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Git Cheat Sheet

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Commands

Getting Started

git init

or

git clone url

Configuration

git config --global color.ui true
git config --global push.default current
git config --global core.editor vim
git config --global user.name "John Doe"
git config --global user.email foo@citrix.com
git config --global diff.tool meld

Working with Local Branch

Branching

# See the list of all local branches
git branch

# Switch to existing local branch
git checkout branchname

# Checkout current branch into a new branch, named new-branch-name
git checkout -b new-branch-name

# Merge branch-name into the current branch
git merge branchname

# Merge branch without fast forwarding. This is what pull requests do.
# It helps to preserve history of the changes as relavant to that branch
# It's an advanced feature, but try it out with GUI to see the difference
# between the regular merge and merge --no-ff
git merge --no-ff branchname

# Soft branch delete, will complain if the branch is not merged
git branch -d branchname

# Hard branch delete, will not complain about nothing. Like rm -rf in bash
git branch -D branchname

Updating Current Branch

Standard Flow

# See all commits
git log

# Pretty commit view, you can customize it as much as you want. 
# Just google it :)
git log --pretty=format:"%h %s" --graph

# See what you worked on in the past week
git log --author='Alex' --after={1.week.ago} --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit

# See only changes made on this branch (assuming it was branched form master branch)
git log --no-merges master..

# See status of your current git branch. 
# Often will have advice on command that you need to run
git status

# Short view of status. Helpful for seeing things at a glance
git status -s

# Add modified file to be commited(aka stage the file)
git add filename

# Add all modified files to be commited(aka stage all files)
git add .

# Add only text files, etc.
git add '*.txt'

# Tell git not to track file anymore
git rm filename

# Record changes to git. Default editor will open for a commit message.
# (Visible via git log)
# Once files are commited, they are history.
git commit 

# A short hand for commiting files and writing a commit message via one command
git commit -m 'Some commit message'

# Changing the history :) If you want to change your previous commit, 
# you can, if you haven't pushed it yet to a remote repo
# Simply make new changes, add them via git add, and run the following command. 
# Past commit will be ammended.
git commit --amend

Advanced

# Unstage pending changes, the changes will still remain on file system
git reset

# Unstage pending changes, and reset files to pre-commit state. If 
git reset --hard HEAD

# Go back to some time in history, on the current branch
git reset tag
git reset <commit-hash>

# Save current changes, without having to commit them to repo
git stash

# And later return those changes
git stash pop

# Return file to it's previous version, if it hasn’t been staged yet.
# Otherwise use git reset filename or git reset --hard filename
git checkout filename 

Comparing changes

# See current changes, that have not been staged yet. 
# Good thing to check before running git add
git diff

# See current changes, that have not been commited yet (including staged changes)
git diff HEAD

# Compare current branch to some other branch
git diff branch-name

# Same as diff, but opens changes via difftool that you have configured
# -d tells it to open it in a directory mode, instead of having to open
# each file one at a time.
git difftool -d

# See only changes made in the current branch (compared to master branch)
# Helpful when working on a stand alone branch for a while
git difftool -d master..

# See only the file names that has changed in current branch
git diff --no-commit-id --name-only --no-merges origin/master...

# Similar to above, but see statistics on what files have changed and how
git diff --stat #Your diff condition

Working with Remote Branch

# See list of remote repos available. If you did git clone, 
# you'll have at least one named "origin"
git remote

# Detailed view of remote repos, with their git urls
git remote -v

# Add a new remote. I.e. origin if it is not set
git remote add origin <https://some-git-remote-url>

# Push current branch to remote branch (usually with the same name) 
# called upstream branch
git push

# If a remote branch is not set up as an upstream, you can make it so
# The -u tells Git to remember the parameters
git push -u origin master 

# Otherwise you can manually specify remote and branch to use every time
git push origin branchname

# Just like pushing, you can get the latest updates from remote. 
# By defaul Git will try to pull from "origin" and upstream branch
git pull

# Or you can tell git to pull a specific branch
git pull origin branchname

# Git pull, is actually a short hand for two command.
# Telling git to first fetch changes from a remote branch
# And then to merge them into current branch
git fetch && git merge origin/remote-branch-name

# If you want to update history of remote branches, you can fetch and purge
git fetch -p

# To see the list of remote branches
# -a stands for all
git branch -a 

Resources

Reference

Viewing History

Merge/Diff Tools

git commit --amend also takes --no-edit as argument in case you don't want to change the commit message (prevents the editor popping up - similar to git commit -mmy message`)

This is very helpful. In addition, I use the following commands regularly.

Rebasing to avoiding merge.

  • If there are changes made on remote branch that you want to pull, you can avoid merging them, by rebasing your commits on top of the them.
    git pull --rebase
  • If conflicts arise during the rebase, resolve them manually, stage the modified files and continue the rebase.
    git add .
    git rebase --continue
  • If at any point, you want to abort the rebasing, you can run.
    git rebase --abort

rakmial commented Dec 14, 2016 edited

When all else fails,

man git

#RTFM

Fzzr commented Dec 14, 2016

This comment seems to have been cut off:
# Unstage pending changes, and reset files to pre-commit state. If
git reset --hard HEAD

Interactively review the files you're staging

git add -p
  • -p, --patch
    Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and the work
    tree and add them to the index. This gives the user a chance to
    review the difference before adding modified contents to the index.

rsmets commented Dec 14, 2016

@danodonovan +1
the --patch or -p also works with stash
git stash -p

0x1997 commented Dec 15, 2016

@rsmets There are also git checkout -p and git reset -p

Wribbe commented Dec 15, 2016

"--no--ff" should be "--no-ff" in the first section.

Would be cool to have the options for rebasing git fetch --all & git rebase -i origin/sourcebranchname

h0h0h0 commented Dec 15, 2016

Thanks for this!

iphyer commented Dec 15, 2016

Is there some PDF version? It is better to have a pdf version on you desk so you may check if you want. Anyway, this is really great!

jonasbn commented Jan 2, 2017

@akras14 there is a spelling error in the resources, "lernGitBranching" should read "learnGitBranching"

mohadib commented Apr 12, 2017

Thanks

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