Plain and ordinary### Advertising and marketing
advert -> refer to in speaking and writing
advertorial -> blends of advertisement and editorial
astroturfing -> astroturfing is the practice of masking the sponsors of a message or organization to make it appear as though it originates from and is supported by grassroots participants.
bells and whistles
blurb -> The blurb on the back of the book says that it "will touch your heart".
BOGOF -> buy one get one free
endorse endorsable endorser
infomercial -> blends of information and commercial
livery -> The colors or deesign which are put on a company's vehicles and other things that it owns or sells.
merchandising -> In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer.
pilot -> a pilot product, programme, project, etc. is something that is tested first over a short period to see whether it is worth developing and investing in
PR -> public relation
hang up a shingle -> to advertise your services or to start a business as a professional
signage -> Signage is the design or use of signs and symbols to communicate a message to communicate to a specific group, usually for the purpose of marketing or a kind of advocacy.
the grey market
tout for business
USP -> unique selling point / unique selling proposition
Outcomes and consequences
be a monument of something
come of something
of little consequence / of no consequence / not of any consequence/ not of much consequence -> not important
take the consequence / bear the consequence
by implication -> he criticized her and, by implication, her country.
ironic ironical ironically
more bang for your bucks
stench -> stink
you've made your bed, now lie in it
eclet -> stylish (french)
Figurative use of language
allegory allegorical allegorically
NOTE anthropomorphism personification
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities. It is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology.
Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations, emotions, and natural forces, such as seasons and weather.
as it were
figurative figurativeness figuratively
figuratively ANTONYM literally
In its standard use, literally means ‘in a literal sense, as opposed to a nonliteral or exaggerated sense’: I told him I never wanted to see him again, but I didn't expect him to take it literally. In recent years, an extended use of literally (and also literal) has become very common, where literally (or literal) is used deliberately in nonliteral contexts, for added effect: they bought the car and literally ran it into the ground. This use can lead to unintentional humorous effects ( we were literally killing ourselves laughing) and is not acceptable in formal English.
metaphor metaphoric metaphorical metaphorically
metonym -> Washington is a metonym for the federal government of the US.
metonymy metonymic metonymical metonymically
pathetic fallacy -> the use by a writer or poet of words that give human feelings or qualities to objects, nature, or animals, for example by referring to the "cruel sea", "clouds seem sullen"
so to speak
Linguistics Reflexive forms (GRAMMAR)
per se -> by itself / of itself Research shows that it is not divorce per se that harms children, but the continuing conflicting between parents.
all by myself
all to myself
not to be myself/not seem myself/not feel myself
Exciting and interesting
adventurous adventurously adventurousness
barnstorming -> [Oxford and Cambridge shows different meaning]
be up your street
better(adjective) Nayeem sat near the front to get a better view.
better(adverb) The next time he took the test, he was better prepared.
better(verb) The organization was established to better conditions for the disabled.
better(noun) The cleaner the grass is, the better you can see.
blow your socks off / knock your socks off
captivate -> Her mellifluous voice captivated audiences everywhere. captivation
colorful colorfully colorfulness
compelling -> not able to be refuted; inspiring conviction [compelling argument, compelling evidence]
compelling -> not able to be resisted; overwhelming [compelling story, compelling Game Of Thrones]
dazzle dazzling dazzlingly dazzlement
in a daze -> unable to think properly
fanciful fancifully fancifulness
glittering -> A glittering engineering career!!
interesting interestingly interestingness(The state of being interesting)
mesmeric -> (making you give your attention completely so that you cannot think of anything else)
music with a repetitive, slightly mesmeric quality
mesmerizing mesmerize mesmerizingly mesmerizer mesmerization
piquant piquantly (Both exciting and flavour context)
provocative provocativeness provocatively
The programme will take a detailed and provocative look at the problem of homelessness.(CAUSING THOUGHT) a provocative remark/question(MAKE ANGRY) Tamara slowly leaned forward in a provocative way.(SEXUAL)
titillating -> sexually exciting
unputdownable (BOOK CONTEXT)
The Netflix TV series "SEX EDUCATION" is watchable.
