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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98
id,Labor force,Labor force details,Judicial branch,Land use,Land use details,Land boundaries,Land boundaries details,Infant mortality rate,Infant mortality rate details,Industries,Waterways,Waterways details,Inflation rate (consumer prices),Inflation rate (consumer prices) details,Languages,Languages details,Internet country code,HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate,HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate details,HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS,HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS details,HIV/AIDS - deaths,HIV/AIDS - deaths details,Telephones - main lines in use,Telephones - main lines in use details,Sex ratio,Sex ratio details,Internet users,Internet users details,Television broadcast stations,Television broadcast stations details,Geographic coordinates,Age structure,Age structure details,Radio broadcast stations,Radio broadcast stations details,GDP - composition by sector,GDP - composition by sector details,Disputes - international,Area,Area details,Irrigated land,Irrigated land details,Map references,Location,Country name,Coastline,Coastline details,Imports - partners,Imports - partners details,Constitution,Diplomatic representation in the US,Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually,Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually details,Distribution of family income - Gini index,Distribution of family income - Gini index details,Oil - production,Oil - production details,Debt - external,Debt - external details,Exports,Exports details,Oil - exports,Oil - exports details,Median age,Median age details,Oil - consumption,Oil - consumption details,Oil - imports,Oil - imports details,Oil - proved reserves,Oil - proved reserves details,Natural gas - proved reserves,Natural gas - proved reserves details,Executive branch,Exchange rates,Exchange rates details,Ethnic groups,Ethnic groups details,Market value of publicly traded shares,Market value of publicly traded shares details,Exports - partners,Exports - partners details,Airports,Airports details,School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education),School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) details,Population below poverty line,Population below poverty line details,Household income or consumption by percentage share,Household income or consumption by percentage share details,Electricity - exports,Electricity - exports details,Electricity - consumption,Electricity - consumption details,Capital,Background,Labor force - by occupation,Labor force - by occupation details,Exports - commodities,Commercial bank prime lending rate,Commercial bank prime lending rate details,Death rate,Death rate details,Pipelines,Pipelines details,GDP (official exchange rate),GDP (official exchange rate) details,Stock of direct foreign investment - at home,Stock of direct foreign investment - at home details,Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad,Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad details,Administrative divisions,Total renewable water resources,Total renewable water resources details,Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural),Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) details,Agriculture - products,Military branches,Birth rate,Birth rate details,Education expenditures,Education expenditures details,Budget,Budget details,Climate,Imports - commodities,Political parties and leaders,Population,Population details,Nationality,Natural resources,Net migration rate,Net migration rate details,Geography - note,Political pressure groups and leaders,Economy - overview,Telephones - mobile cellular,Telephones - mobile cellular details,Independence,Natural gas - exports,Natural gas - exports details,Natural gas - imports,Natural gas - imports details,Natural gas - consumption,Natural gas - consumption details,Religions,Religions details,Current account balance,Current account balance details,Public debt,Public debt details,Investment (gross fixed),Investment (gross fixed) details,Internet hosts,Internet hosts details,Reserves of foreign exchange and gold,Reserves of foreign exchange and gold details,Electricity - imports,Electricity - imports details,Urbanization,Urbanization details,Stock of domestic credit,Stock of domestic credit details,Military service age and obligation,Military service age and obligation details,Manpower fit for military service,Manpower fit for military service details,National holiday,Merchant marine,Merchant marine details,Elevation extremes,Elevation extremes details,Natural hazards,Area - comparative,Literacy,Literacy details,Life expectancy at birth,Life expectancy at birth details,Legislative branch,Legal system,International organization participation,Maritime claims,Maritime claims details,Manpower available for military service,Manpower available for military service details,Military expenditures,Military expenditures details,Environment - international agreements,Environment - current issues,Airports - with unpaved runways,Airports - with unpaved runways details,Airports - with paved runways,Airports - with paved runways details,Electricity - production,Electricity - production details,Railways,Railways details,Ports and terminals,Suffrage,Suffrage details,Industrial production growth rate,Industrial production growth rate details,Terrain,Telephone system,Total fertility rate,Total fertility rate details,Unemployment rate,Unemployment rate details,Government type,Flag description,Illicit drugs,Imports,Imports details,Roadways,Roadways details,Population growth rate,Population growth rate details,GDP - real growth rate,GDP - real growth rate details,Heliports,Heliports details,GDP (purchasing power parity),GDP (purchasing power parity) details,Diplomatic representation from the US,GDP - per capita (PPP),GDP - per capita (PPP) details,Natural gas - production,Natural gas - production details
Canada,18220000,2008 est.,Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal Court of Queens Bench Superior Court Supreme Court and Court of Justice),0.65,2005,8893.0,NA,5.04,2009 est.,transportation equipment chemicals processed and unprocessed minerals food products wood and paper products fish products petroleum and natural gas,636,2008,2.4,January 2009 est.,17.5,NA,.ca,0.4,2007 est.,73000,2007 est.,500,2007 est.,21000000,2006,0.78,2009 est.,28000000,2007,148.0,2007,60 00 N 95 00 W,15.2,2009 est.,6.0,2004,2.0,2008 est.,managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance Beaufort Sea Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Gulf of Maine including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada the US and other countries dispute the status of the Northwest Passage; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people transport and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from its declared baselines in the Arctic as stipulated in Article 76 paragraph 8 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,9984670,NA,7850.0,2003,North America,Northern North America bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east North Pacific Ocean on the west and the Arctic Ocean on the north north of the conterminous US,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Canada,202080.0,NA,4.1,2008,made up of unwritten and written acts customs judicial decisions and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867 which created a federation of four provinces and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982 which transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Canada and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as procedures for constitutional amendments,chief of mission: Ambassador Michael WILSON chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW Washington DC 20001 telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740 FAX: [1] (202) 682-7701 consulate(s) general: Atlanta Boston Buffalo Chicago Dallas Denver Detroit Los Angeles Miami Minneapolis New York Phoenix San Diego San Francisco Seattle Tucson consulate(s): Anchorage Houston Philadelphia Princeton (New Jersey) Raleigh San Jose (California) Tucson,210797.0,2009 est.,32.1,2005,3425000,2007 est.,$ 758 600 000 000,30 June 2007,$ 459 100 000 000,2008 est.,2225000,2005,40.4,2009 est.,2371000,2007 est.,1229000,2005,178600000000,1 January 2008 est.,1648000000000,1 January 2008 est.,head of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 September 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Stephen HARPER (since 6 February 2006) cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general,1.04,NA,2.0,NA,$ 2 187 000 000 000,31 December 2007,2.3,2008,1369,2008,17.0,2004,10.8,2005,2.6,2000,50120000000.0,2007 est.,530000000000,2006 est.,name: Ottawa geographic coordinates: 45 25 N 75 42 W time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November note: Canada is divided into six time zones,A land of vast distances and rich natural resources Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and education services as well as responding to separatist concerns in predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.,2.0,2006,motor vehicles and parts industrial machinery aircraft telecommunications equipment; chemicals plastics fertilizers; wood pulp timber crude petroleum natural gas electricity aluminum,6.1,31 December 2007,7.74,July 2009 est.,23564.0,2006,$ 1 564 000 000 000,2008 est.,$ 433 400 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 538 000 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Newfoundland and Labrador Northwest Territories* Nova Scotia Nunavut* Ontario Prince Edward Island Quebec Saskatchewan Yukon Territory*,3300.0,1985,44.72,1996,wheat barley oilseed tobacco fruits vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish,Canadian Forces: Land Forces Command (LFC) Maritime Command (MARCOM) Air Command (AIRCOM) Canada Command (homeland security) (2009),10.28,2009 est.,5.2,2002,$ 573 700 000 000,2008 est.,varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north,machinery and equipment motor vehicles and parts crude oil chemicals electricity durable consumer goods,Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Canada [Stephen HARPER] (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party); Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Michael IGNATIEFF]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON],33487208,July 2009 est.,noun: Canadian(s) adjective: Canadian,iron ore nickel zinc copper gold lead molybdenum potash diamonds silver fish timber wildlife coal petroleum natural gas hydropower,5.63,2009 est.,second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border,other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions,As an affluent high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system pattern of production and affluent living standards. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing mining and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US its principle trading partner. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with the US which absorbs nearly 80% of Canadian exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy including oil gas uranium and electric power. Given its great natural resources skilled labor force and modern capital plant Canada has enjoyed solid economic growth and prudent fiscal management has produced consecutive balanced budgets from 1997 to 2007. In 2008 growth slowed sharply as a result of the global economic downturn US housing slump plunging auto sector demand and a drop in world commodity prices. Public finances too are set to deteriorate for the first time in a decade. Tight global credit conditions have further restrained business and housing investment despite the conservative lending practices and strong capitalization that made Canada's major banks among the most stable in the world.,18749000,2006,1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK),107300000000,2007 est.,13200000000,2007 est.,92900000000,2007 est.,1.9,2001 census,$ 7 610 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,19660000000.0,2007 est.,1.0,NA,$ 2 382 000 000 000,31 December 2007,,,6413748.0,2009 est.,Canada Day 1 July (1867),175,2008,0.0,NA,continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic Pacific and North American interior and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains,somewhat larger than the US,99.0,2003 est.,81.23,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve a maximum of five-year terms starting in 2009 elections) elections: House of Commons - last held 14 October 2008 (next to be held no later than 19 October 2012) election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative Party 37.6% Liberal Party 26.2% New Democratic Party 18.2% Bloc Quebecois 10% Greens 6.8% other 1%; seats by party - Conservative Party 143 Liberal Party 77 New Democratic Party 37 Bloc Quebecois 49 other 2,based on English common law except in Quebec where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ACCT ADB (nonregional member) AfDB (nonregional member) APEC Arctic Council ARF ASEAN (dialogue partner) Australia Group BIS C CDB CE (observer) EAPC EBRD ESA (cooperating state) FAO G-20 G-7 G-8 G-10 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINUSTAH MONUC NAFTA NAM (guest) NATO NEA NSG OAS OECD OIF OPCW OSCE Paris Club PCA PIF (partner) SECI (observer) UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNDOF UNESCO UNFICYP UNHCR UNMIS UNRWA UNTSO UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC,12.0,NA,7813462.0,2008 est.,1.1,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Air Pollution-Sulfur 85 Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Antarctic Seals Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds Marine Life Conservation,air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting coal-burning utilities and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural industrial mining and forestry activities,70.0,2008,16.0,2008,612600000000,2007 est.,46688,2008,Fraser River Port Halifax Hamilton Montreal Port-Cartier Quebec City Saint John (New Brunswick) Sept-Isles Vancouver,18.0,NA,-2.8,2008 est.,mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast,general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations international: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2007),1.58,2009 est.,6.2,2008 est.,a parliamentary democracy a federation and a Commonwealth realm,two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white,illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector,$ 415 200 000 000,2008 est.,1042300,2006,0.82,2009 est.,0.6,2008 est.,11.0,2007,$ 1 307 000 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador David H. WILKINS embassy: 490 Sussex Drive Ottawa Ontario K1N 1G8 mailing address: P. O. Box 5000 Ogdensburg NY 13669-0430; P.O. Box 866 Station B Ottawa Ontario K1P 5T1 telephone: [1] (613) 688-5335 FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082 consulate(s) general: Calgary Halifax Montreal Quebec Toronto Vancouver Winnipeg,$ 39 300,2008 est.,187000000000,2007 est.
Saint Martin,,,,,,15.0,NA,,,tourism light industry and manufacturing heavy industry,,,,,,,.mf; note - .gp the internet country code for Guadeloupe and .fr the internet country code for France might also be encountered,,,,,,,,,0.81,2009 est.,,,,,18 05 N 63 57 W,5.5,2009 est.,0.0,2007,1.0,2000,,54,NA,,,Central America and the Caribbean,island 300 km southeast of Puerto Rico,conventional long form: Overseas Collectivity of Saint Martin conventional short form: Saint Martin local long form: Collectivity d'outre mer de Saint-Martin local short form: Saint-Martin,58.9,NA,,,4 October 1958 (French Constitution),none (overseas collectivity of France),162.0,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,,,30.5,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007) represented by Prefect Dominique LACROIX (since 21 March 2007) head of government: President of the Territorial Council Frantz GUMBS (since 5 May 2009) cabinet: Executive Council; note - there is also an advisory economic social and cultural council election: French president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council is elected by the members of the Council for a five-year term election results: Frantz GUMBS elected president by the Territorial Council on 7 August 2008 but election was declared invalid on 10 April 2009,0.68,NA,,,,,,,1,2008,,,,,,,,,,,name: Marigot geographical coordinates: 18 04 N 63 05 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour behind Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight savings: +1 hour,Although sighted by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1493 and claimed for Spain it was the Dutch who occupied the island in 1631 and set about exploiting its salt deposits. The Spanish retook the island in 1633 but continued to be harassed by the Dutch. The Spanish finally relinquished St. Martin to the French and Dutch who divided it amongst themselves in 1648. The cultivation of sugar cane introduced slavery to the island in the late 18th century; the practice was not abolished until 1848. The island became a free port in 1939; the tourism industry was dramatically expanded during the 1970s and 1980s. In 2003 the populace of St. Martin voted to secede from Guadeloupe and in 2007 the northern portion of the island became a French overseas collectivity.,85.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,temperature averages 80-85 degrees all year long; low humidity gentle trade winds brief intense rain showers; July-November is the hurricane season,crude petroleum food manufactured items,Union Pour le Progres or UPP [Louis-Constant FLEMING]; Rassemblement Responsabilite Reussite or RRR [Alain RICHARDSON]; Reussir Saint-Martin [Jean-Luc HAMLET],29820,July 2009 est.,,salt,,,the island of Saint Martin is the smallest landmass in the world shared by two independent states the French territory of Saint Martin and the Dutch territory of Sint Maarten,NA,The economy of Saint Martin centers around tourism with 85% of the labor force engaged in this sector. Over one million visitors come to the island each year with most arriving through the Princess Juliana International Airport in Sint Maarten. No significant agriculture and limited local fishing means that almost all food must be imported. Energy resources and manufactured goods are also imported primarily from Mexico and the United States. Saint Martin is reported to have the highest per capita income in the Caribbean.,,,none (overseas collectivity of France),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,6336.0,2009 est.,Bastille Day 14 July (1789); note - local holiday is Schoalcher Day (Slavery Abolition Day) 12 July (1848),,,0.0,NA,,more than one-third the size of Washington DC,,,,,unicameral Territorial Council (23 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 1 and 8 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012) election results: percent of seats by party - UPP 49% RRR 42.2% Reussir Saint-Martin 8.9%; seats by party - UPP 16 RRR 6 Reussir Saint-Martin 1 note: Saint Martin elects one seat to the French Senate; election last held 21 September 2008 (next to be held in September 2014); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 1,the laws of France where applicable apply,UPU WFTU,,,,,,,,fresh water supply is dependent on desalinization of sea water,,,1.0,2008,,,,,,18.0,NA,,,,general assessment: fully integrated access domestic: direct dial capability with both fixed and wireless systems international: country code - 590; undersea fiber-optic cable provides voice and data connectivity to Puerto Rico and Guadeloupe,,,,,,the flag of France is used,,,,,,,,,,,,,,none (overseas collectivity of France),,,,
