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C99 Lex/Flex & YACC/Bison Grammars
D [0-9]
L [a-zA-Z_]
H [a-fA-F0-9]
E ([Ee][+-]?{D}+)
P ([Pp][+-]?{D}+)
FS (f|F|l|L)
IS ((u|U)|(u|U)?(l|L|ll|LL)|(l|L|ll|LL)(u|U))
%{
#include <stdio.h>
#include "y.tab.h"
void count(void);
%}
%%
"/*" { comment(); }
"//"[^\n]* { /* consume //-comment */ }
"auto" { count(); return(AUTO); }
"_Bool" { count(); return(BOOL); }
"break" { count(); return(BREAK); }
"case" { count(); return(CASE); }
"char" { count(); return(CHAR); }
"_Complex" { count(); return(COMPLEX); }
"const" { count(); return(CONST); }
"continue" { count(); return(CONTINUE); }
"default" { count(); return(DEFAULT); }
"do" { count(); return(DO); }
"double" { count(); return(DOUBLE); }
"else" { count(); return(ELSE); }
"enum" { count(); return(ENUM); }
"extern" { count(); return(EXTERN); }
"float" { count(); return(FLOAT); }
"for" { count(); return(FOR); }
"goto" { count(); return(GOTO); }
"if" { count(); return(IF); }
"_Imaginary" { count(); return(IMAGINARY); }
"inline" { count(); return(INLINE); }
"int" { count(); return(INT); }
"long" { count(); return(LONG); }
"register" { count(); return(REGISTER); }
"restrict" { count(); return(RESTRICT); }
"return" { count(); return(RETURN); }
"short" { count(); return(SHORT); }
"signed" { count(); return(SIGNED); }
"sizeof" { count(); return(SIZEOF); }
"static" { count(); return(STATIC); }
"struct" { count(); return(STRUCT); }
"switch" { count(); return(SWITCH); }
"typedef" { count(); return(TYPEDEF); }
"union" { count(); return(UNION); }
"unsigned" { count(); return(UNSIGNED); }
"void" { count(); return(VOID); }
"volatile" { count(); return(VOLATILE); }
"while" { count(); return(WHILE); }
{L}({L}|{D})* { count(); return(check_type()); }
0[xX]{H}+{IS}? { count(); return(CONSTANT); }
0[0-7]*{IS}? { count(); return(CONSTANT); }
[1-9]{D}*{IS}? { count(); return(CONSTANT); }
L?'(\\.|[^\\'\n])+' { count(); return(CONSTANT); }
{D}+{E}{FS}? { count(); return(CONSTANT); }
{D}*"."{D}+{E}?{FS}? { count(); return(CONSTANT); }
{D}+"."{D}*{E}?{FS}? { count(); return(CONSTANT); }
0[xX]{H}+{P}{FS}? { count(); return(CONSTANT); }
0[xX]{H}*"."{H}+{P}?{FS}? { count(); return(CONSTANT); }
0[xX]{H}+"."{H}*{P}?{FS}? { count(); return(CONSTANT); }
L?\"(\\.|[^\\"\n])*\" { count(); return(STRING_LITERAL); }
"..." { count(); return(ELLIPSIS); }
">>=" { count(); return(RIGHT_ASSIGN); }
"<<=" { count(); return(LEFT_ASSIGN); }
"+=" { count(); return(ADD_ASSIGN); }
"-=" { count(); return(SUB_ASSIGN); }
"*=" { count(); return(MUL_ASSIGN); }
"/=" { count(); return(DIV_ASSIGN); }
"%=" { count(); return(MOD_ASSIGN); }
"&=" { count(); return(AND_ASSIGN); }
"^=" { count(); return(XOR_ASSIGN); }
"|=" { count(); return(OR_ASSIGN); }
">>" { count(); return(RIGHT_OP); }
"<<" { count(); return(LEFT_OP); }
"++" { count(); return(INC_OP); }
"--" { count(); return(DEC_OP); }
"->" { count(); return(PTR_OP); }
"&&" { count(); return(AND_OP); }
"||" { count(); return(OR_OP); }
"<=" { count(); return(LE_OP); }
">=" { count(); return(GE_OP); }
"==" { count(); return(EQ_OP); }
"!=" { count(); return(NE_OP); }
";" { count(); return(';'); }
("{"|"<%") { count(); return('{'); }
("}"|"%>") { count(); return('}'); }
"," { count(); return(','); }
":" { count(); return(':'); }
"=" { count(); return('='); }
"(" { count(); return('('); }
")" { count(); return(')'); }
("["|"<:") { count(); return('['); }
("]"|":>") { count(); return(']'); }
"." { count(); return('.'); }
"&" { count(); return('&'); }
"!" { count(); return('!'); }
"~" { count(); return('~'); }
"-" { count(); return('-'); }
"+" { count(); return('+'); }
"*" { count(); return('*'); }
"/" { count(); return('/'); }
"%" { count(); return('%'); }
"<" { count(); return('<'); }
">" { count(); return('>'); }
"^" { count(); return('^'); }
"|" { count(); return('|'); }
"?" { count(); return('?'); }
[ \t\v\n\f] { count(); }
. { /* Add code to complain about unmatched characters */ }
%%
int yywrap(void)
{
return 1;
}
void comment(void)
{
char c, prev = 0;
while ((c = input()) != 0) /* (EOF maps to 0) */
{
if (c == '/' && prev == '*')
return;
prev = c;
}
error("unterminated comment");
}
int column = 0;
void count(void)
{
int i;
for (i = 0; yytext[i] != '\0'; i++)
if (yytext[i] == '\n')
column = 0;
else if (yytext[i] == '\t')
column += 8 - (column % 8);
else
column++;
ECHO;
}
int check_type(void)
{
/*
* pseudo code --- this is what it should check
*
* if (yytext == type_name)
* return TYPE_NAME;
*
* return IDENTIFIER;
*/
