Skip to content

Instantly share code, notes, and snippets.

Created December 28, 2011 17:50
  • Star 45 You must be signed in to star a gist
  • Fork 7 You must be signed in to fork a gist
Star You must be signed in to star a gist
Save dabrahams/1528856 to your computer and use it in GitHub Desktop.
Accessing Private Data
#include <iostream>
// This is a rewrite and analysis of the technique in this article:
// ------- Framework -------
// The little library required to work this magic
// Generate a static data member of type Tag::type in which to store
// the address of a private member. It is crucial that Tag does not
// depend on the /value/ of the the stored address in any way so that
// we can access it from ordinary code without directly touching
// private data.
template <class Tag>
struct stowed
static typename Tag::type value;
template <class Tag>
typename Tag::type stowed<Tag>::value;
// Generate a static data member whose constructor initializes
// stowed<Tag>::value. This type will only be named in an explicit
// instantiation, where it is legal to pass the address of a private
// member.
template <class Tag, typename Tag::type x>
struct stow_private
stow_private() { stowed<Tag>::value = x; }
static stow_private instance;
template <class Tag, typename Tag::type x>
stow_private<Tag,x> stow_private<Tag,x>::instance;
// ------- Usage -------
// A demonstration of how to use the library, with explanation
struct A
A() : x("proof!") {}
char const* x;
// A tag type for A::x. Each distinct private member you need to
// access should have its own tag. Each tag should contain a
// nested ::type that is the corresponding pointer-to-member type.
struct A_x { typedef char const*(A::*type); };
// Explicit instantiation; the only place where it is legal to pass
// the address of a private member. Generates the static ::instance
// that in turn initializes stowed<Tag>::value.
template class stow_private<A_x,&A::x>;
int main()
A a;
// Use the stowed private member pointer
std::cout << a.*stowed<A_x>::value << std::endl;
Copy link

ProExpertProg commented Jul 16, 2020

Lol no worries. I'll give it a try compiling it myself without those lines and post the error here for other future googlers. The explanations in the comments are great though!

Copy link

dfrib commented Nov 6, 2020

Why do you "repeat" the declaration on lines 19-20? It is not template specialization, because you still have the same template parameters...

@ProExpertProg Line 17 is a declaration, whereas lines 19-20 provides the definition; the latter is key as it controls the initialization of the (singleton) static data member instance of the stow_private class template, for the first instantiation of a given specialization. This initialization, in turn, initializes the static data member value of the Stowed class template (for the corresponding Tag type of the specialization) with the "access rule erased" pointer to the private data member, which we naturally need for this technique to work out.

Or, in other simpler words, the definition at lines 19-20 is required such that the constructor of stow_private runs for the (first) instantiation of a given specialization.

Copy link

This makes sense, thank you! I forgot that static members in classes are just declarations and need definitions.

Sign up for free to join this conversation on GitHub. Already have an account? Sign in to comment