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anonymous /gist:1253064
Created Sep 30, 2011

GHC alias analysis
// Originally based on PyAliasAnalysis from the unladen-swallow project!
#include "llvm/ADT/APInt.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/DenseMap.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/SmallPtrSet.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/AliasAnalysis.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/ScalarEvolution.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/ScalarEvolutionExpressions.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/Passes.h"
#include "llvm/Argument.h"
#include "llvm/Constants.h"
#include "llvm/CallingConv.h"
#include "llvm/DerivedTypes.h"
#include "llvm/Function.h"
#include "llvm/GlobalVariable.h"
#include "llvm/Module.h"
#include "llvm/Support/ConstantRange.h"
#include "llvm/Support/GetElementPtrTypeIterator.h"
#include "llvm/Support/InstIterator.h"
#include "llvm/Target/TargetData.h"
#include <set>
#include "llvm/Assembly/Writer.h"
#include "llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h"
using namespace llvm;
namespace {
// This AliasAnalysis pass captures GHC-specific knowledge about aliasing:
// For functions using the GHC calling convention, we know that the second
// argument (%Sp_Arg) doesn't alias any pointers. This is important because
// arguments are passed on the stack, and it *really* pessimises things if
// writes to e.g. arrays prevent us from forwarding earlier loads from the
// stack to later ones.
class GHCAliasAnalysis : public FunctionPass, public AliasAnalysis {
static char ID;
GHCAliasAnalysis() : FunctionPass(ID) { }
ScalarEvolution *scev_;
const Argument *sp_arg_;
virtual void getAnalysisUsage(AnalysisUsage &usage) const {
// Used to canonicalize a value into an underlying
// pointer and an offset, if possible.
virtual bool runOnFunction(Function&);
virtual AliasResult alias(const Location &L1, const Location &L2);
virtual void *getAdjustedAnalysisPointer(const void *PI) {
if (PI == &AliasAnalysis::ID)
return (AliasAnalysis*)this;
return this;
} // End of anonymous namespace
// The address of this variable identifies the pass
char GHCAliasAnalysis::ID = 0;
// Ensure our pass can be used from "opt"
static RegisterPass<GHCAliasAnalysis> P("ghc-aa", "GHC-specific Alias Analysis");
static RegisterAnalysisGroup<AliasAnalysis> G(P);
SomeOperandIsSPPointer(std::set<const Value*> &SpPointers, const Instruction *I) {
for (User::const_op_iterator OI = I->op_begin(), OE = I->op_end(); OI != OE; ++OI) {
if (SpPointers.find(OI->get()) != SpPointers.end()) {
return true;
return false;
SPEscapes(Function &F, const Argument *sp_arg) {
// We monotonically accumulate the set of values that hold a pointer based on Sp
// INVARIANT: an Instruction in the work list never defines a Value that is already in SpPointers
std::set<const Value*> SpPointers;
// Initialize the worklist to all of the instructions using the Sp
std::set<const Instruction*> WorkList;
for (Value::const_use_iterator UI = sp_arg->use_begin(), UE = sp_arg->use_end(); UI != UE; ++UI)
while (!WorkList.empty()) {
// Get an element from the worklist
const Instruction *I = *WorkList.begin();
// Switch on the kind of instruction to decide whether this instruction should add to SpPointers
// NB: it is safe to say "load" never adds to SpPointers, since we terminate the
// fixed point process immediately if we ever detect that a SpPointer escapes.
// NB: The only calls we see in GHC-generated code will be unsafe foreign calls
// or tail calls. In either case we can safely assume no escape.
if (const StoreInst *SI = dyn_cast<StoreInst>(I)) {
// Check for escape:
if (SpPointers.find(SI->getValueOperand()) != SpPointers.end()) {
return true;
#if 0
} else if (AtomicCmpXchgInst *ACXI = dyn_cast<AtomicCmpXchgInst>(I)) {
// Check for escape:
if (SpPointers.find(ACXI->getNewValOperand()) != SpPointers.end()) {
return true;
} else if (AtomicRMWInst *ARMWI = dyn_cast<AtomicRMWInst>(I)) {
// Check for escape:
if (SpPointers.find(ARMWI->getValOperand()) != SpPointers.end()) {
return true;
} else if (const GetElementPtrInst *GEPI = dyn_cast<GetElementPtrInst>(I)) {
if (SpPointers.find(GEPI->getPointerOperand()) == SpPointers.end()) {
} else if (const SelectInst *SI = dyn_cast<SelectInst>(I)) {
if ((SpPointers.find(SI->getTrueValue()) == SpPointers.end()) &&
(SpPointers.find(SI->getFalseValue()) == SpPointers.end())) {
} else if (isa<PHINode>(I)) {
if (!SomeOperandIsSPPointer(SpPointers, I)) continue;
} else if (isa<BinaryOperator>(I)) {
if (!SomeOperandIsSPPointer(SpPointers, I)) continue;
} else if (isa<CastInst>(I)) {
if (!SomeOperandIsSPPointer(SpPointers, I)) continue;
} else {
// Assume all other instructions do not define new SpPointers or avenues for escape.
