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Obnam (http://liw.fi/obnam/) plugin to mount a backup generation as FUSE filesystem
# Copyright (C) 2013 Valery Yundin
#
# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
import os
import stat
import sys
import logging
import errno
import struct
import obnamlib
try:
import fuse
fuse.fuse_python_api = (0, 2)
except ImportError:
class Bunch:
def __init__(self, **kwds):
self.__dict__.update(kwds)
fuse = Bunch(Fuse = object)
class ObnamFuseOptParse(object):
'''Option parsing class for FUSE
has to set fuse_args.mountpoint
'''
obnam = None
def __init__(self, *args, **kw):
self.fuse_args = \
'fuse_args' in kw and kw.pop('fuse_args') or fuse.FuseArgs()
if 'fuse' in kw:
self.fuse = kw.pop('fuse')
def parse_args(self, args=None, values=None):
self.fuse_args.mountpoint = self.obnam.app.settings['to']
for opt in self.obnam.app.settings['fuse-opt']:
if opt == '-f':
self.fuse_args.setmod('foreground')
else:
self.fuse_args.add(opt)
if not hasattr(self.fuse_args, 'ro'):
self.fuse_args.add('ro')
class ObnamFuseFile(object):
fs = None # points to active ObnamFuse object
direct_io = False # do not use direct I/O on this file.
keep_cache = True # cached file data need not to be invalidated.
def __init__(self, path, flags, *mode):
logging.debug('FUSE file open %s %d', path, flags)
if ((flags & os.O_WRONLY) or (flags & os.O_RDWR) or
(flags & os.O_CREAT) or (flags & os.O_EXCL) or
(flags & os.O_TRUNC) or (flags & os.O_APPEND)):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
try:
self.path = path
if path == '/.pid' and self.fs.obnam.app.settings['viewmode'] == 'multiple':
self.read = self.read_pid
self.release = self.release_pid
return
self.metadata = self.fs.get_metadata(path)
# if not a regular file return EINVAL
if not stat.S_ISREG(self.metadata.st_mode):
raise IOError(errno.EINVAL, 'Invalid argument')
self.chunkids = None
self.chunksize = None
self.lastdata = None
self.lastblock = None
except:
logging.error('Unexpected exception', exc_info=True)
raise
def read_pid(self, length, offset):
logging.debug('FUSE read_pid %d %d', length, offset)
pid = str(os.getpid())
if length < len(pid) or offset != 0:
return ''
else:
return pid
def release_pid(self, flags):
self.fs.root_refresh()
return 0
def fgetattr(self):
logging.debug('FUSE file fgetattr')
return self.fs.getattr(self.path)
def read(self, length, offset):
logging.debug('FUSE file read(%s, %d, %d)', self.path, length, offset)
try:
if length == 0 or offset >= self.metadata.st_size:
return ''
repo = self.fs.obnam.repo
gen, repopath = self.fs.get_gen_path(self.path)
# if stored inside B-tree
contents = repo.get_file_data(gen, repopath)
if contents is not None:
return contents[offset:offset+length]
# stored in chunks
if not self.chunkids:
self.chunkids = repo.get_file_chunks(gen, repopath)
if len(self.chunkids) == 1:
if not self.lastdata:
self.lastdata = repo.get_chunk(self.chunkids[0])
return self.lastdata[offset:offset+length]
else:
chunkdata = None
if not self.chunksize:
# take the cached value as the first guess for chunksize
self.chunksize = self.fs.sizecache.get(gen, self.fs.chunksize)
blocknum = offset/self.chunksize
blockoffs = offset - blocknum*self.chunksize
# read a chunk if guessed blocknum and chunksize make sense
if blocknum < len(self.chunkids):
chunkdata = repo.get_chunk(self.chunkids[blocknum])
else:
chunkdata = ''
# check if chunkdata is of expected length
validate = min(self.chunksize, self.metadata.st_size - blocknum*self.chunksize)
if validate != len(chunkdata):
if blocknum < len(self.chunkids)-1:
# the length of all but last chunks is chunksize
self.chunksize = len(chunkdata)
else:
# guessing failed, get the length of the first chunk
self.chunksize = len(repo.get_chunk(self.chunkids[0]))
chunkdata = None
# save correct chunksize
self.fs.sizecache[gen] = self.chunksize
if not chunkdata:
blocknum = offset/self.chunksize
blockoffs = offset - blocknum*self.chunksize
if self.lastblock == blocknum:
chunkdata = self.lastdata
else:
chunkdata = repo.get_chunk(self.chunkids[blocknum])
output = []
while True:
output.append(chunkdata[blockoffs:blockoffs+length])
readlength = len(chunkdata) - blockoffs
