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Created Aug 22, 2020
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PostgreSQL & PostGIS cheatsheet (a work in progress)

PostgreSQL & PostGIS Cheatsheet

This is a collection of information on PostgreSQL and PostGIS for what I tend to use most often.




  • to install on Ubuntu do: apt-get install postgresql

  • to install on Mac OS X first install homebrew and then do brew install postgresql

  • to install on Windows...

Note that for OS X and Ubuntu you may need to run the above commands as a super user / using sudo.

Set Up

On Ubuntu you typically need to log in as the Postgres user and do some admin things:

  • log in as postgres: sudo -i -u postgres
  • create a new user: createuser --interactive
  • type the name of the new user (no spaces!), typically the same name as your linux user that isn't root. You can add a new linux user by doing adduser username.
  • typically you want the user to have super-user privileges, so type y when asked.
  • create a new database that has the same name as the new user: createdb username

For Mac OS X you can skip the above if you install with homebrew.

For Windows....

Starting the Postgres Database

On Mac OS X:

  • to start the Postgres server do: postgres -D /usr/local/var/postgres

  • or do pg_ctl -D /usr/local/var/postgres -l /usr/local/var/postgres/server.log start to start and pg_ctl -D /usr/local/var/postgres -l /usr/local/var/postgres/server.log stop to stop

  • to have Postgres start everytime you boot your Mac do: ln -sfv /usr/local/opt/postgresql/*.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents then to check that it's working after booting do: ps ax | grep sql


  • On Ubuntu do apt-get install postgis

  • On Mac OS X the easiest method is via homebrew: brew install postgis
    (note that if you don't have Postgres or GDAL installed already it will automatically install these first).

  • to install on Windows...


psql is the interactive unix command line tool for interacting with Postgres/PostGIS.

Common Commands

  • log-in / connect to a database name by doing psql -d database_name

  • for doing admin type things such as managing db users, log in as the postgres user: psql postgres;

  • to create a database: CREATE DATABASE database_name;

  • to connect to a database: \c database_name;

  • to delete a database DROP DATABASE database_name;

  • to connect when starting psql use the -d flag like: psql -d nyc_noise

  • to list all databases: \l

  • to list all the table in a database: \dt

  • to list extensions installed in a database: \dx

  • to quit psql: \q

  • to grant privileges to a user (requires logging in as postgres ):


  • to enable the hstore extension ( for key : value pairs, useful when working with OpenStreetMap data) do: CREATE EXTENSION hstore

  • to view columns of a table: \d table_name

  • to list all columns in a table (helpful when you have a lot of columns!):
    select column_name from information_schema.columns where table_name = 'my_table' order by column_name asc;

  • to rename a column:
    alter table noise.hoods rename column noise_sqkm to complaints_sqkm;

  • to change a column's data type:
    alter table noise.hoods alter column noise_area type float;

  • to compute values from two columns and assign them to another column: update noise.hoods set noise_area = noise/(area/1000);

  • to search by wildcard use the like (case sensitive) or ilike (treats everything as lowercase) command:
    SELECT count(*) from violations where inspection_date::text ilike '2014%';

  • to insert data into a table:

    INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2)
    	(value1, value2);
  • to insert data from another table:

    INSERT INTO table_name (value1, value2)
    SELECT column1, column2
    FROM other_table_name
  • to remove rows using a where clause:
    DELETE FROM table_name WHERE some_column = some_value

  • list all column names from a table in alphabetical order:

    select column_name
    from information_schema.columns
    where table_schema = 'public'
    and table_name = 'bk_pluto'
    order by column_name;
  • List data from a column as a single row, comma separated:

    1. SELECT array_to_string( array( SELECT id FROM table ), ',' )
    2. SELECT string_agg(id, ',') FROM table
  • rename an existing table:
    ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME TO table_name_new;

  • rename an existing column of a table:
    ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME COLUMN column_name TO column_new_name;

  • Find duplicate rows in a table based on values from two fields:

     select * from (
       SELECT id,
       ROW_NUMBER() OVER(PARTITION BY merchant_Id, url ORDER BY id asc) AS Row
       FROM Photos
     ) dups
     dups.Row > 1

    credit: MatthewJ on stack-exchange

  • Bulk Queries are efficient when doing multiple inserts or updates of different values. For example,

