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@chrisswanda
Last active July 10, 2024 12:03
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Stupid simple setting up WireGuard - Server and multiple peers
Install WireGuard via whatever package manager you use. For me, I use apt.
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:wireguard/wireguard
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install wireguard
MacOS
$ brew install wireguard-tools
Generate key your key pairs. The key pairs are just that, key pairs. They can be
generated on any device, as long as you keep the private key on the source and
place the public on the destination.
$ wg genkey | tee privatekey | wg pubkey > publickey
example privatekey - mNb7OIIXTdgW4khM7OFlzJ+UPs7lmcWHV7xjPgakMkQ=
example publickey - 0qRWfQ2ihXSgzUbmHXQ70xOxDd7sZlgjqGSPA9PFuHg=
One can also generate a preshared key to add an additional layer of symmetric-key cryptography to be mixed into the already existing public-key cryptography, for post-quantum resistance.
# wg genpsk > preshared
Take the above private key, and place it in the server. And conversely, put the
public key on the peer. Generate a second key pair, and do the opposite, put the
public on the server and the private on the peer. Put the preshared key in the client config if you choose to use it.
On the server, create a conf file - /etc/wireguard/wg0.conf (These are examples,
so use whatever IP ranges and CIDR blocks that will work for your network.
################################
[Interface]
Address = 10.0.0.1/24
DNS = 1.1.1.1
PrivateKey = [ServerPrivateKey]
ListenPort = 51820
PostUp = iptables -A FORWARD -i %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -A FORWARD -o %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o enp9s0 -j MASQUERADE
PostDown = iptables -D FORWARD -i %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -D FORWARD -o %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -t nat -D POSTROUTING -o enp9s0 -j MASQUERADE
[Peer]
#Peer #1
PublicKey = [Peer#1PublicKey]
AllowedIPs = 10.0.0.3/32
[Peer]
#Peer #2
PublicKey = [Peer#2PublicKey]
AllowedIPs = 10.0.0.10/32
[Peer]
#Peer #3
PublicKey = [Peer#3PublicKey]
AllowedIPs = 10.0.0.2/32
[Peer]
#Peer #4
PublicKey = [Peer#4PublicKey]
AllowedIPs = 10.0.0.11/32
##################################
On each client, define a /etc/wireguard/mobile_user.conf -
###################################
[Interface]
Address = 10.0.0.3/24
PrivateKey = [PrivateKeyPeer#1]
[Peer]
PublicKey = [ServerPublicKey]
PresharedKey = [PresharedKey]
Endpoint = some.domain.com:51820
AllowedIPs = 0.0.0.0/0, ::/0
# if you want to do split tunnel, add your allowed IPs
# for example if your home network is 192.168.1.0/24
# AllowedIPs = 192.168.1.0/24
# This is for if you're behind a NAT and
# want the connection to be kept alive.
PersistentKeepalive = 25
########################################
sudo wg show
#########################################
peer: Peer #1
endpoint: 192.168.2.1:50074
allowed ips: 10.0.0.2/32
latest handshake: 4 minutes, 16 seconds ago
transfer: 57.58 KiB received, 113.32 KiB sent
peer: Peer #2
endpoint: 99.203.28.43:36770
allowed ips: 10.0.0.10/32
latest handshake: 5 minutes, 30 seconds ago
transfer: 92.98 KiB received, 495.89 KiB sent
##################################################
Start/stop interface
wg-quick up wg0
wg-quick down wg0
Start/stop service
$ sudo systemctl stop wg-quick@wg0.service
$ sudo systemctl start wg-quick@wg0.service
Instead of having to modify the file for every client you want to add to the
server you could also use the wg tool instead:
# add peer
wg set wg0 peer <client_pubkey> allowed-ips 10.0.0.x/32
# verify connection
wg
# save to config
wg-quick save wg0
######### EDIT ##############
I was setting up a relative with a Wireguard config, and figured I might as well use qrencode to do it since I have it installed on my local machine.
qrencode -t ansiutf8 < /etc/wireguard/mobile_user.conf
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@chrisswanda
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If I go rogue and you ban my IP, I'll just come in from somewhere else with a different IP. Plus IP address may be dynamic, so that isn't a good strategy.

Seriously, if that is your route, issue credentials for each user. If you think that is too complex, just use something like https://www.wireguardconfig.com

@Gugarz
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Gugarz commented Jan 12, 2022

That's a good point. Anyways thanks for your help. :)

@jasonrvw
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Hi Chris, great post, thank you. If I want to connect a peer to another peer, what would the configuration file look like?
I have my server sitting on Ubuntu but the server my users need to access is a windows server that I've setup as a peer to Ubuntu.
I added the public key for each peer to the others config file but that didn't work.

@kaylamc2
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kaylamc2 commented Dec 7, 2022

Hi Chris! Posting that wireguardconfig site is so helpful! Great write up.

@chrisswanda
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@kaylamc2 Heh, it makes it a little easier. While I still use Wireguard for things, tailscale.com awesome, especially for an enterprise.

@jamacoe
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jamacoe commented Mar 11, 2023

I'm new to WireGuard and this is just a fantastic help. Thanks.

@genieai-vikas
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@chrisswanda Can a single configuration file be used by multiple users, say, five users sharing the same configuration file? The use case is as follows: I am using the GitHub Action matrix, where the GitHub Action machine may have any IP address, making it difficult to whitelist those IPs in my database. Therefore, I am using a VPN, but providing a separate configuration file for each machine is challenging. Instead, can I create a single configuration file for all GitHub machines to use?

@chrisswanda
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I would never reuse credentials; it is not a good operational practice. How is providing a separate configuration file challenging, versus if one of your credentials get compromised, and now you have to rotate out your single config on multiple machines versus changing a compromised credential on one machine? Merely curious. If you have to chop down a tree in 6 hours, spend 5 hours sharpening your axe.

But yes, you could use the same config on multiple machines. You are only using public/private key pairs.

@genieai-vikas
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@chrisswanda It's challenging and very complicated. Here is how
I have used the sharding technique in my BE and UI Tests and run my test parallelly. So GitHub action on the fly create job(machine).

On the contrary, it would be easy for me to rotate the GitHub config file if I am using one config. Instead of 20 config files for GitHub action

@chrisswanda
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If you are running that many machines, you might want to look into something else, but that is another conversation.

But, if merely changing out a config file works and you are comfortable with using one credential, then it should work. It is merely a public/private keypair.

@thirupathicys
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Hi Chriss,
How to configure the wireguard VPN server in the load balancing scenario with multiple vpn servers in active-active mode ?. Wireguard peers should communicate between each other through multiple vpn server placed behind the udp load balancer?

@tabatinga0xffff
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In 10.0.0.x/32 is the x literally x? Or should I substitute it with a number?

@Dave9111
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Dave9111 commented Oct 18, 2023 via email

@chrisswanda
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In 10.0.0.x/32 is the x literally x? Or should I substitute it with a number?

@tabatinga0x00 x would be whatever number you wish between 2 and 254.

@Dave9111
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Dave9111 commented Oct 18, 2023 via email

@Roy-Orbison
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From the Arch Wiki, use

wg genkey | (umask 077 && tee privatekey) | wg pubkey > publickey

So the private key is created not readable to others.

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