if length > readlength and blocknum < len(self.chunkids)-1:
length -= readlength
blocknum += 1
blockoffs = 0
chunkdata = repo.get_chunk(self.chunkids[blocknum])
else:
self.lastblock = blocknum
self.lastdata = chunkdata
break
return ''.join(output)
except (OSError, IOError), e:
logging.debug('FUSE Expected exception')
raise
except:
logging.exception('Unexpected exception')
raise
def release(self, flags):
logging.debug('FUSE file release %d', flags)
self.lastdata = None
return 0
def fsync(self, isfsyncfile):
logging.debug('FUSE file fsync')
return 0
def flush(self):
logging.debug('FUSE file flush')
return 0
def ftruncate(self, size):
logging.debug('FUSE file ftruncate %d', size)
return 0
def lock(self, cmd, owner, **kw):
logging.debug('FUSE file lock %s %s %s', repr(cmd), repr(owner), repr(kw))
raise IOError(errno.EOPNOTSUPP, 'Operation not supported')
class ObnamFuse(fuse.Fuse):
'''FUSE main class
'''
MAX_METADATA_CACHE = 512
def root_refresh(self):
logging.debug('FUSE root_refresh is called')
if self.obnam.app.settings['viewmode'] == 'multiple':
try:
self.obnam.reopen()
repo = self.obnam.repo
generations = [gen for gen in repo.list_generations()
if not repo.get_is_checkpoint(gen)]
logging.debug('FUSE root_refresh found %d generations' % len(generations))
self.rootstat, self.rootlist = self.multiple_root_list(generations)
self.metadatacache.clear()
except:
logging.exception('Unexpected exception')
raise
def get_metadata(self, path):
#logging.debug('FUSE get_metadata(%s)', path)
try:
return self.metadatacache[path]
except KeyError:
if len(self.metadatacache) > self.MAX_METADATA_CACHE:
self.metadatacache.clear()
metadata = self.obnam.repo.get_metadata(*self.get_gen_path(path))
self.metadatacache[path] = metadata
# FUSE does not allow negative timestamps, truncate to zero
if metadata.st_atime_sec < 0:
metadata.st_atime_sec = 0
if metadata.st_mtime_sec < 0:
metadata.st_mtime_sec = 0
return metadata
def get_stat(self, path):
logging.debug('FUSE get_stat(%s)', path)
metadata = self.get_metadata(path)
st = fuse.Stat()
st.st_mode = metadata.st_mode
st.st_dev = metadata.st_dev
st.st_nlink = metadata.st_nlink
st.st_uid = metadata.st_uid
st.st_gid = metadata.st_gid
st.st_size = metadata.st_size
st.st_atime = metadata.st_atime_sec
st.st_mtime = metadata.st_mtime_sec
st.st_ctime = st.st_mtime
return st
def single_root_list(self, gen):
repo = self.obnam.repo
mountroot = self.obnam.mountroot
rootlist = {}
for entry in repo.listdir(gen, mountroot):
path = '/' + entry
rootlist[path] = self.get_stat(path)
rootstat = self.get_stat('/')
return (rootstat, rootlist)
def multiple_root_list(self, generations):
repo = self.obnam.repo
mountroot = self.obnam.mountroot
rootlist = {}
used_generations = []
for gen in generations:
path = '/' + str(gen)
try:
genstat = self.get_stat(path)
start, end = repo.get_generation_times(gen)
genstat.st_ctime = genstat.st_mtime = end
rootlist[path] = genstat
used_generations.append(gen)
except obnamlib.Error:
pass
if not used_generations:
raise obnamlib.Error('No generations found for %s' % mountroot)
latest = used_generations[-1]
laststat = rootlist['/' + str(latest)]
rootstat = fuse.Stat(**laststat.__dict__)
laststat = fuse.Stat(target=str(latest), **laststat.__dict__)
laststat.st_mode &= ~(stat.S_IFDIR | stat.S_IFREG)
laststat.st_mode |= stat.S_IFLNK
rootlist['/latest'] = laststat
pidstat = fuse.Stat(**rootstat.__dict__)
pidstat.st_mode = stat.S_IFREG | stat.S_IRUSR | stat.S_IRGRP | stat.S_IROTH
rootlist['/.pid'] = pidstat
return (rootstat, rootlist)
def init_root(self):
repo = self.obnam.repo
mountroot = self.obnam.mountroot
generations = self.obnam.app.settings['generation']
if self.obnam.app.settings['viewmode'] == 'single':
if len(generations) != 1:
raise obnamlib.Error(
'The single mode wants exactly one generation option')
gen = repo.genspec(generations[0])
if mountroot == '/':
self.get_gen_path = lambda path: (gen, path)
else:
self.get_gen_path = (lambda path : path == '/'
and (gen, mountroot)
or (gen, mountroot + path))
self.rootstat, self.rootlist = self.single_root_list(gen)
logging.debug('FUSE single rootlist %s', repr(self.rootlist))
elif self.obnam.app.settings['viewmode'] == 'multiple':