    --- update some rows with new values
     UPDATE election_results o
     SET votes=n.votes,
     FROM (VALUES (1,11,9),
           ) n(county_id,votes,pro)
     WHERE o.county_id = n.county_id;
    --- insert new values
     INSERT INTO election_results (county_id,voters,pro)
     VALUES  (1, 11,8),

    The INSERT and UPDATE queries can be combined to what is often referred to as an UPSERT query:

      -- make a temporary (as in for this query only) table of values
      n(ip,visits,clicks) AS (
        VALUES ('',2,12),
      -- update existing rows
      upsert AS (
        UPDATE page_views o
        SET visits=n.visits, clicks=n.clicks
        FROM n WHERE o.ip = n.ip
        RETURNING o.ip
      -- insert missing rows
      INSERT INTO page_views (ip,visits,clicks)
      SELECT n.ip, n.visits, n.clicks FROM n
      WHERE n.ip NOT IN (
        SELECT ip FROM upsert


Importing Data

  • import data from a CSV file using the COPY command:

     COPY noise.locations (name, complaint, descript, boro, lat, lon)
     FROM '/Users/chrislhenrick/tutorials/postgresql/data/noise.csv' WITH CSV HEADER;
  • import a CSV file "AS IS" using csvkit's csvsql (requires python, pip, csvkit, psycopg2):

     csvsql --db postgresql:///nyc_pluto --insert 2012_DHCR_Bldg.csv

Exporting Data

  • export data as a CSV with Headers using COPY:

     COPY dob_jobs_2014 to '/Users/chrislhenrick/development/nyc_dob_jobs/data/2014/dob_jobs_2014.csv' DELIMITER ',' CSV Header;
  • to the current workspace without saving to a file:

  • from the command line w/o connecting to postgres:

     psql -d dbname -t -A -F"," -c "select * from table_name" > output.csv

Joining Tables Using a Shared Key

From CartoDB's tutorial Join data from two tables using SQL

  • Join two tables that share a key using an INNER JOIN(Postgresql's default join type):

     SELECT table_1.the_geom,table_1.iso_code,table_2.population
     FROM table_1, table_2
     WHERE table_1.iso_code = table_2.iso
  • To update a table's data based on that of a join:

     UPDATE table_1 as t1
     SET population = (
       SELECT population
       FROM table_2
       WHERE iso = t1.iso_code
       LIMIT 1
  • aggregate data on a join (if table 2 has multiple rows for a unique identifier):

       SUM( as total
     FROM table_1, table_2
     WHERE table_1.iso_code = table_2.iso
     GROUP BY table_1.iso_code, table_2.iso
  • update the value of a column based on the aggregate join:

     UPDATE table_1 as t1
     SET total =  (
       SELECT SUM(total)
       FROM table_2
       WHERE iso = t1.iso_code
       GROUP BY iso

Upgrading Postgres

This Tutorial was very helpful for upgrading on Mac OS X via homebrew.

WARNING: Back up your data before doing this incase you screw up like I did!

Basically the steps are:

  1. Shut down Postgresql:
    launchctl unload ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.postgresql.plist

  2. Create a new Postgresql9.x data directory:
    initdb /usr/local/var/postgres9.4 -E utf8

  3. Run the pg_upgrade command:

    pg_upgrade \
    -d /usr/local/var/postgres \
    -D /usr/local/var/postgres9.4 \
    -b /usr/local/Cellar/postgresql/9.3.5_1/bin/ \
    -B /usr/local/Cellar/postgresql/9.4.0/bin/ \
  4. Change kernel settings if necessary:

    sudo sysctl -w kern.sysv.shmall=65536
    sudo sysctl -w kern.sysv.shmmax=16777216
    • I also ran sudo vi /etc/sysctl.conf and entered the same values:
    • re-run the pg_upgrade command in step 3
  5. Move the new data directory into place:

    cd /usr/local/var
    mv postgres postgres9.2.4
    mv postgres9.3 postgres
  6. Start the new version of PostgreSQL: launchctl load -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.postgresql.plist

    • check to make sure it worked:
    psql postgres -c "select version()"
    psql -l
  7. Cleanup:

    • vacuumdb --all --analyze-only
    • brew cleanup postgresql
      (* scripts were generated in same the directory where pg_upgrade was ran)


PostGIS is the extension for Postgres that allows for working with geometry data types and doing GIS operations in Postgres.

