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@Rogach
Last active May 10, 2024 21:10
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import javax.swing.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.awt.geom.*;
import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;
public class DemoViewer {
public static void main(String[] args) {
JFrame frame = new JFrame();
Container pane = frame.getContentPane();
pane.setLayout(new BorderLayout());
// slider to control horizontal rotation
JSlider headingSlider = new JSlider(-180, 180, 0);
pane.add(headingSlider, BorderLayout.SOUTH);
// slider to control vertical rotation
JSlider pitchSlider = new JSlider(SwingConstants.VERTICAL, -90, 90, 0);
pane.add(pitchSlider, BorderLayout.EAST);
// slider to control roll
JSlider rollSlider = new JSlider(SwingConstants.VERTICAL, -90, 90, 0);
pane.add(rollSlider, BorderLayout.WEST);
// slider to control FoV
JSlider FoVSlider = new JSlider(1, 179, 60);
pane.add(FoVSlider, BorderLayout.NORTH);
// panel to display render results
JPanel renderPanel = new JPanel() {
public void paintComponent(Graphics g) {
Graphics2D g2 = (Graphics2D) g;
g2.setColor(Color.GRAY);
g2.fillRect(0, 0, getWidth(), getHeight());
List<Triangle> tris = new ArrayList<>();
//A
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(-100, 100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(100, 100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(-100, 100, -100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
//B
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(100, 100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(100, 100, -100, 1),
new Vertex(-100, 100, -100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
//C
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(100, -100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(100, 100, -100, 1),
new Vertex(100, 100, 100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
//D
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(100, -100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(100, -100, -100, 1),
new Vertex(100, 100, -100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
//E
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(-100, -100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(100, -100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(-100, 100, 100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
//F
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(100, -100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(100, 100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(-100, 100, 100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
//G
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(-100, -100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(-100, 100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(-100, -100, -100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
//H
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(-100, 100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(-100, 100, -100, 1),
new Vertex(-100, -100, -100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
//I
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(-100, 100, -100, 1),
new Vertex(100, 100, -100, 1),
new Vertex(-100, -100, -100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
//J
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(-100, -100, -100, 1),
new Vertex(100, 100, -100, 1),
new Vertex(100, -100, -100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
//K
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(100, -100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(-100, -100, 100, 1),
new Vertex(-100, -100, -100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
//L
tris.add(new Triangle(new Vertex(-100, -100, -100, 1),
new Vertex(100, -100, -100, 1),
new Vertex(100, -100, 100, 1),
Color.WHITE));
double heading = Math.toRadians(headingSlider.getValue());
Matrix4 headingTransform = new Matrix4(new double[] {
Math.cos(heading), 0, -Math.sin(heading), 0,
0, 1, 0, 0,
Math.sin(heading), 0, Math.cos(heading), 0,
0, 0, 0, 1
});
double pitch = Math.toRadians(pitchSlider.getValue());
Matrix4 pitchTransform = new Matrix4(new double[] {
1, 0, 0, 0,
0, Math.cos(pitch), Math.sin(pitch), 0,
0, -Math.sin(pitch), Math.cos(pitch), 0,
0, 0, 0, 1
});
double roll = Math.toRadians(rollSlider.getValue());
Matrix4 rollTransform = new Matrix4(new double[] {
Math.cos(roll), -Math.sin(roll), 0, 0,
Math.sin(roll), Math.cos(roll), 0, 0,
0, 0, 1, 0,
0, 0, 0, 1
});
Matrix4 panOutTransform = new Matrix4(new double[] {
1, 0, 0, 0,
0, 1, 0, 0,
0, 0, 1, 0,
0, 0, -400, 1
});
double viewportWidth = getWidth();
double viewportHeight = getHeight();
double fovAngle = Math.toRadians(FoVSlider.getValue());
double fov = Math.tan(fovAngle / 2) * 170;
Matrix4 transform =
headingTransform
.multiply(pitchTransform)
.multiply(rollTransform)
.multiply(panOutTransform);