Sao Tome and Principe,52490,2007,Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly),8.33,2005,0.0,NA,37.12,2009 est.,light construction textiles soap beer fish processing timber,,,23.0,2008 est.,,,.st,,,,,,,7700,2007,0.82,2009 est.,23000,2007,2.0,2001,1 00 N 7 00 E,3.5,2009 est.,1.0,2001,14.6,2008 est.,none,964,NA,100.0,2003,Africa,Western Africa islands in the Gulf of Guinea straddling the Equator west of Gabon,conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe local short form: Sao Tome e Principe,209.0,NA,9.3,2008,approved March 1990 effective 10 September 1990,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) chancery: 400 Park Avenue 7th Floor New York NY 10022 telephone: [1] (212) 317-0580 FAX: [1] (212) 935-7348,2485.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 318 000 000,2002,$ 8 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,16.4,2009 est.,660,2006 est.,660,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Fradique Bandiera Melo DE MENEZES (since 3 September 2001) head of government: Prime Minister Joachim Rafael BRANCO (since 22 June 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 30 July 2006 (next to be held July 2011); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president election results: Fradique DE MENEZES elected president; percent of vote - Fradique DE MENEZES 60% Patrice TROVOADA 38.5%,9900.4,NA,,,,,6.2,2008,2,2008,10.0,2006,54.0,2004 est.,,,0.0,2007,16740000,2006 est.,name: Sao Tome geographic coordinates: 0 12 N 6 39 E time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor a form of which lingered into the 20th century. While independence was achieved in 1975 democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The country held its first free elections in 1991 but frequent internal wrangling between the various political party's precipitated repeated changes in leadership and two failed coup attempts in 1995 and 2003. The recent discovery of oil in the Gulf of Guinea promises to attract increased attention to the small island nation.,,,cocoa 80% copra coffee palm oil,32.4,31 December 2007,5.8,July 2009 est.,,,$ 160 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,2 provinces; Principe Sao Tome note: Principe has had self government since 29 April 1995,,,,,cocoa coconuts palm kernels copra cinnamon pepper coffee bananas papayas beans; poultry; fish,Armed Forces of Sao Tome and Principe (FASTP): Army Coast Guard of Sao Tome e Principe (Guarda Costeira de Sao Tome e Principe GCSTP) Presidential Guard (2007),38.54,2009 est.,,,$ 47 650 000,2008 est.,tropical; hot humid; one rainy season (October to May),machinery and electrical equipment food products petroleum products,Force for Change Democratic Movement or MDFM [Tome Soares da VERA CRUZ]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [[Patrice TROVOADA]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Rafael BRANCO]; New Way Movement or NR; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Delfim NEVES]; Ue-Kedadji coalition; other small parties,212679,July 2009 est.,noun: Sao Tomean(s) adjective: Sao Tomean,fish hydropower,-1.81,2009 est.,the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are mountainous,Association of Sao Tome and Principe NGOs or FONG other: the media,This small poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence in 1975. Cocoa production has substantially declined in recent years because of drought and mismanagement. Sao Tome has to import all fuels most manufactured goods consumer goods and a substantial amount of food. Over the years it has had difficulty servicing its external debt and has relied heavily on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Sao Tome benefited from $200 million in debt relief in December 2000 under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program which helped bring down the country's $300 million debt burden. In August 2005 Sao Tome signed on to a new 3-year IMF Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) program worth $4.3 million. Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies. Potential exists for the development of petroleum resources in Sao Tome's territorial waters in the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea which are being jointly developed in a 60-40 split with Nigeria but any actual production is at least several years off. The first production licenses were sold in 2004 though a dispute over licensing with Nigeria delayed Sao Tome's receipt of more than $20 million in signing bonuses for almost a year. Real GDP growth averaged about 6% in 2006-08 as a result of increases in public expenditures and oil-related capital investment.,30100,2007,12 July 1975 (from Portugal),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,1.8,2001 census,$ -68 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,3.0,NA,$ 31 840 000,31 December 2007,,,35216.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 12 July (1975),6,2008,0.0,NA,NA,more than five times the size of Washington DC,84.9,2001 census,68.32,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held on 26 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2010) election results: percent of vote by party - MDFM-PCD 37.2% MLSTP 28.9% ADI 20.0% NR 4.7% others 9.2%; seats by party - MDFM-PCD 23 MLSTP 19 ADI 12 NR 1,based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP AfDB AU CPLP FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICCt (signatory) ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM (observer) IPU ITU ITUC NAM OIF OPCW UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO Union Latina UNWTO UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),12.0,NA,42340.0,2008 est.,0.8,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion,,,1.0,2008,18000000,2006 est.,,,Sao Tome,18.0,NA,9.5,2008 est.,volcanic mountainous,general assessment: local telephone network of adequate quality with most lines connected to digital switches domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 20 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean),5.33,2009 est.,,,republic,three horizontal bands of green (top) yellow (double width) and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia,,$ 88 000 000,2008 est.,320,2000,3.09,2009 est.,5.5,2008 est.,,,$ 276 600 000,2008 est.,the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands,$ 1 300,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Guernsey,31470,March 2006,Royal Court (judges elected by an electoral college and the bailiff),,,0.0,NA,4.47,2009 est.,tourism banking,,,3.4,June 2006,,,.gg,,,,,,,45100,2005,0.74,2009 est.,36000,2005,1.0,1997,49 28 N 2 35 W,14.4,2009 est.,0.0,1998,3.0,2000,none,78,NA,,,Europe,Western Europe islands in the English Channel northwest of France,conventional long form: Bailiwick of Guernsey conventional short form: Guernsey,50.0,NA,,,unwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice,none (British crown dependency),351.0,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,,,42.5,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir Fabian MALBON (since 28 October 2005) head of government: Chief Minister Lyndon TROTT (since 1 May 2008) cabinet: Policy Council elected by the States of Deliberation elections: the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister is elected by States of Deliberation election results: Lyndon TROTT elected chief minister percent of vote of the States of Deliberation NA,0.5,NA,,,,,,,2,2008,,,,,,,0.0,2002,,,name: Saint Peter Port geographic coordinates: 49 27 N 2 32 W time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,Guernsey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy which held sway in both France and England. The islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. Guernsey is a British crown dependency but is not part of the UK. However the UK Government is constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.,,,tomatoes flowers and ferns sweet peppers eggplant other vegetables,,,10.16,July 2009 est.,,,$ 2 742 000 000,2005,,,,,none (British crown dependency); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government but there are 10 parishes including Castel Forest Saint Andrew Saint Martin Saint Peter Port Saint Pierre du Bois Saint Sampson Saint Saviour Torteval Vale,,,,,tomatoes greenhouse flowers sweet peppers eggplant fruit; Guernsey cattle,,8.46,2009 est.,,,$ 530 900 000,2005,temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast,coal gasoline oil machinery and equipment,none; all independents,65870,July 2009 est.,noun: Channel Islander(s) adjective: Channel Islander,cropland,3.8,2009 est.,large deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port,Stop Traffic Endangering Pedestrian Safety or STEPS; No More Masts [Colin FALLAIZE],Financial services - banking fund management insurance - account for about 23% of employment and about 55% of total income in this tiny prosperous Channel Island economy. Tourism manufacturing and horticulture mainly tomatoes and cut flowers have been declining. Financial services construction retail and the public sector have been growing. Light tax and death duties make Guernsey a popular tax haven. The evolving economic integration of the EU nations is changing the environment under which Guernsey operates.,43800,2004,none (British crown dependency),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,2002,0.6,NA,,,,,12447.0,2009 est.,Liberation Day 9 May (1945),,,0.0,NA,NA,about one-half the size of Washington DC,,,80.77,2009 est.,unicameral States of Deliberation (45 seats; members are elected by popular vote for four years); note - Alderney and Sark have parliaments elections: last held 23 April 2008 (next to be held in 2012) election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - all independents,the laws of the UK where applicable apply; justice is administered by the Royal Court,UPU,3.0,NA,,,,,,NA,,,1.0,2008,,,,,Saint Peter Port Saint Sampson,16.0,NA,,,mostly level with low hills in southwest,general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: 1 submarine cable,1.41,2009 est.,0.9,March 2006 est.,parliamentary democracy,white with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) extending to the edges of the flag and a yellow equal-armed cross of William the Conqueror superimposed on the Saint George cross,,,,,,0.21,2009 est.,3.0,2005 est.,,,$ 2 742 000 000,2005,none (British crown dependency),$ 44 600,2005,,
Turkmenistan,13510000,2007 est.,Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president),0.14,2005,379.0,NA,45.36,2009 est.,natural gas oil petroleum products textiles food processing,1300,2008,13.0,2008 est.,7.0,NA,.tm,0.1,2007 est.,200,2007 est.,100,2004 est.,457900,2007,0.77,2009 est.,70000,2007,4.0,2004,40 00 N 60 00 E,4.3,2009 est.,2.0,1998,9.1,2008 est.,cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2005 but Caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled with Azerbaijan Iran and Kazakhstan due to Turkmenistan's indecision over how to allocate the sea's waters and seabed,488100,NA,18000.0,2003,Asia,Central Asia bordering the Caspian Sea between Iran and Kazakhstan,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Turkmenistan local long form: none local short form: Turkmenistan former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic,0.0,NA,5.3,2008,adopted 18 May 1992,chief of mission: Ambassador Meret Bairamovich ORAZOW chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500 FAX: [1] (202) 588-0697,56064.0,2009 est.,40.8,1998,180400,2007 est.,$ 1 400 000 000,2004 est.,$ 11 920 000 000,2008 est.,40000,2007 est.,24.4,2009 est.,107400,2006 est.,5283,2005,600000000,1 January 2008 est.,2832000000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 February 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 February 2007) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 11 February 2007 (next to be held in February 2012) election results: Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW elected president; percent of vote - Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW 89.2% Amanyaz ATAJYKOW 3.2% other candidates 7.6%,14250.0,NA,4.0,2003,,,7.8,2008,28,2008,,,30.0,2004 est.,2.6,1998,1340000000.0,2006 est.,9584000000,2006 est.,name: Ashgabat (Ashkhabad) geographic coordinates: 37 57 N 58 23 E time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Eastern Turkmenistan for centuries formed part of the Persian province of Khurasan; in medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885 Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1924. It achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects were to be expanded. The Turkmenistan Government is actively seeking to develop alternative petroleum transportation routes to break Russia's pipeline monopoly. President for Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died in December 2006 and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential electoral process in February 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW a vice premier under NYYAZOW emerged as the country's new president.,14.0,2004 est.,gas crude oil petrochemicals textiles cotton fiber,,,6.31,July 2009 est.,1457.0,2008,$ 28 820 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,5 provinces (welayatlar singular - welayat) and 1 independent city*: Ahal Welayaty (Anew) Ashgabat* Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat) Dashoguz Welayaty Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat) Mary Welayaty note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses),60.9,1997,24.65,2000,cotton grain; livestock,Army Navy Air and Air Defense Forces (2009),19.69,2009 est.,3.9,1991,$ 1 407 000 000,2008 est.,subtropical desert,machinery and equipment chemicals foodstuffs,Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW] note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial small opposition movements exist abroad; the three most prominent opposition groups-in-exile are the National Democratic Movement of Turkmenistan (NDMT) the Republican Party of Turkmenistan and the Watan (Fatherland) Party; the NDMT was led by former Foreign Minister Boris SHIKHMURADOV until his arrest and imprisonment in the wake of the 25 November 2002 attack on President NYYAZOW's motorcade,4884887,July 2009 est.,noun: Turkmen(s) adjective: Turkmen,petroleum natural gas sulfur salt,-1.97,2009 est.,landlocked; the western and central low-lying desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau,NA,Turkmenistan is largely a desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and sizeable gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton; formerly it was the world's 10th-largest producer. Poor harvests in recent years have led to an almost 50% decline in cotton exports. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. From 1998-2005 Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time however total exports rose by an average of roughly 15% per year from 2003-08 largely because of higher international oil and gas prices. A new pipeline to China set to come online in late 2009 or early 2010 will give Turkmenistan an additional export route for its gas. Overall prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty a poor educational system government misuse of oil and gas revenues and Ashgabat's reluctance to adopt market-oriented reforms. In the past Turkmenistan's economic statistics were state secrets. The new government has established a State Agency for Statistics but GDP numbers and other figures are subject to wide margins of error. In particular the rate of GDP growth is uncertain. Since his election President BERDIMUHAMEDOW has sought to improve the health and education systems unified the country's dual currency exchange rate ordered the redenomination of the manat reduced state subsidies for gasoline increased Internet access both in schools and Internet cafes ordered an independent audit of Turkmenistan's gas resources and created a special tourism zone on the Caspian Sea. Although foreign investment is encouraged numerous bureaucratic obstacles from the NYYZOW-era remain.,810000,2008,27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union),49400000000,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,19480000000,2007 est.,2.0,NA,$ 4 657 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,2.2,NA,,,,,1024884.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 27 October (1991),7,2008,3139.0,NA,NA,slightly larger than California,98.8,1999 est.,67.87,2009 est.,unicameral parliament known as the National Assembly (Mejlis) (125 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 14 December 2008 (next to be held December 2013) election results: 100% of elected officials are members of either the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or its pseudo-civil society parent organization the Revival Movement and are preapproved by the president note: in autumn 2008 the constitution of Turkmenistan was revised to abolish the 2 507-member legislative body known as the People's Council and to expand the number of deputies in the National Assembly from 65 to 125; the powers formerly held by the People's Council were divided up between the president and the National Assembly,based on civil law system and Islamic law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ADB CIS EAPC EBRD ECO FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IDB IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO (correspondent) ITU MIGA NAM OIC OPCW OSCE PFP SCO (guest) UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO,,,1316698.0,2008 est.,3.4,2005 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Hazardous Wastes Ozone Layer Protection signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals pesticides; salination water logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification,2.0,2008,1.0,2008,12830000000,2006 est.,2980,2008,Turkmenbasy,18.0,NA,-1.5,2008 est.,flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west,general assessment: telecommunications network remains underdeveloped and progress toward improvement is slow; strict government control and censorship inhibits liberalization and modernization domestic: Turkmentelekom in cooperation with foreign partners has installed high speed fiber-optic lines and has upgraded most of the country's telephone exchanges and switching centers with new digital technology; mobile telephone usage is expanding with Russia's Mobile Telesystems (MTS) the primary service provider international: country code - 993; linked by fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; an exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat (2008),2.22,2009 est.,60.0,2004 est.,republic; authoritarian presidential rule with little power outside the executive branch,green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side containing five tribal guls (designs used in producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches; a white crescent moon representing Islam with five white stars representing the regions or welayats of Turkmenistan appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe,transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and Western European markets; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan,$ 5 666 000 000,2008 est.,58592,2002,1.14,2009 est.,10.0,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 29 650 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Richard M. MILES embassy: No. 9 1984 Street (formerly Pushkin Street) Ashgabat Turkmenistan 744000 mailing address: 7070 Ashgabat Place Washington DC 20521-7070 telephone: [993] (12) 35-00-45 FAX: [993] (12) 39-26-14,$ 6 100,2008 est.,68880000000,2007 est.
