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Angular Commit Format Reference Sheet

Commit Message Format

This specification is inspired by and supersedes the [AngularJS commit message format][commit-message-format].

We have very precise rules over how our Git commit messages must be formatted. This format leads to easier to read commit history.

Each commit message consists of a header, a body, and a footer.


The header is mandatory and must conform to the Commit Message Header format.

The body is mandatory for all commits except for those of type "docs". When the body is present it must be at least 20 characters long and must conform to the Commit Message Body format.

The footer is optional. The Commit Message Footer format describes what the footer is used for and the structure it must have.

Commit Message Header

<type>(<scope>): <short summary>
  │       │             │
  │       │             └─⫸ Summary in present tense. Not capitalized. No period at the end.
  │       │
  │       └─⫸ Commit Scope: animations|bazel|benchpress|common|compiler|compiler-cli|core|
  │                          elements|forms|http|language-service|localize|platform-browser|
  │                          platform-browser-dynamic|platform-server|router|service-worker|
  │                          upgrade|zone.js|packaging|changelog|docs-infra|migrations|ngcc|ve|
  │                          devtools
  └─⫸ Commit Type: build|ci|docs|feat|fix|perf|refactor|test

The <type> and <summary> fields are mandatory, the (<scope>) field is optional.


Must be one of the following:

  • build: Changes that affect the build system or external dependencies (example scopes: gulp, broccoli, npm)
  • ci: Changes to our CI configuration files and scripts (examples: CircleCi, SauceLabs)
  • docs: Documentation only changes
  • feat: A new feature
  • fix: A bug fix
  • perf: A code change that improves performance
  • refactor: A code change that neither fixes a bug nor adds a feature
  • test: Adding missing tests or correcting existing tests

The scope should be the name of the npm package affected (as perceived by the person reading the changelog generated from commit messages).

The following is the list of supported scopes:

  • animations
  • bazel
  • benchpress
  • common
  • compiler
  • compiler-cli
  • core
  • elements
  • forms
  • http
  • language-service
  • localize
  • platform-browser
  • platform-browser-dynamic
  • platform-server
  • router
  • service-worker
  • upgrade
  • zone.js

There are currently a few exceptions to the "use package name" rule:

  • packaging: used for changes that change the npm package layout in all of our packages, e.g. public path changes, package.json changes done to all packages, d.ts file/format changes, changes to bundles, etc.

  • changelog: used for updating the release notes in

  • dev-infra: used for dev-infra related changes within the directories /scripts and /tools

  • docs-infra: used for docs-app ( related changes within the /aio directory of the repo

  • migrations: used for changes to the ng update migrations.

  • ngcc: used for changes to the Angular Compatibility Compiler

  • ve: used for changes specific to ViewEngine (legacy compiler/renderer).

  • devtools: used for changes in the browser extension.

  • none/empty string: useful for test and refactor changes that are done across all packages (e.g. test: add missing unit tests) and for docs changes that are not related to a specific package (e.g. docs: fix typo in tutorial).


Use the summary field to provide a succinct description of the change:

  • use the imperative, present tense: "change" not "changed" nor "changes"
  • don't capitalize the first letter
  • no dot (.) at the end

Commit Message Body

Just as in the summary, use the imperative, present tense: "fix" not "fixed" nor "fixes".

Explain the motivation for the change in the commit message body. This commit message should explain why you are making the change. You can include a comparison of the previous behavior with the new behavior in order to illustrate the impact of the change.

Commit Message Footer

The footer can contain information about breaking changes and deprecations and is also the place to reference GitHub issues, Jira tickets, and other PRs that this commit closes or is related to. For example:

BREAKING CHANGE: <breaking change summary>
<breaking change description + migration instructions>
Fixes #<issue number>


DEPRECATED: <what is deprecated>
<deprecation description + recommended update path>
Closes #<pr number>

Breaking Change section should start with the phrase "BREAKING CHANGE: " followed by a summary of the breaking change, a blank line, and a detailed description of the breaking change that also includes migration instructions.

Similarly, a Deprecation section should start with "DEPRECATED: " followed by a short description of what is deprecated, a blank line, and a detailed description of the deprecation that also mentions the recommended update path.

Revert commits

If the commit reverts a previous commit, it should begin with revert: , followed by the header of the reverted commit.

The content of the commit message body should contain:

  • information about the SHA of the commit being reverted in the following format: This reverts commit <SHA>,
  • a clear description of the reason for reverting the commit message.
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demisx commented Sep 25, 2019

The chore type is no longer on their type list. It's been replaced by build and ci types.

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fangxlmr commented Dec 6, 2019

The chore type is no longer on their type list. It's been replaced by build and ci types.

Yeah. Which makes it more reasonalbe.

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Thanks for that; updated!

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What does CI mean?

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What does CI mean?

I think Continuous Integration in this context.

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boy51 commented Jul 5, 2021

How is one supposed to format breaking changes? I tend to want to do it like this

fix(thing): bla bla

- something
- something you wouldn't expect
- damn

But that seems to be wrong as its in my release the formatting is off. Bulletpoints in breaking changes body are not cool?

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Hello, how to separate a line between the head and the body and the Footer?

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Can I have two fixes in one commit?

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Conaclos commented Jul 21, 2022


Can I have two fixes in one commit?


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Conaclos commented Jul 21, 2022


Hello, how to separate a line between the head and the body and the Footer?

I am not sure to understand your question.

I have the following interpretation of the convention:

  • The head always consists in a single line.
  • A blank line separates the head from the body.
  • The body may include blank lines.
  • A blank line separates the body from the footer.
  • The footer starts when you encounter a special token such as BREAKING CHANGE:, Fixes #1, ...
  • According to the encountered token, a footer may contain blank lines (this is the case for BREAKING CHANGE:)
  • You can add several footers

For instance :

head     | feat(js-compiler): parse arrow functions
body     | JS allows a shorthand syntax to define a function.
         | e.g.
         |    const f = (x) => x + 1
footer 1 | BREAKING CHANGE: example
         | description...
footer 2 | Fixes #1
footer 3 | Fixes #2

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What does CI mean?

Continuous Integration

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