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Convert WGS84, latitude, longitude, to Web Mercator, Google Maps, Bing Maps, Pixel Coordinates
// source: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb259689.aspx
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// <copyright company="Microsoft">
// Copyright (c) 2006-2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
// </copyright>
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
using System;
using System.Text;
namespace Microsoft.MapPoint
{
static class TileSystem
{
private const double EarthRadius = 6378137;
private const double MinLatitude = -85.05112878;
private const double MaxLatitude = 85.05112878;
private const double MinLongitude = -180;
private const double MaxLongitude = 180;
/// <summary>
/// Clips a number to the specified minimum and maximum values.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="n">The number to clip.</param>
/// <param name="minValue">Minimum allowable value.</param>
/// <param name="maxValue">Maximum allowable value.</param>
/// <returns>The clipped value.</returns>
private static double Clip(double n, double minValue, double maxValue)
{
return Math.Min(Math.Max(n, minValue), maxValue);
}
/// <summary>
/// Determines the map width and height (in pixels) at a specified level
/// of detail.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="levelOfDetail">Level of detail, from 1 (lowest detail)
/// to 23 (highest detail).</param>
/// <returns>The map width and height in pixels.</returns>
public static uint MapSize(int levelOfDetail)
{
return (uint) 256 << levelOfDetail;
}
/// <summary>
/// Determines the ground resolution (in meters per pixel) at a specified
/// latitude and level of detail.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="latitude">Latitude (in degrees) at which to measure the
/// ground resolution.</param>
/// <param name="levelOfDetail">Level of detail, from 1 (lowest detail)
/// to 23 (highest detail).</param>
/// <returns>The ground resolution, in meters per pixel.</returns>
public static double GroundResolution(double latitude, int levelOfDetail)
{
latitude = Clip(latitude, MinLatitude, MaxLatitude);
return Math.Cos(latitude * Math.PI / 180) * 2 * Math.PI * EarthRadius / MapSize(levelOfDetail);
}
/// <summary>
/// Determines the map scale at a specified latitude, level of detail,
/// and screen resolution.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="latitude">Latitude (in degrees) at which to measure the
/// map scale.</param>
/// <param name="levelOfDetail">Level of detail, from 1 (lowest detail)
/// to 23 (highest detail).</param>
/// <param name="screenDpi">Resolution of the screen, in dots per inch.</param>
/// <returns>The map scale, expressed as the denominator N of the ratio 1 : N.</returns>
public static double MapScale(double latitude, int levelOfDetail, int screenDpi)
{
return GroundResolution(latitude, levelOfDetail) * screenDpi / 0.0254;
}
/// <summary>
/// Converts a point from latitude/longitude WGS-84 coordinates (in degrees)
/// into pixel XY coordinates at a specified level of detail.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="latitude">Latitude of the point, in degrees.</param>
/// <param name="longitude">Longitude of the point, in degrees.</param>
/// <param name="levelOfDetail">Level of detail, from 1 (lowest detail)
/// to 23 (highest detail).</param>
/// <param name="pixelX">Output parameter receiving the X coordinate in pixels.</param>
/// <param name="pixelY">Output parameter receiving the Y coordinate in pixels.</param>
public static void LatLongToPixelXY(double latitude, double longitude, int levelOfDetail, out int pixelX, out int pixelY)
{
latitude = Clip(latitude, MinLatitude, MaxLatitude);
longitude = Clip(longitude, MinLongitude, MaxLongitude);
double x = (longitude + 180) / 360;
double sinLatitude = Math.Sin(latitude * Math.PI / 180);
double y = 0.5 - Math.Log((1 + sinLatitude) / (1 - sinLatitude)) / (4 * Math.PI);
uint mapSize = MapSize(levelOfDetail);
pixelX = (int) Clip(x * mapSize + 0.5, 0, mapSize - 1);
pixelY = (int) Clip(y * mapSize + 0.5, 0, mapSize - 1);
}
/// <summary>
/// Converts a pixel from pixel XY coordinates at a specified level of detail
/// into latitude/longitude WGS-84 coordinates (in degrees).
