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CS 135 Scheme Cheatsheet

This document is a listing of the functions/macros in Scheme which will be useful in CS 135.

Basic Scheme Commands

and

and takes a variable number of arguments and returns whether all of them are true.

; True and True and True is True
> (and #t #t #t)
#t

; True and False is False
> (and (= 0 0) (> 7 100))
#f

Note: and expands into a series of if branches when the compiler reads the code. It cannot be used as a function with functions like map, filter and reduce.

append

Takes two or more lists and returns the result of concatenating those lists together.

> (append '(1 2 3) '(4 5 6))
'(1 2 3 4 5 6)

> ; Append multiple lists together
> (append '(a b) '(c) '(d e f g) '(h i))
'(a b c d e f g h i)

case

case is a macro which provides similar/identical functionality to switch/case in C-style languages.

> (define (message-for-grade grade)
     (case grade
        ('(A) "Excellent!")
        ('(B) "Not bad! Keep up the good work.")
        ('(C) "There's always a curve.")
        ('(D) "Did you study?")
        ('(F) "Maybe this just isn't your thing")))
> (message-for-grade 'B)
"Not bad! Keep up the good work."

cond

cond is a nice macro that helps abstract away heavily nested if expressions. It's used like how Python's elif keyword is used to avoid nested if statements.

;; Compare two numbers `x` and `y`, returns:
;;    0  if they are equal
;;    1  if `x` is greater than `y`
;;   -1  if `x` is less than `y`
;;
> (define (compare x y)
    (cond
      ((> x y) 1)
      ((< x y) -1)
      (else 0)))

;; 5 > 3, so 1
> (compare 5 3)
1

cons

(cons element list)

Add an element to the beginning of a list.

> (cons 1 '(2 3))
'(1 2 3)

define

(define name value)

(define (fn-name args ...)
   ... function body ...)

define is the way to set variables and to define functions.

; Define a variable "a" with the value 10
> (define a 10)
> a
10

; Define a function that returns twice the length of the list "numbers"
> (define (double-len numbers)
     (* 2 (length numbers)))

> (double-length '(a b c d))
8

define

display

(display string)

display is the equivalent of print in Python or System.out.println in Java except it does not print the new line by default (you need to add \n to the end of the string literal for the new line).

;; The "\n" is for the newline
> (display "Hello, World!\n")
Hello, World!

equal?

(equal? x y)

equal? returns whether or not two values are equal or not. It is generally better to use equal? than = because = can only check numeric values, and equal? uses more advanced definitions of equality.

> (equal? 2 2)
#t
> (equal? '(2 3) '(5 6))
#f

> (= '(1 2 3) '(1 2 3))
#f
> (equal? '(1 2 3) '(1 2 3))
#t

if

(if condition then else)

Equivalent of an if statement. If the condition is true, evaluates to the then branch, otherwise evaluates to the else clause

> (if (= 2 (/ 4 2))
    (display "They're equal\n")
    (display "They're not equal\n"))
They're equal

; You can nest if expressions
> (define (compare x y)
    (if (> x y)
      1
      (if (< x y)
        -1
        0)))

;; 10 > 2 ==> 1
> (compare 10 2)
1

lambda

(lambda (args ...) ... function body ...)

lambda creates in-line functions. It is especially useful when used with functions like map, filter, and reduce

> ; Here we pass a function that adds 2 to a number
> (define (add-2-to-each lst)
    (map (lambda (x) (+ x 2)) lst))

> (add-2-to-each '(1 20 13 401 5 108 71))
'(3 22 15 403 7 110 73)

list

(list v ...)

list takes multiple values and returns a linked list containing those

> (list 1 'a 2.3 3 4.5e+3)
'(1 a 2.3 3 4.5e+3)

map

(map proc list)

map takes a function and a list and returns a new list of the function applied to

> ; (abs x) - the absolute value of x
> (map abs '(-1 2 -3 4 5 -6))
'(1 2 3 4 5 6)

or

or takes zero or more arguments and returns if any of them are true.

