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/*
* The MIT License (MIT)
*
* Copyright (c) 2016 Pupyshev Nikita
*
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of
* this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in
* the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to
* use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of
* the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so,
* subject to the following conditions:
*
* The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
* copies or substantial portions of the Software.
*
* THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
* IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS
* FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR
* COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER
* IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN
* CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
*/
/*
This is my Psudo-Automatic nvrampatcher mod of the original nvrampathcer git,
I have used it successfully on arm64, armv7 and other devices
it will try and find the kernel magic itirating thru 0x1000 addresses shift,
also prints debug addresses so you know where to look when or if it fails
enjoy @_coreDump
*/
/*
* This file includes code from ios-kern-utils project licensed under the MIT License by Samuel Groß.
* Copyright (c) 2014 Samuel Groß
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <mach/mach_init.h>
#include <mach/mach_error.h>
#include <mach/mach_traps.h>
#include <mach/mach_types.h>
#include <mach/host_priv.h>
#include <mach/vm_map.h>
#include <mach-o/loader.h>
#include <mach-o/nlist.h>
#define OFVARS_SEG_NAME "__DATA"
#define OFVARS_SECT_NAME "__data"
#define CSTRING_SEG_NAME "__TEXT"
#define MAX_CHUNK_SIZE 0x500
#if __LP64__
#define ADDR "%16lx"
#define IMAGE_OFFSET 0x0000
#define IMAGE_HEADER_SIZE sizeof(struct mach_header_64)
#define IMAGE_MAGIC MH_MAGIC_64
#define IMAGE_LC_SEGMENT LC_SEGMENT_64
#define IMAGE_DATA_ALIGNMENT 8
#else
#define ADDR "%8x"
#define IMAGE_OFFSET 0x0000
#define IMAGE_HEADER_SIZE sizeof(struct mach_header)
#define IMAGE_MAGIC MH_MAGIC
#define IMAGE_LC_SEGMENT LC_SEGMENT
#define IMAGE_DATA_ALIGNMENT 4
#endif
struct __attribute__((aligned(IMAGE_DATA_ALIGNMENT))) OFVariable {
char *variableName;
uint32_t variableType;
uint32_t variablePerm;
int32_t variableOffset;
};
typedef struct OFVariable OFVariable;
bool validateOFVariables(struct OFVariable *ptr, unsigned int maxCount, vm_address_t cstringStart, vm_size_t cstringSize) {
uint32_t currType = 1;
int32_t currOfft = -1;
uintptr_t variableName;
uint32_t variableType;
uint32_t variablePerm;
int32_t variableOffset;
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < maxCount; i++) {
variableName = (uintptr_t)ptr->variableName;
variableType = ptr->variableType;
variablePerm = ptr->variablePerm;
variableOffset = ptr->variableOffset;
if (!variableName) {
return i != 0;
}
if (variableName < cstringStart) {
return false;
}
if (variableName >= (cstringStart + cstringSize)) {
return false;
}
if (variableType > 4) {
return false; //1-4
}
if (variablePerm > 3) {
return false; //0-3
}
if (variableOffset <= currOfft) {
if (variableOffset != -1) {
return false;
}
} else {
currOfft = variableOffset;
}
currType = variableType;
ptr++;
}
return false;
}
vm_size_t read_kernel(task_t kernel_task, vm_address_t addr, unsigned char* buf, vm_size_t size) {
kern_return_t ret;
vm_size_t remainder = size;
vm_size_t bytes_read = 0;
vm_address_t end = addr + size;
while (addr < end) {
size = remainder > MAX_CHUNK_SIZE ? MAX_CHUNK_SIZE : remainder;
ret = vm_read_overwrite(kernel_task, addr, size, (vm_address_t)(buf + bytes_read), &size);
if (ret != KERN_SUCCESS || size == 0)
break;
bytes_read += size;
addr += size;
remainder -= size;
}
return bytes_read;
}
vm_size_t write_kernel(task_t kernel_task, vm_address_t addr, unsigned char* data, vm_size_t size) {
kern_return_t ret;
vm_size_t remainder = size;
vm_size_t bytes_written = 0;
vm_address_t end = addr + size;
while (addr < end) {