Saint Helena,2486,1998 est.,Magistrate's Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal,0.0,2005,0.0,NA,17.63,2009 est.,construction crafts (furniture lacework fancy woodwork) fishing philatelic sales,,,3.2,1997 est.,,,.sh; note - Ascension Island assigned .ac,,,,,,,2200,2002,0.9,2009 est.,1000,2003,0.0,2005,Saint Helena: 15 57 S 5 42 W Ascension Island: 7 57 S 14 22 W Tristan da Cunha island group: 37 15 S 12 30 W,11.4,2009 est.,0.0,2005,,,none,308,NA,,,Africa,islands in the South Atlantic Ocean about midway between South America and Africa; Ascension Island lies 700 nm northwest of Saint Helena; Tristan da Cunha lies 2 300 nm southwest of Saint Helena,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Saint Helena,40.0,NA,,,1 January 1989,none (overseas territory of the UK),45.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,,,$ 19 000 000,2004 est.,0,2005,37.6,2009 est.,60,2006 est.,85,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) head of government: Governor and Commander in Chief Andrew GURR (since 11 November 2007) cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor 3 ex-officio officers and 5 elected members of the Legislative Council elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor is appointed by the monarch,0.5,NA,25.0,NA,,,,,1,2008,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,7440000,2006 est.,name: Jamestown geographic coordinates: 15 56 S 5 44 W time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Saint Helena is a British Overseas Territory consisting of Saint Helena and Ascension Islands and the island group of Tristan da Cunha. Saint Helena: Uninhabited when first discovered by the Portuguese in 1502 Saint Helena was garrisoned by the British during the 17th century. It acquired fame as the place of Napoleon BONAPARTE's exile from 1815 until his death in 1821 but its importance as a port of call declined after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. During the Anglo-Boer War in South Africa several thousand Boer prisoners were confined on the island between 1900 and 1903. Ascension Island: This barren and uninhabited island was discovered and named by the Portuguese in 1503. The British garrisoned the island in 1815 to prevent a rescue of Napoleon from Saint Helena. It served as a provisioning station for the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron on anti-slavery patrol. The island remained under Admiralty control until 1922 when it became a dependency of Saint Helena. During World War II the UK permitted the US to construct an airfield on Ascension in support of trans-Atlantic flights to Africa and anti-submarine operations in the South Atlantic. In the 1960s the island became an important space tracking station for the US. In 1982 Ascension was an essential staging area for British forces during the Falklands War. It remains a critical refueling point in the air-bridge from the UK to the South Atlantic. Tristan da Cunha: The island group consists of the islands of Tristan da Cunha Nightingale Inaccessible and Gough. Tristan da Cunha is named after its Portuguese discoverer (1506); it was garrisoned by the British in 1816 to prevent any attempt to rescue Napoleon from Saint Helena. Gough and Inaccessible Islands have been designated World Heritage Sites. South Africa leases a site for a meteorological station on Gough Island.,6.0,1987 est.,fish (frozen canned and salt-dried skipjack tuna) coffee handicrafts,,,6.68,July 2009 est.,,,,,,,,,1 administrative area and 2 dependencies*; Ascension* Saint Helena Tristan da Cunha*,,,,,coffee corn potatoes vegetables; timber; fish lobster (on Tristan da Cunha); livestock,,11.13,2009 est.,,,$ 12 330 000,FY06/07 est.,Saint Helena: tropical marine; mild tempered by trade winds Ascension Island: tropical marine; mild semi-arid Tristan da Cunha: temperate marine; mild tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena),food beverages tobacco fuel oils animal feed building materials motor vehicles and parts machinery and parts,none,7637,July 2009 est.,"noun: Saint Helenian(s) adjective: Saint Helenian note: referred to locally as ""Saints""",fish lobster,,,Saint Helena harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown anywhere else in the world; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles and sooty terns; Queen Mary's Peak on Tristan da Cunha is the highest island mountain in the South Atlantic and a prominent landmark on the sea lanes around southern Africa,other: private sector; unions,The economy depends largely on financial assistance from the UK which amounted to about $27 million in FY06/07 or more than twice the level of annual budgetary revenues. The local population earns income from fishing raising livestock and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs 25% of the work force has left to seek employment on Ascension Island on the Falklands and in the UK.,,,none (overseas territory of the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,1.5,NA,,,,,1586.0,2009 est.,Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II second Saturday in June (1926),,,0.0,NA,active volcanism on Tristan da Cunha last eruption in 1961,slightly more than twice the size of Washington DC,97.0,1987 est.,78.44,2009 est.,unicameral Legislative Council (16 seats including the speaker three ex officio and 12 elected members; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 31 August 2005 (next to be held in November 2009) election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 12,English common law and statutes supplemented by local statutes,UPU WFTU,12.0,NA,,,,,,NA,,,1.0,2008,8000000,2006 est.,,,Saint Helena: Jamestown Ascension Island: Georgetown Tristan da Cunha: Calshot Harbor,,,,,the islands of this group result from volcanic activity associated with the Atlantic Mid-Ocean Ridge Saint Helena: rugged volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains Ascension: surface covered by lava flows and cinder cones of 44 dormant volcanoes; ground rises to the east Tristan da Cunha: sheer cliffs line the coastline of the nearly circular island; the flanks of the central volcanic peak are deeply dissected; narrow coastal plain lies between The Peak and the coastal cliffs,general assessment: can communicate worldwide domestic: automatic digital network international: country code (Saint Helena) - 290 (Ascension Island) - 247; international direct dialing; satellite voice and data communications; satellite earth stations - 5 (Ascension Island - 4 Saint Helena - 1),1.56,2009 est.,14.0,1998 est.,NA,blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Saint Helenian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield features a rocky coastline and three-masted sailing ship,,$ 45 000 000,2004 est.,198,2002,0.45,2009 est.,,,,,$ 18 000 000,1998 est.,none (overseas territory of the UK),$ 2 500,1998 est.,0,2007 est.
Lithuania,1614000,2008 est.,Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the president,0.9,2005,91.0,NA,6.47,2009 est.,metal-cutting machine tools electric motors television sets refrigerators and freezers petroleum refining shipbuilding (small ships) furniture making textiles food processing fertilizers agricultural machinery optical equipment electronic components computers amber jewelry,441,2007,10.9,2008 est.,4.4,2001 census,.lt,0.1,2007 est.,2200,2007 est.,200,2007 est.,799400,2007,0.53,2009 est.,1333000,2007,44.0,2008,56 00 N 24 00 E,14.2,2009 est.,1.0,2001,4.5,2008 est.,Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia while still conforming as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member to strict Schengen border rules; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons; as of January 2007 ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation,65300,NA,70.0,2003,Europe,Eastern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Russia,conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania conventional short form: Lithuania local long form: Lietuvos Respublika local short form: Lietuva former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic,90.0,NA,5.2,2008,adopted 25 October 1992; last amended 13 July 2004,chief of mission: Ambassador Audrius BRUZGA chancery: 2622 16th Street NW Washington DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860 FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466 consulate(s) general: Chicago New York,22404.0,2009 est.,36.0,2005,8250,2007 est.,$ 36 830 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 23 740 000 000,2008 est.,148400,2005,39.3,2009 est.,57170,2006 est.,206700,2005,12000000,1 January 2008 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (since 12 July 2009) head of government: Prime Minister Andrius KUBILIUS (since 27 November 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 17 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament election results: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE elected president; percent of vote - Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE 69.1% Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS 11.8% Valentinas MAZURONIS 6.2% others 12.9%; Andrius KUBILIUS' government approved by Parliament 83-40 with 5 abstentions,2.33,NA,3.6,2001 census,$ 10 130 000 000,31 December 2007,4.5,2008,87,2008,15.0,2006,4.0,2003,2.7,2003,7217000000.0,2007 est.,10400000000,2006 est.,name: Vilnius geographic coordinates: 54 41 N 25 19 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century through alliances and conquest Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569 Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990 Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.,14.0,2005,mineral products 23% textiles and clothing 16% machinery and equipment 11% chemicals 6% wood and wood products 5% foodstuffs 5% (2001),6.86,31 December 2007,11.18,July 2009 est.,114.0,2008,$ 48 750 000 000,2008 est.,$ 12 850 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 1 985 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,10 counties (apskritys singular - apskritis); Alytaus Kauno Klaipedos Marijampoles Panevezio Siauliu Taurages Telsiu Utenos Vilniaus,24.5,2005,3.33,2003,grain potatoes sugar beets flax vegetables; beef milk eggs; fish,Ground Forces Naval Forces Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos) National Defense Volunteer Forces (2009),9.11,2009 est.,5.0,2005,$ 15 150 000 000,2008 est.,transitional between maritime and continental; wet moderate winters and summers,mineral products machinery and equipment transport equipment chemicals textiles and clothing metals,Civil Democracy Party or PDP [Viktor MUNTIANAS]; Coalition of Labor Party and Youth or KDP+J [Viktor USPASKICH]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; Homeland Union - Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Lithuanian Peasant Popular Union or LVLS [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; Liberal and Center Union or LCS [Arturas ZUOKAS]; Liberal Movement or LRLS [Eligijus MASIULIS]; National Revival or TPP [Arunas VALINSKAS]; New Union (Social Liberal) or NS [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Gediminas KIRKILAS]; Young Lithuania and New Nationalists [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS],3555179,July 2009 est.,noun: Lithuanian(s) adjective: Lithuanian,peat arable land amber,-0.72,2009 est.,fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits,Europe House (promotes the EU); European Movement (promotes the EU); Lithuanian Future Forum (promotes the EU),Lithuania's economy grew on average 8% per year for the four years prior to 2008 driven by exports and domestic consumer demand. Unemployment stood at 4.8% in 2008 while wages grew at double digit rates. The current account deficit rose to roughly 15% of GDP in 2007-08. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Despite Lithuania's EU accession Lithuania's trade with its Central and Eastern European neighbors and Russia in particular accounts for a growing percentage of total trade. Privatization of the large state-owned utilities is nearly complete. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy.,4912000,2007,11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union),0,2007 est.,3440000000,2007 est.,3440000000,2007 est.,1.9,2001 census,$ -5 629 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,5846000000.0,2007 est.,-0.4,NA,$ 25 050 000 000,31 December 2007,,,677689.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union,45,2008,0.0,NA,NA,slightly larger than West Virginia,99.6,2001 census,74.9,2009 est.,unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members are elected by popular vote 70 are elected by proportional representation; serve four-year terms) elections: last held 12 and 26 October 2008 (next to be held October 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - TS-LKD 19.7% TPP 15.1% TT 12.7% LSDP 11.7% KDP+J 9% LRLS 5.7% LCS 5.3% LLRA 4.8% LVLS 3.7% NS 3.6% other 8.7%; seats by faction - TS-LKD 44 LSDP 26 TPP 16 TT 15 LRLS 11 KDP+J 10 LCS 8 LLRA 3 LVLS 3 NS 1 independent 4,based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,Australia Group BA BIS CBSS CE EAPC EBRD EIB EU FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITU ITUC MIGA NATO NIB NSG OIF (observer) OPCW OSCE PCA Schengen Convention UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNOMIG UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WEU (associate partner) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,906097.0,2008 est.,1.2,2007 est.,party to: Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Air Pollution-Sulphur 85 Air Pollution-Sulphur 94 Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,11910000000,2006 est.,1765,2008,Klaipeda,18.0,NA,1.5,2008 est.,lowland many scattered small lakes fertile soil,general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of main line subscriptions; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to about 135 per 100 persons while fixed-line teledensity has dropped to 22 per 100 persons international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark Sweden and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2007),1.23,2009 est.,5.8,2008 est.,parliamentary democracy,three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) green and red,transshipment and destination point for cannabis cocaine ecstasy and opiates from Southwest Asia Latin America Western Europe and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines but limited production of cannabis methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation,$ 29 300 000 000,2008 est.,80715,2007,-0.28,2009 est.,3.2,2008 est.,,,$ 63 250 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador John A. CLOUD embassy: Akmenu gatve 6 Vilnius LT-03106 mailing address: American Embassy Akmenu Gatve 6 Vilnius LT-03106 telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500 FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510,$ 17 700,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Cambodia,8600000,2008 est.,Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority,0.59,2005,541.0,NA,54.79,2009 est.,tourism garments construction rice milling fishing wood and wood products rubber cement gem mining textiles,2400,2008,19.7,2008 est.,95.0,NA,.kh,0.8,2007 est.,75000,2007 est.,6900,2007 est.,37500,2007,0.6,2009 est.,70000,2007,8.0,2008,13 00 N 105 00 E,3.6,2009 est.,1.0,2008,29.0,2007 est.,Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary with missing boundary markers and claims of Thai encroachments into Cambodian territory; maritime boundary with Vietnam is hampered by unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; Thailand accuses Cambodia of obstructing inclusion of Thai areas near Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 as part of a planned UN World Heritage site,181035,NA,2700.0,2003,Southeast Asia,Southeastern Asia bordering the Gulf of Thailand between Thailand Vietnam and Laos,conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia conventional short form: Cambodia local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation) local short form: Kampuchea former: Khmer Republic Democratic Kampuchea People's Republic of Kampuchea State of Cambodia,443.0,NA,4.4,2008,promulgated 21 September 1993,chief of mission: Ambassador HENG HEM chancery: 4530 16th Street NW Washington DC 20011 telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742 FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381,175332.0,2009 est.,43.0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,$ 4 266 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 4 312 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,22.1,2009 est.,3736,2006 est.,3618,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004) head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985) [co-prime minister from 1993 to 1997]; Permanent Deputy Prime Minister MEN SAM AN (since 25 September 2008); Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992); SOK AN TEA BANH HOR NAMHONG NHEK BUNCHHAY (since 16 July 2004); BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007); KEAT CHHON YIM CHHAI LY (since 24 September 2008); KE KIMYAN (since 12 March 2009) cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch elections: the king is chosen by a Royal Throne Council from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections a member of the majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king,4006.0,NA,1.0,NA,,,4.9,2008,17,2008,9.0,2006,35.0,2004,3.0,2007,0.0,2007 est.,1178000000,2006 est.,name: Phnom Penh geographic coordinates: 11 33 N 104 55 E time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863 and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975 after a five-year struggle Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution forced hardships or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders are awaiting trial by a UN-sponsored tribunal for crimes against humanity. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004 King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son Prince Norodom SIHAMONI was selected to succeed him. Local elections were held in Cambodia in April 2007 and there was little in the way of pre-election violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2008 were relatively peaceful.,75.0,2004 est.,clothing timber rubber rice fish tobacco footwear,16.18,31 December 2007,8.08,July 2009 est.,,,$ 10 300 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,23 provinces (khett singular and plural) and 1 municipality (krong singular and plural) provinces: Banteay Mean Cheay Batdambang Kampong Cham Kampong Chhnang Kampong Spoe Kampong Thum Kampot Kandal Kaoh Kong Keb Krachen Mondol Kiri Otdar Mean Cheay Pailin Pouthisat Preah Seihanu (Sihanoukville) Preah Vihear Prey Veng Rotanah Kiri Siem Reab Stoeng Treng Svay Rieng Takev municipalities: Phnum Penh (Phnom Penh),476.1,1999,4.08,2000,rice rubber corn vegetables cashews tapioca silk,Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army Royal Khmer Navy Royal Cambodian Air Force (2009),25.73,2009 est.,1.7,2004,$ 1 274 000 000,2008 est.,tropical; rainy monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation,petroleum products cigarettes gold construction materials machinery motor vehicles pharmaceutical products,Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; Human Rights Party or HRP [KHEM SOKHA also spelled KEM SOKHA]; National United Front for an Independent Neutral Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [KEV PUT REAKSMEI]; Norodom Ranariddh Party or NRP [CHHIM SEAK LENG]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI also spelled SAM RAINSY],14494293,July 2009 est.,noun: Cambodian(s) adjective: Cambodian,oil and gas timber gemstones iron ore manganese phosphates hydropower potential,,,a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap,Cambodian Freedom Fighters or CFF; Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization); Students Movement for Democracy; The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel other: human rights organizations; vendors,From 2004 to 2007 the economy grew about 10% per year driven largely by an expansion in the garment sector construction agriculture and tourism. Growth dropped below 7% in 2008 as a result of the global economic slowdown. With the January 2005 expiration of a WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing Cambodian textile producers were forced to compete directly with lower-priced countries such as China India Vietnam and Bangladesh. The garment industry currently employs more than 320 000 people and contributes more than 85% of Cambodia's exports. In 2005 exploitable oil deposits were found beneath Cambodia's territorial waters representing a new revenue stream for the government if commercial extraction begins. Mining also is attracting significant investor interest particularly in the northern parts of the country and the government has said opportunities exist for mining bauxite gold iron and gems. In 2006 a US-Cambodia bilateral Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed and several rounds of discussions have been held since 2007. The tourism industry has continued to grow rapidly with foreign arrivals exceeding 2 million per year in 2007-08 however economic troubles abroad will dampen growth in 2009. Rubber exports declined more than 15% in 2008 due to falling world market prices. The global financial crisis is weakening demand for Cambodian exports and construction is declining due to a shortage of credit. The long-term development of the economy remains a daunting challenge. The Cambodian government is working with bilateral and multilateral donors including the World Bank and IMF to address the country's many pressing needs. The major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance. More than 50% of the population is less than 21 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure.,2583000,2007,9 November 1953 (from France),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0.2,1998 census,$ -1 002 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,110000000.0,2006 est.,4.6,NA,$ 1 131 000 000,31 December 2007,,,2673383.