BufferedImage img = new BufferedImage(getWidth(), getHeight(), BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_ARGB);
double[] zBuffer = new double[img.getWidth() * img.getHeight()];
// initialize array with extremely far away depths
for (int q = 0; q < zBuffer.length; q++) {
zBuffer[q] = Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY;
}
for (Triangle t : tris) {
Vertex v1 = transform.transform(t.v1);
Vertex v2 = transform.transform(t.v2);
Vertex v3 = transform.transform(t.v3);
Vertex ab = new Vertex(v2.x - v1.x, v2.y - v1.y, v2.z - v1.z, v2.w - v1.w);
Vertex ac = new Vertex(v3.x - v1.x, v3.y - v1.y, v3.z - v1.z, v3.w - v1.w);
Vertex norm = new Vertex(
ab.y * ac.z - ab.z * ac.y,
ab.z * ac.x - ab.x * ac.z,
ab.x * ac.y - ab.y * ac.x,
1
);
double normalLength = Math.sqrt(norm.x * norm.x + norm.y * norm.y + norm.z * norm.z);
norm.x /= normalLength;
norm.y /= normalLength;
norm.z /= normalLength;
double angleCos = Math.abs(norm.z);
v1.x = v1.x / (-v1.z) * fov;
v1.y = v1.y / (-v1.z) * fov;
v2.x = v2.x / (-v2.z) * fov;
v2.y = v2.y / (-v2.z) * fov;
v3.x = v3.x / (-v3.z) * fov;
v3.y = v3.y / (-v3.z) * fov;
v1.x += viewportWidth / 2;
v1.y += viewportHeight / 2;
v2.x += viewportWidth / 2;
v2.y += viewportHeight / 2;
v3.x += viewportWidth / 2;
v3.y += viewportHeight / 2;
int minX = (int) Math.max(0, Math.ceil(Math.min(v1.x, Math.min(v2.x, v3.x))));
int maxX = (int) Math.min(img.getWidth() - 1, Math.floor(Math.max(v1.x, Math.max(v2.x, v3.x))));
int minY = (int) Math.max(0, Math.ceil(Math.min(v1.y, Math.min(v2.y, v3.y))));
int maxY = (int) Math.min(img.getHeight() - 1, Math.floor(Math.max(v1.y, Math.max(v2.y, v3.y))));
double triangleArea = (v1.y - v3.y) * (v2.x - v3.x) + (v2.y - v3.y) * (v3.x - v1.x);
for (int y = minY; y <= maxY; y++) {
for (int x = minX; x <= maxX; x++) {
double b1 = ((y - v3.y) * (v2.x - v3.x) + (v2.y - v3.y) * (v3.x - x)) / triangleArea;
double b2 = ((y - v1.y) * (v3.x - v1.x) + (v3.y - v1.y) * (v1.x - x)) / triangleArea;
double b3 = ((y - v2.y) * (v1.x - v2.x) + (v1.y - v2.y) * (v2.x - x)) / triangleArea;
if (b1 >= 0 && b1 <= 1 && b2 >= 0 && b2 <= 1 && b3 >= 0 && b3 <= 1) {
double depth = b1 * v1.z + b2 * v2.z + b3 * v3.z;
int zIndex = y * img.getWidth() + x;
if (zBuffer[zIndex] < depth) {
img.setRGB(x, y, getShade(t.color, angleCos).getRGB());
zBuffer[zIndex] = depth;
}
}
}
}
}
g2.drawImage(img, 0, 0, null);
}
};
pane.add(renderPanel, BorderLayout.CENTER);
headingSlider.addChangeListener(e -> renderPanel.repaint());
pitchSlider.addChangeListener(e -> renderPanel.repaint());
rollSlider.addChangeListener(e -> renderPanel.repaint());
FoVSlider.addChangeListener(e -> renderPanel.repaint());
frame.setSize(400, 400);
frame.setVisible(true);
}
public static Color getShade(Color color, double shade) {
double redLinear = Math.pow(color.getRed(), 2.4) * shade;
double greenLinear = Math.pow(color.getGreen(), 2.4) * shade;
double blueLinear = Math.pow(color.getBlue(), 2.4) * shade;
int red = (int) Math.pow(redLinear, 1/2.4);
int green = (int) Math.pow(greenLinear, 1/2.4);
int blue = (int) Math.pow(blueLinear, 1/2.4);
return new Color(red, green, blue);
}
}
class Vertex {
double x;
double y;
double z;
double w;
Vertex(double x, double y, double z, double w) {
this.x = x;
this.y = y;
this.z = z;
this.w = w;
}
}
class Triangle {
Vertex v1;
Vertex v2;
Vertex v3;
Color color;
Triangle(Vertex v1, Vertex v2, Vertex v3, Color color) {
this.v1 = v1;
this.v2 = v2;
this.v3 = v3;
this.color = color;
}
}
class Matrix4 {
double[] values;
Matrix4(double[] values) {
this.values = values;
}
Matrix4 multiply(Matrix4 other) {
double[] result = new double[16];
for (int row = 0; row < 4; row++) {
for (int col = 0; col < 4; col++) {
for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
result[row * 4 + col] +=
this.values[row * 4 + i] * other.values[i * 4 + col];
}
}
}
return new Matrix4(result);
}
Vertex transform(Vertex in) {
return new Vertex(
in.x * values[0] + in.y * values[4] + in.z * values[8] + in.w * values[12],
in.x * values[1] + in.y * values[5] + in.z * values[9] + in.w * values[13],
in.x * values[2] + in.y * values[6] + in.z * values[10] + in.w * values[14],
in.x * values[3] + in.y * values[7] + in.z * values[11] + in.w * values[15]
);
}
@Override public String toString() {
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
sb.append("[");
for (int row = 0; row < 4; row++) {
for (int col = 0; col < 4; col++) {
sb.append(values[row * 4 + col]);
if (col != 3) {
sb.append(",");
}
}
if (row != 3) {
sb.append(";\n ");
}
}
sb.append("]");
return sb.toString();
}
}
@kenvifire
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@kenvifire This part moves all the vertices such that they will all be at the same distance from the origin (point 0,0,0). Without it the subdivided triangles will still be looking like the same original triangle. Try removing this part and you will see what I mean.

Got it, thanks.

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