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Keras bidirectional LSTM NER tagger
# Keras==1.0.6
from keras.models import Sequential
import numpy as np
from keras.layers.recurrent import LSTM
from keras.layers.core import TimeDistributedDense, Activation
from keras.preprocessing.sequence import pad_sequences
from keras.layers.embeddings import Embedding
from sklearn.cross_validation import train_test_split
from keras.layers import Merge
from keras.backend import tf
from lambdawithmask import Lambda as MaskLambda
from sklearn.metrics import confusion_matrix, accuracy_score
raw = open('wikigold.conll.txt', 'r').readlines()
all_x = []
point = []
for line in raw:
stripped_line = line.strip().split(' ')
if line == '\n':
point = []
all_x = all_x[:-1]
lengths = [len(x) for x in all_x]
short_x = [x for x in all_x if len(x) < 64]
X = [[c[0] for c in x] for x in short_x]
y = [[c[1] for c in y] for y in short_x]
all_text = [c for x in X for c in x]
words = list(set(all_text))
word2ind = {word: index for index, word in enumerate(words)}
ind2word = {index: word for index, word in enumerate(words)}
labels = list(set([c for x in y for c in x]))
label2ind = {label: (index + 1) for index, label in enumerate(labels)}
ind2label = {(index + 1): label for index, label in enumerate(labels)}
print 'Input sequence length range: ', max(lengths), min(lengths)
maxlen = max([len(x) for x in X])
print 'Maximum sequence length:', maxlen
def encode(x, n):
result = np.zeros(n)
result[x] = 1
return result
X_enc = [[word2ind[c] for c in x] for x in X]
X_enc_reverse = [[c for c in reversed(x)] for x in X_enc]
max_label = max(label2ind.values()) + 1
y_enc = [[0] * (maxlen - len(ey)) + [label2ind[c] for c in ey] for ey in y]
y_enc = [[encode(c, max_label) for c in ey] for ey in y_enc]
X_enc_f = pad_sequences(X_enc, maxlen=maxlen)
X_enc_b = pad_sequences(X_enc_reverse, maxlen=maxlen)
y_enc = pad_sequences(y_enc, maxlen=maxlen)
(X_train_f, X_test_f, X_train_b,
X_test_b, y_train, y_test) = train_test_split(X_enc_f, X_enc_b, y_enc,
test_size=11*32, train_size=45*32, random_state=42)
print 'Training and testing tensor shapes:'
print X_train_f.shape, X_test_f.shape, X_train_b.shape, X_test_b.shape, y_train.shape, y_test.shape
max_features = len(word2ind)
embedding_size = 128
hidden_size = 32
out_size = len(label2ind) + 1
def reverse_func(x, mask=None):
return tf.reverse(x, [False, True, False])
model_forward = Sequential()
model_forward.add(Embedding(max_features, embedding_size, input_length=maxlen, mask_zero=True))
model_forward.add(LSTM(hidden_size, return_sequences=True))
model_backward = Sequential()
model_backward.add(Embedding(max_features, embedding_size, input_length=maxlen, mask_zero=True))
model_backward.add(LSTM(hidden_size, return_sequences=True))
model_backward.add(MaskLambda(function=reverse_func, mask_function=reverse_func))
model = Sequential()
model.add(Merge([model_forward, model_backward], mode='concat'))
model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy', optimizer='adam')
batch_size = 32[X_train_f, X_train_b], y_train, batch_size=batch_size, nb_epoch=40,
validation_data=([X_test_f, X_test_b], y_test))
score = model.evaluate([X_test_f, X_test_b], y_test, batch_size=batch_size)
print('Raw test score:', score)
def score(yh, pr):
coords = [np.where(yhh > 0)[0][0] for yhh in yh]
yh = [yhh[co:] for yhh, co in zip(yh, coords)]
ypr = [prr[co:] for prr, co in zip(pr, coords)]
fyh = [c for row in yh for c in row]
fpr = [c for row in ypr for c in row]
return fyh, fpr
pr = model.predict_classes([X_train_f, X_train_b])
yh = y_train.argmax(2)
fyh, fpr = score(yh, pr)
print 'Training accuracy:', accuracy_score(fyh, fpr)
print 'Training confusion matrix:'
print confusion_matrix(fyh, fpr)
pr = model.predict_classes([X_test_f, X_test_b])
yh = y_test.argmax(2)
fyh, fpr = score(yh, pr)
print 'Testing accuracy:', accuracy_score(fyh, fpr)
print 'Testing confusion matrix:'
print confusion_matrix(fyh, fpr)

theanhle commented Apr 5, 2017

I am most grateful to you for your share. Would you mind giving me your input file wikigold.conll.txt and its format? and your test files. Thank you in advance!

Just for everyone's reference,

In Keras 2.0^, I got a model similar to this one to work:

    model = Sequential()
    model.add(Embedding(input_dim=max_features, output_dim=embedding_size,
                        input_length=maxlen, mask_zero=True))
    model.add(Bidirectional(LSTM(hidden_size, return_sequences=True)))
    model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy', optimizer='adam')

ktoetotam commented May 11, 2017

The code throws:

InvalidArgumentError (see above for traceback): axis 0 specified more than once.
[[Node: ReverseV2 = ReverseV2[T=DT_FLOAT, Tidx=DT_INT32, _device="/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/cpu:0"](transpose_5, ReverseV2/axis)]]

in here:
def reverse_func(x, mask=None):
return tf.reverse(x, [False, True, False])

Any idea what it could be?

Kidanew commented May 17, 2017

Keras Training Error:

When I run the code it renders the following error:

File "C:\Users\Kidane\Anaconda3\lib\site-packages\keras\engine\", line 108, in standardize_input_data
Exception: Error when checking model target: expected activation_1 to have shape (None, 63, 32) but got array with shape (1440, 63, 6)

Please help me on how to fix this issue,



Thanks for this great tutorial!

I have problem with Masking function:
model_backward.add(MaskLambda(function=reverse_func, mask_function=reverse_func))

MaskLambda is not a resolved function in my version of keras so I replace it with Masking() function which I imported it from "from keras.layers import Masking"

Is this fine so far?

another thing is that the argument are not acceptable with this function :
model_backward.add(Masking(function=reverse_func, mask_function=reverse_func))

How could I replace it?
TypeError: ('Keyword argument not understood:', 'function')

Thank you for sharing. Amazing code.
I am a beginner in RNN and LSTM. My question might be very basic. Why are we including X_enc_reverse( or X_train_b) in the model.
And can you please suggest a decent documentation to read about it

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