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 9 November (1953),626,2008,0.0,NA,monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts,slightly smaller than Oklahoma,73.6,2004 est.,62.1,2009 est.,bicameral consists of the Senate (61 seats; 2 members appointed by the monarch 2 elected by the National Assembly and 57 elected by parliamentarians and commune councils; members serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (123 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011); National Assembly - last held 27 July 2008 (next to be held in July 2013) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 69% FUNCINPEC 21% SRP 10%; seats by party - CPP 45 FUNCINPEC 10 SRP 2; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 58% SRP 22% HRP 7%; NRP 6%; FUNCINPEC 5%; others 2%; seats by party - CPP 90 SRP 26 HRP 3 FUNCINPEC 2 NRP 2,primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period royal decrees and acts of the legislature with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ACCT ADB APT ARF ASEAN EAS FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (subscriber) ITU MIGA NAM OIF OPCW PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNMIS UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,3759034.0,2008 est.,3.0,2005 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea,illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing,1.0,2008,2.0,2008,1163000000,2006 est.,602,2008,Phnom Penh Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville),18.0,NA,8.0,2008 est.,mostly low flat plains; mountains in southwest and north,general assessment: mobile-phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage aided by increasing competition among service providers is increasing and stands at nearly 20 per 100 persons domestic: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2007),3.04,2009 est.,3.5,2007 est.,multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy,three horizontal bands of blue (top) red (double width) and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band note: only national flag to incorporate an actual building in its design,narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government military and police; limited methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders,$ 6 370 000 000,2008 est.,38093,2007,1.77,2009 est.,6.8,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 27 950 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Carol A. RODLEY embassy: #1 Street 96 Sangkat Wat Phnom Khan Daun Penh Phnom Penh mailing address: Box P APO AP 96546 telephone: [855] (23) 728-000 FAX: [855] (23) 728-600,$ 2 000,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Ethiopia,37900000,2007,Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council),0.65,2005,349.0,NA,80.8,2009 est.,food processing beverages textiles leather chemicals metals processing cement,,,44.4,2008 est.,1.7,1994 census,.et,2.1,2007 est.,980000,2007 est.,67000,2007 est.,880100,2007,0.75,2009 est.,291000,2007,1.0,2001,8 00 N 38 00 E,2.7,2009 est.,0.0,2001,12.8,2008 est.,"Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) which has monitored the 25-km-wide Temporary Security Zone in Eritrea since 2000 is extended for six months in 2007 despite Eritrean restrictions on its operations and reduced force of 17 000; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; ""Somaliland"" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia",1104300,NA,2900.0,2003,Africa,Eastern Africa west of Somalia,conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia conventional short form: Ethiopia local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik local short form: Ityop'iya former: Abyssinia Italian East Africa abbreviation: FDRE,0.0,NA,4.4,2008,ratified 8 December 1994 effective 22 August 1995,chief of mission: Ambassador Samuel ASSEFA chancery: 3506 International Drive NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200 FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles consulate(s): New York,908384.0,2009 est.,30.0,2000,7,2007 est.,$ 3 161 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 1 550 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,16.9,2009 est.,30450,2006 est.,29820,2005,428000,1 January 2008 est.,24920000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 October 2001) head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since August 1995) cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided for in the December 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives elections: president elected by the House of People's Representatives for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 9 October 2007 (next to be held in October 2013); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections election results: GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - 79%,8.64,NA,2.4,1994 census,,,4.9,2008,63,2008,7.0,2007,38.7,FY05/06 est.,4.1,2005,0.0,2007 est.,2941000000,2006 est.,name: Addis Ababa geographic coordinates: 9 02 N 38 42 E time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Unique among African countries the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974 a military junta the Derg deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups uprisings wide-scale drought and massive refugee problems the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994 and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. The Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission in November 2007 remotely demarcated the border by geographical coordinates but final demarcation of the boundary on the ground is currently on hold because of Ethiopian objections to an international commission's finding requiring it to surrender territory considered sensitive to Ethiopia.,6.6,2005,coffee qat gold leather products live animals oilseeds,7.0,31 December 2006,11.55,July 2009 est.,,,$ 25 080 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,9 ethnically based states (kililoch singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa) Afar Amara (Amhara) Binshangul Gumuz Dire Dawa* Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples) Hareri Hizb (Harari People) Oromiya (Oromia) Sumale (Somali) Tigray Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples),110.0,1987,5.56,2002,cereals pulses coffee oilseed cotton sugarcane potatoes qat cut flowers; hides cattle sheep goats; fish,Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces Ethiopian Air Force (ETAF) (2008) note: Ethiopia is landlocked and has no navy; following the secession of Eritrea Ethiopian naval facilities remained in Eritrean possession,43.66,2009 est.,6.0,2006,$ 4 517 000 000,2008 est.,tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation,food and live animals petroleum and petroleum products chemicals machinery motor vehicles cereals textiles,Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Mohammed Kedir]; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP; Gurage Nationalities' Democratic Movement or GNDM; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM [BULCHA Demeksa]; Omoro People's Congress or OPC [IMERERA Gudina]; Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP; United Ethiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros],85237338,July 2009 est.,noun: Ethiopian(s) adjective: Ethiopian,small reserves of gold platinum copper potash natural gas hydropower,-0.02,2009 est.,landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; the Blue Nile the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee grain sorghum and castor bean,Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF; Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa],Ethiopia's poverty-stricken economy is based on agriculture accounting for almost half of GDP 60% of exports and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy with exports of some $350 million in 2006 but historically low prices have seen many farmers switching to qat to supplement income. The war with Eritrea in 1998-2000 and recurrent drought have buffeted the economy in particular coffee production. In November 2001 Ethiopia qualified for debt relief from the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative and in December 2005 the IMF forgave Ethiopia's debt. Under Ethiopia's constitution the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; the system continues to hamper growth in the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans. Drought struck again late in 2002 leading to a 3.3% decline in GDP in 2003. Normal weather patterns helped agricultural and GDP growth recover during 2004-08.,1208000,2007,oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2 000 years,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,1.8,1994 census,$ -2 000 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,4.3,NA,$ 6 694 000 000,31 December 2006,,,11078847.0,2009 est.,National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime) 28 May (1991),9,2008,-125.0,NA,geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts,slightly less than twice the size of Texas,42.7,2003 est.,55.41,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation (or upper chamber responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues) (108 seats; members are chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives (or lower chamber responsible for passing legislation) (547 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 15 May 2005 (next to be held in 2010) election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 327 CUD 109 UEDF 52 SPDP 23 OFDM 11 BGPDUF 8 ANDP 8 independent 1 others 6 undeclared 2 note: some seats still remain vacant as detained opposition MPs did not take their seats,based on civil law; currently transitional mix of national and regional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP AfDB AU COMESA FAO G-24 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IGAD ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM (observer) IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM OPCW PCA UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMIL UNOCI UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),,,17530211.0,2008 est.,3.0,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Ozone Layer Protection signed but not ratified: Environmental Modification Law of the Sea,deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,3268000000,2006 est.,681,2008,Ethiopia is landlocked and uses ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia,18.0,NA,10.4,2008 est.,high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley,general assessment: inadequate telephone system; the number of fixed lines and mobile telephones is increasing from a very small base; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is only about 2 per 100 persons domestic: open-wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF VHF and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean),6.12,2009 est.,,,federal republic,three equal horizontal bands of green (top) yellow and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and the three main colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors,transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center,$ 6 901 000 000,2008 est.,36469,2004,3.21,2009 est.,8.5,2008 est.,,,$ 66 290 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Donald Y. YAMAMOTO embassy: Entoto Street Addis Ababa mailing address: P. O. Box 1014 Addis Ababa telephone: [251] 11-517-40-00 FAX: [251] 11-517-40-01,$ 800,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Aruba,41500,2004 est.,Common Court of Justice of Aruba (judges are appointed by the monarch),0.0,2005,0.0,NA,13.79,2009 est.,tourism transshipment facilities oil refining,,,3.4,2005,2.2,2000 census,.aw,,,,,,,38700,2006,0.66,2009 est.,24000,2007,1.0,1997,12 30 N 69 58 W,10.6,2009 est.,0.0,2004,0.4,2002 est.,none,180,NA,0.01,1998 est.,Central America and the Caribbean,Caribbean island in the Caribbean Sea north of Venezuela,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Aruba,68.5,NA,3.8,2008,1 January 1986,none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands); note - Mr. Henry BAARH Minister Plenipotentiary for Aruba at the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,711.0,2009 est.,,,2356,2007 est.,$ 478 600 000,2005 est.,$ 124 000 000,2006,233300,2005,37.8,2009 est.,7102,2006 est.,238200,2005,,,0,1 January 2006,chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980); represented by Governor General Fredis REFUNJOL (since 11 May 2004) head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30 October 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held in 2005 (next to be held by 2009) election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA,1.79,NA,20.0,NA,,,4.5,2008,1,2008,13.0,2006,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,744000000,2006 est.,name: Oranjestad geographic coordinates: 12 31 N 70 02 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499 Aruba was acquired by the Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry. Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a separate autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in 1990.,,,live animals and animal products art and collectibles machinery and electrical equipment transport equipment,11.01,31 December 2007,7.71,July 2009 est.,,,$ 2 258 000 000,2005 est.,,,,,none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands),,,,,aloes; livestock; fish,no regular military forces; the Netherlands maintains a detachment of marines a frigate and an amphibious combat detachment in the neighboring Netherlands Antilles (2009),12.79,2009 est.,4.8,2005,$ 507 900 000,2005 est.,tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation,machinery and electrical equipment crude oil for refining and reexport chemicals; foodstuffs,Aliansa/Aruban Social Movement or MSA [Robert WEVER]; Aruban Liberal Organization or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Movement or MPA [Monica ARENDS-KOCK]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Mike EMAN]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; Real Democracy or PDR [Andin BIKKER]; RED [Rudy LAMPE]; Workers Political Platform or PTT [Gregorio WOLFF],103065,July 2009 est.,noun: Aruban(s) adjective: Aruban; Dutch,NEGL; white sandy beaches,9.7,2009 est.,a flat riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27 degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit),other: environmental groups,Tourism is the mainstay of the small open Aruban economy with offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities. Over 1.5 million tourists per year visit Aruba with 75% of those from the US. Construction continues to boom with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition the country's oil refinery reopened in 1993 providing a major source of employment foreign exchange earnings and growth. Tourist arrivals have rebounded strongly following a dip after the 11 September 2001 attacks. The island experiences only a brief low season. Hotel occupancy in 2004 averaged 80% compared to 68% throughout the rest of the Caribbean. The government has made cutting the budget and trade deficits a high priority.,105700,2006,none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0.2,NA,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,0.1,NA,$ 1 348 000 000,31 December 2007,,,20287.0,2009 est.,Flag Day 18 March (1976),,,0.0,NA,hurricanes; lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt and is rarely threatened,slightly larger than Washington DC,97.3,2000 census,75.28,2009 est.,unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 23 September 2005 (next to be held in 2009) election results: percent of vote by party - MEP 43% AVP 32% MPA 7% RED 7% PDR 6% OLA 4% PPA 2%; seats by party - MEP 11 AVP 8 MPA 1 RED 1,based on Dutch civil law system with some English common law influence,Caricom (observer) ILO IMF Interpol IOC ITUC UNESCO (associate) UNWTO (associate) UPU WCL WFTU WMO,12.0,NA,24585.0,2008 est.,,,,NA,,,1.0,2008,800000000,2006 est.,,,Barcadera Oranjestad Sint Nicolaas,18.0,NA,,,flat with a few hills; scant vegetation,general assessment: modern fully automatic telecommunications system domestic: increased competition through privatization; 3 wireless service providers are now licensed international: country code - 297; landing site for the PAN-AM submarine telecommunications cable system that extends from the US Virgin Islands through Aruba to Venezuela Colombia Panama and the west coast of South America; extensive interisland microwave radio relay links (2007),1.85,2009 est.,6.9,2005 est.,parliamentary democracy,"blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower portion and a red four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner; the star represents Aruba and its red soil and white beaches its four points the four major languages (Papiamento Dutch Spanish English) as well as the four points of a compass to indicate that its inhabitants come from all over the world; the blue symbolizes Caribbean waters and skies; the stripes represent the island's two main ""industries"": the flow of tourists to the sun-drenched beaches and the flow of minerals from the earth",transit point for US- and Europe-bound narcotics with some accompanying money-laundering activity; relatively high percentage of population consumes cocaine,$ 1 054 000 000,2006,,,1.48,2009 est.,2.4,2005 est.,,,$ 2 258 000 000,2005 est.,the US does not have an embassy in Aruba; the Consul General to Netherlands Antilles is accredited to Aruba,$ 21 800,2004 est.,0,2007 est.
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges,,,,0.0,2008,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Baker Island: 0 13 N 176 28 W Howland Island: 0 48 N 176 38 W Jarvis Island: 0 23 S 160 01 W Johnston Atoll: 16 45 N 169 31 W Kingman Reef: 6 23 N 162 25 W Midway Islands: 28 12 N 177 22 W Palmyra Atoll: 5 53 N 162 05 W,,,,,,,none,22,NA,,,Oceania,Oceania Baker Island: atoll in the North Pacific Ocean 1 830 nm (3 389 km) southwest of Honolulu about half way between Hawaii and Australia Howland Island: island in the North Pacific Ocean 1 815 nm (3 361 km) southwest of Honolulu about half way between Hawaii and Australia Jarvis Island: island in the South Pacific Ocean 1 305 nm (2 417 km) south of Honolulu about half way between Hawaii and Cook Islands Johnston Atoll: atoll in the North Pacific Ocean 717 nm (1 328 km) southwest of Honolulu about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands Kingman Reef: reef in the North Pacific Ocean 930 nm (1 722 km) south of Honolulu about half way between Hawaii and American Samoa Midway Islands: atoll in the North Pacific Ocean 1 260 nm (2 334 km) northwest of Honolulu near the end of the Hawaiian Archipelago about one-third of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo Palmyra Atoll: atoll in the North Pacific Ocean 960 nm (1 778 km) south of Honolulu about half way between Hawaii and American Samoa,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Baker Island; Howland Island; Jarvis Island; Johnston Atoll; Kingman Reef; Midway Islands; Palmyra Atoll,3.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,All of the following US Pacific island territories except Midway Atoll constitute the Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex and as such are managed by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior. Midway Atoll NWR has been included in a Refuge Complex with the Hawaiian Islands NWR and also designated as part of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These remote refuges are the most widespread collection of marine- and terrestrial-life protected areas on the planet under a single country's jurisdiction. They sustain many endemic species including corals fish shellfish marine mammals seabirds water birds land birds insects and vegetation not found elsewhere. Baker Island: The US took possession of the island in 1857. Its guano deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second half of the 19th century. In 1935 a short-lived attempt at colonization began on this island but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned. The island was established as a NWR in 1974. Howland Island: Discovered by the US early in the 19th century the uninhabited atoll was officially claimed by the US in 1857. Both US and British companies mined for guano deposits until about 1890. In 1935 a short-lived attempt at colonization began on this island similar to the effort on nearby Baker Island but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned. The famed American aviatrix Amelia EARHART disappeared while seeking out Howland Island as a refueling stop during her 1937 round-the-world flight; Earhart Light a day beacon near the middle of the west coast was named in her memory. The island was established as a NWR in 1974. Jarvis Island: First discovered by the British in 1821 the uninhabited island was annexed by the US in 1858 but abandoned in 1879 after tons of guano had been removed. The UK annexed the island in 1889 but never carried out plans for further exploitation. The US occupied and reclaimed the island in 1935. It was abandoned in 1942 during World War II. The island was established as a NWR in 1974. Johnston Atoll: Both the US and the Kingdom of Hawaii annexed Johnston Atoll in 1858 but it was the US that mined the guano deposits until the late 1880s. Johnston and Sand Islands were designated wildlife refuges in 1926. The US Navy took over the atoll in 1934. Subsequently the US Air Force assumed control in 1948. The site was used for high-altitude nuclear tests in the 1950s and 1960s. Until late in 2000 the atoll was maintained as a storage and disposal site for chemical weapons. Munitions destruction cleanup and closure of the facility were completed by May 2005. The Fish and Wildlife Service and the US Air Force are currently discussing future management options; in the interim Johnston Atoll and the three-mile Naval Defensive Sea around it remain under the jurisdiction and administrative control of the US Air Force. Kingman Reef: The US annexed the reef in 1922. Its sheltered lagoon served as a way station for flying boats on Hawaii-to-American Samoa flights during the late 1930s. There are no terrestrial plants on the reef which is frequently awash but it does support abundant and diverse marine fauna and flora. In 2001 the waters surrounding the reef out to 12 nm were designated a US NWR. Midway Islands: The US took formal possession of the islands in 1867. The laying of the trans-Pacific cable which passed through the islands brought the first residents in 1903. Between 1935 and 1947 Midway was used as a refueling stop for trans-Pacific flights. The US naval victory over a Japanese fleet off Midway in 1942 was one of the turning points of World War II. The islands continued to serve as a naval station until closed in 1993. Today the islands are a NWR and are the site of the world's largest Laysan albatross colony. Palmyra Atoll: The Kingdom of Hawaii claimed the atoll in 1862 and the US included it among the Hawaiian Islands when it annexed the archipelago in 1898. The Hawaii Statehood Act of 1959 did not include Palmyra Atoll which is now partly privately owned by the Nature Conservancy with the rest owned by the Federal government and managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These organizations are managing the atoll as a wildlife refuge. The lagoons and surrounding waters within the 12 nm US territorial seas were transferred to the US Fish and Wildlife Service and designated as a NWR in January 2001.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Baker Howland and Jarvis Islands: equatorial; scant rainfall constant wind burning sun Johnston Atoll and Kingman Reef: tropical but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation Midway Islands: subtropical with cool moist winters (December to February) and warm dry summers (May to October); moderated by prevailing easterly winds; most of the 1 067 mm (42 in) of annual rainfall occurs during the winter Palmyra Atoll: equatorial hot; located within the low pressure area of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) where the northeast and southeast trade winds meet it is extremely wet with between 4 000-5 000 mm (160-200 in) of rainfall each year,,,,,,terrestrial and aquatic wildlife,,,Baker Howland and Jarvis Islands: scattered vegetation consisting of grasses prostrate vines and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting roosting and foraging habitat for seabirds shorebirds and marine wildlife; closed to the public Johnston Atoll: Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; the egg-shaped reef is 34 km in circumference; closed to the public Kingman Reef: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed to the public Midway Islands: a coral atoll managed as a NWR and open to the public for wildlife-related recreation in the form of wildlife observation and photography Palmyra Atoll: the high rainfall and resulting lush vegetation make the environment of this atoll unique among the US Pacific Island territories; supports a large undisturbed stand of Pisonia beach forest,,no economic activity,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,NA,Baker Howland and Jarvis Islands: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard Kingman Reef: wet or awash most of the time maximum elevation of less than 2 m makes Kingman Reef a maritime hazard Midway Islands Johnston and Palmyra Atolls: NA,Baker Island: about two and a half times the size of The Mall in Washington DC Howland Island: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington DC Jarvis Island: about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington DC Johnston Atoll: about four and a half times the size of The Mall in Washington DC Kingman Reef: a little more than one and a half times the size of The Mall in Washington DC Midway Islands: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington DC Palmyra Atoll: about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington DC,,,,,,the laws of the US where applicable apply,,12.0,NA,,,,,,Baker Howland and Jarvis Islands and Johnston Atoll: no natural fresh water resources Kingman Reef: none Midway Islands and Palmyra Atoll: NA,,,,,,,,,Baker Howland and Jarvis Islands and Kingman Reef: none; offshore anchorage only Johnston Atoll: Johnston Island Midway Islands: Sand Island Palmyra Atoll: West Lagoon,,,,,low and nearly level sandy coral islands with narrow fringing reefs that have developed at the top of submerged volcanic mountains which in most cases rise steeply from the ocean floor,,,,,,,the flag of the US is used,,,,,,,,,,,,,,none (territories of the US),,,,