# we need the list of all real (non-checkpoint) generations
if len(generations) == 1:
generations = [gen for gen in repo.list_generations()
if not repo.get_is_checkpoint(gen)]
if mountroot == '/':
def gen_path_0(path):
if path.count('/') == 1:
gen = path[1:]
return (int(gen), mountroot)
else:
gen, repopath = path[1:].split('/', 1)
return (int(gen), mountroot + repopath)
self.get_gen_path = gen_path_0
else:
def gen_path_n(path):
if path.count('/') == 1:
gen = path[1:]
return (int(gen), mountroot)
else:
gen, repopath = path[1:].split('/', 1)
return (int(gen), mountroot + '/' + repopath)
self.get_gen_path = gen_path_n
self.rootstat, self.rootlist = self.multiple_root_list(generations)
logging.debug('FUSE multiple rootlist %s', repr(self.rootlist))
else:
raise obnamlib.Error('Unknown value for viewmode')
def __init__(self, *args, **kw):
self.obnam = kw['obnam']
ObnamFuseFile.fs = self
self.file_class = ObnamFuseFile
self.metadatacache = {}
self.chunksize = self.obnam.app.settings['chunk-size']
self.sizecache = {}
self.rootlist = None
self.rootstat = None
self.init_root()
fuse.Fuse.__init__(self, *args, **kw)
def getattr(self, path):
try:
if path.count('/') == 1:
if path == '/':
return self.rootstat
elif path in self.rootlist:
return self.rootlist[path]
else:
raise obnamlib.Error('ENOENT')
else:
return self.get_stat(path)
except obnamlib.Error:
raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, 'No such file or directory')
except:
logging.error('Unexpected exception', exc_info=True)
raise
def readdir(self, path, fh):
logging.debug('FUSE readdir(%s, %s)', path, repr(fh))
try:
if path == '/':
listdir = [x[1:] for x in self.rootlist.keys()]
else:
listdir = self.obnam.repo.listdir(*self.get_gen_path(path))
return [fuse.Direntry(name) for name in ['.', '..'] + listdir]
except obnamlib.Error:
raise IOError(errno.EINVAL, 'Invalid argument')
except:
logging.error('Unexpected exception', exc_info=True)
raise
def readlink(self, path):
try:
statdata = self.rootlist.get(path)
if statdata and hasattr(statdata, 'target'):
return statdata.target
metadata = self.get_metadata(path)
if metadata.islink():
return metadata.target
else:
raise IOError(errno.EINVAL, 'Invalid argument')
except obnamlib.Error:
raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, 'No such file or directory')
except:
logging.error('Unexpected exception', exc_info=True)
raise
def statfs(self):
logging.debug('FUSE statfs')
try:
repo = self.obnam.repo
if self.obnam.app.settings['viewmode'] == 'multiple':
blocks = sum(repo.client.get_generation_data(gen)
for gen in repo.list_generations())
files = sum(repo.client.get_generation_file_count(gen)
for gen in repo.list_generations())
else:
gen = self.get_gen_path('/')[0]
blocks = repo.client.get_generation_data(gen)
files = repo.client.get_generation_file_count(gen)
stv = fuse.StatVfs()
stv.f_bsize = 65536
stv.f_frsize = 0
stv.f_blocks = blocks/65536
stv.f_bfree = 0
stv.f_bavail = 0
stv.f_files = files
stv.f_ffree = 0
stv.f_favail = 0
stv.f_flag = 0
stv.f_namemax = 255
#raise OSError(errno.ENOSYS, 'Unimplemented')
return stv
except:
logging.error('Unexpected exception', exc_info=True)
raise
def getxattr(self, path, name, size):
logging.debug('FUSE getxattr %s %s %d', path, name, size)
try:
try:
metadata = self.get_metadata(path)
except ValueError:
return 0
if not metadata.xattr:
return 0
blob = metadata.xattr
sizesize = struct.calcsize('!Q')
name_blob_size = struct.unpack('!Q', blob[:sizesize])[0]
name_blob = blob[sizesize : sizesize + name_blob_size]
name_list = name_blob.split('\0')[:-1]
if name in name_list:
value_blob = blob[sizesize + name_blob_size : ]
idx = name_list.index(name)
fmt = '!' + 'Q' * len(name_list)
lengths_size = sizesize * len(name_list)
lengths_list = struct.unpack(fmt, value_blob[:lengths_size])
if size == 0:
return lengths_list[idx]
pos = lengths_size + sum(lengths_list[:idx])
value = value_blob[pos:pos + lengths_list[idx]]
return value
except obnamlib.Error:
raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, 'No such file or directory')
except:
logging.error('Unexpected exception', exc_info=True)
raise
def listxattr(self, path, size):
logging.debug('FUSE listxattr %s %d', path, size)
try:
metadata = self.get_metadata(path)
