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Comparing Nystroem and Fourier feature based kernel approximation on MNIST
# Standard scientific Python imports
import pylab as pl
import numpy as np
from time import time
# Import datasets, classifiers and performance metrics
from sklearn import datasets, svm, pipeline
from sklearn.kernel_approximation import (RBFSampler,
from sklearn.utils import shuffle
# The digits dataset
digits = datasets.fetch_mldata("MNIST original")
# To apply an classifier on this data, we need to flatten the image, to
# turn the data in a (samples, feature) matrix:
n_samples = len(
data = / 255.
data, target = shuffle(data,
data_train, targets_train = data[:20000], target[:20000]
data_test, targets_test = data[60000:], target[60000:]
# Create a classifier: a support vector classifier
kernel_svm = svm.SVC(gamma=.031, C=100)
linear_svm = svm.LinearSVC(C=100)
# create pipeline from kernel approximation
# and linear svm
feature_map_fourier = RBFSampler(gamma=.031, random_state=1)
feature_map_nystroem = Nystroem(gamma=.031, random_state=1)
fourier_approx_svm = pipeline.Pipeline([("feature_map", feature_map_fourier),
("svm", svm.LinearSVC(C=100))])
nystroem_approx_svm = pipeline.Pipeline([("feature_map", feature_map_nystroem),
("svm", svm.LinearSVC(C=100))])
# fit and predict using linear and kernel svm:
kernel_svm_time = time(), targets_train)
kernel_svm_score = kernel_svm.score(data_test, targets_test)
kernel_svm_time = time() - kernel_svm_time
linear_svm_time = time(), targets_train)
linear_svm_score = linear_svm.score(data_test, targets_test)
linear_svm_time = time() - linear_svm_time
sample_sizes = 200 * np.arange(1, 10)
fourier_scores = []
nystroem_scores = []
fourier_times = []
nystroem_times = []
for D in sample_sizes:
start = time(), targets_train)
nystroem_times.append(time() - start)
start = time(), targets_train)
fourier_times.append(time() - start)
fourier_score = fourier_approx_svm.score(data_test, targets_test)
nystroem_score = nystroem_approx_svm.score(data_test, targets_test)
# plot the results:
pl.figure(figsize=(8, 8))
accuracy = pl.subplot(211)
# second y axis for timeings
timescale = pl.subplot(212)
accuracy.plot(sample_sizes, nystroem_scores, label="Nystroem approx. kernel")
timescale.plot(sample_sizes, nystroem_times, '--',
label='Nystroem approx. kernel')
accuracy.plot(sample_sizes, fourier_scores, label="Fourier approx. kernel")
timescale.plot(sample_sizes, fourier_times, '--',
label='Fourier approx. kernel')
# horizontal lines for exact rbf and linear kernels:
accuracy.plot([sample_sizes[0], sample_sizes[-1]],
[linear_svm_score, linear_svm_score],
label="linear svm")
timescale.plot([sample_sizes[0], sample_sizes[-1]],
[linear_svm_time, linear_svm_time], '--',
label='linear svm')
accuracy.plot([sample_sizes[0], sample_sizes[-1]],
[kernel_svm_score, kernel_svm_score],
label="rbf svm")
timescale.plot([sample_sizes[0], sample_sizes[-1]],
[kernel_svm_time, kernel_svm_time], '--',
label='rbf svm')
# vertical line for dataset dimensionality = 64
accuracy.plot([64, 64], [0.7, 1], label="n_features")
# legends and labels
accuracy.set_title("Classification accuracy")
timescale.set_title("Training times")
accuracy.set_xlim(sample_sizes[0], sample_sizes[-1])
accuracy.set_ylim(np.min(fourier_scores), 1)
timescale.set_xlabel("Sampling steps = transformed feature dimension")
accuracy.set_ylabel("Classification accuracy")
timescale.set_ylabel("Training time in seconds")
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KrishnaAnanthi commented Feb 3, 2014

hi...can u tell me the input file format and training set for tthis programm??? do u hav any other program for svm classifier using python...

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