Common Commands

  • to enable PostGIS in a Postgres database do: CREATE EXTENSION postgis;

  • to enable PostGIS topology do: CREATE EXTENSION postgis_topology;

  • to support OSM tags do: CREATE EXTENSION hstore;

  • create a new table for data from a CSV that has lat and lon columns:

    create table noise.locations
    name varchar(100),
    complaint varchar(100), descript varchar(100),
    boro varchar(50),
    lat float8,
    lon float8,
    geom geometry(POINT, 4326)
  • inputing values for the geometry type after loading data from a CSV:
    update noise.locations set the_geom = ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(lon, lat), 4326);

  • adding a geometry column in a non-spatial table:
    select addgeometryColumn('table_name', 'geom', 4326, 'POINT', 2);

  • calculating area in EPSG 4326:
    alter table noise.hoods set area = (select ST_Area(geom::geography));

Common Spatial Queries

You may view more of these in my intro to Visualizing Geospatial Data with CartoDB.

Find all polygons from dataset A that intersect points from dataset B:

FROM table_a_polygons a, table_b_points b
WHERE ST_Intersects(a.the_geom, b.the_geom);

Find all rows in a polygon dataset that intersect a given point:

-- note: geometry for point must be in the order lon, lat (x, y)
SELECT * FROM nyc_tenants_rights_service_areas
   'Point(-73.982557 40.724435)', 4326

Or using ST_Contains:

SELECT * FROM nyc_tenants_rights_service_areas
   'Point(-73.917104 40.694827)', 4326

Counting points inside a polygon:

With ST_Containts():

SELECT us_counties.the_geom_webmercator,us_counties.cartodb_id,
AS total
FROM us_counties JOIN quakes
ON st_contains(us_counties.the_geom,quakes.the_geom)
GROUP BY us_counties.cartodb_id;

To update a column from table A with the number of points from table B that intersect table A's polygons:

update noise.hoods set num_complaints = (
	select count(*)
	from noise.locations

Select data within a bounding box
Using ST_MakeEnvelope

HINT: You can use to easily grab coordinates of a bounding box for a given area.

SELECT * FROM some_table
where geom && ST_MakeEnvelope(-73.913891, 40.873781, -73.907229, 40.878251, 4326)

Select points from table a that do not fall within any polygons in table b
This method makes use of spatial indexes and the indexes on gid for better performance

  points AS a LEFT JOIN
  polygons AS b ON
  ST_Intersects(a.the_geom, b.the_geom)

credit: Nicklas Avén

Make a line from a series of points

SELECT ST_MakeLine (the_geom ORDER BY id ASC)
AS the_geom, route
FROM points_table
GROUP BY route;

Order points in a table by distance to a given lat lon
This one uses CartoDB's built-in function CDB_LatLng which is short hand for doing:
SELECT ST_Transform( ST_GeomFromText( 'Point(-73.982557 40.724435)',),4326)

ORDER BY the_geom <->
CDB_LatLng(42.5,-73) LIMIT 10;

Access the previous row of data and get value (time, value, number, etc) difference

WITH calc_duration AS (
 extract(epoch FROM (date_time - lag(date_time, 1) OVER(ORDER BY date_time))) AS duration_in_seconds
 FROM tracking_eric
 ORDER BY date_time
UPDATE tracking_eric
SET duration_in_seconds = calc_duration.duration_in_seconds
FROM calc_duration
WHERE calc_duration.cartodb_id = tracking_eric.cartodb_id

Select population density

In this query we cast the geometry data type to the geography data type to get units of measure in meters.

SELECT pop_sqkm,
 round( pop / (ST_Area(the_geom::geography)/1000000))
 as psqkm
 FROM us_counties

Repair Invalid Geometries
Sometimes when data is imported into PostGIS geometries get screwed up. If you get an error message like:

ERROR:  GEOSIntersects: TopologyException: side location conflict at -116.03227135270012 33.309736898054787

You can try doing:


Spatial Indexing

Makes queries hella fast. OSGeo has a good tutorial.

