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Health Assessments, Ch 10, 11, 13, 14
# Chapter 10
## Section 1
1. Good nutrition can help prevent cardiovascular disease, stroke, and osteoporosis.
2. Appetite includes both hunger and other psychological factors.
3. Sadness and frustration cause overeating when not hungry.
4. Advertising can popularize certain foods and enter the subconscious mind and affect food choices.
5. Emily continues to eat the cookies because of the psychological reward of eating them, which can be unhealthy if it causes overeating or an unbalanced diet.
## Section 2
1. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats provide energy to the body.
2. Essential amino acids are required, but not produced, by they body: they instead are taken in from food.
3. Eating calcium-rich foods can help prevent osteoporosis later in life.
4. Trans and saturated fat can cause plaque buildup in arteries.
5. Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables can prevent diseases caused by vitamin deficiency.
## Section 3
1. The five basic food groups are grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, and proteins.
2. High calorie foods that are easy to quickly consume should be limited.
3. Carrots and celery are nutrient-dense foods.
4. Physical activity can help prevent unhealthy weight gain.
5. He should eat a dinner with vegetables, fruits, and milk.
## Section 4
1. "Light" means a food has less fat or sodium, or fewer calories, than the original product.
2. Often times food can be eaten after sell by dates without any risk, as apposed to expiration dates.
3. Food poisoning is another term for a foodborne illness.
4. This instant soup cannot be labeled as "health" because it would exceed the sodium limit.
5. Undercooked eggs can contain bacteria that cause foodborne illnesses.
# Chapter 11
## Section 1
1. Metabolism is the pathways of chemical reactions in which food is broken down into usable energy.
2. BMI is mass divided by the square of weight in kilograms per meter squared.
3. Being obese can increase the risk of heart disease, cancer, and asthma.
4. Building muscle increases resting energy use.
5. Mike's BMI is 26.6, which is above the healthy range.
## Section 2
1. Body image is influenced by peers and the media.
2. Fad diets are weight-loss diets that are popular for a short period of time.
3. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder are three common eating disorders.
4. Poor body image can cause the desire to lose weight quickly and unhealthily.
5. This would be a fad diet because the rate of weight loss is unhealthy and the incentive is to get people to spend money on the product.
## Section 3
1. Dietary supplements are substances that aim to supply nutrients that would not otherwise be consumed in sufficient quantities.
2. Age, gender, and activity level can affect nutritional needs.
3. Athletes should avoid performance enhancers because they are illegal and may pose negative health risks.
4. The athlete may not get enough calories to exercise as much or may become dehydrated.
5. It is probably safe to use as long as the dosage is not more than 100% of the daily value.
# Chapter 13
## Section 1
1. Melanin is a pigment that blocks UV radiation. A hair follicle is a cavity that surrounds and produces the roots of hairs
2. Acne is caused by bacteria in clogged pores and can be treated by washing your face, using over-the-counter treatments, and avoiding oily products.
3. Viruses can enter the bloodstream while getting a tattoo if the needles are not sterile.
4. Nail biting can allow pathogens to enter the finger if the skin is broken.
5. Caring for skin, hair, and nails shows you care about your health and are taking care of your body.
## Section 2
1. Periodontal disease is the bacterial infection of the periodontal structures causing inflammation. Plaque is the buildup of bacteria and particulate matter in a film outside of a tooth.
2. The pulp of a tooth is a tissue that surrounds blood vessels and nerves in the center of a tooth.
3. Tooth decay happens when acids secreted by bacteria damage a tooth.
4. These sealants work by preventing acids from reaching the tooth.
5. The root and neck of a tooth are sensitive because they contain nerves.
## Section 3
1. Eyes that have cataracts have foggy vision from a cloudy lens.
2. Astigmatism is blurred vision caused by a misshaped lens or cornea.
3. Earwax and ear hairs protect the ear against dust and other outside objects.
4. Safety goggles should protect against foreign objects, UV rays, and dirty hands.
5. Attending loud concerts or races may require hearing protection.
# Chapter 14
## Section 1
1. The skeletal system provides structural support for other systems.
2. Bones form when cartilage hardens in the process of ossification.
3. You can avoid injury to your bones and joints by getting proper nutrition, having good posture, and taking safety precautions while doing a sport.
4. Lactose intolerant people can take calcium supplements to meet their calcium needs.
5. Damage to bones as a teen can worsen over time and be problematic later in life.
## Section 2
1. The muscular system enables movement, respiration, and circulation of blood.
2. Smooth muscle is found in the digestive tract, bladder, and lining of blood vessels.
3. A hernia is when a tissue protrudes through a muscle and may be caused by improperly lifting a heavy object.
4. The biceps, abductor muscles, and adductor muscles are important for playing baseball. These can be protected by not overexerting them.
5. Muscle strains can be prevented by starting with low intensity, then increasing intensity.
## Section 3
1. The nucleus of a neuron is in the cell body.
2. A reflex can prevent injury by quickly and involuntarily making a movement.
3. Brain damage at birth, head injury, and infections can cause nervous diseases or disorders.
4. The right side of the hypothalamus was probably damaged.
5. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary functions, while the somatic nervous system controls voluntary responses.
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