public
Last active

Corey Floyd's git cheat sheet

  • Download Gist
Git Cheat Sheet
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594
via: http://groups.google.com/group/phillycocoa/browse_thread/thread/2d05f3eac5a7d260?hl=en
 
revert file:
git checkout HEAD path/to/file
OR
git checkout filename
 
pluck one file from another branch
git checkout Branch path/to/file
 
undo last commit, leave previous changes staged in index
git reset --soft HEAD^
 
totally remove all changes since last commit
git reset --hard
 
undo last "successful" merge
git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD
 
Change commit message:
git commit --amend -m "new message"
 
Add current changes to last commit
git commit --amend
 
Force push even if non fast forward
git push origin +master:master
 
setup pull/merge for master
//the repo
git config branch.master.remote origin
//the branch
git config branch.master.merge master
 
while merging, pick either local or remote
git checkout --ours index.html
git checkout --theirs _layouts/default.html
 
if git < 1.6.1
ours
git reset -- index.html
git checkout ORIG_HEAD -- index.html
 
theirs
git reset -- _layouts/default.html
git checkout MERGE_HEAD -- _layouts/default.html
 
 
log a fetch
git log -p master..origin/master
 
push tags
git push --tags
 
tag
git tag -a -m "Version 1.0 release, submitted to app store Jan 16 2010" v1.0
 
list tags
git tag -l -n
 
git diff
git diff "filename"
 
git difftool
git difftool "filename"
 
set difftool
git config --global difftool.opendiff.cmd
 
no prompt
git config --global difftool.prompt false
 
add remote
git remote add origin git@codaset.com:coreyfloyd/mobilecause-carousel.git
 
remove remote
git remote rm origin
 
stop tracking remote branch (delete remotes/nameOfBranch)
git branch -rd remoteBranch
 
delete remote branch (on server)
git push origin :newfeature
 
git config --global user.email corey.floyd@flyingjalapenosoftware.com
 
after editing git ignore, remove all ignored files from index:
git rm -r --cached .
git add .
git commit -m ".gitignore is now working"
 
 
Setup
-----
 
git clone <repo>
clone the repository specified by <repo>; this is similar to "checkout" in
some other version control systems such as Subversion and CVS
 
Add colors to your ~/.gitconfig file:
 
[color]
ui = auto
[color "branch"]
current = yellow reverse
local = yellow
remote = green
[color "diff"]
meta = yellow bold
frag = magenta bold
old = red bold
new = green bold
[color "status"]
added = yellow
changed = green
untracked = cyan
 
Highlight whitespace in diffs
 
[color]
ui = true
[color "diff"]
whitespace = red reverse
[core]
whitespace=fix,-indent-with-non-tab,trailing-space,cr-at-eol
 
Add aliases to your ~/.gitconfig file:
 
[alias]
st = status
ci = commit
br = branch
co = checkout
df = diff
lg = log -p
 
 
Configuration
-------------
 
git config -e [--global]
edit the .git/config [or ~/.gitconfig] file in your $EDITOR
 
git config --global user.name 'John Doe'
git config --global user.email johndoe@example.com
sets your name and email for commit messages
 
git config branch.autosetupmerge true
tells git-branch and git-checkout to setup new branches so that git-pull(1)
will appropriately merge from that remote branch. Recommended. Without this,
you will have to add --track to your branch command or manually merge remote
tracking branches with "fetch" and then "merge".
 
git config core.autocrlf true
This setting tells git to convert the newlines to the system?s standard
when checking out files, and to LF newlines when committing in
 
You can add "--global" after "git config" to any of these commands to make it
apply to all git repos (writes to ~/.gitconfig).
 
