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git commandline cheat-sheet

git cheat-sheet

The git command-line utility has plenty of inconsistencies

A GUI like is often helpful, but staying on the command line usually quicker. This is a list of the commands I use most frequently, listed by functional category:

Current state

git status list which (unstaged) files have changed
git diff list (unstaged) changes to files
git log list recent commits

Adding files to repo

git add fn stage file
git commit -m 'message' commit file
git commit -am 'message' add/commit all changes from all tracked files (no untracked files) in one go

Undoing previous actions
git reset filename unstage file
git commit --amend -m 'message' alter the last commit (add any staged files, new comment)
git reset --soft HEAD^ undo previous commit, put changes in staging
git reset --hard HEAD^ Undo last commit and all changes
git reset --hard HEAD^^ Undo two (^^) last commits and all changes
git checkout -- cats.html index.html Undo all changes that were made to files cats.html and index.html
git rebase --onto <commit-id>\^ <commit-id> HEAD remove specific commit from repository. the \ in ^ is just an escape char to make zsh play nice and is not necessary if using bash.

Remote repositories

git remote add origin add a remote repository
git push -u origin master push current local repo to remote. -u sets it to default for the future
git remote -v show show the available remote repositories that have been added
git remote show origin show local<->remote branch tracking and sync status
git remote -v update bring remote refs up to date (and -v show which branches were updated)
git pull checkout and merge remote changes in one go
git fetch origin update the local cache of the remote repository
git status -uno will tell you whether the branch you are tracking is ahead, behind or has diverged. If it says nothing, the local and remote are the same.
git show-branch *master will show you the commits in all of the branches whose names end in master (eg master and origin/master).
git log HEAD..origin/master --oneline shows commit messages
git diff HEAD..origin/master shows all changes on remote compared to local HEAD


git branch list currently existing branches
git branch [branchname] create new branch
git checkout branchname move to that branch
git checkout -b branchname create and checkout new branch in one go
git branch -d branchname remove branch

Merging branch back to master

git checkout master; git merge branchname; conditions for fast-forward merge - nothing new on master between branch start/end points

Branches on remote

git fetch origin``git branch -r list remote branches (after a fetch)
git push origin :branchname delete remote branch 'branchname'
git remote prune origin clean up deleted remote branches (let's say someone else deleted a branch on the remote)
git remote show origin show local<->remote branch tracking and sync status (duplicate info under "remote repositories")

Push local branch to differently named remote branch. Eg Heroku only deploys master

git push heroku yourbranch:master simple form git push heroku-staging staging:master (localBranchName:remoteBranchName)


git tag list all tags
git checkout v0.0.1 checkout code
git tag -a v0.0.3 -m 'Version 0.0.3' add new tag
git push --tags push new tags to remote

Dealing with large files - keep them outside the repo on an ssh machine. #see ssh section

git annex add mybigfile
git commit -m 'add mybigfile'
git push myremote git annex copy --to myremote mybigfile this command copies the actual content to myremote
git annex drop mybigfile remove content from local repo
git annex get mybigfile retrieve the content
git annex copy --from myremote mybigfilespecify the remote from which to get the file

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Thank you very much! This always helpfull! :)

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Thank you very much, this is great!

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Awesome! I appreciate it

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Thank you!

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