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Getting Debian to boot on Mac M1 - first principles
# Note, this is WIP. A proper tutorial will be published soon.
# This mainly serves as hosting the script so the Whonix forum members can review it.
# From within another Debian VM
sudo KERNEL='none' NOKERNEL='true' UPGRADE_SYSTEM='no' GRUB_INSTALL='no' grml-debootstrap \
--debopt "--verbose --include=initramfs-tools,eatmydata,apt-transport-tor,python3.7,gpg,gpg-agent" \
--arch arm64 \
--filesystem ext4 \
--force \
--hostname host \
--password=changeme \
--release buster \
--keep_src_list \
--verbose \
--vmfile \
--vmsize 15G \
--packages ./grml_packages \
--target ./debian.raw
sudo mkdir -p "/mnt/debootstrap.grub"
sudo kpartx -asv ./debian.raw
sudo mount -o rw,suid,dev "/dev/mapper/loop0p1" "/mnt/debootstrap.grub"
sudo chroot /mnt/debootstrap.grub apt-get --yes --no-install-recommends install linux-image-arm64 linux-headers-arm64
sudo truncate -s 2048M ./debian.grub.img
sudo losetup "/dev/loop1" ./debian.grub.img
sudo parted /dev/loop1 --script mktable gpt
sudo parted /dev/loop1 --script mkpart EFI fat16 1MiB 10MiB
sudo parted /dev/loop1 --script set 1 boot on
sudo parted /dev/loop1 --script mkpart LINUX ext4 10MiB 100%
sudo parted /dev/loop1 --script print
sudo mkfs.vfat -n EFI /dev/loop1p1
sudo mkfs.ext4 -F -L LINUX /dev/loop1p2
sudo mkdir -p "/mnt/debootstrap.os"
sudo mount "/dev/loop1p2" "/mnt/debootstrap.os"
sudo cp -a -v /mnt/debootstrap.grub/* /mnt/debootstrap.os
sudo mkdir -p "/mnt/debootstrap.os/boot/efi"
sudo mount "/dev/loop1p1" "/mnt/debootstrap.os/boot/efi"
sudo mount --bind /dev /mnt/debootstrap.os/dev
sudo mount -t devpts /dev/pts /mnt/debootstrap.os/dev/pts
sudo mount -t proc proc /mnt/debootstrap.os/proc
sudo mount -t sysfs sysfs /mnt/debootstrap.os/sys
sudo mount -t tmpfs tmpfs /mnt/debootstrap.os/tmp
sudo chroot /mnt/debootstrap.os apt-get --yes --no-install-recommends install grub2-common grub-efi-arm64
sudo chroot /mnt/debootstrap.os grub-install --target=arm64-efi --efi-directory=/boot/efi --bootloader-id=debian --recheck --no-nvram --removable
sudo chroot /mnt/debootstrap.os update-grub
sudo sync
sudo umount /mnt/debootstrap.os/dev/pts
sudo umount /mnt/debootstrap.os/dev
sudo umount /mnt/debootstrap.os/proc
sudo umount /mnt/debootstrap.os/sys
sudo umount /mnt/debootstrap.os/tmp
sudo umount /mnt/debootstrap.os/boot/efi
sudo umount /mnt/debootstrap.os
sudo losetup -d /dev/loop1
sudo rmdir /mnt/debootstrap.os
sudo umount /mnt/debootstrap.grub
sudo kpartx -d ./debian.raw
sudo kpartx -d /dev/loop0 >/dev/null
sudo rmdir /mnt/debootstrap.grub
tar -czvf debian.grub.tar.gz ./debian.grub.img
# Get that tar into your host Mac machine somehow (e.g. Google Drive)
# Now, back on your host Mac
qemu-system-aarch64 \
-machine virt,accel=hvf,highmem=off \
-cpu cortex-a72 -smp 8 -m 4G \
-device intel-hda -device hda-output \
-device virtio-gpu-pci \
-device usb-ehci \
-device usb-kbd \
-device usb-tablet \
-device virtio-net-pci,netdev=net \
-netdev user,id=net,ipv6=off \
-display cocoa \
-drive "if=pflash,format=raw,file=./edk2-aarch64-code.fd,readonly=on" \
-drive "if=pflash,format=raw,file=./edk2-vars-debian.fd,discard=on" \
-drive "if=virtio,format=raw,file=./debian.grub.img,discard=on"
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