/// </summary>
/// <param name="pixelX">X coordinate of the point, in pixels.</param>
/// <param name="pixelY">Y coordinates of the point, in pixels.</param>
/// <param name="levelOfDetail">Level of detail, from 1 (lowest detail)
/// to 23 (highest detail).</param>
/// <param name="latitude">Output parameter receiving the latitude in degrees.</param>
/// <param name="longitude">Output parameter receiving the longitude in degrees.</param>
public static void PixelXYToLatLong(int pixelX, int pixelY, int levelOfDetail, out double latitude, out double longitude)
{
double mapSize = MapSize(levelOfDetail);
double x = (Clip(pixelX, 0, mapSize - 1) / mapSize) - 0.5;
double y = 0.5 - (Clip(pixelY, 0, mapSize - 1) / mapSize);
latitude = 90 - 360 * Math.Atan(Math.Exp(-y * 2 * Math.PI)) / Math.PI;
longitude = 360 * x;
}
/// <summary>
/// Converts pixel XY coordinates into tile XY coordinates of the tile containing
/// the specified pixel.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="pixelX">Pixel X coordinate.</param>
/// <param name="pixelY">Pixel Y coordinate.</param>
/// <param name="tileX">Output parameter receiving the tile X coordinate.</param>
/// <param name="tileY">Output parameter receiving the tile Y coordinate.</param>
public static void PixelXYToTileXY(int pixelX, int pixelY, out int tileX, out int tileY)
{
tileX = pixelX / 256;
tileY = pixelY / 256;
}
/// <summary>
/// Converts tile XY coordinates into pixel XY coordinates of the upper-left pixel
/// of the specified tile.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="tileX">Tile X coordinate.</param>
/// <param name="tileY">Tile Y coordinate.</param>
/// <param name="pixelX">Output parameter receiving the pixel X coordinate.</param>
/// <param name="pixelY">Output parameter receiving the pixel Y coordinate.</param>
public static void TileXYToPixelXY(int tileX, int tileY, out int pixelX, out int pixelY)
{
pixelX = tileX * 256;
pixelY = tileY * 256;
}
/// <summary>
/// Converts tile XY coordinates into a QuadKey at a specified level of detail.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="tileX">Tile X coordinate.</param>
/// <param name="tileY">Tile Y coordinate.</param>
/// <param name="levelOfDetail">Level of detail, from 1 (lowest detail)
/// to 23 (highest detail).</param>
/// <returns>A string containing the QuadKey.</returns>
public static string TileXYToQuadKey(int tileX, int tileY, int levelOfDetail)
{
StringBuilder quadKey = new StringBuilder();
for (int i = levelOfDetail; i > 0; i--)
{
char digit = '0';
int mask = 1 << (i - 1);
if ((tileX & mask) != 0)
{
digit++;
}
if ((tileY & mask) != 0)
{
digit++;
digit++;
}
quadKey.Append(digit);
}
return quadKey.ToString();
}
/// <summary>
/// Converts a QuadKey into tile XY coordinates.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="quadKey">QuadKey of the tile.</param>
/// <param name="tileX">Output parameter receiving the tile X coordinate.</param>
/// <param name="tileY">Output parameter receiving the tile Y coordinate.</param>
/// <param name="levelOfDetail">Output parameter receiving the level of detail.</param>
public static void QuadKeyToTileXY(string quadKey, out int tileX, out int tileY, out int levelOfDetail)
{
tileX = tileY = 0;
levelOfDetail = quadKey.Length;
for (int i = levelOfDetail; i > 0; i--)
{
int mask = 1 << (i - 1);
switch (quadKey[levelOfDetail - i])
{
case '0':
break;
case '1':
tileX |= mask;
break;
case '2':
tileY |= mask;
break;
case '3':
tileX |= mask;
tileY |= mask;
break;
default:
throw new ArgumentException("Invalid QuadKey digit sequence.");
}
}
}
}
}
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