Swaziland,457900,2007,High Court; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch,0.81,2005,105.0,NA,68.63,2009 est.,coal wood pulp sugar soft drink concentrates textiles and apparel,,,12.6,2008 est.,,,.sz,26.1,2007 est.,190000,2007 est.,10000,2007 est.,44000,2006,0.59,2009 est.,42000,2006,12.0,2004,26 30 S 31 30 E,3.7,2009 est.,2.0,2004,11.2,2008 est.,in 2006 Swazi king advocates resort to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal from South Africa,17364,NA,500.0,2003,Africa,Southern Africa between Mozambique and South Africa,conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland conventional short form: Swaziland local long form: Umbuso weSwatini local short form: eSwatini,0.0,NA,,,signed by the King in July 2005 went into effect on 8 February 2006,chief of mission: Ambassador Ephraim Mandla HLOPHE chancery: 1712 New Hampshire Avenue NW Washington DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 234-5002 FAX: [1] (202) 234-8254,15754.0,2009 est.,50.4,2001,0,2007 est.,$ 554 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 1 759 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,18.8,2009 est.,3490,2006 est.,3530,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986) head of government: Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso DLAMINI (since 16 October 2008) cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch elections: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among the elected members of the House of Assembly,6.36,NA,3.0,NA,$ 203 100 000,31 December 2007,,,16,2008,10.0,2005,69.0,2006,1.6,2001,0.0,2007,1200000000,2007,name: Mbabane geographic coordinates: 26 18 S 31 06 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) note: Lobamba (royal and legislative capital),Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted in 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s pressured King MSWATI III the world's last absolute monarch to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy although he has backslid on these promises in recent years. A constitution came into effect in 2006 but political parties remain banned. The African United Democratic Party tried unsuccessfully to register as an official political party in mid 2006. Talks over the constitution broke down between the government and progressive groups in 2007. Swaziland recently surpassed Botswana as the country with the world's highest known HIV/AIDS prevalence rate.,,,soft drink concentrates sugar wood pulp cotton yarn refrigerators citrus and canned fruit,13.17,31 December 2007,30.83,July 2009 est.,,,$ 2 968 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,4 districts; Hhohho Lubombo Manzini Shiselweni,4.5,1987,1.04,2000,sugarcane cotton corn tobacco rice citrus pineapples sorghum peanuts; cattle goats sheep,Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (USDF): Ground Force (includes air wing) (2008),26.25,2009 est.,7.0,2005,$ 1 055 000 000,2008 est.,varies from tropical to near temperate,motor vehicles machinery transport equipment foodstuffs petroleum products chemicals,the status of political parties previously banned is unclear under the new (2006) Constitution and currently being debated - the following are considered political associations; African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Stanley MAUNDZISA president]; Imbokodvo National Movement or INM; Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI president]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU president],1123913,July 2009 est.,noun: Swazi(s) adjective: Swazi,asbestos coal clay cassiterite hydropower forests small gold and diamond deposits quarry stone and talc,,,landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa,Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions; Swaziland and Solidarity Network or SSN,In this small landlocked economy subsistence agriculture occupies approximately 70% of the population. The manufacturing sector has diversified since the mid-1980s. Sugar and wood pulp remain important foreign exchange earners. In 2007 the sugar industry increased efficiency and diversification efforts in response to a 17% decline in EU sugar prices. Mining has declined in importance in recent years with only coal and quarry stone mines remaining active. Surrounded by South Africa except for a short border with Mozambique Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which it receives more than nine-tenths of its imports and to which it sends 60% of its exports. Swaziland's currency is pegged to the South African rand subsuming Swaziland's monetary policy to South Africa. Customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union which may equal as much as 70% of government revenue this year and worker remittances from South Africa substantially supplement domestically earned income. Swaziland is not poor enough to merit an IMF program; however the country is struggling to reduce the size of the civil service and control costs at public enterprises. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment. With an estimated 40% unemployment rate Swaziland's need to increase the number and size of small and medium enterprises and attract foreign direct investment is acute. Overgrazing soil depletion drought and sometimes floods persist as problems for the future. More than one-fourth of the population needed emergency food aid in 2006-07 because of drought and nearly two-fifths of the adult population has been infected by HIV/AIDS.,380000,2007,6 September 1968 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,10.0,NA,$ -30 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,872000000.0,2007,1.7,NA,$ 204 100 000,31 December 2007,,,118570.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 6 September (1968),,,21.0,NA,drought,slightly smaller than New Jersey,81.6,2003 est.,31.88,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament or Libandla consists of the Senate (30 seats; 10 members appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; to serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats; 10 members appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; serve five-year terms) elections: House of Assembly - last held 19 September 2008 (next to be held in 2013) election results: House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round,based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ACP AfDB AU C COMESA FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF Interpol IOC ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM OPCW PCA SACU SADC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,,,266311.0,2008 est.,4.7,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Ozone Layer Protection signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea,limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion,7.0,2008,1.0,2008,460000000,2007,301,2008,,18.0,NA,1.1,2008 est.,mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains,general assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity approaching 40 telephones per 100 persons; telephone system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines and low-capacity microwave radio relay international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007),3.24,2009 est.,40.0,2006 est.,monarchy,three horizontal bands of blue (top) red (triple width) and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels all placed horizontally,,$ 1 858 000 000,2008 est.,3594,2002,-0.46,2009 est.,2.7,2008 est.,,,$ 5 703 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Maurice S. PARKER embassy: 2350 Mbabane Place Mbabane mailing address: P. O. Box 199 Mbabane telephone: [268] 404-2445 FAX: [268] 404-2059,$ 5 100,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Wallis and Futuna,3104,2003,justice generally administered under French law by the high administrator but the three traditional kings administer customary law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu; a court of appeal is located in Noumea New Caledonia,7.14,2005,0.0,NA,5.02,2009 est.,copra handicrafts fishing lumber,,,2.8,2005,0.2,2003 census,.wf,,,,,,,1900,2002,0.83,2009 est.,900,2002,2.0,2000,13 18 S 176 12 W,7.1,2009 est.,0.0,2000,,,none,142,NA,,,Oceania,Oceania islands in the South Pacific Ocean about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand,conventional long form: Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands conventional short form: Wallis and Futuna local long form: Territoire des Iles Wallis et Futuna local short form: Wallis et Futuna,129.0,NA,,,4 October 1958 (French Constitution),none (overseas territory of France),164.0,2009 est.,,,,,$ 3 670 000,2004,$ 47 450,2004,,,27.2,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by High Administrator Philippe PAOLANTONI (since 28 July 2008) head of government: President of the Territorial Assembly Pesamino TAPUTAI (since 11 April 2007) cabinet: Council of the Territory consists of 3 kings and 3 members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the Territorial Assembly note: there are 3 traditional kings with limited powers elections: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; high administrator appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly,87.59,NA,,,,,,,2,2008,,,,,,,0.0,2002,,,name: Mata-Utu (on Ile Uvea) geographic coordinates: 13 57 S 171 56 W time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),The Futuna island group was discovered by the Dutch in 1616 and Wallis by the British in 1767 but it was the French who declared a protectorate over the islands in 1842. In 1959 the inhabitants of the islands voted to become a French overseas territory.,4.0,2001 est.,copra chemicals construction materials,,,,,,,,,,,,,none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government but there are three kingdoms at the second order named Alo Sigave Wallis,,,,,breadfruit yams taro bananas; pigs goats; fish,,,,,,$ 29 730,2004,tropical; hot rainy season (November to April); cool dry season (May to October); rains 2 500-3 000 mm per year (80% humidity); average temperature 26.6 degrees C,chemicals machinery passenger ships consumer goods,Lua Kae Tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche or MRG; Rally for the Republic or RPR (UMP) [Clovis LOGOLOGOFOLAU]; Socialist Party or PS; Taumu'a Lelei [Soane Muni UHILA]; Union Populaire Locale or UPL [Falakiko GATA]; Union Pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF,15289,July 2009 est.,noun: Wallisian(s) Futunan(s) or Wallis and Futuna Islanders adjective: Wallisian Futunan or Wallis and Futuna Islander,NEGL,-6.08,2009 est.,both island groups have fringing reefs,NA,The economy is limited to traditional subsistence agriculture with about 80% of labor force earnings from agriculture (coconuts and vegetables) livestock (mostly pigs) and fishing. About 4% of the population is employed in government. Revenues come from French Government subsidies licensing of fishing rights to Japan and South Korea import taxes and remittances from expatriate workers in New Caledonia.,,,none (overseas territory of France),,,,,,,1.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,2002,0.0,NA,,,,,3273.0,2009 est.,Bastille Day 14 July (1789),8,2008,0.0,NA,NA,1.5 times the size of Washington DC,50.0,1969 est.,78.2,2009 est.,unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblee Territoriale (20 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 1 April 2007 (next to be held April 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 13 other 7 note: Wallis and Futuna elects one senator to the French Senate and one deputy to the French National Assembly; French Senate - elections last held 21 September 2008 (next to be held by September 2014); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats - UMP 1; French National Assembly - elections last held 17 June 2007 (next to be held by 2012); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats - PS 1,the laws of France where applicable apply,PIF (observer) SPC UPU WFTU,12.0,NA,,,,,,deforestation (only small portions of the original forests remain) largely as a result of the continued use of wood as the main fuel source; as a consequence of cutting down the forests the mountainous terrain of Futuna is particularly prone to erosion; there are no permanent settlements on Alofi because of the lack of natural fresh water resources,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,,,,,Leava Mata-Utu,18.0,NA,,,volcanic origin; low hills,general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 681,1.87,2009 est.,15.2,2003,NA,unofficial local flag has a red field with four white isosceles triangles in the middle representing the three native kings of the islands and the French administrator; the apexes of the triangles are oriented inward and at right angles to each other; the flag of France outlined in white on two sides is in the upper hoist quadrant note: the flag of France used for official occasions,,$ 61 170 000,2004,,,0.35,2009 est.,,,,,$ 60 000 000,2004 est.,none (overseas territory of France),$ 3 800,2004 est.,,
Argentina,16270000,2008 est.,Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate) note: the Supreme Court has seven judges; the Argentine Congress in 2006 passed a bill to gradually reduce the number of Supreme Court judges to five,0.36,2005,580.0,NA,11.44,2009 est.,food processing motor vehicles consumer durables textiles chemicals and petrochemicals printing metallurgy steel,11000,2007,8.6,2008 est.,,,.ar,0.5,2007 est.,120000,2007 est.,7000,2007 est.,9500000,2007,0.7,2009 est.,9309000,2007,42.0,1997,34 00 S 64 00 W,10.8,2009 est.,6.0,1998,9.9,2008 est.,Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982 but in 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement by force; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering smuggling arms and illegal narcotics trafficking and fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2006 Argentina went to the ICJ to protest on environmental grounds the construction of two pulp mills in Uruguay on the Uruguay River which forms the boundary; both parties presented their pleadings in 2007 with Argentina's reply in January and Uruguay's rejoinder in July 2008; the joint boundary commission established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur),2780400,NA,15500.0,2003,South America,Southern South America bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Chile and Uruguay,conventional long form: Argentine Republic conventional short form: Argentina local long form: Republica Argentina local short form: Argentina,4989.0,NA,5.5,2008,1 May 1853; amended many times starting in 1860,chief of mission: Ambassador Hector Marcos TIMERMAN chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW Washington DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400 FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171 consulate(s) general: Atlanta Chicago Houston Los Angeles Miami New York,326342.0,2009 est.,49.0,January-March 2007,790800,2007 est.,$ 129 000 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 70 590 000 000,2008 est.,339900,2005,30.0,2009 est.,440000,2007 est.,23380,2005,2186000000,1 January 2008 est.,446000000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 October 2007 (next election to be held in 2011) election results: Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER elected president; percent of vote - Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER 45% Elisa CARRIO 23% Roberto LAVAGNA 17% Alberto Rodriguez SAA 8%,2.9,NA,3.0,NA,$ 86 680 000 000,31 December 2007,4.1,2008,1150,2008,14.0,2005,23.4,January-June 2007,1.0,January-March 2007,2628000000.0,2007 est.,97720000000,2006 est.,name: Buenos Aires geographic coordinates: 34 36 S 58 40 W time difference: UTC-3 (3 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins first Sunday in October; ends third Saturday in March; note - a new policy of daylight saving time was initiated by the government on 30 December 2007,In 1816 the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia Paraguay and Uruguay went their separate ways the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe but most particularly Italy and Spain which provided the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions. After World War II an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands by force and has persisted despite numerous challenges the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the resignation of several interim presidents.,1.0,2008 est.,soybeans and derivatives petroleum and gas vehicles corn wheat,28.0,28 November 2008,7.41,July 2009 est.,41.0,2008,$ 338 700 000 000,2008 est.,$ 73 980 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 28 420 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,23 provinces (provincias singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Capital Federal* Catamarca Chaco Chubut Cordoba Corrientes Entre Rios Formosa Jujuy La Pampa La Rioja Mendoza Misiones Neuquen Rio Negro Salta San Juan San Luis Santa Cruz Santa Fe Santiago del Estero Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur Tucuman note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica,814.0,2000,29.19,2000,sunflower seeds lemons soybeans grapes corn tobacco peanuts tea wheat; livestock,Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino) Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry) Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina FAA) (2009),17.94,2009 est.,3.8,2004,$ 82 850 000 000,2008 est.,mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest,machinery motor vehicles petroleum and natural gas organic chemicals plastics,Coalicion Civica (a broad coalition loosely affiliated with Elisa CARRIO); Front for Victory or FpV (a broad coalition including elements of the UCR and numerous provincial parties) [Nestor KIRCHNER]; Interbloque Federal or IF (a broad coalition of approximately 12 parties including PRO); Justicialist Party or PJ [Nestor KIRCHNER]; Radical Civic Union or UCR [Gerardo MORALES]; Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI] (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Esteban BULLRICH]; Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH]; several provincial parties,40913584,July 2009 est.,noun: Argentine(s) adjective: Argentine,fertile plains of the pampas lead zinc tin copper iron ore manganese petroleum uranium,0.0,2009 est.,second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan Beagle Channel Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere,Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union for employed and unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); White and Blue CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation); Roman Catholic Church other: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); students,Argentina benefits from rich natural resources a highly literate population an export-oriented agricultural sector and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises persistent fiscal and current account deficits high inflation mounting external debt and capital flight. A severe depression growing public and external indebtedness and a bank run culminated in 2001 in the most serious economic social and political crisis in the country's turbulent history. Interim President Adolfo RODRIGUEZ SAA declared a default - the largest in history - on the government's foreign debt in December of that year and abruptly resigned only a few days after taking office. His successor Eduardo DUHALDE announced an end to the peso's decade-long 1-to-1 peg to the US dollar in early 2002. The economy bottomed out that year with real GDP 18% smaller than in 1998 and almost 60% of Argentines under the poverty line. Real GDP rebounded to grow by an average 9% annually over the subsequent five years taking advantage of previously idled industrial capacity and labor an audacious debt restructuring and reduced debt burden excellent international financial conditions and expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Inflation also increased however during the administration of President Nestor KIRCHNER which responded with price restraints on businesses as well as export taxes and restraints and beginning in early 2007 with understating inflation data. Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as President in late 2007 but was stymied in her efforts to hike export taxes still further by protesting farmers. Her government nationalized private pension funds in late 2008 which bolstered government coffers but failed to assuage investors' concerns about the direction of economic policy.,40402000,2007,9 July 1816 (from Spain),2600000000,2007 est.,1900000000,2007 est.,44100000000,2007 est.,2.0,NA,$ 7 588 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,10270000000.0,2007 est.,1.2,NA,$ 72 550 000 000,31 December 2007,,,8264853.0,2009 est.,Revolution Day 25 May (1810),46,2008,-105.0,NA,San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding,slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US,97.2,2001 census,76.56,2009 est.,bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-third of the members elected every two years to serve six-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 28 October 2007 (next to be held in 2009); Chamber of Deputies - last held last held 28 October 2007 (next to be held in 2009) election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 12 UCR 4 CC 4 other 4; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 5 UCR 10 PJ 10 PRO 6 CC 16 FJ 2 other 31; note - as of 1 January 2009 the composition of the entire legislature is as follows: Senate - seats by bloc or party - FpV 42 UCR 8 CC 2 other 20; Chamber of Deputies - seats by bloc or party - FpV 119 UCR 24 CC 18 PS 10 PRO 9 other 77,mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,AfDB (nonregional members) Australia Group BCIE BIS CAN (associate) FAO G-15 G-20 G-24 G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC LAES LAIA Mercosur MIGA MINURSO MINUSTAH NSG OAS OPANAL OPCW PCA RG SICA (observer) UN UNASUR UNCTAD UNESCO UNFICYP UNHCR UNIDO Union Latina (observer) UNTSO UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC,12.0,NA,9889002.0,2008 est.,1.3,2005 est.,party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Antarctic Seals Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation,environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation soil degradation desertification air pollution and water pollution note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets,1.0,2008,4.0,2008,109400000000,2006 est.,31409,2008,Arroyo Seco Bahia Blanca Buenos Aires La Plata Punta Colorada Rosario San Lorenzo-San Martin,18.0,NA,4.3,2008 est.,rich plains of the Pampas in northern half flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south rugged Andes along western border,"general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment with the ""Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998 "" Argentina encouraged the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving; fixed-line telephone density is gradually increasing reaching nearly 25 lines per 100 people in 2007; mobile telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and has reached a level of 100 telephones per 100 persons domestic: microwave radio relay fiber-optic cable and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; more than 110 000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone use is rapidly expanding; broadband services are gaining ground international: country code - 54; landing point for the Atlantis-2 UNISUR and South America-1 optical submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe Africa South and Central America and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires (2007)",2.35,2009 est.,7.9,September 2008,republic,three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) white and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May; the colors represent the clear skies and snow of the Andes; the sun symbol commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence; the sun features are those of Inti the Inca god of the sun,a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe heroin headed for the US and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs (2008),$ 54 550 000 000,2008 est.,231374,2004,1.05,2009 est.,7.1,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 575 600 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Anthony WAYNE embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300 C1425GMN Buenos Aires mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires Unit 4334 APO AA 34034 telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533 FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240,$ 14 200,2008 est.,44800000000,2007 est.
