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A Rust Syntax Guide

% A Guide to Rust Syntax

A very brief guide to Rust syntax. It assumes you are already familiar with programming concepts.

Assert macro

The assert! macro ends the program if the condition passed to it is not true:

fn main() {
  println("This is never printed.");

Normally used in testing blocks.

Conditional Statements

Conditions structures use the if keyword, and can have optional else structures which can be chained together. The condition must be of type bool (there is no implicit conversion), and is not wrapped in parentheses.

if false {
    println!("that's odd");
} else if true {
} else {
    println!("neither true nor false");

If the if/else/else if arms are blocks that have a value, this value must be of the same type for every arm in which control reaches the end of the block:

fn signum(x: int) -> int {
    if x < 0 { -1 }
    else if x > 0 { 1 }
    else { 0 }

Read the Rust reference to If expressions.


Enumerations are datatypes with several alternate representations. A simple enum defines one or more constants, all of which have the same type:

enum Direction {

Each variant of this enum has a unique and constant integral discriminator value. If no explicit discriminator is specified for a variant, the value defaults to the value of the previous variant plus one. If the first variant does not have a discriminator, it defaults to 0. For example, the value of North is 0, East is 1, South is 2, and West is 3.

When an enum has simple integer discriminators, you can apply the as cast operator to convert a variant to its discriminator value as an int:

println!( "{:?} => {}", North, North as int );

It is possible to set the discriminator values to chosen constant values:

enum Color {
  Red = 0xff0000,
  Green = 0x00ff00,
  Blue = 0x0000ff

The Rust reference to enumerations.

External crate declarations

An extern crate declaration specifies a dependency on an external library (or crate in Rust terms). The dependency is resolved at compile time.

extern crate std; // equivalent to: extern crate std = "std";

extern crate ruststd = "std"; // linking to 'std' under another name

More examples of extern crate and a list of available libraries.


Functions in Rust are introduced with the fn keyword, optional arguments are specified within parenthesis as comma separated name: type pairs, and -> indicates the return type. You can ommit the return type for functions that do not return a value. Functions return the top level expression (note the return expression is not terminated with a semi colon).

fn increment(i:int) -> (int) {
    // Returns i+1
    i + 1

fn main() {
    let i = 7;

    let k = increment(i); // k=8

The Rust reference to functions.


Looping over code is familiar to every programmer, in Rust this is achieved with the loop and while structures, the bodies of loop structures must be wrapped in braces, and the control condition of the while and for loops does not need to be wrapped in parentheses.

break exits from loops, and continue exits the current iteration and continues with the next.

The simplest type is loop, which loops forever until a break exits the loop.

fn main() {
    /* A simple loop */
    loop {
        //Loops until a break

For loops

for loops iterate over a range of numbers.

for n in range(0, 5) {
    println!("{}", n);

More information on for loops.

While loops

while loops until a condition is met.

let mut count = 0;

while count < 10 {
    println!("count is {}", count);
    count += 1;

More information on while loops.


Macros are extensions to the core Rust syntax provided by libraries, and are introduced by an indentifier followed by an exclamation mark, as shown by println! in the following hello world example:

fn main() {

Read the guide to writing macros for more information.


Rust's match construct is a generalized, cleaned-up version of C's switch construct. It takes a value and a number of 'arms' of code, each labelled with a pattern. When the value matches the pattern, that arm (only that arm) is executed. Match constructs must match every case, ie if you are not matching an enum you must include a final wildcard (_) 'catchall' arm. You can combine patterns using the pipe symbol (|), and match ranges using (..).

match my_number {
  0     => println!("zero"),
  1 | 2 => println!("one or two"),
  3..10 => { println!("three to ten") }
  _     => { println!("something else") }

The Rust match reference.


Rust's set of operators contains very few surprises. Arithmetic is done with *, /, %, +, and - (multiply, quotient, remainder, add, and subtract). - is also a unary prefix operator that negates numbers.kelAs in C, the bitwise operators >>, <<, &, |, and ^ are also supported.

Note that, if applied to an integer value, ! flips all the bits (bitwise NOT, like ~ in C).

The comparison operators are the traditional ==, !=, <, >, <=, and >=. Short-circuiting (lazy) boolean operators are written && (and) and || (or).

The Rust reference to binary operators.

Primitive types

Rust has the following primive types:

  • Signed integer: int, i8, i16, i32, i64. Specify hexadecimal, octal or binary notation by prefixing with 0x, 0o or 0b.
  • Unsigned integer: uint, u8, u16, 32, i64.
  • Floating point: f32 and f64.
  • char
  • bool: either true or false.
let a = 1;       // `a` is an `int`
let b = 10i;     // `b` is an `int`, due to the `i` suffix
let c = 100u;    // `c` is a `uint`
let d = 1000i32; // `d` is an `i32`

More information on strings and literals.

Print macro

The print! and println! macros are the Rust equivalent of C's printf. They take a string with placeholders ({}) and variables or strings. println! adds a new line to the end of the output.

var w="world";
println("Hello {}", w); 

// {} will print the "default format" of a type
println!("{} is {}", "the answer", 43);

// {:?} will conveniently print any type
println!("what is this thing: {:?}", mystery_object);

Read more information on formating and printing.


Structs are collections of data types, and use a syntax similar to structs in C struct Name { field1: type1, field2: type2, field3: type3 [, ...] }.

struct Point {
    x: f64,
    y: f64

let mypoint = Point {x: 1.0, y: 2.0};

/Access individual fields using the dot operator.
println! (mypoint.x); 

All fields of a struct are mutable if the struct itself is mutable.

The Rust reference to structs.

Switch statements

The closest equivalent to C's switch construct is Rust's match construct.


To test your Rust code without increasing the size of the compiled program, use the #[test] attribute.

fn main() {

fn testing_something() {

Run tests using rustc --test and compile your program without the test code using rustc More information on testing.


A trait describes a set of method types, and may include default implementations of methods, written in terms of some unknown self type.


Tuples in Rust behave exactly like structs, except that their fields do not have names. Thus, you cannot access their fields with dot notation. Tuples can have any arity (number of elements) except for 0 (though you may consider unit, (), as the empty tuple if you like).

let mytup: (int, int, f64) = (10, 20, 30.0);
match mytup {
  (a, b, c) => info!("{}", a + b + (c as int))

The Rust reference to structs.


A use declaration binds names from specified module to a local name, shortening the path required to refer to the module item. It does not declare linkage dependency with external crates.

use std::num::sin;

fn main() {
    // Equivalent to 'std::num::sin(1.0);'

The Rust reference to use declarations also includes binding multiple paths with wildcard or glob syntax.


There are two types of variable in Rust:

  • immutable - the value cannot be changed. Introduced with let.
  • mutable - the value of can be changed. Introduced with let mut.
fn main() {

    let i = 7; // i Cannot be changed 

    let mut j = i +1; // j = 8

    j = 9; // j can be changed

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