 
Info
----
git reflog
Use this to recover from *major* fuck ups! It's basically a log of the
last few actions and you might have luck and find old commits that
have been lost by doing a complex merge.
 
git diff
show a diff of the changes made since your last commit
to diff one file: "git diff -- <filename>"
to show a diff between staging area and HEAD: `git diff --cached`
 
git status
show files added to the staging area, files with changes, and untracked files
 
git log
show recent commits, most recent on top. Useful options:
--color with color
--graph with an ASCII-art commit graph on the left
--decorate with branch and tag names on appropriate commits
--stat with stats (files changed, insertions, and deletions)
-p with full diffs
--author=foo only by a certain author
--after="MMM DD YYYY" ex. ("Jun 20 2008") only commits after a certain date
--before="MMM DD YYYY" only commits that occur before a certain date
--merge only the commits involved in the current merge conflicts
 
git log <ref>..<ref>
show commits between the specified range. Useful for seeing changes from
remotes:
git log HEAD..origin/master # after git remote update
 
git show <rev>
show the changeset (diff) of a commit specified by <rev>, which can be any
SHA1 commit ID, branch name, or tag (shows the last commit (HEAD) by default)
 
git show --name-only <rev>
show only the names of the files that changed, no diff information.
 
git blame <file>
show who authored each line in <file>
 
git blame <file> <rev>
show who authored each line in <file> as of <rev> (allows blame to go back in
time)
 
git gui blame
really nice GUI interface to git blame
 
git whatchanged <file>
show only the commits which affected <file> listing the most recent first
E.g. view all changes made to a file on a branch:
git whatchanged <branch> <file> | grep commit | \
colrm 1 7 | xargs -I % git show % <file>
this could be combined with git remote show <remote> to find all changes on
all branches to a particular file.
 
git diff <commit> head path/to/fubar
show the diff between a file on the current branch and potentially another
branch
 
git diff head -- <file>
use this form when doing git diff on cherry-pick'ed (but not committed)
changes
somehow changes are not shown when using just git diff.
 
Adding / Deleting
-----------------
 
git add <file1> <file2> ...
add <file1>, <file2>, etc... to the project
 
git add <dir>
add all files under directory <dir> to the project, including subdirectories
 
git add .
add all files under the current directory to the project
*WARNING*: including untracked files.
 
git rm <file1> <file2> ...
remove <file1>, <file2>, etc... from the project
 
git rm $(git ls-files --deleted)
remove all deleted files from the project
 
git rm --cached <file1> <file2> ...
commits absence of <file1>, <file2>, etc... from the project
 
 
Staging
-------
 
git add <file1> <file2> ...
git stage <file1> <file2> ...
add changes in <file1>, <file2> ... to the staging area (to be included in
the next commit
 
git add -p
git stage --patch
interactively walk through the current changes (hunks) in the working
tree, and decide which changes to add to the staging area.
 
git add -i
git stage --interactive
interactively add files/changes to the staging area. For a simpler
mode (no menu), try `git add --patch` (above)
 
 
Committing
----------
 
git commit <file1> <file2> ... [-m <msg>]
commit <file1>, <file2>, etc..., optionally using commit message <msg>,
otherwise opening your editor to let you type a commit message
 
git commit -a
commit all files changed since your last commit
(does not include new (untracked) files)
 
git commit -v
commit verbosely, i.e. includes the diff of the contents being committed in
the commit message screen
 
git commit --amend
edit the commit message of the most recent commit
 
git commit --amend <file1> <file2> ...
redo previous commit, including changes made to <file1>, <file2>, etc...
 