size = remainder > MAX_CHUNK_SIZE ? MAX_CHUNK_SIZE : remainder;
ret = vm_write(kernel_task, addr, (vm_offset_t)(data + bytes_written), size);
if (ret != KERN_SUCCESS)
break;
bytes_written += size;
addr += size;
remainder -= size;
}
return bytes_written;
}
vm_address_t get_kernel_base(task_t kernel_task) {
kern_return_t ret;
vm_region_submap_info_data_64_t info;
vm_size_t size;
mach_msg_type_number_t info_count = VM_REGION_SUBMAP_INFO_COUNT_64;
unsigned int depth = 0;
vm_address_t addr = 0; //todo: fix
while (1) {
ret = vm_region_recurse_64(kernel_task, &addr, &size, &depth, (vm_region_info_t)&info, &info_count);
if (ret != KERN_SUCCESS) {
printf("[-] error %i\n", ret);
break;
}
if (size > 0x40000000)
return addr + IMAGE_OFFSET;
addr += size;
}
return 0;
}
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
kern_return_t ret;
task_t kernel_task = 0;
ret = task_for_pid(mach_task_self(), 0, &kernel_task);
if (ret != KERN_SUCCESS) {
ret = host_get_special_port(mach_host_self(), HOST_LOCAL_NODE, 4, &kernel_task);
if ((ret != KERN_SUCCESS) || !kernel_task) {
printf("[-] Failed to access the kernel task (error %u).\n", ret);
return -1;
}
}
unsigned char buf[IMAGE_HEADER_SIZE];
vm_address_t kernBase = get_kernel_base(kernel_task);
if (kernBase == 0) {
puts("[!] Failed to get kernel base.");
return 0;
}
bool goodBase= false;
#ifdef __LP64__
struct mach_header_64 *header ;
#else
struct mach_header *header ;
#endif
uint32_t magic;
while (!goodBase){
printf("[*] Guessing Kernel base is at %p.\n", (void *)kernBase);
if (read_kernel(kernel_task, kernBase, buf, IMAGE_HEADER_SIZE) != IMAGE_HEADER_SIZE) {
puts("[-] Kernel I/O failed.");
return 0;
}
#ifdef __LP64__
header = (struct mach_header_64 *)&buf[0];
#else
header = (struct mach_header *)&buf[0];
#endif
magic = *(uint32_t *)&buf[0];
if (magic != IMAGE_MAGIC) {
puts("[-] Kernel Mach-O magic is invalid, adding 0x1000");
// return 0;
kernBase+=0x1000;
}
else
{
goodBase=true;
break;
}
}
uint32_t sizeofcmds = header->sizeofcmds;
uint32_t ncmds = header->ncmds;
void *lcBuf = malloc(sizeofcmds);
if (!lcBuf) {
puts("[-] Memory allocation error.");
return 0;
}
if (read_kernel(kernel_task, kernBase + IMAGE_HEADER_SIZE, lcBuf, sizeofcmds) != sizeofcmds) {
puts("[-] Kernel I/O failed.");
return 0;
}
vm_address_t ofvarsSectionAddress = 0;
vm_size_t ofvarsSectionSize = 0;
vm_address_t cstringSectionAddress = 0;
vm_size_t cstringSectionSize = 0;
bool done = false;
struct load_command *lcPtr = lcBuf;
struct load_command *lcEndPtr = lcBuf + sizeofcmds;
for (uint32_t j = 0; j < header->ncmds; j++){ //for every lc command;
if (lcPtr >= lcEndPtr) break;
struct segment_command_64 *myCmd = (struct segment_command_64 *)lcPtr; //generate segments
struct section_64 *mySect = (struct section_64 *)((uintptr_t)myCmd + sizeof(*myCmd)); // generate sections
for (uint32_t j = 0; j < myCmd->nsects; j++) {
printf("[+] Found %s.%s section at address %p.\n",myCmd->segname, mySect->sectname, (void *)mySect->addr);
if (!strcmp(myCmd->segname,"__PRELINK_TEXT") )
{
done = true;
break;
}
if ( (!strcmp(mySect->sectname, OFVARS_SECT_NAME)) && (!strcmp(myCmd->segname, OFVARS_SEG_NAME)) ){
ofvarsSectionAddress = mySect->addr;
ofvarsSectionSize = mySect->size;
printf("[+] Gotcha Found "OFVARS_SEG_NAME"."OFVARS_SECT_NAME" section at address %p.\n", (void *)ofvarsSectionAddress);
// break;
}
if ( (!strcmp(mySect->sectname, "__cstring")) && (!strcmp(myCmd->segname, CSTRING_SEG_NAME)) ) {
cstringSectionAddress = mySect->addr;
cstringSectionSize = mySect->size;
printf("[+] Found "CSTRING_SEG_NAME".__cstring section at address %p.\n", (void *)cstringSectionAddress);
// break;
}
mySect++;
}
if(done)
break;
lcPtr = (struct load_command *)((uintptr_t)lcPtr + lcPtr->cmdsize);
}
// return 0;
if (false)
{
for (uint32_t i = 0; i < ncmds; i++) {
if (lcPtr >= lcEndPtr) {
puts("[-] Invalid size of load commands.");
free(lcBuf);
return 0;
}
if (lcPtr->cmd == IMAGE_LC_SEGMENT) {
#ifdef __LP64__
struct segment_command_64 *cmd = (struct segment_command_64 *)lcPtr;
#else
