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EIP-3074 Invoker Examples
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;
import "";
interface WETH9 {
function balanceOf(address) external returns (uint256);
function deposit() external payable;
function withdraw(uint256) external;
function transfer(address, uint256) external returns (bool);
* @dev Example implementation of an EIP-3074 relayer invoker contract.
* This example illustrates how a Solidity integration for EIP-3074 could look
* like. It assumes a Solidity-native struct-like type for the transaction-like
* bundle for sponsored sub-transactions.
* The idea for this example is a relayer contract operated by a single owner
* (the relayer). As part of the relay process, the contract first executes a
* payment transaction from the sponsee. It then checks that this transaction
* resulted in a payment sufficient to cover all transactions to be sponsored.
* Afterwards, it executes each sponsored transaction. Finally, it refunds any
* unused payment.
contract EIP3074Relayer is Ownable {
// The canonical mainnet wrapped ETH ERC-20 contract.
WETH9 constant WETH = WETH9(0xC02aaA39b223FE8D0A0e5C4F27eAD9083C756Cc2);
// Some approximate gas accounting for the execution outside of the sub-transactions.
uint256 constant outerGas = 30_000;
uint256 constant innerGas = 10_000;
uint256 constant refundGas = 5_000;
// Replay protection
mapping(address => uint256) public nonces;
// This struct is only provided to make this example be valid Solidity.
// Native Solidity support could expose a type similar to this struct, with additional
// functions like tlpSponsored.send{value: _, gas: _}()
struct tlpSponsored {
address sponsee;
uint256 nextra;
address to;
uint256 mingas;
uint256 value;
bytes data;
uint8 v;
bytes32 r;
bytes32 s;
* @dev Relays an array of sponsored transactions.
* Accepts a payment transaction and a list of transactions to be sponsored.
function relay(tlpSponsored memory paymentTx, tlpSponsored[] memory sponsoredTxs) external onlyOwner {
// Some accounting.
uint256 startGas = gasleft();
uint256 startBalance = WETH.balanceOf(address(this));
uint256 gasPrice = tx.gasprice;
uint256 txNum = sponsoredTxs.length;
// Load and increase the sponsee nonce in the contract.
// This nonce is used for the relay bundle as a whole, i.e. for all sponsored transactions.
address sponsee = paymentTx.sponsee;
uint256 nonce = nonces[sponsee];
nonces[sponsee] += 1;
// Check nextra field for payment transaction, fingerprinting three values:
// 1: The sponsee nonce for replay protection
// 2: The position of the transaction as payment transaction
// 3: The number of transactions to be sponsored
require(paymentTx.nextra == uint256(keccak256(abi.encode(nonce, 0, txNum))), "incorrect nextra");
// Execute the payment transaction and require its success
require(sendTlpSponsored(paymentTx), "unsuccessful payment");
// Determine the payment amout by comparing the prior and posterior WETH balances.
uint256 payment = WETH.balanceOf(address(this)) - startBalance;
// Calculate the maximum ETH requred for the relay bundle, consisting of two parts:
// gasBudget: The amount of gas the ETH has to be able to pay for
// valueBudget: The amount of ETH to be sent with the sponsored transactions directly
uint256 gasBudget = paymentTx.mingas;
uint256 valueBudget = paymentTx.value;
for (uint256 i = 0; i < txNum; i++) {
gasBudget += sponsoredTxs[i].mingas;
valueBudget += sponsoredTxs[i].value;
// Require that the payment made covers the maximum cost.
uint256 minPayment = valueBudget + gasPrice * (outerGas + innerGas + gasBudget);
require(payment >= minPayment, "insufficient payment");
// If raw ETH is required, withdraw it from the WETH contract.
if (valueBudget > 0) {
// Iterate through sponsored transactions
for (uint256 i = 0; i < txNum; i++) {
// Require that the sponsored transaction is sent from the same account as the payment was
require(sponsoredTxs[i].sponsee == sponsee, "incorrect sponsee");
// Check nextra field for sponsored transaction, fingerprinting two values:
// 1: The sponsee nonce for replay protection (same nonce for whole relay bundle)
// 2: The position of the transaction within the relay bundle, starting at 1
require(sponsoredTxs[i].nextra == uint256(keccak256(abi.encode(nonce, i + 1))), "incorrect nextra");
// Execute the sponsored transaction and ignore its success
// Convert any remaining raw ETH from failed transactions back to wrapped ETH
uint256 valueLeft = address(this).balance;
if (valueLeft > 0) {
WETH.deposit{value: valueLeft}();
// Calculate the total cost of the relay transaction and pay out any potential refund.
uint256 totalCost = valueBudget - valueLeft + gasPrice * (outerGas + startGas - gasleft() + refundGas);
if (totalCost < payment) {
WETH.transfer(sponsee, payment - totalCost);
* @dev Withdraws the contract's WETH balance.
* Allows the owner to withdraw any WETH the contract holds.
function withdraw(address target) external onlyOwner {
WETH.transfer(target, WETH.balanceOf(address(this)));
* @dev Dummy function for tlpSponsored.send().
* Dummy function provided for compatibility with vanilla Solidity.
* Used as a stand-in for tlpSponsored.send(), with both value and gas automatically
* set by Solidity with the values from the tlpSponsored tlb.
* Returns success of the sponsored transaction, throws on a failing pre-check.
function sendTlpSponsored(tlpSponsored memory tlp) internal returns (bool) {
// return tlp.send();
return false;
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