a whirlwind tour
zhoosh zhush zhuzh(informal) [verb] -> make something interesting, lively and attractive
Cool (weather context)
The climate here is pretty temperate.
be as fresh as a daisy
be at it hammer and tongs/go at it hammer and tongs
exuberant exuberantly exuberance
frolicsome frolicsomely frolicsomeness (literay) -> lively and playful
indefatigable indefatigably indefatigability
like a maniac
perky perkily perkiness
rambunctious (informal) rambunctiously rambunctiousness
vigor vigorous vigorousness -> vigorous aerobic exercise
vivacity -> I was struck by her vivacity, humor and charm!!
vivacious -> vavacious dance of that girl
zest zesty zestful zestfully zestfulness
amiable amiably amiability amiableness
be all sweetness and light -> They'd had a big argument yesterday, but by this morning it was all sweetness and light again.
be as thick as thieves (informal) -> I'm sure she tells Nayeem everything we say - they're as thick as thieves, those two.
be on familiar terms -> We had met before, but we were hardly (=not) on familiar terms.
be on good, friendly, etc. terms with somebody -> My ex and I are still on friendly terms. -> Are you on good terms with your boss?
comradeship camaraderie -> Nayeem is a genuine camaraderie in "Let Zen" group.
chummy chummily chumminess (informal)
collegial(US) collegiate(UK) collegiality
bask in glory
bask/bathe in reflected glory
be a great one for something
be meat and drink to somebody
go into ecstasies over/about something
delight in something
drink something in
drool over somebody/something
feast your eyes on something/somebody
gad around somewhere
get off something
get over something/somebody
have a ball(INFORMAL)
have a field day
get your jollies
kick up your hills(INFORMAL)
let yourself go(informal)
life in the first lane -> Parties, girls, juul - Nibir is living life in the first lane!!
live it up
luxuriate it up
perk somebody up(informal)
revel it something
savour (especially in FOOD context)
wallow in something
whoop it up
Reality and truth
A slice of life -> A realistic representation of everyday experience in a movie, play, or literature!!
slice and dice -> Dynamic Programming approach in real life context
actualities -> The actualities of Bangladeshi Education System is grim.
in actuality -> In actuality, there are few grandiose software industries in Bangladesh.
apothegmatic -> "Nirvana is only an experienceable and ineffable idea" - It is an apothegmatic statement !!
a fact of life
facts and figures
the facts of life -> details about sexual activity and the way that babies are born
God's truth (exclamation)
imposter syndrome -> The feeling that your achievements are not real / The feeling that you do not deserve praise or success
mimesis -> The act of representing or imitating reality in art, especially literature !!
post-truth -> His lecture was entitled "Fake News in a Post-truth World".
the genuine article (Informal)
truth is stranger than fiction(SAYING)
truth will out
veracious veraciously veraciousness veracity
verisimilitude (noun) verisimilar (adjective)
verity -> Ashfaq is spending his life in a search for eternal/scientific/universal verities with dilettantism.
Quality and standard
conform to something/conform with something
conformance or conformity
criterion (singular) / criteria (plural)
The comment drew/made a false distinction between domestic and foreign affairs, which are really closely related.
Newton was a scientist of great distinction.
Hafezul got distinction in his school.
Exceptional qualities, things and people
distinctive distinctively distinctiveness
enfant terrible (french term for child)
rare bird (idiom)
the chosen few
the exception that proves the rule -> Most company directors are middle-aged men, but this 28-year-old woman is an exception that proves the rule.
make an exception -> We don't usually accept late applications, but in this case we will make an exception.
take exception to something / take exception to somebody -> Why did you take exception to what he said? He was only kidding..
I don't need to take exception to that !!
catch the breath -> I had to stop running to catch my breath.
hold the breath -> Fans held their breath waiting for final whistle.
a breath of fresh air
break the mould -> to be new and different
emerging -> emergent
imaginative imaginativeness imaginatively -> imaginatively designed apartment
infancy -> babyhood
be in its infancy (to be very new and still developing) -> The research in neural network is still in its infancy.
injection (the introduction of something new that is necessary or helpful to a situation or process) -> A cash injection of $200 million will be used to improve the health service.