struct segment_command *cmd = (struct segment_command *)lcPtr;
#endif
if (!strcmp(cmd->segname, OFVARS_SEG_NAME)) {
uint32_t nsects = cmd->nsects;
#ifdef __LP64__
struct section_64 *sect = (struct section_64 *)((uintptr_t)cmd + sizeof(*cmd));
#else
struct section *sect = (struct section *)((uintptr_t)cmd + sizeof(*cmd));
#endif
for (uint32_t j = 0; j < nsects; j++) {
if (!strcmp(sect->sectname, OFVARS_SECT_NAME)) {
ofvarsSectionAddress = sect->addr;
ofvarsSectionSize = sect->size;
printf("[+] Found "OFVARS_SEG_NAME"."OFVARS_SECT_NAME" section at address %p.\n", (void *)ofvarsSectionAddress);
break;
}
sect++;
}
} else if (!strcmp(cmd->segname, CSTRING_SEG_NAME)) {
uint32_t nsects = cmd->nsects;
#ifdef __LP64__
struct section_64 *sect = (struct section_64 *)((uintptr_t)cmd + sizeof(*cmd));
#else
struct section *sect = (struct section *)((uintptr_t)cmd + sizeof(*cmd));
#endif
for (uint32_t j = 0; j < nsects; j++) {
if (!strcmp(sect->sectname, "__cstring")) {
cstringSectionAddress = sect->addr;
cstringSectionSize = sect->size;
printf("[+] Found "CSTRING_SEG_NAME".__cstring section at address %p.\n", (void *)cstringSectionAddress);
break;
}
sect++;
}
}
}
lcPtr = (struct load_command *)((uintptr_t)lcPtr + lcPtr->cmdsize);
}
}
free(lcBuf);
if (!ofvarsSectionAddress) {
puts("[-] "OFVARS_SEG_NAME"."OFVARS_SECT_NAME" segment not found.");
return 0;
} else if (!cstringSectionAddress) {
puts("[-] "CSTRING_SEG_NAME".__cstring section not found.");
return 0;
}
puts("[*] Dumping "OFVARS_SEG_NAME"."OFVARS_SECT_NAME" section...");
void *ofvarsSectionBuf = malloc(ofvarsSectionSize);
if (!ofvarsSectionBuf) {
puts("[-] Memory allocation error.");
return 0;
}
puts("[*] Dumping "CSTRING_SEG_NAME".__cstring section...");
void *cstringSectionBuf = malloc(cstringSectionSize);
if (!cstringSectionBuf) {
puts("[-] Memory allocation error.");
free(ofvarsSectionBuf);
return 0;
}
if (read_kernel(kernel_task, ofvarsSectionAddress, ofvarsSectionBuf, ofvarsSectionSize) != ofvarsSectionSize) {
puts("[-] Kernel I/O failed.");
free(ofvarsSectionBuf);
free(cstringSectionBuf);
return 0;
}
if (read_kernel(kernel_task, cstringSectionAddress, cstringSectionBuf, cstringSectionSize) != cstringSectionSize) {
puts("[-] Kernel I/O failed.");
free(ofvarsSectionBuf);
free(cstringSectionBuf);
return 0;
}
void *aLittleEndian = memmem(cstringSectionBuf, cstringSectionSize, "little-endian?", 15);
if (!aLittleEndian) {
puts("[-] \"little-endian?\" string not found.");
free(ofvarsSectionBuf);
free(cstringSectionBuf);
return 0;
}
vm_address_t aLittleEndianAddress = aLittleEndian - cstringSectionBuf + cstringSectionAddress;
void *ofvarsStart = memmem(ofvarsSectionBuf, ofvarsSectionSize, &aLittleEndianAddress, sizeof(aLittleEndianAddress));
if (!ofvarsStart) {
puts("[-] Unable to find \"little-endian?\" string xref.");
free(ofvarsSectionBuf);
free(cstringSectionBuf);
return 0;
}
vm_offset_t ofvarsAddress = ofvarsSectionAddress + (ofvarsStart - ofvarsSectionBuf);
vm_size_t ofvarsMaxSize = ofvarsSectionAddress + ofvarsSectionSize - ofvarsAddress;
if (!validateOFVariables(ofvarsStart,ofvarsMaxSize/sizeof(struct OFVariable), cstringSectionAddress, cstringSectionSize)) {
puts("[-] gOFVariables is corrupt.");
free(ofvarsSectionBuf);
free(cstringSectionBuf);
return 0;
}
printf("[+] Found valid gOFVariables at %p.\n", (void *)ofvarsAddress);
struct OFVariable *var = (struct OFVariable *)ofvarsStart;
const char *name;
while (var->variableName != NULL) {
if (var->variablePerm == 3) {
name = cstringSectionBuf + ((uintptr_t)var->variableName - cstringSectionAddress);
var->variablePerm = 0;
printf("[*] Edited permissions for %s.\n", name);
}
var++;
}
vm_size_t ofvarsSize = (void *)++var - ofvarsStart;
puts("[*] Applying kernel patch...");
if (write_kernel(kernel_task, ofvarsAddress, ofvarsStart, ofvarsSize) != ofvarsSize) {
puts("[-] Kernel I/O failed.");
free(ofvarsSectionBuf);
free(cstringSectionBuf);
return 0;
}
puts("[+] Done.");
free(ofvarsSectionBuf);
free(cstringSectionBuf);
return 0;
}
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