  • Basically the steps are:
    CREATE INDEX table_name_gix ON table_name USING GIST (geom);
    VACUUM ANALYZE table_name
    CLUSTER table_name USING table_name_gix;
    Do this every time after making changes to your dataset or importing new data.

Importing Spatial Data to PostGIS

Using shp2pgsql

  1. Create an SQL file with a CREATE TABLE statement:

    shp2pgsql -I -s 4326 nyc-pediacities-hoods-v3-edit.shp noise.hoods > noise.sql

    Or for using the geography data type do:

    shp2pgsql -G -I nyc-pediacities-hoods-v3-edit.shp > nyc_pediacities-hoods-v3-edit.sql

    If you'd like to transform your data from one SRID to another, you may pass two EPSG codes separated by a colon to the -s flag:

    shp2pgsql -I -s 2236:4326 shapefile_in_2236.shp schema.table-name > table-name.sql
  2. Then run the SQL using psql:

    psql -d nyc_noise -f noise.sql

    Or for the geography type above:

    psql -d nyc_noise -f nyc_pediacities-hoods-v3-edit.sql
  3. Alternatively do both of the above in a single command:

    shp2pgsql -I -s 4326 nyc-pediacities-hoods-v3-edit.shp noise.hoods | psql -d nyc_noise

Using osm2pgsql

To import an OpenStreetMap extract in PBF format do:
osm2pgsql -H localhost --hstore-all -d nyc_from_osm ~/Downloads/newyorkcity.osm.pbf

Using ogr2ogr

Example importing a GeoJSON file into a database called nyc_pluto:

ogr2ogr -f PostgreSQL \
PG:"host='localhost' user='chrislhenrick' port='5432' \
dbname='nyc_pluto' password=''" \
bk_map_pluto_4326.json -nln bk_pluto

Exporting Spatial Data from PostGIS

The two main tools used to export spatial data with more complex geometries from Postgres/PostGIS than points are pgsql2shp and ogr2ogr.

Using pgsql2shp

pgsql2shp is a tool that comes installed with PostGIS that allows for exporting data from a PostGIS database to a shapefile format. To use it you need to specify a file path to the output shapefile (just stating the basename with no extension will output in the current working directory), a host name (usually this is localhost), a user name, a password for the user, a database name, and an SQL query.

pgsql2shp -f <path to output shapefile> -h <hostname> -u <username> -P <password> databasename "<query>"

A sample export of a shapefile called my_data from a database called my_db looks like this:

pgsql2shp -f my_data -h localhost -u clhenrick -P 'mypassword' my_db "SELECT * FROM my_data "

Using ogr2ogr

Note: You may need to set the GDAL_DATA path if you git this error:

ERROR 4: Unable to open EPSG support file gcs.csv.
Try setting the GDAL_DATA environment variable to point to the
directory containing EPSG csv files.

If on Linux / Mac OS do this: export GDAL_DATA=/usr/local/share/gdal
If on Windows do this: C:\> set GDAL_DATA=C:\GDAL\data

To Export Data
Use ogr2ogr as follows to export a table (in this case a table called dob_jobs_2014) to a GeoJSON file (in this case a file called dob_jobs_2014_geocoded.geojson):

ogr2ogr -f GeoJSON -t_srs EPSG:4326 dob_jobs_2014_geocoded.geojson \
PG:"host='localhost' dbname='dob_jobs' user='chrislhenrick' password='' port='5432'" \
-sql "SELECT bbl, house, streetname, borough, jobtype, jobstatus, existheight, proposedheight, \
existoccupancy, proposedoccupany, horizontalenlrgmt, verticalenlrgmt, ownerbusinessname, \
ownerhousestreet, ownercitystatezip, ownerphone, jobdescription, geom \
FROM dob_jobs_2014 WHERE geom IS NOT NULL"
  • note: you must select the column containing the geometry (usually geom or wkb_geometry) for your exported layer to have geometry data.

Other Methods of Interacting With Postgres/PostGIS

to do...



Node JS

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