/*
* it actually will only return IDENTIFIER
*/
return IDENTIFIER;
}
%token IDENTIFIER CONSTANT STRING_LITERAL SIZEOF
%token PTR_OP INC_OP DEC_OP LEFT_OP RIGHT_OP LE_OP GE_OP EQ_OP NE_OP
%token AND_OP OR_OP MUL_ASSIGN DIV_ASSIGN MOD_ASSIGN ADD_ASSIGN
%token SUB_ASSIGN LEFT_ASSIGN RIGHT_ASSIGN AND_ASSIGN
%token XOR_ASSIGN OR_ASSIGN TYPE_NAME
%token TYPEDEF EXTERN STATIC AUTO REGISTER INLINE RESTRICT
%token CHAR SHORT INT LONG SIGNED UNSIGNED FLOAT DOUBLE CONST VOLATILE VOID
%token BOOL COMPLEX IMAGINARY
%token STRUCT UNION ENUM ELLIPSIS
%token CASE DEFAULT IF ELSE SWITCH WHILE DO FOR GOTO CONTINUE BREAK RETURN
%start translation_unit
%%
primary_expression
: IDENTIFIER
| CONSTANT
| STRING_LITERAL
| '(' expression ')'
;
postfix_expression
: primary_expression
| postfix_expression '[' expression ']'
| postfix_expression '(' ')'
| postfix_expression '(' argument_expression_list ')'
| postfix_expression '.' IDENTIFIER
| postfix_expression PTR_OP IDENTIFIER
| postfix_expression INC_OP
| postfix_expression DEC_OP
| '(' type_name ')' '{' initializer_list '}'
| '(' type_name ')' '{' initializer_list ',' '}'
;
argument_expression_list
: assignment_expression
| argument_expression_list ',' assignment_expression
;
unary_expression
: postfix_expression
| INC_OP unary_expression
| DEC_OP unary_expression
| unary_operator cast_expression
| SIZEOF unary_expression
| SIZEOF '(' type_name ')'
;
unary_operator
: '&'
| '*'
| '+'
| '-'
| '~'
| '!'
;
cast_expression
: unary_expression
| '(' type_name ')' cast_expression
;
multiplicative_expression
: cast_expression
| multiplicative_expression '*' cast_expression
| multiplicative_expression '/' cast_expression
| multiplicative_expression '%' cast_expression
;
additive_expression
: multiplicative_expression
| additive_expression '+' multiplicative_expression
| additive_expression '-' multiplicative_expression
;
shift_expression
: additive_expression
| shift_expression LEFT_OP additive_expression
| shift_expression RIGHT_OP additive_expression
;
relational_expression
: shift_expression
| relational_expression '<' shift_expression
| relational_expression '>' shift_expression
| relational_expression LE_OP shift_expression
| relational_expression GE_OP shift_expression
;
equality_expression
: relational_expression
| equality_expression EQ_OP relational_expression
| equality_expression NE_OP relational_expression
;
and_expression
: equality_expression
| and_expression '&' equality_expression
;
exclusive_or_expression
: and_expression
| exclusive_or_expression '^' and_expression
;
inclusive_or_expression
: exclusive_or_expression
| inclusive_or_expression '|' exclusive_or_expression
;
logical_and_expression
: inclusive_or_expression
| logical_and_expression AND_OP inclusive_or_expression
;
logical_or_expression
: logical_and_expression
| logical_or_expression OR_OP logical_and_expression
;
conditional_expression
: logical_or_expression
| logical_or_expression '?' expression ':' conditional_expression
;
assignment_expression
: conditional_expression
| unary_expression assignment_operator assignment_expression
;
assignment_operator
: '='
| MUL_ASSIGN
| DIV_ASSIGN
| MOD_ASSIGN
| ADD_ASSIGN
| SUB_ASSIGN
| LEFT_ASSIGN
| RIGHT_ASSIGN
| AND_ASSIGN
| XOR_ASSIGN
| OR_ASSIGN
;
expression
: assignment_expression
| expression ',' assignment_expression
;
constant_expression
: conditional_expression
;
declaration
: declaration_specifiers ';'
| declaration_specifiers init_declarator_list ';'
;
declaration_specifiers
: storage_class_specifier
| storage_class_specifier declaration_specifiers
| type_specifier
| type_specifier declaration_specifiers
| type_qualifier
| type_qualifier declaration_specifiers
| function_specifier
| function_specifier declaration_specifiers
;
init_declarator_list
: init_declarator
| init_declarator_list ',' init_declarator
;
init_declarator
: declarator
| declarator '=' initializer
;
storage_class_specifier
: TYPEDEF
| EXTERN
| STATIC
| AUTO
| REGISTER
;
type_specifier
: VOID
| CHAR
| SHORT
| INT
| LONG
| FLOAT
| DOUBLE
| SIGNED
| UNSIGNED
| BOOL
| COMPLEX
| IMAGINARY
| struct_or_union_specifier
| enum_specifier
| TYPE_NAME
;
struct_or_union_specifier
: struct_or_union IDENTIFIER '{' struct_declaration_list '}'
| struct_or_union '{' struct_declaration_list '}'
| struct_or_union IDENTIFIER
;
struct_or_union
: STRUCT
| UNION
;
struct_declaration_list
: struct_declaration
| struct_declaration_list struct_declaration
;
struct_declaration
: specifier_qualifier_list struct_declarator_list ';'