; False or True is True
> (or (equal? '(1 2) 'a) (> 34 5))
#t

; No arguments means none of them are true.
> (or)
#f

Note: or expands into a series of if branches when the compiler reads the code. It cannot be used as a function with functions like map, filter and reduce.

Comparison Functions

Note: Regular comparison functions only work on numbers (integers and floats).

Symbol Sample Usage
= (= 1 1)
> (> 100 3)
>= (>= 10 2)
< (< 5 7)
<= (<= 4.5 6.7)

equal?

See equal?

Functions We Will Define

filter

(filter pred lst)

filter is a powerful function for processing data. It takes a list and returns a new list only containing

reduce

(reduce f init lst)

reduce is a core function in functional programming. It is useful for aggregation functions (functions that compute based on a collection of values rather than a single value), such as sum, product, and the union of sets.

; For each element in the list, ignore the value and increment the length by 1
> (define (length lst)
    (reduce (lambda (len _) (+ len 1)) 0 lst))

> ; The sum of '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7) is the same as
> ; (+ (+ (+ (+ (+ (+ (+ 0 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)
> (define (sum numbers)
    (reduce + 0 numbers))

cross-product

(cross-product s t)

cross-product takes two sets A and B and returns {(a, b) | a in A, b in B}

Set functions

element?

(element? item list)

Takes an item and a list and returns whether or not the element is present in the list

> (element? 5 '(1 2 3 4 5))
#t

> (element? 'lieb '(buildings we still have))
#f

intersection

(intersection s t)

Given two sets, returns the set of elements which are in BOTH sets.

> (intersection '(1 2 3) '(4 3 2))
'(2 3)
> (intersection '(r i p) '(l i e b))
'(i)
> (intersection '() '())
'()

make-set

(make-set list)

Takes a list and removes all duplicate elements.

> (make-set '(0 0 0))
'(0)
> (make-set '(1 2 3 2 4 5))
'(1 2 3 4 5)

Note: There are multiple ways to implement make-set and some of them don't preserve the order of the set (which when working with sets is not necessary)

set-equal?

(set-equal? s t)

Determines whether two sets are equivalent (i.e. A = B => every element in A is in B and every element in B is in A)

> (set-equal? '() '())
#t

> (set-equal? '(a b c) '(a b c))
#t

> (set-equal? '(1 2 3 4) '(4 3 1 2))
#t

> (set-equal? '(1 2 3) '(1 2 4))
#f

subset?

(subset? s t)

Returns true if s is a subset of t. I.e., if every element of s is in t.

> (subset? '() '())
#t
> (subset? '(1 2 3) '(1 2 3 4 5))
#t
> (subset? '(115 284 385) '(115 146 284 135 385 392))
#t
> (subset? '(-2 0 2) '(-1 1 3))
#f
> (subset? '(-1 1 2) '(-1 1 3 5 7))
#f

union

(union s t)

Given two sets, return a list representing the set which contains all of the elements from each set EXACTLY once.

> (union '(1 2 3) '(4 5 6))
'(1 2 3 4 5 6)

> (union '(1 2 3) '(1 2))
'(1 2)

> (union '(1 1 1) ())
'(1)

Predicates

A predicate is a function/procedure/method that returns a boolean (true/false) value based on its inputs. Here is a list of common predicates built into the Racket module eopl that we use as the language for all of our labs.

Predicate Description
(boolean? x) x is a boolean (#t or #f)
(even? x) x is an even number
(integer? x) x is an integer (whole number)
(list? x) x is a list
(negative? x) x is negative (x < 0)
(null? x) x == null OR x == '()
(number? x) x is a number
(odd? x) x is an odd number
(positive? x) x is positive (x > 0)
(string? x) x is a string
(symbol? x) x is a symbol
(zero? x) x == 0

For more information on any of the commands built-in to EOPL, see https://docs.racket-lang.org/eopl/

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