-> Her injection of humor into the discussion was a godsend.
innovative innovativeness innovatively
originality -> As a company Apple's originality......
pristine pristinely -> Washing machine for sale - only two months old and in pristine condition.
the avant-garde or avant-garde
the ink is not dry / the ink is still wet
the new kid on the block (informal)
unheard of (not previously known of or done)
unprecedented unprecedentedly (never having happened or existed in the past)
This century has witnessed environmental destruction on an unprecedented scale.
Crime has risen on an unprecedented scale.
Tender & gentle
meek meekly meekness
mild mildish mildly
Lohoree can't accept even mild criticism of her work.
Rafat's dad has suffered a mild heart attack - nothing too serious.
tender tender-hearted tenderly
TLC -> Tender Loving Care
wouldn't hurt a fly (informal)
Unkind, cruel & unfeeling
A cheap shot
acerbic acerbity acerbically
his acerbic wit
backbite backbiting backbiter
Don't bicker and backbite in a team
backhanded -> A backhanded remark seems pleasant but may really be a criticism or mean something unkind.
a backhand compliment
backstabbing backstabber backstab -> The action or practice of criticizing someone in a treacherous manner while feigning friendship.
barbarism barbarity barbarous
bilious biliously biliousness
biting -> weather that is extremely cold, especially when it causes you physical pain
a biting wind
biting a biting wit
He made some biting remarks about the whole occasion.
brittle brittlely or brittly brittleness
catty -> bitchy (Informal)
cold-blooded (snakes & lizards) <-> warm-blooded (birds & mammals)
cruelty cruel (crueler, cruelest)
fiendish fiendishly fiendishness
hard-hearted <-> soft-hearted or kind-hearted
horrid horridly horridness
insensitive insensitively insensitiveness
malicious maliciously maliciousness
malign malignant malignantly or malignly malignity maligner
mean meanly meanness
merciless mercilessness mercilessly
mordant mordancy mordantly
pitiless pitilessly pitilessness
remorseless remorselessness reremorselessly
ruthless ruthlessness ruthlessly
short shrift -> If you get or are given short shrift by someone, you are treated without sympathy and given little attention.
snarky (informal) sharply critical
spiteful spitefulness spitefully
tart tartly tartness
trenchancy trenchant trenchantly
uncharitable uncharitableness uncharitably
unsparing unsparingness unsparingly
Travellers & visitors
peripatetic peripatetically peripateticism
a peripatetic music teacher
Blaming and accusing
a bad workman blames his tools
accuse accusing accusatory accusation
allege alleged allegation
arraign -> to formally accuse someone of a particular crime in a court of law and to ask the accused to state guilt or innocence.
arraignment -> Arraignment is a formal reading of a criminal charging document in the presence of the defendant to inform the defendant. In response to arraignment, the accused is expected to enter a plea.
ascribe sth to sth -> attribute sth to sth
attributable attribute attribution "attribute sth to sb/sth"
carry the can
chalk sth up
denounce denouncement denouncer
fall guy (informal)
face the music (informal)
fit sb up (informal)
hang sth on sb
haul sb up
have sb to thank (for sth)
have sth on your hands
impeach impeachable impeachment
impute imputable imputation
incriminate incriminating incriminatory incrimination
indict indicter indictee indictment
lay sth at sb's door
recriminate recrimination recriminatory
take a/the fall for sb
Inviting & summoning
ask sb in
ask sb out
call sb in
call sb out
invite inviter invitee invitation
invite sb in
invite sb over
beyond recall (phrase)
send for sb
summon summoner summonable
summons (singular) (noun) summonses (plural) [LAW]
Opposing & against
adversarial (law) -> relating to a legal process in which lawyers present facts for and against someone who is accused of a crime
equality between prosecution and defense is essential in an adversarial system of justice.
antagonist antagonistic antagonism
be dead set against something
converse (verb) -> confabulate
declare for/against something
defy defiant defiance
go against something/somebody
kick against something
kick against the pricks
object objection objector
opponent oppose opposed oppsing opposition oppositional
play both ends against the middle
point of order
run against somebody , or run against something
sail against the wind
sedition -> language or behaviour that is intended to persuade other people to oppose their government
stand out against something/somebody
versus vs v
Confusion, confusing and feeling confused
a chicken and egg situation
all of a doodah -> in a state of confusion
baffle baffling bafflement
Shatavisha was completely baffled by Oishik's strange behavior.