;
specifier_qualifier_list
: type_specifier specifier_qualifier_list
| type_specifier
| type_qualifier specifier_qualifier_list
| type_qualifier
;
struct_declarator_list
: struct_declarator
| struct_declarator_list ',' struct_declarator
;
struct_declarator
: declarator
| ':' constant_expression
| declarator ':' constant_expression
;
enum_specifier
: ENUM '{' enumerator_list '}'
| ENUM IDENTIFIER '{' enumerator_list '}'
| ENUM '{' enumerator_list ',' '}'
| ENUM IDENTIFIER '{' enumerator_list ',' '}'
| ENUM IDENTIFIER
;
enumerator_list
: enumerator
| enumerator_list ',' enumerator
;
enumerator
: IDENTIFIER
| IDENTIFIER '=' constant_expression
;
type_qualifier
: CONST
| RESTRICT
| VOLATILE
;
function_specifier
: INLINE
;
declarator
: pointer direct_declarator
| direct_declarator
;
direct_declarator
: IDENTIFIER
| '(' declarator ')'
| direct_declarator '[' type_qualifier_list assignment_expression ']'
| direct_declarator '[' type_qualifier_list ']'
| direct_declarator '[' assignment_expression ']'
| direct_declarator '[' STATIC type_qualifier_list assignment_expression ']'
| direct_declarator '[' type_qualifier_list STATIC assignment_expression ']'
| direct_declarator '[' type_qualifier_list '*' ']'
| direct_declarator '[' '*' ']'
| direct_declarator '[' ']'
| direct_declarator '(' parameter_type_list ')'
| direct_declarator '(' identifier_list ')'
| direct_declarator '(' ')'
;
pointer
: '*'
| '*' type_qualifier_list
| '*' pointer
| '*' type_qualifier_list pointer
;
type_qualifier_list
: type_qualifier
| type_qualifier_list type_qualifier
;
parameter_type_list
: parameter_list
| parameter_list ',' ELLIPSIS
;
parameter_list
: parameter_declaration
| parameter_list ',' parameter_declaration
;
parameter_declaration
: declaration_specifiers declarator
| declaration_specifiers abstract_declarator
| declaration_specifiers
;
identifier_list
: IDENTIFIER
| identifier_list ',' IDENTIFIER
;
type_name
: specifier_qualifier_list
| specifier_qualifier_list abstract_declarator
;
abstract_declarator
: pointer
| direct_abstract_declarator
| pointer direct_abstract_declarator
;
direct_abstract_declarator
: '(' abstract_declarator ')'
| '[' ']'
| '[' assignment_expression ']'
| direct_abstract_declarator '[' ']'
| direct_abstract_declarator '[' assignment_expression ']'
| '[' '*' ']'
| direct_abstract_declarator '[' '*' ']'
| '(' ')'
| '(' parameter_type_list ')'
| direct_abstract_declarator '(' ')'
| direct_abstract_declarator '(' parameter_type_list ')'
;
initializer
: assignment_expression
| '{' initializer_list '}'
| '{' initializer_list ',' '}'
;
initializer_list
: initializer
| designation initializer
| initializer_list ',' initializer
| initializer_list ',' designation initializer
;
designation
: designator_list '='
;
designator_list
: designator
| designator_list designator
;
designator
: '[' constant_expression ']'
| '.' IDENTIFIER
;
statement
: labeled_statement
| compound_statement
| expression_statement
| selection_statement
| iteration_statement
| jump_statement
;
labeled_statement
: IDENTIFIER ':' statement
| CASE constant_expression ':' statement
| DEFAULT ':' statement
;
compound_statement
: '{' '}'
| '{' block_item_list '}'
;
block_item_list
: block_item
| block_item_list block_item
;
block_item
: declaration
| statement
;
expression_statement
: ';'
| expression ';'
;
selection_statement
: IF '(' expression ')' statement
| IF '(' expression ')' statement ELSE statement
| SWITCH '(' expression ')' statement
;
iteration_statement
: WHILE '(' expression ')' statement
| DO statement WHILE '(' expression ')' ';'
| FOR '(' expression_statement expression_statement ')' statement
| FOR '(' expression_statement expression_statement expression ')' statement
| FOR '(' declaration expression_statement ')' statement
| FOR '(' declaration expression_statement expression ')' statement
;
jump_statement
: GOTO IDENTIFIER ';'
| CONTINUE ';'
| BREAK ';'
| RETURN ';'
| RETURN expression ';'
;
translation_unit
: external_declaration
| translation_unit external_declaration
;
external_declaration
: function_definition
| declaration
;
function_definition
: declaration_specifiers declarator declaration_list compound_statement
| declaration_specifiers declarator compound_statement
;
declaration_list
: declaration
| declaration_list declaration
;
%%
#include <stdio.h>
extern char yytext[];
extern int column;
void yyerror(char const *s)
{
fflush(stdout);
printf("\n%*s\n%*s\n", column, "^", column, s);
}
@codebrainz