Bolivia,4454000,2008 est.,Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases); Constitutional Tribunal (five primary or titulares and five alternate or suplente magistrates appointed by Congress; to rule on constitutional issues); National Electoral Court (six members elected by Congress Supreme Court the president and the political party with the highest vote in the last election for four-year terms); note - under the 2009 Constitution all Constitutional and Supreme Court judges will be elected by popular vote,0.19,2005,750.0,NA,44.66,2009 est.,mining smelting petroleum food and beverages tobacco handicrafts clothing,10000,2007,14.0,2008 est.,1.2,2001 census,.bo,0.2,2007 est.,8100,2007 est.,500,2007 est.,678200,2007,0.79,2009 est.,1000000,2007,48.0,1997,17 00 S 65 00 W,4.5,2009 est.,73.0,1999,11.3,2008 est.,Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile in 1884 but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas and other commodities; an accord placed the long-disputed Isla Suarez/Ilha de Guajara-Mirim a fluvial island on the Rio Mamore under Bolivian administration in 1958 but sovereignty remains in dispute,1098581,NA,1320.0,2003,South America,Central South America southwest of Brazil,conventional long form: Plurinational State of Bolivia conventional short form: Bolivia local long form: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia local short form: Bolivia,0.0,NA,5.1,2008,2 February 1967; revised in August 1994; voters approved a new constitution on 25 January 2009,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Erika DUENAS chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410 FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles Miami New York San Francisco note: as of September 2008 the US has expelled the Bolivian ambassador to the US,104882.0,2009 est.,59.2,2006,61790,2007 est.,$ 4 288 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 6 494 000 000,2008 est.,18500,2007 est.,21.9,2009 est.,31500,2007 est.,8600,2007 est.,465000000,1 January 2008 est.,750400000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 18 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2009) election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma elected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 53.7%; Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez 28.6%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 7.8%; Michiaki NAGATANI Morishit 6.5%; Felipe QUISPE Huanca 2.2%; Guildo ANGULA Cabrera 0.7%,7.25,NA,15.0,NA,$ 2 263 000 000,31 December 2007,4.1,2008,1009,2008,,,60.0,2006 est.,0.5,2005,0.0,2007 est.,5092000000,2007 est.,name: La Paz (administrative capital) geographic coordinates: 16 30 S 68 09 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) note: Sucre (constitutional capital),Bolivia named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and countercoups. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982 but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty social unrest and illegal drug production. In December 2005 Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor indigenous majority. However since taking office his controversial strategies have exacerbated racial and economic tensions between the Amerindian populations of the Andean west and the non-indigenous communities of the eastern lowlands.,17.0,2006 est.,natural gas soybeans and soy products crude petroleum zinc ore tin,12.86,31 December 2007,7.05,July 2009 est.,47.0,2008,$ 18 940 000 000,2008 est.,$ 6 880 000 000,31 December 2004,,,9 departments (departamentos singular - departamento); Beni Chuquisaca Cochabamba La Paz Oruro Pando Potosi Santa Cruz Tarija,622.5,2000,1.44,2000,soybeans coffee coca cotton corn sugarcane rice potatoes; timber,Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano EB) Bolivian Navy (Fuerza Naval Boliviana FNB; includes marines) Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana FAB) (2009),25.82,2009 est.,6.4,2003,$ 7 500 000 000,2008 est.,varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid,petroleum products plastics paper aircraft and aircraft parts prepared foods automobiles insecticides soybeans,Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]; Movement Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; National Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Mirta QUEVEDO]; National Unity [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]; Poder Democratico Nacional or PODEMOS [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Social Alliance [Rene JOAQUINO],9775246,July 2009 est.,noun: Bolivian(s) adjective: Bolivian,tin natural gas petroleum zinc tungsten antimony silver iron lead gold timber hydropower,-1.05,2009 est.,landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3 805 m) with Peru,Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB other: Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions,Bolivia is one of the poorest and least developed countries in Latin America. Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s reforms spurred private investment stimulated economic growth and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability racial tensions and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large northern hemisphere markets. In 2005 the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company. In early 2008 higher earnings for mining and hydrocarbons exports pushed the current account surplus to 9.4% of GDP and the government's higher tax take produced a fiscal surplus after years of large deficits. Private investment as a share of GDP however remains among the lowest in Latin America and inflation remained at double-digit levels in 2008. The decline in commodity prices in late 2008 the lack of foreign investment in the mining and hydrocarbon sectors and the suspension of trade benefits with the United States will pose challenges for the Bolivian economy in 2009.,3254000,2007,6 August 1825 (from Spain),11700000000,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,3000000000,2007 est.,5.0,NA,$ 2 368 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,2.5,NA,$ 4 759 000 000,31 December 2007,,,1666697.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 6 August (1825),23,2008,90.0,NA,flooding in the northeast (March-April),slightly less than three times the size of Montana,86.7,2001 census,66.89,2009 est.,bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; 70 members are directly elected from their districts and 60 are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms); note - under representational rules established by the 2009 Constitution the National Congress will become the Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional; the number of Deputies will remain at 130 but the number of Senators will rise to 36 elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2009) election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PODEMOS 13 MAS 12 UN 1 MNR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 73 PODEMOS 43 UN 8 MNR 6,based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; the 2009 Constitution incorporates indigenous community justice into Bolivia's judicial system,CAN FAO G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU LAES LAIA Mercosur (associate) MIGA MINURCAT MINUSTAH MONUC NAM OAS OPANAL OPCW PCA RG UN UNASUR UNCTAD UNESCO UNFICYP UNIDO Union Latina UNMIL UNMIS UNOCI UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,,,2295746.0,2008 est.,1.9,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands signed but not ratified: Environmental Modification Marine Life Conservation,the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation,1.0,2008,3.0,2008,5668000000,2007 est.,3504,2008,Puerto Aguirre (inland port on the Paraguay/Parana waterway at the Bolivia/Brazil border); Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina Brazil Chile and Paraguay,18.0,NA,10.6,2008 est.,rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano) hills lowland plains of the Amazon Basin,general assessment: privatization begun in 1995; reliability has steadily improved; new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly; fixed-line teledensity of 7 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of 35 per 100 persons domestic: primary trunk system which is being expanded employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007),3.17,2009 est.,7.5,2008 est.,"republic; note - the new constitution defines Bolivia as a ""Social Unitarian State""",three equal horizontal bands of red (top) yellow and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band note: similar to the flag of Ghana which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band,world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 29 500 hectares under cultivation in 2007 increased slightly when compared to 2006; third largest producer of cocaine estimated at 120 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2007; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil Argentina Chile Paraguay and Europe; cultivation generally increasing since 2000 despite eradication and alternative crop programs; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption (2008),$ 4 674 000 000,2008 est.,62479,2004,1.77,2009 est.,5.6,2008 est.,,,$ 43 080 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Krishna URS embassy: Avenida Arce 2780 Casilla 425 La Paz mailing address: P. O. Box 425 La Paz; APO AA 34032 telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000 FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111 note: as of September 2008 the Bolivian Government has expelled the US Ambassador to Bolivia,$ 4 500,2008 est.,14700000000,2007 est.
Cameroon,6759000,2008 est.,Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court of Justice (consists of nine judges and six substitute judges; elected by the National Assembly),2.52,2005,189.0,NA,63.34,2009 est.,petroleum production and refining aluminum production food processing light consumer goods textiles lumber ship repair,,,5.3,2008 est.,,,.cm,5.1,2007 est.,540000,2007 est.,39000,2007 est.,130700,2006,0.85,2009 est.,370000,2006,1.0,2001,6 00 N 12 00 E,3.3,2009 est.,2.0,2001,15.9,2008 est.,Joint Border Commission with Nigeria reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately ceded sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a full phase-out of Nigerian control and patriation of residents in 2008; Cameroon and Nigeria agree on maritime delimitation in March 2008; sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries,475440,NA,260.0,2003,Africa,Western Africa bordering the Bight of Biafra between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria,conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon conventional short form: Cameroon local long form: Republique du Cameroun/Republic of Cameroon local short form: Cameroun/Cameroon former: French Cameroon British Cameroon Federal Republic of Cameroon United Republic of Cameroon,402.0,NA,6.2,2008,approved by referendum 20 May 1972; adopted 2 June 1972; revised January 1996,chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph FOE-ATANGANA chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790 FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826,208642.0,2009 est.,44.6,2001,87400,2008 est.,$ 3 091 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 4 816 000 000,2008 est.,108800,2005,19.2,2009 est.,24500,2006 est.,50750,2005,98000000,1 January 2008 est.,135100000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982) head of government: Prime Minister Philemon YANG (since 30 June 2009) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 October 2004 (next to be held by October 2011); prime minister appointed by the president election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote - Paul BIYA 70.9% John FRU NDI 17.4% Adamou Ndam NJOYA 4.5% Garga Haman ADJI 3.7%,447.81,NA,7.0,NA,,,5.3,2008,34,2008,8.0,2006,48.0,2000 est.,2.3,2001,0.0,2007 est.,3323000000,2006 est.,name: Yaounde geographic coordinates: 3 52 N 11 31 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon merged in 1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally enjoyed stability which has permitted the development of agriculture roads and railways as well as a petroleum industry. Despite a slow movement toward democratic reform political power remains firmly in the hands of President Paul BIYA.,13.0,2001 est.,crude oil and petroleum products lumber cocoa beans aluminum coffee cotton,15.0,31 December 2007,12.2,July 2009 est.,889.0,2008,$ 25 000 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,10 provinces; Adamaoua Centre Est Extreme-Nord Littoral Nord Nord-Ouest Ouest Sud Sud-Ouest,285.5,2003,0.99,2000,coffee cocoa cotton rubber bananas oilseed grains root starches; livestock; timber,Cameroon Armed Forces: Army Navy (includes naval infantry) Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Cameroun AAC) (2009),34.1,2009 est.,3.3,2006,$ 4 261 000 000,2008 est.,varies with terrain from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north,machinery electrical equipment transport equipment fuel food,Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]; Cameroon People's Democratic Movement or CPDM [Paul BIYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]; Progressive Movement or MP; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Peoples of Cameroon or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK],18879301,July 2009 est.,noun: Cameroonian(s) adjective: Cameroonian,petroleum bauxite iron ore timber hydropower,,,sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon the highest mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa is an active volcano,Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG president]; Southern Cameroon National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN],Because of its modest oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries such as stagnating per capita income a relatively inequitable distribution of income a top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. International oil and cocoa prices have a significant impact on the economy. Since 1990 the government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment increase efficiency in agriculture improve trade and recapitalize the nation's banks. The IMF is pressing for more reforms including increased budget transparency privatization and poverty reduction programs.,4536000,2007,1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,20000000,2006 est.,20.0,NA,$ 13 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,3.5,NA,$ 1 300 000 000,31 December 2007,,,2574948.0,2009 est.,Republic Day (National Day) 20 May (1972),,,0.0,NA,volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes,slightly larger than California,67.9,2001 est.,53.69,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of the legislature elections: last held 22 July 2007 (next to be held in 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPDM 140 SDF 14 UDC 4 UNDP 4 MP 1 vacant 17 note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the legislature to be called a Senate but it has yet to be established,based on French civil law system with common law influence; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACCT ACP AfDB AU BDEAC C CEMAC FAO FZ G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt (signatory) ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM OIC OIF OPCW PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,4228625.0,2008 est.,1.3,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing,4.0,2008,1.0,2008,3903000000,2006 est.,987,2008,Douala Limboh Terminal,20.0,NA,4.2,2008 est.,diverse with coastal plain in southwest dissected plateau in center mountains in west plains in north,general assessment: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; equipment is old and outdated and connections with many parts of the country are unreliable; mobile-cellular usage in part a reflection of the poor condition and general inadequacy of the fixed-line network increased more than 6-fold between 2002 and 2007 reaching a subscribership base of 25 per 100 persons domestic: cable microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter international: country code - 237; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007),4.33,2009 est.,30.0,2001 est.,republic; multiparty presidential regime,three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) red and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band note: uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia,,$ 4 303 000 000,2008 est.,50000,2004,2.19,2009 est.,3.9,2008 est.,,,$ 42 760 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Janet E. GARVEY embassy: Avenue Rosa Parks Yaounde mailing address: P. O. Box 817 Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy US Department of State Washington DC 20521-2520 telephone: [237] 2220 15 00; Consular: [237] 2220 16 03 FAX: [237] 2220 16 00 Ext. 4531; Consular FAX: [237] 2220 17 52 branch office(s): Douala,$ 2 300,2008 est.,20000000,2006 est.