 
Branching
---------
 
git branch
list all local branches
 
git branch -r
list all remote branches
 
git branch -a
list all local and remote branches
 
git branch <branch>
create a new branch named <branch>, referencing the same point in history as
the current branch
 
git branch <branch> <start-point>
create a new branch named <branch>, referencing <start-point>, which may be
specified any way you like, including using a branch name or a tag name
 
git branch --track <branch> <remote-branch>
create a tracking branch. Will push/pull changes to/from another repository.
Example: git branch --track experimental origin/experimental
 
git branch -d <branch>
delete the branch <branch>; if the branch you are deleting points to a commit
which is not reachable from the current branch, this command will fail with a
warning.
 
git branch -r -d <remote-branch>
delete a remote-tracking branch.
Example: git branch -r -d wycats/master
 
git branch -D <branch>
even if the branch points to a commit not reachable from the current branch,
you may know that that commit is still reachable from some other branch or
tag. In that case it is safe to use this command to force git to delete the
branch.
 
git checkout <branch>
make the current branch <branch>, updating the working directory to reflect
the version referenced by <branch>
 
git checkout -b <new> <start-point>
create a new branch <new> referencing <start-point>, and check it out.
 
git push <repository> :<branch>
removes a branch from a remote repository.
Example: git push origin :old_branch_to_be_deleted
 
git co <branch> <path to new file>
Checkout a file from another branch and add it to this branch. File
will still need to be added to the git branch, but it's present.
Eg. git co remote_at_origin__tick702_antifraud_blocking
..../...nt_elements_for_iframe_blocked_page.rb
git show <branch> -- <path to file that does not exist>
Eg. git show remote_tick702 -- path/to/fubar.txt
show the contents of a file that was created on another branch and that
does not exist on the current branch.
 
git show <rev>:<repo path to file>
Show the contents of a file at the specific revision. Note: path has to be
absolute within the repo.
 
Merging
-------
 
git merge <branch>
merge branch <branch> into the current branch; this command is idempotent and
can be run as many times as needed to keep the current branch up-to-date with
changes in <branch>
 
git merge <branch> --no-commit
merge branch <branch> into the current branch, but do not autocommit the
result; allows you to make further tweaks
 
git merge <branch> -s ours
merge branch <branch> into the current branch, but drops any changes in
<branch>, using the current tree as the new tree
 
 
Cherry-Picking
--------------
 
git cherry-pick [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] <commit>
selectively merge a single commit from another local branch
Example: git cherry-pick 7300a6130d9447e18a931e898b64eefedea19544
 
 
Squashing
---------
WARNING: "git rebase" changes history. Be careful. Google it.
 
git rebase --interactive HEAD~10
(then change all but the first "pick" to "squash")
squash the last 10 commits into one big commit
 
 
Conflicts
---------
 
git mergetool
work through conflicted files by opening them in your mergetool (opendiff,
kdiff3, etc.) and choosing left/right chunks. The merged result is staged for
commit.
 
For binary files or if mergetool won't do, resolve the conflict(s) manually and
then do:
 
git add <file1> [<file2> ...]
 
Once all conflicts are resolved and staged, commit the pending merge with:
 
git commit
 
 
Sharing
-------
 
git fetch <remote>
update the remote-tracking branches for <remote> (defaults to "origin").
Does not initiate a merge into the current branch (see "git pull" below).
 
git pull
fetch changes from the server, and merge them into the current branch.
Note: .git/config must have a [branch "some_name"] section for the current
branch, to know which remote-tracking branch to merge into the current
branch. Git 1.5.3 and above adds this automatically.
 
git push
update the server with your commits across all branches that are *COMMON*
between your local copy and the server. Local branches that were never pushed
to the server in the first place are not shared.
 
git push origin <branch>
update the server with your commits made to <branch> since your last push.
This is always *required* for new branches that you wish to share. After the
first explicit push, "git push" by itself is sufficient.
 
git push origin <branch>:refs/heads/<branch>
E.g. git push origin twitter-experiment:refs/heads/twitter-experiment
Which, in fact, is the same as git push origin <branch> but a little
more obvious what is happening.
Reverting
---------
 
git revert <rev>
reverse commit specified by <rev> and commit the result. This does *not* do
the same thing as similarly named commands in other VCS's such as "svn revert"
or "bzr revert", see below
 
git checkout <file>
re-checkout <file>, overwriting any local changes
 
git checkout .
re-checkout all files, overwriting any local changes. This is most similar to
"svn revert" if you're used to Subversion commands
 
