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anonymous /
Created Jul 30, 2012

Module for the finalization of weakrefable objects
Module for the finalization of weakrefable objects
finalize(obj, func, *args, **kwds) creates a callable finalizer object
for obj which can be called explicitly, or automatically when obj is
garbage collected. For example
>>> class Kenny: pass
>>> kenny = Kenny()
>>> finalize(kenny, print, "you killed kenny!")
<finalize.finalize object at 0xffed4f2c>
>>> del kenny
you killed kenny!
Calling the finalizer for the first time will invoke
func(*args, **kwds) and return the result. Calling it a second
time has no effect and simply returns None.
>>> def callback():
... print("CALLBACK")
... return 123
>>> kenny = Kenny()
>>> f = finalize(kenny, callback)
>>> assert f() is 123
>>> f() # no effect because finalizer already called
>>> del kenny # no effect because finalizer already called
At program shutdown, any remaining finalizers for which the atexit
attribute is true will be called in reverse order of creation. By
default the atexit attribute is false.
>>> kenny1 = Kenny()
>>> f1 = finalize(kenny1, print, "kenny1")
>>> kenny2 = Kenny()
>>> f2 = finalize(kenny2, print, "kenny2")
>>> f2.atexit = True # ensure callback invoked before exiting
>>> exit()
No finalizer callbacks are ever called after the functions registered
with the atexit module. This avoid problems with invoking callbacks
later on during interpreter shutdown.
import sys
import weakref
import atexit
class finalize(object):
Class for registering a callback to be called at garbage collection
__slots__ = ('atexit', '_sortkey')
_registry = {}
_shutdown = False
_count = 0
def __init__(self, obj, func, *args, **kwds):
self.atexit = False
self._sortkey = finalize._count
finalize._count += 1
if obj is None:
wr = None
wr = weakref.ref(obj, self._make_wrapper())
self._registry[self] = (wr, func, args, kwds)
def __call__(self):
'''Invoke func(*args, **kwds) unless previously invoked'''
tmp = self._registry.pop(self, None)
if tmp and not self._shutdown:
_, func, args, kwds = tmp
return func(*args, **kwds)
def _make_wrapper(self):
'''Return a wrapper for self which can be used as weakref callback'''
def wrapper(wr):
sys.stderr.write('Ignored exception in finalizer - ')
return wrapper
# Print current exception with some frames stripped from traceback
def _print_stripped_exc(stripcount):
t, v, tb = sys.exc_info()
for i in range(stripcount):
if tb is None:
tb = tb.tb_next
if hasattr(v, '__traceback__'):
v.__traceback__ = tb
sys.excepthook(t, v, tb)
# At shutdown invoke finalizers for which atexit is true
def _atexit_callback():
L = [f for f in finalize._registry.keys() if f.atexit]
L.sort(key=lambda f : f._sortkey, reverse=True)
for f in L:
# prevent any more finalizers from executing during shutdown
finalize._shutdown = True
if __name__ == '__main__':
class A:
def foo():
def bar():
L = []
a = A()
finalize(a, L.append, "hello 1")
f2 = finalize(a, L.append, "hello 2")
f3 = finalize(a, L.append, "hello 3")
finalize(a, foo)
f3() # => L.append("hello 3")
f3() # nothing because previously called
print("[[[You should see a traceback for an ignored ZeroDivisionError:]]]")
del a # => print traceback for ZeroDivisionError
# => L.append("hello 2")
# => L.append("hello 1")
f2() # nothing because previously called
assert L == [
'hello 3',
'hello 2',
'hello 1',
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