// We fall through to here if this instruction defines a new SpPointer:
// add all the use sites to the work list.
for (Value::const_use_iterator UI = I->use_begin(), UE = I->use_end(); UI != UE; ++UI) {
// There is nothing more to do if we have already decided that this defines a SpPointer
if (SpPointers.find(*UI) == SpPointers.end()) {
return false;
GHCAliasAnalysis::runOnFunction(Function &F) {
this->scev_ = &getAnalysis<ScalarEvolution>();
//errs() << "GHC Alias Analysis:\t";
// Find the Sp argument to the function, if it is a GHC-convention function
this->sp_arg_ = NULL;
if (F.getCallingConv() == CallingConv::GHC) {
const Function::ArgumentListType &args = F.getArgumentList();
int ix = 0;
Function::ArgumentListType::const_iterator it;
for (it = args.begin(); it != args.end(); ix++, it++) {
if (ix == 1) {
this->sp_arg_ = &*it;
//errs() << "Argument found!\n";
//WriteAsOperand(errs(), it, true);
//errs() << "\n";
// Check safety: if we had code like:
// %SpRef = alloca 8
// store %SpRef, %Sp
// Then it would not be safe to assume that %Sp does not alias with any
// other non-%Sp pointer, because (load %SpRef) would not be based on %Sp
// but would be an alias.
// Worse, this is exactly the sort of code that we get out of the LLVM backend!
// Luckily, this crap is always removed quickly by LLVMs standard passes with
// standard alias analysis. So we just need to check that we have no code like
// this and we will be able to use our optimistic assumptions about %Sp aliasing.
if ((this->sp_arg_ != NULL) && SPEscapes(F, this->sp_arg_)) {
errs() << "SP escapes!\n";
this->sp_arg_ = NULL;
} else {
//errs() << "Not a GHC function!\n";
return false;
// Copied and adapted from ScalarEvolutionAliasAnalysis.
const Argument*
GetUnderlyingArgumentSCEV(const SCEV *S) {
if (const SCEVAddRecExpr *AR = dyn_cast<SCEVAddRecExpr>(S)) {
// In an addrec, assume that the base will be in the start, rather
// than the step.
return GetUnderlyingArgumentSCEV(AR->getStart());
} else if (const SCEVAddExpr *A = dyn_cast<SCEVAddExpr>(S)) {
// If there's a pointer operand, it'll be sorted at the end of the list.
const SCEV *Last = A->getOperand(A->getNumOperands()-1);
if (isa<PointerType>(Last->getType()))
return GetUnderlyingArgumentSCEV(Last);
} else if (const SCEVUnknown *U = dyn_cast<SCEVUnknown>(S)) {
// Determine if we've found a Argument.
if (const Argument *A = dyn_cast<Argument>(U->getValue()))
return A;
// No Argument found.
return NULL;
GHCAliasAnalysis::alias(const Location &L1, const Location &L2) {
// Only do this check for functions using the GHC calling convention
if (this->sp_arg_) {
const Argument *A1 = GetUnderlyingArgumentSCEV(this->scev_->getSCEV(const_cast<Value*>(L1.Ptr)));
const Argument *A2 = GetUnderlyingArgumentSCEV(this->scev_->getSCEV(const_cast<Value*>(L2.Ptr)));
errs() << "Underlying arguments: ";
if (A1) WriteAsOperand(errs(), A1, true);
errs() << ", ";
if (A2) WriteAsOperand(errs(), A2, true);
errs() << "\n";
// This check may appear way too optimistic! The reason that it is safe is because we already checked
// that the SP does not escape (locally) into any memory locations.
if (!(A1 == this->sp_arg_ && A2 == this->sp_arg_) &&
(A1 == this->sp_arg_ || A2 == this->sp_arg_))
return NoAlias;
return AliasAnalysis::alias(L1, L2);
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