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Example of R's S4 classes
## S4 classes for talented people
##
## Code to go along with a blog post about
## object oriented programming in R:
##
## http://digitheadslabnotebook.blogspot.com/2012/09/oo-in-r.html
##
################################################################
# define an S4 class for people
setClass(
"Person",
representation(name = "character", age = "numeric"),
prototype(name = NA_character_, age = NA_real_)
)
# define subclasses for different types of people
setClass("Programmer", representation(language = "character"), contains="Person")
setClass("Musician", representation(instrument = "character"), contains="Person")
# create a generic method called 'talent' that dispatches
# on the type of object it's applied to
setGeneric(
"talent",
function(object) {
standardGeneric("talent")
}
)
setMethod(
"talent",
signature("Programmer"),
function(object) {
paste("Codes in", paste(object@language, collapse=", "))
}
)
setMethod(
"talent",
signature("Musician"),
function(object) {
paste("Plays the", paste(object@instrument, collapse=", "))
}
)
# create some talented people
donald <- new("Programmer",
name="Donald Knuth",
age=74,
language=c("MMIX"))
coltrane <- new("Musician",
name="John Coltrane",
age=40,
instrument=c("Tenor Sax", "Alto Sax"))
miles <- new("Musician",
name="Miles Dewey Davis",
instrument=c("Trumpet"))
monk <- new("Musician",
name="Theloneous Sphere Monk",
instrument=c("Piano"))
talent(coltrane)
# [1] "Plays the Tenor Sax, Alto Sax"
talent(donald)
# [1] "Codes in MMIX"
talent(monk)
# [1] "Plays the Piano"
# There's nothing wrong with plain old functions.
getNameAndTitle <- function(person) {
sprintf("%s, %s", person@name, class(person))
}
getNameAndTitle(miles)
# [1] "Miles Dewey Davis, Musician"
# Let's write a method that changes the state of an object.
# An employee is a person who has a salary and gets a raise
# now and then.
setClass("Employee",
representation(boss = "Person", salary="numeric"),
contains = "Person")
setGeneric(
"raise",
function(object, percent=0) {
standardGeneric("raise")
})
setMethod(
"raise",
signature("Employee"),
function(object, percent=0) {
object@salary <- object@salary * (1+(percent/100))
object
})
smithers <- new("Employee",
name="Waylon Smithers",
boss=new("Person",name="Mr. Burns"),
salary=100)
# Mr. Burns gives Smithers a raise
raise(smithers, percent=15)
# doesn't work?!?!
smithers@salary
# [1] 100
# The raise method returns the new object with the new
# value for salary. Don't forget to capture it.
smithers <- raise(smithers, percent=15)
smithers@salary
# [1] 115000
# multiple inheritance: The humble code monkey is a programmer
# and also an employee
setClass("Code Monkey", contains=c("Programmer","Employee"))
setMethod(
"talent",
signature("Code Monkey"),
function(object) {
paste("Codes in", paste(object@language, collapse=", "), "for", object@boss@name)
}
)
# This is a code monkey
chris <- new("Code Monkey",
name="Chris",
age=29,
boss=new("Person", name="The Man"),
language=c("Java", "R", "Python", "Clojure"),
salary=80000)
talent(chris)
# Bad code code monkey. Take a pay cut!
chris <-raise(chris,percent=-10)
# Some folks consider it poor form to access slots this way,
# preferring to write getter and setter methods instead.
chris@salary
# Multiple dispatch. I'm curious as to what else you can do
# with method dispatch
setGeneric(
"together",
function(person1, person2) {
standardGeneric("together")
})
setMethod(
"together",
signature("Musician", "Musician"),
function(person1, person2) {
sprintf("%s and %s jam together!", person1@name, person2@name)
})
setMethod(
"together",
signature("Musician", "Programmer"),
function(person1, person2) {
sprintf("%s and %s make electronic music!", person1@name, person2@name)
})
setMethod(
"together",
signature("Programmer", "Programmer"),
function(person1, person2) {
sprintf("%s and %s hack some code!", person1@name, person2@name)
})
together(miles, coltrane)
# [1] "Miles Dewey Davis and John Coltrane jam together!"
together(monk, chris)
# [1] "Theloneous Sphere Monk and Chris make electronic music!"
together(donald, chris)
# [1] "Donald Knuth and Chris hack some code!"
# For more on formal classes see:
# S4 Classes in 15 pages, more or less
# How S4 Methods Work by John Chambers
# Hadley Wickham's The S4 object system at https://github.com/hadley/devtools/wiki/S4
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