with(obj||{}){\n' + source + '}\n';
 
source = "var __p='';" +
"var print=function(){__p+=Array.prototype.join.call(arguments, '')};\n" +
source + "return __p;\n";
 
var render = new Function(settings.variable || 'obj', '_', source);
if (data) return render(data, _);
var template = function(data) {
return render.call(this, data, _);
};
 
// Provide the compiled function source as a convenience for build time
// precompilation.
template.source = 'function(' + (settings.variable || 'obj') + '){\n' +
source + '}';
 
return template;
};
 
// Add a "chain" function, which will delegate to the wrapper.
_.chain = function(obj) {
return _(obj).chain();
};
 
// The OOP Wrapper
// ---------------
 
// If Underscore is called as a function, it returns a wrapped object that
// can be used OO-style. This wrapper holds altered versions of all the
// underscore functions. Wrapped objects may be chained.
var wrapper = function(obj) { this._wrapped = obj; };
 
// Expose `wrapper.prototype` as `_.prototype`
_.prototype = wrapper.prototype;
 
// Helper function to continue chaining intermediate results.
var result = function(obj, chain) {
return chain ? _(obj).chain() : obj;
};
 
// A method to easily add functions to the OOP wrapper.
var addToWrapper = function(name, func) {
wrapper.prototype[name] = function() {
var args = slice.call(arguments);
unshift.call(args, this._wrapped);
return result(func.apply(_, args), this._chain);
};
};
 
// Add all of the Underscore functions to the wrapper object.
_.mixin(_);
 
// Add all mutator Array functions to the wrapper.
each(['pop', 'push', 'reverse', 'shift', 'sort', 'splice', 'unshift'], function(name) {
var method = ArrayProto[name];
wrapper.prototype[name] = function() {
var wrapped = this._wrapped;
method.apply(wrapped, arguments);
var length = wrapped.length;
if ((name == 'shift' || name == 'splice') && length === 0) delete wrapped[0];
return result(wrapped, this._chain);
};
});
 
// Add all accessor Array functions to the wrapper.
each(['concat', 'join', 'slice'], function(name) {
var method = ArrayProto[name];
wrapper.prototype[name] = function() {
return result(method.apply(this._wrapped, arguments), this._chain);
};
});
 
// Start chaining a wrapped Underscore object.
wrapper.prototype.chain = function() {
this._chain = true;
return this;
};
 
// Extracts the result from a wrapped and chained object.
wrapper.prototype.value = function() {
return this._wrapped;
};
 
})}).call(this, this, typeof define === 'function' && define.amd ? define : function(id, factory) {
if (typeof exports !== 'undefined') {
// CommonJS has require and exports, use them and execute
// the factory function immediately. Provide a wrapper
// for require to deal with jQuery.
factory(function(id) {
// jQuery most likely cannot be loaded
// in a CommonJS environment, unless the developer
// also uses a browser shim like jsdom. Allow
// for that possibility, but do not blow
// up if it does not work. Use of a
// try/catch has precedent in Node modules
// for this kind of situation.
try {
return require(id);
} catch (e) {
// Do not bother returning a value, just absorb
// the error, the caller will receive undefined
// for the value.
}
}, exports);
} else {
// Plain browser. Grab the global.
this._ = {};
}
});

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