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@Sc00bz
Last active Aug 10, 2022
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BS-SPEKE is an augmented PAKE
BS-SPEKE
BS-SPEKE is a modified B-SPEKE with blind salt (OPRF). Modified B-SPEKE is a
similar change from SPEKE as from SPAKE2 to SPAKE2+ to make it augmented. Doing
this saves a scalar point multiply vs original B-SPEKE with blind salt. BS-SPEKE
is the best augmented PAKE that I know of. Only problem is there are no proofs,
but it's not hard to take the SPEKE proof, add the OPAQUE proof for OPRF, and
it's obvious that the augmented change makes it augmented. So if anyone knows
how to formally state that in a proof, that would be awesome to have. BS-SPEKE
defined on multiplicative groups can be found here:
https://gist.github.com/Sc00bz/ec1f5fcfd18533bf0d6bf31d1211d4b4
** Costs per step **
BS-SPEKE
C: H*i ffI*iH***[iii] xi
S: f**[ii] f**[ii]
OPAQUE-3DH
C: Hx*[ii] ffI*i***[iii]
S: ffx***[iiii]
** Costs OPRF AKE **
BS-SPEKE
C: fHI**ii fx***iiH
S: f*i f***i
OPAQUE-3DH
Costs OPRF AKE
C: fHI**ii fx***i
S: f*i fx***
*: Scalar point multiply
H: Hash to point which is Elligator or SWU (depending on implementation this may
require a field invert if scalar point multiply needs affine points)
i: Field invert
I: Scalar invert
f: From bytes (field square root or free for Montgomery curves)
[ii...]: Field inverts that can be combined. Cost is 1 field invert and 3*(n-1)
field multiplications.
Properties
Forward secrecy: Yes
Not fragile: Yes
Quantum annoying: Yes
No precomputation: Yes
Secure registration: Yes
** Registration **
Both have:
idS = server identity
hashToPoint() is Elligator or SWU
G = standard generator
Client has:
idC = client identity
C: r = random()
C: R = r * hashToPoint(H(password, idC, idS))
C->S: idC, R, settings
S: Approve settings
S: salt = random()
S: R' = H(salt) * R
S: b = random()
S: B = b * G
C<-S: R', B
C: BlindSalt = (1/r) * R'
C: K_pw = pwKdf(password, BlindSalt, idC, idS, settings)
C: p = H(K_pw, pModifier)
C: v = H(K_pw, cModifier)
C: macKey = H(K_pw, macKeyModifier)
C: P = hashToPoint(p)
C: V = v * P
C: regMac = MAC(macKey, B)
C: a = random()
C: A = a * G
C: K_c = H(a * B [|| a * ServerPublicKey])
C: encServerData = aead_encrypt(K_c, P || V || regMac)
C->S: A, encServerData
S: K_s = H(b * A [|| serverPrivateKey * A])
S: P || V || regMac = aead_decrypt(K_s, encServerData)
S: store for idC: salt, settings, P, V, b (as reg), regMac
** Use **
Both have:
idS = server identity
hashToPoint() is Elligator or SWU
Client has:
idC = client identity
Server has these for "idC":
salt
settings
P = hashToPoint(p)
V = v * P
C: r = random()
C: R = r * hashToPoint(H(password, idC, idS))
C->S: idC, R
S: R' = H(salt) * R
S: b = random()
S: B = b * P
C<-S: R', B, settings
C: BlindSalt = (1/r) * R'
C: K_pw = pwKdf(password, BlindSalt, idC, idS, settings)
C: p = H(K_pw, pModifier)
C: v = H(K_pw, vModifier)
C: macKey = H(K_pw, macKeyModifier)
C: P = hashToPoint(p)
C: a = random()
C: A = a * P
C: K_c = H(idC, idS, A, B, a * B, v * B)
C: verifierC = H(K_c, verifyCModifier)
C->S: A, verifierC[, encryptedDataC]
S: K_s = H(idC, idS, A, B, b * A, b * V)
S: Checks verifierC == H(K_s, verifyCModifier)
S: verifierS = H(K_s, verifySModifier)
S: sessionKey = H(K_s, sessionKeyModifier)
S: encReg = aead_encrypt(sessionKey, reg || regMac)
C<-S: verifierS, encReg[, encryptedDataS]
C: Checks verifierS == H(K_c, verifySModifier)
C: sessionKey = H(K_c, sessionKeyModifier)
C: reg || regMac = aead_encrypt(sessionKey, encReg)
C: Checks regMac == MAC(macKey, reg * G)
On success K_c == K_s, thus derived verifiers and encryption keys are the same.
When receiving a point, you must check it is valid and not a low order point.
When using random() to generate a scalar, you should generate a larger value and
modulo by one less than the order then add 1 or generate a value [1, order) with
rejection sampling. This makes sure it is uniformly distributed and not zero.
Similar should be done for H() when generating fields to avoid bad values. For
generating a scalar for X25519 you could just use X25519's clamping. Note that a
clamped scalar doesn't have full coverage and there is a theoretical info
leakage. If you observe 2^100 successful exchanges, then with 2^255 memory and
2^223 work you can eliminate less than 1 in 200 million password guesses
offline. Thus every 200 million online guesses you get one free (ie never will
happen, impossible, and you get a worthless attack). To "fix" this you could
generate a random number like this:
order = 2^252 + 27742317777372353535851937790883648493
r = 8 * random([1, (order - 1) / 2])
or
r = random([8, 8 * ((order - 1) / 2) + 7]) & ~7
For X25519, you'll want to have r be a multiple of 8 and swap r and 1/r. This is
so you multiply the point out of your control by a multiple of 8. So you can
check for zero. If the only functions available always clamp before scalar
multiplication then generate r and 1/r ("rInv") like this:
order = 2^252 + 27742317777372353535851937790883648493
r = clamp(random())
rInvPos = (r ^ (order - 2)) % (8 * order)
rInvNeg = 8 * order - rInvPos
rInv = ((rInvPos >> 254) & 1) ? rInvPos : rInvNeg // do bit select
if ((rInv >> 254) & 1) == 0 // "rInv != clamp(rInv)"
// This happens <1 in 2^100
// When both rInvPos and rInvNeg's 254th bit are 0
restart
Note "H(salt) * R" vs "salt * R", this is so you don't need to store a large
salt. A salt of just 128 to 256 bits is fine once expanded to the required
length.
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