Burkina Faso,6668000,2007,Supreme Court; Appeals Court,0.22,2005,126.0,NA,84.49,2009 est.,cotton lint beverages agricultural processing soap cigarettes textiles gold,,,10.7,2008 est.,,,.bf,1.6,2007 est.,130000,2007 est.,9200,2007 est.,94800,2006,0.65,2009 est.,80000,2006,3.0,NA,13 00 N 2 00 W,2.5,2009 est.,2.0,2007,19.9,2008 est.,in September 2007 Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) intervened to attempt to resolve the dispute over two villages along the Benin-Burkina Faso border that remain from a 2005 ICJ decision; in recent years citizens and rogue security forces rob and harass local populations on both sides of the poorly defined Burkina Faso-Niger border; despite the presence of more than 9 000 UN forces (UNOCI) in Cote d'Ivoire since 2004 ethnic conflict continues to spread into neighboring states who can no longer send their migrant workers to work in Ivorian cocoa plantations,274200,NA,250.0,2003,Africa,Western Africa north of Ghana,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Burkina Faso local long form: none local short form: Burkina Faso former: Upper Volta Republic of Upper Volta,0.0,NA,4.2,2008,approved by referendum 2 June 1991; formally adopted 11 June 1991; last amended January 2002,chief of mission: Ambassador Paramanga Ernest YONLI chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577 FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882,180051.0,2009 est.,39.5,2007,0,2007 est.,$ 1 665 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 544 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,16.8,2009 est.,8470,2006 est.,8446,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987) head of government: Prime Minister Tertius ZONGO (since 4 June 2007) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 November 2005 (next to be held in 2010); in April 2000 the constitution was amended reducing the presidential term from seven to five years enforceable as of 2005; prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president; percent of popular vote - Blaise COMPAORE 80.3% Benewende Stanislas SANKARA 4.9%,447.81,NA,,,,,4.9,2008,26,2008,4.0,2006,46.4,2004,2.8,2004,0.0,2007 est.,509300000,2006 est.,name: Ouagadougou geographic coordinates: 12 22 N 1 31 W time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Current President Blaise COMPAORE came to power in a 1987 military coup and has won every election since then. Burkina Faso's high population density and limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens. Recent unrest in Cote d'Ivoire and northern Ghana has hindered the ability of several hundred thousand seasonal Burkinabe farm workers to find employment in neighboring countries. In January 2008 Burkina Faso assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008-09 term.,10.0,2000 est.,cotton livestock gold,,,13.3,July 2009 est.,,,$ 8 242 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,45 provinces; Bale Bam Banwa Bazega Bougouriba Boulgou Boulkiemde Comoe Ganzourgou Gnagna Gourma Houet Ioba Kadiogo Kenedougou Komondjari Kompienga Kossi Koulpelogo Kouritenga Kourweogo Leraba Loroum Mouhoun Nahouri Namentenga Nayala Noumbiel Oubritenga Oudalan Passore Poni Sanguie Sanmatenga Seno Sissili Soum Sourou Tapoa Tuy Yagha Yatenga Ziro Zondoma Zoundweogo,17.5,2001,0.8,2000,cotton peanuts shea nuts sesame sorghum millet corn rice; livestock,Army Air Force of Burkina Faso (Force Aerienne de Burkina Faso FABF) National Gendarmerie (2009),44.33,2009 est.,4.2,2006,$ 1 409 000 000,2008 est.,tropical; warm dry winters; hot wet summers,capital goods foodstuffs petroleum,African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF-RDA [Gilbert OUEDRAOGO]; Citizen's Popular Rally or RPC [Antoine QUARE]; Coalition of Democratic Forces of Burkina or CFD-B [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Democratic and Popular Rally or RDP [Nana THIBAUT]; Movement for Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party for African Independence or PAI [Soumane TOURE]; Party for Democracy and Progress-Socialist Party or PDP-PS [Ali LANKOANDE]; Party for Democracy and Socialism or PDS [Felix SOUBEIGA]; Party for National Rebirth or PAREN [Jeanne TRAORE]; Rally for the Development of Burkina or RDB [Antoine KARGOUGOU]; Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Ram OUEDRAGO]; Republican Party for Integration and Solidarity or PARIS; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Fidele HIEN]; Union for Rebirth - Sankarist Movement or UNIR-MS [Benewende STANISLAS]; Union for the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY]; Union of Sankarist Parties or UPS [Ernest Nongma OUEDRAOGO],15746232,July 2009 est.,noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural) adjective: Burkinabe,manganese limestone marble; small deposits of gold phosphates pumice salt,,,landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black Red and White Voltas,Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Tole SAGNON]; Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]; Group of 14 February [Benewende STANISLAS]; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB [Laurent OUEDRAOGO]; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL [Paul KABORE] other: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities,One of the poorest countries in the world landlocked Burkina Faso has few natural resources and a weak industrial base. About 90% of the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture which is vulnerable to periodic drought. Cotton is the main cash crop and the government has joined with three other cotton producing countries in the region - Mali Niger and Chad - to lobby in the World Trade Organization for fewer subsidies to producers in other competing countries. Since 1998 Burkina Faso has embarked upon a gradual but successful privatization of state-owned enterprises. Having revised its investment code in 2004 Burkina Faso hopes to attract foreign investors. Thanks to this new code and other legislation favoring the mining sector the country has seen an upswing in gold exploration and production. While the bitter internal crisis in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire is beginning to be resolved it is still having a negative effect on Burkina Faso's trade and employment. Burkina Faso received a Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) threshold grant to improve girls' education at the primary school level and signed an MCC compact that focuses on the areas of infrastructure agriculture and land reform in July 2008.,1611000,2007,5 August 1960 (from France),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,10.0,NA,$ -931 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,5.0,NA,$ 905 100 000,31 December 2007,,,2191978.0,2009 est.,Republic Day 11 December (1958),,,200.0,NA,recurring droughts,slightly larger than Colorado,21.8,2003 est.,52.95,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (111 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: National Assembly election last held 6 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CDP 73 ADF-RDA 14 UPR 5 UNIR-MS 4 CFD-B 3 UPS 2 PDP-PS 2 RDB 2 PDS 2 PAREN 1 PAI 1 RPC 1 UDPS 1,based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACCT ACP AfDB AU ECOWAS Entente FAO FZ G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MONUC NAM OIC OIF OPCW PCA UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNITAR UNMIS UNOCI UNWTO UPU WADB (regional) WAEMU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,,,3364288.0,2008 est.,1.2,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities population distribution and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation,4.0,2008,1.0,2008,611600000,2007 est.,622,2008,,,,4.5,2008 est.,mostly flat to dissected undulating plains; hills in west and southeast,general assessment: services only fair; in 2006 the government sold a 51 percent stake in the national telephone company and ultimately plans to retain only a 23 percent stake in the company; fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage fostered by multiple providers is increasing rapidly from a low base domestic: microwave radio relay open-wire and radiotelephone communication stations international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007),6.28,2009 est.,77.0,2004,parliamentary republic,two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center note: uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia,,$ 1 343 000 000,2008 est.,92495,2004,3.1,2009 est.,4.5,2008 est.,,,$ 17 820 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Samuel C. LAEUCHLI embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau Koulouba Secteur 4 mailing address: 01 B. P. 35 Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - US Department of State 2440 Ouagadougou Place Washington DC 20521-2440 telephone: [226] 50-30-67-23 FAX: [226] 50-30-38-90,$ 1 200,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Ghana,10120000,2008 est.,Supreme Court,9.22,2005,549.0,NA,51.09,2009 est.,mining lumbering light manufacturing aluminum smelting food processing cement small commercial ship building,1293,2008,16.5,2008 est.,2.9,2000 census,.gh,1.9,2007 est.,260000,2007 est.,21000,2007 est.,376500,2007,0.85,2009 est.,650000,2007,7.0,2007,8 00 N 2 00 W,3.6,2009 est.,0.0,2007,25.3,2006 est.,Ghana struggles to accommodate returning nationals who worked in the cocoa plantations and escaped fighting in Cote d'Ivoire,238533,NA,310.0,2003,Africa,Western Africa bordering the Gulf of Guinea between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo,conventional long form: Republic of Ghana conventional short form: Ghana former: Gold Coast,539.0,NA,4.7,2008,approved 28 April 1992,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Adolphus K. ARTHUR chancery: 3512 International Drive NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520 FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527 consulate(s) general: New York,266186.0,2009 est.,39.4,2005-06,7571,2007 est.,$ 5 419 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 5 245 000 000,2008 est.,5709,2005,20.7,2009 est.,49300,2006 est.,45520,2005,15000000,1 January 2008 est.,22650000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President John Evans Atta MILLS (since 7 January 2009); Vice President John Dramani MAHAMA (since 7 January 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President John Evans Atta MILLS (since 7 January 2009); Vice President John Dramani MAHAMA (since 7 January 2009) cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 7 December 2008 with a second round held 28 December 2008 (next to be held 7 December 2012) election results: John Evans Atta MILLS elected president in run-off election; percent of vote - John Evans Atta MILLS 50.23% Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO 49.77%,0.95,NA,1.0,2000 census,$ 2 380 000 000,31 December 2007,5.8,2008,11,2008,9.0,2007,28.5,2007 est.,2.0,2006,755000000.0,2006 est.,6760000000,2006 est.,name: Accra geographic coordinates: 5 33 N 0 13 W time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a long series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992 RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS took over as head of state in early 2009.,15.0,2005 est.,gold cocoa timber tuna bauxite aluminum manganese ore diamonds horticulture,,,9.24,July 2009 est.,5.0,2008,$ 17 720 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,10 regions; Ashanti Brong-Ahafo Central Eastern Greater Accra Northern Upper East Upper West Volta Western,53.2,2001,0.98,2000,cocoa rice cassava (tapioca) peanuts corn shea nuts bananas; timber,Ghanaian Army Ghanaian Navy Ghanaian Air Force (2008),28.58,2009 est.,5.4,2005,$ 5 256 000 000,2008 est.,tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north,capital equipment petroleum foodstuffs,Convention People's Party or CPP [Ladi NYLANDER]; Democratic Freedom Party or DFP [Alhaji Abudu Rahman ISSAKAH]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTEY]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Kwabena ADJEI]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Peter MAC-MANU]; People's National Convention or PNC [Alhaji Amed RAMADAN]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU]; United Renaissance Party or URP [Charles WAYO],23832495,July 2009 est.,noun: Ghanaian(s) adjective: Ghanaian,gold timber industrial diamonds bauxite manganese fish rubber hydropower petroleum silver salt limestone,-0.53,2009 est.,Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake,Christian Aid (water rights); Committee for Joint Action or CJA (education reform); National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP (water rights); Oxfam (water rights); Public Citizen (water rights); Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education reform); Third World Network (education reform),Well endowed with natural resources Ghana has roughly twice the per capita output of the poorest countries in West Africa. Even so Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold and cocoa production and individual remittances are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around agriculture which accounts for about 35% of GDP and employs about 55% of the work force mainly small landholders. Ghana signed a Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Compact in 2006 which aims to assist in transforming Ghana's agricultural sector. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002 and is also benefiting from the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative that took effect in 2006. Thematic priorities under its current Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy which also provides the framework for development partner assistance are: macroeconomic stability; private sector competitiveness; human resource development; and good governance and civic responsibility. Sound macro-economic management along with high prices for gold and cocoa helped sustain GDP growth in 2008.,7604000,2007,6 March 1957 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0.7,2000 census,$ -2 620 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,629000000.0,2006 est.,3.5,NA,,,,,3840083.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 6 March (1957),4,2008,0.0,NA,dry dusty northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts,slightly smaller than Oregon,57.9,2000 census,59.85,2009 est.,unicameral Parliament (230 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 7 December 2008 (next to be held 7 December 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDC 114 NPP 107 PNC 2 CPP 1 independent 4 other 2,based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP AfDB AU C ECOWAS FAO G-24 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINURCAT MINURSO MONUC NAM OAS (observer) OIF (associate member) OPCW UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL UNITAR UNMIL UNOCI UNOMIG UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,5729939.0,2008 est.,0.8,2006 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands signed but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation,recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,8204000000,2006 est.,947,2008,Tema,18.0,NA,8.1,2008 est.,mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area,general assessment: outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra; competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with subscribership about 35 per 100 persons and rising domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors (2007),3.68,2009 est.,11.0,2000 est.,constitutional democracy,three equal horizontal bands of red (top) yellow and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band,illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and to a lesser extent South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money laundering problem but the lack of a well developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use,$ 10 240 000 000,2008 est.,62221,2006,1.88,2009 est.,6.3,2008 est.,,,$ 34 040 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Donald G. TEITELBAUM embassy: 24 4th Circular Rd. Cantonments Accra mailing address: P. O. Box 194 Accra telephone: [233] (21) 741-000 FAX: [233] (21) 741-389,$ 1 500,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Saudi Arabia,6740000,2008 est.,Supreme Council of Justice,0.09,2005,60.0,NA,11.57,2009 est.,crude oil production petroleum refining basic petrochemicals ammonia industrial gases sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) cement fertilizer plastics metals commercial ship repair commercial aircraft repair construction,,,9.9,2008 est.,,,.sa,0.01,2001 est.,,,,,3996000,2007,1.04,2009 est.,6200000,2007,117.0,1997,25 00 N 45 00 E,2.5,2009 est.,2.0,1998,3.1,2008 est.,Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the now fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue discussions on a maritime boundary with Iran,2149690,NA,16200.0,2003,Middle East,Middle East bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea north of Yemen,conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia conventional short form: Saudi Arabia local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah,2640.0,NA,4.2,2008,governed according to Islamic law; the Basic Law that articulates the government's rights and responsibilities was promulgated by royal decree in 1992,chief of mission: Ambassador Adil al-Ahmad al-JUBAYR chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW Washington DC 20037 telephone: [1] (202) 342-3800 FAX: [1] (202) 944-3113 consulate(s) general: Houston Los Angeles New York,267905.0,2009 est.,,,9200000,2008 est.,$ 75 360 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 309 800 000 000,2008 est.,8200000,2007 est.,21.6,2009 est.,1000000,2008 est.,41680,2005,264300000000,1 January 2008 est.,7167000000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: King and Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 1 August 2005); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SULTAN bin Abd al- Aziz Al Saud (half brother of the monarch); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: King and Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 1 August 2005); Deputy Prime Minister SULTAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud; Second Deputy Prime Minister NAYIF bin Abd Al-Aziz Al Saud cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by the monarch every four years and includes many royal family members elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; note - a new Allegiance Commission created by royal decree in October 2006 established a committee of Saudi princes that will play a role in selecting future Saudi kings but the new system will not take effect until after Crown Prince Sultan becomes king,3.75,NA,10.0,NA,$ 246 400 000 000,31 December 2008,4.8,2008,215,2008,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,156800000000,2006 est.,name: Riyadh geographic coordinates: 24 38 N 46 43 E time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of Islam and home to Islam's two holiest shrines in Mecca and Medina. The king's official title is the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The modern Saudi state was founded in 1932 by ABD AL-AZIZ bin Abd al-Rahman AL SAUD (Ibn Saud) after a 30-year campaign to unify most of the Arabian Peninsula. A male descendent of Ibn Saud his son ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz rules the country today as required by the country's 1992 Basic Law. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400 000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. The continuing presence of foreign troops on Saudi soil after the liberation of Kuwait became a source of tension between the royal family and the public until all operational US troops left the country in 2003. Major terrorist attacks in May and November 2003 spurred a strong on-going campaign against domestic terrorism and extremism. King ABDALLAH has continued the cautious reform program begun when he was crown prince. To promote increased political participation the government held elections nationwide from February through April 2005 for half the members of 179 municipal councils. In December 2005 King ABDALLAH completed the process by appointing the remaining members of the advisory municipal councils. The king instituted an Inter-Faith Dialogue initiative in 2008 to encourage religious tolerance on a global level; in February 2009 he reshuffled the cabinet which led to more moderates holding ministerial and judicial positions and appointed the first female to the cabinet. The country remains a leading producer of oil and natural gas and holds more than 20% of the world's proven oil reserves. The government continues to pursue economic reform and diversification particularly since Saudi Arabia's accession to the WTO in December 2005 and promotes foreign investment in the kingdom. A burgeoning population aquifer depletion and an economy largely dependent on petroleum output and prices are all ongoing governmental concerns.,6.7,2005 est.,petroleum and petroleum products 90%,,,2.47,July 2009 est.,212.0,2008,$ 467 700 000 000,2008 est.,$ 108 500 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 27 500 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,13 provinces (mintaqat singular - mintaqah); Al Bahah Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah Al Jawf Al Madinah Al Qasim Ar Riyad Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern Province) 'Asir Ha'il Jizan Makkah Najran Tabuk,2.4,1997,17.32,2000,wheat barley tomatoes melons dates citrus; mutton chickens eggs milk,Land Forces (Army) Navy Air Force Air Defense Force National Guard Ministry of Interior Forces (paramilitary),28.55,2009 est.,6.8,2004,$ 136 000 000 000,2008 est.,harsh dry desert with great temperature extremes,machinery and equipment foodstuffs chemicals motor vehicles textiles,none,28686633,July 2009 est.,noun: Saudi(s) adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian,petroleum natural gas iron ore gold copper,-7.6,2009 est.,extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal,Ansar Al Marah (supports women's rights) other: gas companies; religious groups,"Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. It possesses more than 20% of the world's proven petroleum reserves ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum and plays a leading role in OPEC. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 80% of budget revenues 45% of GDP and 90% of export earnings. About 40% of GDP comes from the private sector. Roughly 6.4 million foreign workers play an important role in the Saudi economy particularly in the oil and service sectors. High oil prices through mid-2008 have boosted growth government revenues and Saudi ownership of foreign assets while enabling Riyadh to pay down domestic debt. The government is encouraging private sector growth - especially in power generation telecommunications natural gas exploration and petrochemicals - to lessen the kingdom's dependence on oil exports and to increase employment opportunities for the swelling Saudi population nearly 40% of which are youths under 15 years old. Unemployment is high and the large youth population generally lacks the education and technical skills the private sector needs. Riyadh has substantially boosted spending on job training and education infrastructure development and government salaries. As part of its effort to attract foreign investment and diversify the economy Saudi Arabia acceded to the WTO in December 2005 after many years of negotiations. The government has announced plans to establish six ""economic cities"" in different regions of the country to promote development and diversification. The last five years of high oil prices have given the Kingdom ample financial reserves to manage the impact of the global financial crisis but tight international credit falling oil prices and the global economic slowdown will reduce Saudi economic growth in 2009.",28381000,2007,23 September 1932 (unification of the kingdom),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,75900000000,2007 est.,100.0,NA,$ 128 000 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,2.5,NA,$ 66 940 000 000,31 December 2007,,,5652819.0,2009 est.,Unification of the Kingdom 23 September (1932),62,2008,0.0,NA,frequent sand and dust storms,slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US,78.8,2003 est.,76.3,2009 est.,Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (150 members and a chairman appointed by the monarch for four-year terms); note - though the Council of Ministers announced in October 2003 its intent to introduce elections for half of the members of local and provincial assemblies and a third of the members of the national Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura incrementally over a period of four to five years to date no such elections have been held or announced,based on Sharia law several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ABEDA AfDB (nonregional member) AFESD AMF BIS FAO G-20 G-77 GCC IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IPU ISO ITSO ITU LAS MIGA NAM OAPEC OAS (observer) OIC OPCW OPEC PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNRWA UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,6381098.0,2008 est.,10.0,2005 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills,8.0,2008,2.0,2008,179100000000,2007 est.,1392,2008,Ad Dammam Al Jubayl Jiddah Yanbu' al Sinaiyah,21.0,NA,2.4,2008 est.,mostly uninhabited sandy desert,general assessment: modern system domestic: extensive microwave radio relay coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable systems; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly international: country code - 966; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Asia Middle East Europe and US; microwave radio relay to Bahrain Jordan Kuwait Qatar UAE Yemen and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean) 1 Arabsat and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region),3.83,2009 est.,11.8,2008 est.,monarchy,"green a traditional color in Islamic flags with the Shahada or Muslim creed in large white Arabic script (translated as ""There is no god but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God"") above a white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); design dates to the early twentieth century and is closely associated with the Al Saud family which established the kingdom in 1932",death penalty for traffickers; improving anti-money-laundering legislation and enforcement,$ 108 300 000 000,2008 est.,221372,2006,1.85,2009 est.,4.2,2008 est.,8.0,2007,$ 582 800 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Ford M. FRAKER embassy: Collector Road M Diplomatic Quarter Riyadh mailing address: American Embassy Unit 61307 APO AE 09803-1307; International Mail: P. O. Box 94309 Riyadh 11693 telephone: [966] (1) 488-3800 FAX: [966] (1) 488-7360 consulate(s) general: Dhahran Jiddah (Jeddah),$ 20 700,2008 est.,75900000000,2007 est.