be at a loss -> not to know what to do or say
I'm at a loss to know how I can help you
be no rhyme or reason
There is no rhyme or reason to her behavior.
be none the wiser
I've read the instructions twice and I'm still none the wiser.
be one/another of life's great mysteries
beg the question -> If a statement or situation begs the question, it causes you to ask a particular question
spending the summer travelling around india is a great idea, but it begs the question of how we can afford it.
to discuss the company's future begs the question of whether it has a future.
bemused beumusedly bemusement
bewilder bewildered bewildering bewilderment-> to confuse someone
boggle -> to (cause something or someone to) have difficulty imagining or understanding something
My mind boggles at the amount of money they spend on food
It boggles the imagination, doesn't it?
boggling (adjective) (formal)
mind-boggling (adjective) (informal)
boggle -> to be very surprised and uncertain , (or anxious and hesitate) about how to deal with something He boggle at the suggestion
brain fog (formal)
brain fade (informal)
brainstorm (noun) (informal)
brainstorm (verb) (formal) brainstorming (noun)
a brainstorming session
chaos chaotic chaotically -> a state of total confusio with no order
confused confusedly confusion
consternation -> a feeling of strong annoyance and anger, usually because of something bad that you cannot change or that is completely unexpected
"Huawei Ban in the US" caused consternation among Huawei communities.
dazed (adjective) (formal) dazedly -> groggy (informal)
in a state of disarray
The news had thrown his plans into disarray
disorient(US) disoriented disorientate(UK) -> to make someone confused about where they are and where they are going
distraction -> the state of being very bored or annoyed
that dreadful noise is driving me to distraction.
distraction -> something that prevents someone from giving their attension to something else
I can turn the TV off if you find it a distraction
distraction -> an activity that you do for pleasure
One of the distractions of city life
be in a dither about something
dizziness dizzy dizzily dizzying
flutter (noun) (in a flutter)
fluttering flutterer fluttery
fuddle (noun) (informal)
There was a strange garbled message on my voicemail.
head is whirling / mind is whirling
in a spin -> in a flutter
inexplicable inexplicability inexplicably
muddle somebody/something up
muzzy muzziness muzzily
mystery myterious mysteriously
mystification mystifying mystifyingly mystifier
not know what hit you
not know where/which way to turn
not know whether to laugh or cry
not know whether you are coming or going
out of your depth -> not having the knowledge, experience, or skills to deal with a particular subject or situation
perplex perplexed perflexing perplexity
play a joke / trick on sb
puzzle over sth puzzled puzzlement puzzler
shambolic (UK informal)
talk/speak in riddles
tangle (verb) -> entangle
tohubohu (US informal)
topsy-turvy (US informal)
unaccountable unaccountability unaccountably
unaccountable -> inexplicable
unaccountable -> not answerable
Concluding and deducing
(you) do the maths
I used my deductive powers
exclude excludable excluder
extrapolate extrapolative extrapolator
impute something to somebody
in the last / fast analysis
Treating someone well
be spoilt for choice
do as you would be done by
do sb proud
make a fuss
make a fuss over sb/sth
handle sb with kid gloves / treat sb with kid gloves
indulge indulger indulgence
make much of somebody
make a lot of somebody
overindulge overindulgent overindulgence
pander to somebody / pander to something
It's not good the way she panders to his every whim
see somebody right
spoil somebody rotten
succor (noun) (verb) -> support
treat somebody like royalty
wrap somebody up in the cotton wool
adore adorer adoringly
be a glutton for something
be a hit with somebody
be big on something
endear somebody to somebody
float somebody's boat
get on like a house on fire
go a bundle with something
gravitate towards to something / gravitate towards to somebody
grow on somebody
have a thing about something or somebody
look kindly on somebody/something
not care for somebody/something
one man's meat is another man's poison
philogyny philogynist -> love of or admiration of women
please -> Adisha thinks she can just do whatever she pleases
take a shine to somebody
take to somebody
there's no accounting for taste
warm to somebody
warm to something
Starting and beginning
be in the first flush of
be/get in on the ground floor
After couple of years of working for other people, she branched out on her own.