if not metadata.xattr:
return 0
blob = metadata.xattr
sizesize = struct.calcsize('!Q')
name_blob_size = struct.unpack('!Q', blob[:sizesize])[0]
if size == 0:
return name_blob_size
name_blob = blob[sizesize : sizesize + name_blob_size]
return name_blob.split('\0')[:-1]
except obnamlib.Error:
raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, 'No such file or directory')
except:
logging.error('Unexpected exception', exc_info=True)
raise
def fsync(self, path, isFsyncFile):
return 0
def chmod(self, path, mode):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def chown(self, path, uid, gid):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def link(self, targetPath, linkPath):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def mkdir(self, path, mode):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def mknod(self, path, mode, dev):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def rename(self, oldPath, newPath):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def rmdir(self, path):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def symlink(self, targetPath, linkPath):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def truncate(self, path, size):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def unlink(self, path):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def utime(self, path, times):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def write(self, path, buf, offset):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def setxattr(self, path, name, val, flags):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
def removexattr(self, path, name):
raise IOError(errno.EROFS, 'Read only filesystem')
class MountPlugin(obnamlib.ObnamPlugin):
'''Mount backup repository as a user-space filesystem.
At the momemnt only a specific generation can be mounted
'''
def enable(self):
mount_group = obnamlib.option_group['mount'] = 'Mounting with FUSE'
self.app.add_subcommand('mount', self.mount,
arg_synopsis='[ROOT]')
self.app.settings.choice(['viewmode'],
['single', 'multiple'],
'"single" directly mount specified generation, '
'"multiple" mount all generations as separate directories',
metavar='MODE',
group=mount_group)
self.app.settings.string_list(['fuse-opt'],
'options to pass directly to Fuse',
metavar='FUSE', group=mount_group)
def mount(self, args):
'''Mount a backup repository as a FUSE filesystem.
This subcommand allows you to access backups in an Obnam
backup repository as normal files and directories. Each
backed up file or directory can be viewed directly, using
a graphical file manager or command line tools.
Example: To mount your backup repository:
mkdir my-fuse
obnam mount --viewmode multiple --to my-fuse
You can then access the backup using commands such as these:
ls -l my-fuse
ls -l my-fuse/latest
diff -u my-fuse/latest/home/liw/README ~/README
You can also restore files by copying them from the
my-fuse directory:
cp -a my-fuse/12765/Maildir ~/Maildir.restored
To un-mount:
fusermount -u my-fuse
'''
if not hasattr(fuse, 'fuse_python_api'):
raise obnamlib.Error('Failed to load module "fuse", '
'try installing python-fuse')
self.app.settings.require('repository')
self.app.settings.require('client-name')
self.app.settings.require('to')
self.cwd = os.getcwd()
self.repo = self.app.open_repository()
self.repo.open_client(self.app.settings['client-name'])
self.mountroot = (['/'] + self.app.settings['root'] + args)[-1]
if self.mountroot != '/':
self.mountroot = self.mountroot.rstrip('/')
logging.debug('FUSE Mounting %s@%s:%s to %s', self.app.settings['client-name'],
self.app.settings['generation'],
self.mountroot, self.app.settings['to'])
try:
ObnamFuseOptParse.obnam = self
fs = ObnamFuse(obnam=self, parser_class=ObnamFuseOptParse)
fs.flags = 0
fs.multithreaded = 0
fs.parse()
fs.main()
except fuse.FuseError, e:
raise obnamlib.Error(repr(e))
self.repo.fs.close()
def reopen(self):
try:
os.chdir(self.cwd)
except OSError:
pass
self.repo.fs.close()
self.repo = self.app.open_repository()
self.repo.open_client(self.app.settings['client-name'])
@Vayu

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commented Jan 19, 2013

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