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Helpful Git commands

This content has been moved to https://git.jamesrskemp.com/.

Helpful Git Commands

The following is a dump of Git commands for use on your shell of choice.

Notes and warnings

If you want to escape, typically Shift + Q is the way to do so on Windows. This includes after running a command like git log (depending upon what it uses; Q will exit if it's using less for paging).

Also on Windows, remember that you can use notepad <filename> to open/create a file in Notepad.

Getting started

# Clone a repository into a new directory in the current directory.
git clone _.git
git clone _.git differentFolderName

# Add a new remote for a repo. In this case 'upstream' might be helpful for the repo this was forked from.
git remote add upstream _.git

# Create a new branch.
git branch <branchName>

# Switch current repo to a different, existing, branch.
git checkout <branchName>
git checkout master

# If running into issues cloning a repository, clones a shallow copy. Then updates remotes and fetches everything.
git clone --depth=1 _.git
git config remote.origin.fetch "+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*"
git fetch --unshallow

User information

# Pull user information.
git config user.name
git config user.email

# Update all repository user name.
git config --global user.name "Your Name"

# Update individual repository user name / email.
git config user.name "Your Name"
git config user.email "your_email@example.com"

Git configuration

# See where configuration options are set.
git config --list --show-origin

# Edit system/global/local.
git config --system --edit

Repository information

# List config details, including remotes, for the current repo.
git config --local -l

# List all configuration settings for the current repository, including global and system.
git config -l

# Change remote origin URL (repo name change or move).
git remote set-url origin _.git

# See what remotes are setup on a repo.
git remote -v

# See more information about remotes (origin in this case).
git remote show origin

# List all local branches
git branch --list

# List all branches, including remotes
git branch -a

# List all branches merged into master (for cleanup).
git branch --merged

# List database information, include size (size-pack = kb)
git count-objects -v

# Runs database clean-up.
git gc

Commits

# See what has changed/etcetera
git status

# See how many files have changed (insertions/deletions)
git diff --stat | tail -n1

# See what or how many files are staged.
git diff --cached --stat
git diff --cached --stat | tail -n1

# Difference. Use Shift + Q to quit.
git diff <file>

# Difference, ignoring space changes (EOL and multiple into one).
git diff -b <file>

# See what changed in a file that's already been staged.
git diff --cached <file>

# Add/stage a new/updated file.
git add <file>

# Add/stage multiple files, space delimited
git add <file> <file>

# Add a file with prompts on what to do with hunks
git add <file> -p
git add <file> --patch

# Add/stage all changes (including deletions)
git add -u

# Add/stage file deletion.
git rm <file>

# Add/stage file move/rename (such as case sensitive change)
git mv -f <file> <File>

# Add/stage directory rename.
git mv <oldDirectoryName> <newDirectoryName>

# Unstage change.
git reset HEAD <file>

# Unstage all changes.
git reset

# Work in Interactive mode.
git add -i

# Discard changes to a file
git checkout -- <file>

# Get a file from a particular commit.
git checkout a1b2c3 -- <file>

# Get a file from the commit previous to the commit. Helpful if you want to revert a change just made to a file.
git checkout a1b2c3~1 -- <file>

# Commit with Message.
git commit -m "Message"

# Commit with a summary and detail. Additional -m parameters can be passed as needed.
git commit -m "Summary" -m "Details"

# Update the last commit's message.
git commit --amend -m "Message"

# Update the last commit's date (reflected on GitHub).
git commit --amend --no-edit --date="Fri Nov 6 20:00:00 2016 -0600"

# Add another file to the last commit. Uses the last message.
git add <file>
git commit --amend -C HEAD

# Add all changed files and commit. New files are not committed.
git commit -am "Message"

# Show changes made in a particular commit.
git show <commit_id>

# Show the message and files from a particular commit.
git show --stat <commit_id>

Stashing Changes

# If you can't pull/merge due to a file conflict, stashes changes, does a pull, and then puts the changes back.
git stash
git pull
git stash pop