break into something
Our liberation war broke out in 1971.
bring something in
burst into song / burst into tears / burst into laughter
come into play -> bring something into play
commence -> to begin somehting
We will commence building work in August of next year.
the dawn of something
dip your toe in the water
dive into something
embark on something/embark upon something
enter into something
enter on something/enter upon something
fall in something
get (something) off the ground
get down to business
get down to something
get down to business
get stuck in
get the show on the road
get to work/set to work
hit the ground running
incipient incipiently incipiency incipience -> in an initial stage, or beginning to happen or develop
kick (something) off
lead with something
plunge in something, or plunge into something
set/put something in motion
set/put something in train
run with something
set about something
set somebody off
set something off
set the wheels in motion
spring to life
start something off
start on something
start the ball rolling / set the ball rolling / get the ball rolling
stirring (adjective) stirringly -> A stirring speech or song is one that produces strong, positive emotions.
stirring (noun) -> The beginning of something, such as an emotion or thought
Lamia felt a faint stirring of envy when she heard that one of her colleagues had been promoted.
stumble into something
take something up
touch something off
Humiliating and degrading
be under a cloud
take/bring sb down a peg or two -> to show someone that they are not as important as they thought
wouldn't I just love to take that Nazah down a peg or two
bruise sb's ego
cut sb down to size
deflate deflated deflator
detract from sth
All that make-up Ramisha wears actually detracts from her beauty, I think.
fall from grace
grubby -> Dirty and untidy CONTEXT
humiliate humiliated humiliating
in the doghouse
knock sb off their pedestal
lower your sights
make an exhibition of yourself
reflect on sb/sth
shame shameful shamefully shamefulness
shoddy shoddily shoddiness
stoop to something
I don't believe she would ever stoop to bribery or blackmail
an iron hand/fist in a velvet glove
be heavy on somebody
not stand any nonsense
rule something with an iron hand/fist
severe serverly severity
stern sternly sterness
strict strictly strictness
take a hard line of sb/sth
Praising insincerely or too eagerly
bow and scrape
fawn over/on somebody
flattery will get you nowhere
lick sb's boots
make up to somebody
massage sb's ego
obsequious obsequiously obsequiousness
big slobbering kisses
slobber over somebody
suck up to somebody
sycophantic sycophancy sycophant
toady(verb) -> grovel to
toady toadyish toadyism
Making things better
ameliorate ameliorative ameliorator
brush up (on) something
clear the air
cushion the blow
embroiderer embroidery embroider -> to make a story more entertaining by adding imaginary details to it
enliven enliver enlivenment
fillip -> something that causes a sudden improvement
The news gave the stock market a big fillip
invigorate invigorator invigoration
liven sb UP
liven sth up
make a world of difference
make sb/sth over
mitigate mitigator mitigable mitigatory
mollify mollification mollifier
palliate palliation palliator
patch something up
polish something up
pull/haul yourself up by the/your (own) bootstraps
raise your game
rectify rectified rectifiable rectification
reform reformatory reformed reformer reformist reformism
rehabilitate rehabilitative rehabilitation
remedial remediate remediation
save the day
sharpen something up
shore something up
smooth something up
smooth something over
spice something up
strighten somebody up
sugar the pill
take sb/sth in hand
take the edge off something
take the heat off somebody
take the sting out of sth
that's more like it
time's great healer
touch something up
turn something around
turn something round
upgrade upgradation upgradable upgradability
on the upgrade
vamp something up
work something out
Unbiased or impartial
disinterested disinterested disinterestedness
dispassionate(adjective) dispassion dispassionateness
objective objectiveness objectivize objectivization
Defining & explaining
annotate annotation annotator
crystallize crystallizable crystallization
chronical (noun or verb) -> record historical events
adumbrate adumbrative adumbration
to give only the main facts and not the details about something, especially something that will happend in the future
mansplain mansplaining mansplainer
the big picture
put somebody in the picture
out of the picture
that is to say ...
bring something home to somebody
cast/shed/throw light on something
As an economist, he was able to shed some lights on the problem.