 
Fix mistakes / Undo
-------------------
 
git reset --hard
abandon everything since your last commit; this command can be DANGEROUS. If
merging has resulted in conflicts and you'd like to just forget about the
merge, this command will do that.
 
git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD
undo your most recent *successful* merge *and* any changes that occurred
after. Useful for forgetting about the merge you just did. If there are
conflicts (the merge was not successful), use "git reset --hard" (above)
instead.
 
git reset --soft HEAD^
forgot something in your last commit? That's easy to fix. Undo your last
commit, but keep the changes in the staging area for editing.
 
git commit --amend
redo previous commit, including changes you've staged in the meantime.
Also used to edit commit message of previous commit.
 
 
Plumbing
--------
 
test <sha1-A> = $(git merge-base <sha1-A> <sha1-B>)
determine if merging sha1-B into sha1-A is achievable as a fast forward;
non-zero exit status is false.
 
 
Stashing
--------
 
git stash save <optional-name>
save your local modifications to a new stash (so you can for example
"git svn rebase" or "git pull")
 
git stash apply
restore the changes recorded in the stash on top of the current working tree
state
 
git stash pop
restore the changes from the most recent stash, and remove it from the stack
of stashed changes
 
git stash list
list all current stashes
 
git stash show <stash-name> -p
show the contents of a stash - accepts all diff args
 
git stash clear
delete current stashes
 
 
Remotes
-------
 
git remote add <remote> <remote_URL>
adds a remote repository to your git config. Can be then fetched locally.
Example:
git remote add coreteam git://github.com/wycats/merb-plugins.git
git fetch coreteam
 
git push <remote> :refs/heads/<branch>
delete a branch in a remote repository
 
git push <remote> <remote>:refs/heads/<remote_branch>
create a branch on a remote repository
Example: git push origin origin:refs/heads/new_feature_name
 
git push <repository> +<remote>:<new_remote>
create a branch on a remote repository based on +<remote>
Example: git push origin +master:my_branch
 
git remote prune <remote>
prune deleted remote-tracking branches from "git branch -r" listing
 
git remote add -t master -m master origin git://example.com/git.git/
add a remote and track its master
 
git remote show <remote>
show information about the remote server.
 
git checkout -b <local branch> <remote>/<remote branch>
Eg git checkout -b myfeature origin/myfeature
Track a remote branch as a local branch.
git pull <remote> <branch>
git push
For branches that are remotely tracked (via git push) but
that complain about non-fast forward commits when doing a
git push. The pull synchronizes local and remote, and if
all goes well, the result is pushable.
 
Submodules
----------
 
git submodule add <remote_repository> <path/to/submodule>
add the given repository at the given path. The addition will be part of the
next commit.
 
git submodule update [--init]
Update the registered submodules (clone missing submodules, and checkout
the commit specified by the super-repo). --init is needed the first time.
 
git submodule foreach <command>
Executes the given command within each checked out submodule.
 
Remove submodules
 
1. Delete the relevant line from the .gitmodules file.
2. Delete the relevant section from .git/config.
3. Run git rm --cached path_to_submodule (no trailing slash).
4. Commit and delete the now untracked submodule files.
 
 
Git Instaweb
------------
 
git instaweb --httpd=webrick [--start | --stop | --restart]
 
 
Environment Variables
---------------------
 
GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
Your full name to be recorded in any newly created commits. Overrides
user.name in .git/config
 
GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
Your email address to be recorded in any newly created commits. Overrides
user.email in .git/config
 
GIT_DIR
Location of the repository to use (for out of working directory repositories)
 
GIT_WORKING_TREE
Location of the Working Directory - use with GIT_DIR to specifiy the working
directory root
or to work without being in the working directory at all.

Please sign in to comment on this gist.

Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.