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A simple example of using the Raspberry Pi Camera Module and python picamera for motion detection
import picamera
import cv2
import io
import numpy as np
import imutils
camera = picamera.PiCamera()
# Motion detection sensitivity
min_area = 100
def handle_new_frame(frame, past_frame, min_area):
(h, w) = frame.shape[:2]
r = 500 / float(w)
dim = (500, int(h * r))
frame = cv2.resize(frame, dim, cv2.INTER_AREA) # We resize the frame
gray = cv2.cvtColor(frame, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY) # We apply a black & white filter
gray = cv2.GaussianBlur(gray, (21, 21), 0) # Then we blur the picture
# if the first frame is None, initialize it because there is no frame for comparing the current one with a previous one
if past_frame is None:
past_frame = gray
return past_frame
# check if past_frame and current have the same sizes
(h_past_frame, w_past_frame) = past_frame.shape[:2]
(h_current_frame, w_current_frame) = gray.shape[:2]
if h_past_frame != h_current_frame or w_past_frame != w_current_frame: # This shouldnt occur but this is error handling
print('Past frame and current frame do not have the same sizes {0} {1} {2} {3}'.format(h_past_frame, w_past_frame, h_current_frame, w_current_frame))
# compute the absolute difference between the current frame and first frame
frame_detla = cv2.absdiff(past_frame, gray)
# then apply a threshold to remove camera motion and other false positives (like light changes)
thresh = cv2.threshold(frame_detla, 50, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY)[1]
# dilate the thresholded image to fill in holes, then find contours on thresholded image
thresh = cv2.dilate(thresh, None, iterations=2)
cnts = cv2.findContours(thresh.copy(), cv2.RETR_EXTERNAL, cv2.CHAIN_APPROX_SIMPLE)
cnts = cnts[0] if imutils.is_cv2() else cnts[1]
# loop over the contours
for c in cnts:
# if the contour is too small, ignore it
if cv2.contourArea(c) < min_area:
print("Motion detected!")
if __name__ == '__main__':
camera.resolution = (640, 480)
past_frame = None
print("Starting motion detection")
while True:
stream = io.BytesIO()
camera.capture(stream, format='jpeg', use_video_port=False)
data = np.fromstring(stream.getvalue(), dtype=np.uint8)
frame = cv2.imdecode(data, 1)
if frame is not None:
past_frame = handle_new_frame(frame, past_frame, min_area)
print("No more frame")
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theawsomeboss1102 commented May 17, 2018

I sound like a total noob but where are the captured pictured stored and how do I run this script on my raspberry pi

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Esser50K commented Jun 28, 2018

@theawsomeboss1102 this script just detects motion and prints to the console if it does indeed detect something. It does not save video or pictura of motion happening.

I suggest learning python and read the PiCamera docs if you need to tinker with this script.

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bluejakester commented Jul 20, 2018

Thank you for writing and sharing this! I've been trying unsuccessfully to modify "motion" and other programs to take a night vision image with "raspistill" and my parms. With your code the motion detect is there and working, making it simple to add my specific image capture requirements.

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itsmysurport commented Dec 9, 2018

Code Error Founded

You left out double quotation marks in 42 line. print "Scanning for Motion threshold=%i sensitivity=%i... % (threshold, sensitivity)

print "Scanning for Motion threshold=%i sensitivity=%i..." % (threshold, sensitivity)

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cooc1501 commented Jan 5, 2019

getting a syntax error at line 25, any idea what's causing that?

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mrcolo commented Feb 7, 2019

same syntax error, line 25..

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khalidbourhaba commented Apr 2, 2019

If you are having error on line 25, try to run the script with python 2.7..

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pabe40 commented Apr 8, 2019

 Line38       data2 = data1 . Shouldn't be data1 = data2 to get a new offset and not always comparing against the initial image in data1?

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