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Arduino input capture example
Timer 1 high-resolution timing facility.
Copyright (C) 2008-2012 Bill Roy
This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
Lesser General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
#include "Arduino.h"
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
analog threshold-based tick timer
set comparator to use internal reference
// rising/falling edge tracking
// per '168 data sheet page 121, must clear ICF1 after edge direction change
volatile uint8_t rising;
//#define catchRisingEdge() (TCCR1B |= (1<<ICES1); TIFR1 |= (1<<ICF1); rising = 1;);
//#define catchFallingEdge() (TCCR1B &= ~(1<<ICES1); TIFR1 |= (1<<ICF1); rising = 0;);
// Event queue
#define MAX_EVENT_BUFF 32
unsigned long long last_event;
volatile byte event_buffer_head;
byte event_buffer_tail;
unsigned long long event_buffer[MAX_EVENT_BUFF];
unsigned long long eventRead(void) {
unsigned long long event;
if (event_buffer_tail == event_buffer_head) {
Serial.println("Event buffer underrun");
return -1;
event = event_buffer[event_buffer_tail] - last_event;
last_event = event_buffer[event_buffer_tail];
byte oldsreg = SREG;
if (++event_buffer_tail >= MAX_EVENT_BUFF) event_buffer_tail = 0;
SREG = oldsreg;
return event;
byte eventAvailable(void) {
byte head;
byte oldsreg = SREG;
head = event_buffer_head;
SREG = oldsreg;
return event_buffer_tail != head;
// Our virtual timer counts 2^64 clocks (provided sizeof(unsigned long long) == 8)
// The low order 16 bits are maintained by timer1 and are snapshotted by the
// TIMER1_CAPT input capture interrupt below.
// We maintain the high order 48 bits here by incrementing the virtual timer.
volatile unsigned long long t1_virtual_count;
ISR(TIMER1_OVF_vect) {
t1_virtual_count += 0x10000ULL;
unsigned long lost_event_count;
// Interrupt capture handler
byte l = ICR1L; // grab captured timer value
byte h = ICR1H;
// watch for the other edge to catch the half-pulse width
//rising ? catchFallingEdge() : catchRisingEdge();
if (rising) { TCCR1B &= ~(1<<ICES1); TIFR1 |= (1<<ICF1); rising = 0; }
else {TCCR1B |= (1<<ICES1); TIFR1 |= (1<<ICF1); rising = 1;}
// push the timestamp into the buffer
byte newhead = event_buffer_head + 1;
if (newhead >= MAX_EVENT_BUFF) newhead = 0;
if (newhead != event_buffer_tail) {
event_buffer[event_buffer_head] = t1_virtual_count + (h << 8) + l;
event_buffer_head = newhead;
else ++lost_event_count;
void printEvent(unsigned long long n, unsigned long base) {
char buf[32]; // stack for the digits
char *ptr = buf;
if (n == 0ULL) {
while (n > 0) {
*ptr++ = n % base;
n /= base;
while (--ptr >= buf) Serial.write((*ptr < 10) ? (*ptr + '0') : (*ptr - 10 + 'A'));
void initTimer(void) {
// Input Capture setup
// ICNC1: Enable Input Capture Noise Canceler
// ICES1: =1 for trigger on rising edge
// CS10: =1 set prescaler to 1x system clock (F_CPU)
TCCR1A = 0;
TCCR1B = (0<<ICNC1) | (0<<ICES1) | (1<<CS10);
TCCR1C = 0;
//catchFallingEdge(); // initialize to catch
{ TCCR1B &= ~(1<<ICES1); TIFR1 |= (1<<ICF1); rising = 0; }
// Interrupt setup
// ICIE1: Input capture
// TOIE1: Timer1 overflow
TIFR1 = (1<<ICF1) | (1<<TOV1); // clear pending
TIMSK1 = (1<<ICIE1) | (1<<TOIE1); // and enable
// Set up the Input Capture pin, ICP1, which corresponds to Arduino D8
pinMode(8, INPUT);
digitalWrite(8, 0); // leave floating to count 60 Hz etc.
//digitalWrite(8, 1); // or enable the pullup
void setup(void) {
pinMode(13, OUTPUT);
// Power up the light sensor
//pinMode(9, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(9, 0);
//pinMode(10, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(10, 1);
long count, sumt, bogon_count;
unsigned long updatetime;
void loop60hz(void) {
long t;
long dt;
while (eventAvailable()) {
t = (long) eventRead();
dt = t - (F_CPU/60);
if (abs(dt) < 2000L) {
count = count + 1;
sumt += dt;
else ++bogon_count;
if (millis() > updatetime) {
Serial.print("t="); Serial.print(t);
//Serial.print(" dt="); Serial.print(dt);
Serial.print(" sdt="); Serial.print(sumt);
Serial.print(" n="); Serial.print(count);
Serial.print(" a="); Serial.print(sumt/count);
Serial.print(" e="); Serial.print(lost_event_count);
Serial.print(" b="); Serial.print(bogon_count);
updatetime = millis() + 1000L;
Serial.print(" "); Serial.print(dt);
void loop(void) {
while (eventAvailable()) {
Serial.print(count++); Serial.write(':');
printEvent(eventRead(), 10); Serial.write(' '); Serial.println(lost_event_count);

mpflaga commented Dec 29, 2012

Nice. If I read it correctly it nicely implements the ICT and supporting concepts of overrun and with buffering for the main loop in a Arduino way of Available().
A macro description would be insightful. I think it is printing the time stamps the ICT received into a 32 deep storage buffer?
And not sure where the loop60Hz is used. Seems like it would be used to dump stats every 1/60 of a second.

I am trying to use it on a IR remote control. bumped up the buffer and added some delays as remove the lost events. however there appears to be a (likely) signed problem. as there are occasional irrationally large values. A logic scope and toggle of LED13 shows its not skipping.

mpflaga commented Dec 29, 2012

I have fixed the problem in my fork.
The (h << 8) carries the sign of the shift in to the equation. I have used a union here to cleanly present the values as there component bytes and no need to shift bits.

Hope this helps. I suspect I will incorporate this into a few projects. perhaps merge it with

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