# View all Stashes in a pretty list.
git stash list --pretty=format:'%Cblue%gd%Cred: %C(yellow)%s'

Collaboration

# Pull from default remote.
git pull

# Push to default remote.
git push

# Push to 'origin' remote from 'master' branch.
git push origin master

# Sync with the repo this was forked from / the remote associated with 'upstream.'
git pull upstream master

Branches

# Create a new branch.
git branch <branchName>

# Switch to an existing branch.
git checkout <branchName>
git checkout master

# Checkout and switch to a new branch.
git checkout -b my_new_branch

# Push the new branch to a remote.
git push -u origin my_new_branch

# Alternative way to push a branch to a remote, without permanently setting the upstream.
git push origin my_new_branch

# Checkout a remote branch.
git checkout --track origin/<branchName>

# Merge changes from master into a branch.
git checkout <branchName>
git merge master

# Abort a merge (such as if there's conflicts that need to be resolved differently).
git merge --abort

# Delete a branch.
git branch -d my_new_branch

# Delete a branch on the remote.
git push origin :my_new_branch

# Do a dry run of pruning local branches that no longer exist on a remote.
git remote prune origin --dry-run

# Show all current branches, including remotes.
git show-branch -a --list

# Merge two local branches, without fast-forwarding, and including messages for the last X (20 here) commits.
# According to Linus Torvalds, the better way to do merges.
git merge <branchName> --log=20 --no-ff

Fixing Commits

# Revert the last commit.
git revert HEAD

# Revert the second to last commit. Etcetera
git revert HEAD~1

# Reset working files to match master (or another branch), removing local changes and commits.
git fetch --all
git reset --hard origin/<branchName>

Tags

# List all tags.
git tag

# Create a new tag, locally.
git tag -a TagName -m "Message"

# Delete a tag.
git tag -d TagName

# Push a tag to a remote (local by default).
git push origin TagName

Logging

# View the last few commits.
git log
git log --graph --pretty=format:'%Cred%h%Creset -%C(yellow)%d%Creset %s %Cgreen(%cr) %C(bold blue)<%an>%Creset'
git log --graph --date=short --pretty=format:'%C(yellow)%h%C(reset) %C(green)%ad%C(reset) %C(red)|%C(reset) %s %C(bold blue)[%an]%C(reset)%C(yellow)%d%C(reset)'
git log --graph --pretty=format:'%Cred%h%Creset -%C(yellow)%d%Creset %s %Cgreen%cn%Creset %Cblue(%cr)%Creset' --abbrev-commit --date=relative
git log --graph --pretty=format:'%Cred%h%Creset -%C(yellow)%d%Creset %s %Cgreen(%cr) %C(bold blue)<%an>%Creset' --abbrev-commit
git log --graph --pretty=format:'%C(auto)%h%Creset - %d%s %Cgreen(%cr) %C(bold magenta)<%an>%Creset'
git log --decorate --graph --abbrev-commit --date=relative
git log --graph --pretty=format:'%C(yellow)%h%C(cyan)%d%Creset %s %C(white)- %an, %ar%Creset'

# View commits that touched a file.
git log --full-history -- <file>

# View commits that touched a directory.
git log <directory-path>
git log --pretty=oneline <directory-path>
git log --stat <directory-path>

# View last X commits, with message and files, that touched a directory.
git log --stat -X <directory-path>
git log --name-status -X .

# View commits that touched a file.
git log -p <file>

# View commits that touched a file, including renames.
git log --follow -p <file>

# View commits that have deleted files.
git log --diff-filter=D --summary

# View all deleted files.
git log --all --pretty=format: --name-only --diff-filter=D | sort -u

# Search commits messages for specific text (case sensitive).
git log --grep="searchTerm"

# Search commit diffs for changes in count of text (added or removed).
git log -SsearchTerm
git log -SsearchTerm -i

# Search commit diffs for specific text (case sensitive) showing changed lines.
git log -SsearchTerm -p

# Search commit diffs for changes involving search term.
# You can type /searchTerm to use the pager to find the first instance, and then n to find the next one(s).
git log -GsearchTerm -p

# Search commit contents for specific text.
git grep "searchTerm"
git grep -i "searchTerm"

# View all commits that are in branch-2 that are not in branch-1.
git log branch-1..branch-2

# View all commits ending with a particular branch
git log <branchName> --graph
git log <branchName> --graph --oneline

# View all commits merging a branch into master
git log --merges --first-parent --format=oneline

# View where all branches are in the commit history.
git log --color --graph --oneline --decorate --simplify-by-decoration --all

# View all users who committed to the repository, ordered by number of commits
git shortlog -s -n

# View mostly commonly modified files, based upon commits.
git log --pretty=format: --name-only | sort | uniq -c | sort -rg | head -10

Example: Updating a fork

# On the fork:
git checkout master

git pull upstream master

git push origin master

# If the branch should be created.
git checkout -b new_branch
git push -u origin new_branch

# If the branch already exists.
git checkout branch_name
git merge master

# If there are conflicts:
# Uses the default merge tool against all conflicts, one at a time.
git mergetool
# Uses the default merge commit message.
git commit --no-edit
@JamesSkemp
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JamesSkemp commented Sep 26, 2017

Possibly worth looking at is http://gggritso.com/human-git-aliases, but that limits your ability to help others who don't have these aliases setup.

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