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@thonnyhu

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commented Sep 30, 2014

How to use this?

@ivladak

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commented Mar 26, 2015

This grammar is incomplete. For example it cannot handle string literals in multiple quotes, like this: "multiple""quote""string""literal""

This version seems much better:
http://www.quut.com/c/ANSI-C-grammar-y-2011.html
http://www.quut.com/c/ANSI-C-grammar-l-2011.html

@jesshack10

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commented Aug 3, 2016

Hi, I am developing a project and all version of C Sintaxis hane given me error at time I tried to compile. Do you have some recomendations to get done the compiling thing? I am using Flex and Bison.

@jooseongjun

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commented Jan 31, 2017

thx!

@ForeverZyh

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commented Mar 26, 2017

thx! and also @ivladak

@Renu1996

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commented Jul 19, 2017

Hi, how to use this code in ubuntu? It didn't work with the usual lex filename.l, yacc -d filename.y, gcc yy.lex.c yy.tab.h -ll
When I do ./a.out and type some C syntax, it does nothing
So how exactly to use this grammar. Thanks in advance!

@bujoralexandru

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commented Dec 5, 2017

@Renu1996
You should look inside the lex/flex specification file. For example purposes, lets say you set eyes on this line:
"&" { count(); return('&'); }
You see the count() function is called for every match that lex/flex executes, so if you want lex/flex to "talk" back to you, you should go inside count() definition and right before the closing bracket write printf("Found something: %s\n", yytext);.

@jesshack10
Compile it using gcc command, not g++ or any C++ specific command. Can you be more specific about the errors that you receive?

@cronof

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commented Feb 15, 2018

Wow! this understand easily example, thank's you

@stevefan1999-personal

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commented Jun 7, 2018

Hello, I wonder what is the license of this code?

@VictorEijkhout

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commented Sep 24, 2018

Doesn't this have multiple reduce/reduce conflicts? For instance, there are several rules that expand to IDENTIFIER, which nothing before or after it. I'm trying to adapt this to the "ply" python-lex-yacc module and it complains.

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