Cocos (Keeling) Islands,,,Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court,0.0,2005,0.0,NA,,,copra products and tourism,,,,,,,.cc,,,,,,,287,1992,,,,,4.0,2007,12 30 S 96 50 E,,,0.0,2004,,,none,14,NA,,,Southeast Asia,Southeastern Asia group of islands in the Indian Ocean southwest of Indonesia about halfway from Australia to Sri Lanka,conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands,26.0,NA,,,Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955 (23 November 1955) as amended by the Territories Law Reform Act of 1992,none (territory of Australia),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by the Australian governor general head of government: Administrator (nonresident) Neil LUCAS (since 30 January 2006) cabinet: NA elections: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia,1.21,NA,,,,,,,1,2008,,,,,,,,,,,name: West Island geographic coordinates: 12 10 S 96 50 E time difference: UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),There are 27 coral islands in the group. Captain William KEELING discovered the islands in 1609 but they remained uninhabited until the 19th century. From the 1820s to 1978 members of the CLUNIE-ROSS family controlled the islands and the copra produced from local coconuts. Annexed by the UK in 1857 the Cocos Islands were transferred to the Australian Government in 1955. The population on the two inhabited islands generally is split between the ethnic Europeans on West Island and the ethnic Malays on Home Island.,,,copra,,,,,,,,,,,,,none (territory of Australia),,,,,vegetables bananas pawpaws coconuts,,,,,,,,tropical with high humidity moderated by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year,foodstuffs,none,596,July 2009 est.,noun: Cocos Islander(s) adjective: Cocos Islander,fish,,,islands are thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation; site of a World War I naval battle in November 1914 between the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney and the German raider SMS Emden; after being heavily damaged in the engagement the Emden was beached by her captain on North Keeling Island,The Cocos Islands Youth Support Centre,Grown throughout the islands coconuts are the sole cash crop. Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply but additional food and most other necessities must be imported from Australia. There is a small tourist industry.,,,none (territory of Australia),,,,,,,20.0,2002 est.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Australia Day 26 January (1788),,,0.0,NA,cyclone season is October to April,about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington DC,,,,,unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council (7 seats) elections: held every two years with half the members standing for election; last held in May 2007 (next to be held in May 2009),based upon the laws of Australia and local laws,none,12.0,NA,,,,,,fresh water resources are limited to rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs,,,1.0,2008,,,,,Port Refuge,18.0,NA,,,flat low-lying coral atolls,general assessment: connected within Australia's telecommunication system; a local mobile-cellular network is in operation domestic: NA international: country code - 61; telephone telex and facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat) (2001),,,60.0,2000 est.,NA,the flag of Australia is used,,,,22,2006,0.0,2009 est.,,,,,,,none (territory of Australia),,,,
Cape Verde,196100,2007,Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia,0.74,2005,0.0,NA,41.35,2009 est.,food and beverages fish processing shoes and garments salt mining ship repair,,,6.8,2008 est.,,,.cv,0.04,NA,775,NA,225,NA,71600,2006,0.58,2009 est.,37000,2007,1.0,2001,16 00 N 24 00 W,6.4,2009 est.,0.0,2001,9.1,2008 est.,none,4033,NA,30.0,2003,Political Map of the World,Western Africa group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean west of Senegal,conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde conventional short form: Cape Verde local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde local short form: Cabo Verde,965.0,NA,4.0,2008,25 September 1992; a major revision on 23 November 1995 substantially increased the powers of the president; a 1999 revision created the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica),chief of mission: Ambassador Fatima Lima VEIGA chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820 FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207 consulate(s) general: Boston,5349.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 325 000 000,2002,$ 99 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,21.1,2009 est.,2117,2006 est.,1785,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Pedro Verona Rodriques PIRES (since 22 March 2001) head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 12 February 2006 (next to be held in February 2011); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president election results: Pedro PIRES reelected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 51.2% Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 48.8%,73.84,NA,1.0,NA,,,17.7,2008,10,2008,11.0,2006,30.0,2000,,,0.0,2007 est.,43710000,2006 est.,name: Praia geographic coordinates: 14 55 N 23 31 W time difference: UTC-1 (4 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; Cape Verde subsequently became a trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following independence in 1975 and a tentative interest in unification with Guinea-Bissau a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cape Verde continues to exhibit one of Africa's most stable democratic governments. Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result Cape Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one. Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.,,,fuel shoes garments fish hides,10.55,31 December 2007,6.22,July 2009 est.,,,$ 1 845 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,17 municipalities (concelhos singular - concelho); Boa Vista Brava Maio Mosteiros Paul Praia Porto Novo Ribeira Grande Sal Santa Catarina Santa Cruz Sao Domingos Sao Filipe Sao Miguel Sao Nicolau Sao Vicente Tarrafal,0.3,1990,0.02,2000,bananas corn beans sweet potatoes sugarcane coffee peanuts; fish,People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP): Army Coast Guard (includes maritime air wing) (2007),23.5,2009 est.,6.3,2006,$ 508 000 000,2008 est.,temperate; warm dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic,foodstuffs industrial products transport equipment fuels,African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES chairman]; Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]; Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]; Democratic and Independent Cape Verdean Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Jorge SANTOS]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Isaias RODRIGUES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM],429474,July 2009 est.,noun: Cape Verdean(s) adjective: Cape Verdean,salt basalt rock limestone kaolin fish clay gypsum,-11.67,2009 est.,strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site,other: environmentalists; political pressure groups,This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented with commerce transport tourism and public services accounting for about three-fourths of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas the share of food production in GDP is low. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential mostly lobster and tuna is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%. Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Future prospects depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows the encouragement of tourism remittances and the momentum of the government's development program. Cape Verde became a member of the WTO in July 2008.,148000,2007,5 July 1975 (from Portugal),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,,,$ -186 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,3.5,NA,$ 1 049 000 000,31 December 2007,,,84967.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 5 July (1975),8,2008,0.0,NA,prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active,slightly larger than Rhode Island,76.6,2003 est.,71.61,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011) election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 52.3% MPD 44% UCID 2.7%; seats by party - PAICV 41 MPD 29 UCID 2,based on the legal system of Portugal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACCT ACP AfDB AU CPLP ECOWAS FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICCt (signatory) ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM OIF OPCW UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO Union Latina UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,103553.0,2008 est.,0.7,2005,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,soil erosion; deforestation due to demand for wood used as fuel; water shortages; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing,,,1.0,2008,47000000,2006 est.,,,Porto Grande,18.0,NA,5.0,2008 est.,steep rugged rocky volcanic,general assessment: effective system extensive modernization from 1996-2000 following partial privatization in 1995 domestic: major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT); fiber-optic ring completed in 2001 links all islands providing Internet access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced in 1998; broadband services launched in 2004 international: country code - 238; landing point for the Atlantis-2 fiber-optic transatlantic telephone cable that provides links to South America Senegal and Europe; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007),3.07,2009 est.,21.0,2000 est.,republic,five unequal horizontal bands; the top-most band of blue - equal to one half the width of the flag - is followed by three bands of white red and white each equal to 1/12 of the width and a bottom stripe of blue equal to one quarter of the flag width; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars each representing one of the islands is centered on the red stripe and positioned 3/8 of the length of the flag from the hoist side,used as a transshipment point for Latin American cocaine destined for Western Europe particularly because of Lusophone links to Brazil Portugal and Guinea-Bissau; has taken steps to deter drug money laundering including a 2002 anti-money laundering reform that criminalizes laundering the proceeds of narcotics trafficking and other crimes and the establishment in 2008 of a Financial Intelligence Unit (2008),$ 866 000 000,2008 est.,1350,2000,0.56,2009 est.,6.0,2008 est.,,,$ 1 635 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Marianne M. MYLES embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo n6 Praia mailing address: C. P. 201 Praia telephone: [238] 2-60-89-00 FAX: [238] 2-61-13-55,$ 3 800,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Northern Mariana Islands,38450,2005 est.,Commonwealth Supreme Court; Superior Court; Federal District Court,4.35,2005,0.0,NA,6.59,2009 est.,banking construction fishing garment tourism handicrafts,,,-0.8,2000,9.5,2000 census,.mp,,,,,,,21000,2000,0.67,2009 est.,10000,2003,1.0,2006,15 12 N 145 45 E,1.7,2009 est.,1.0,2005,,,none,464,NA,,,Oceania,Oceania islands in the North Pacific Ocean about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines,conventional long form: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands conventional short form: Northern Mariana Islands abbreviation: CNMI former: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Mariana Islands District,1482.0,NA,,,Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands effective 1 January 1978; Covenant Agreement fully effective 4 November 1986,,570.0,2009 est.,,,,,,,$ 98 200 000,2008,,,30.1,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009) head of government: Governor Benigno R. FITIAL (since 9 January 2006); Lieutenant Governor Eloy S. INOS (since 1 May 2009) cabinet: the cabinet consists of the heads of the 10 principal departments under the executive branch who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate; other members include Special Assistants to the governor and office heads appointed by and reporting directly to the governor elections: under the US Constitution residents of unincorporated territories such as the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however they may vote in the Democratic and Republican party presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 5 November 2005 (next to be held in November 2009) election results: Benigno R. FITIAL elected governor; percent of vote - Benigno R. FITIAL 28.07% Heinz HOFSCHNEIDER 27.34% Juan BABAUTA 26.6% Froilan TENORIO 17.99%,,,0.8,2000 census,,,,,5,2008,,,,,,,0.0,January 2009 est.,48300,January 2009,name: Saipan geographic coordinates: 15 12 N 145 45 E time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Under US administration as part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific the people of the Northern Mariana Islands decided in the 1970s not to seek independence but instead to forge closer links with the US. Negotiations for territorial status began in 1972. A covenant to establish a commonwealth in political union with the US was approved in 1975 and came into force on 24 March 1976. A new government and constitution went into effect in 1978.,,,garments,,,2.32,July 2009 est.,,,$ 633 400 000,2000,,,,,none (commonwealth in political union with the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government but there are four municipalities at the second order: Northern Islands Rota Saipan Tinian,,,,,vegetables and melons fruits and nuts ornamental plants livestock poultry and eggs fish and aquaculture products,,18.77,2009 est.,,,$ 193 000 000,FY01/02 est.,tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June rainy season July to October,food construction equipment and materials petroleum products,Covenant Party [Benigno R. FITIAL]; Democratic Party [Dr. Carlos S. CAMACHO]; Republican Party [Juan S. REYES],88662,July 2009 est.,noun: NA (US citizens) adjective: NA,arable land fish,6.47,2009 est.,strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean,NA,The economy benefits substantially from financial assistance from the US. The rate of funding has declined as locally generated government revenues have grown. The key tourist industry employs about 50% of the work force and accounts for roughly one-fourth of GDP. Japanese tourists predominate. Annual tourist entries have exceeded one-half million in recent years but financial difficulties in Japan have caused a temporary slowdown. The agricultural sector is made up of cattle ranches and small farms producing coconuts breadfruit tomatoes and melons. Garment production is by far the most important industry with the employment of 17 500 mostly Chinese workers and sizable shipments to the US under duty and quota exemptions.,20500,2004,none (commonwealth in political union with the US),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,January 2009 est.,2.1,NA,,,,,19209.0,2009 est.,Commonwealth Day 8 January (1978),,,0.0,NA,active volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; typhoons (especially August to November),2.5 times the size of Washington DC,97.0,1980 est.,76.7,2009 est.,bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (9 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year staggered terms) and the House of Representatives (20 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 3 November 2007 (next to be held in November 2009); House of Representatives - last held 3 November 2007 (next to be held in November 2009) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Covenant Party 3 Republican Party 3 Democratic Party 1 independents 2; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 12 Covenant Party 4 Democratic Party 1 independents 3 note: the Northern Mariana Islands elects one nonvoting delegate to the US House of Representatives; election last held 4 November 2008 (next to be held in November 2010); seats by party - independent 1,based on US system except for customs wages immigration laws and taxation,SPC UPU,12.0,NA,,,,,,contamination of groundwater on Saipan may contribute to disease; clean-up of landfill; protection of endangered species conflicts with development,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,60600,January 2009,,,Saipan Tinian,18.0,NA,,,southern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic,general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 1-670; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean),1.15,2009 est.,8.0,2005 est.,commonwealth; self-governing with locally elected governor lieutenant governor and legislature,blue with a white five-pointed star superimposed on the gray silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation stone used in building) in the center surrounded by a wreath,,$ 214 400 000,2001,536,2007,2.29,2009 est.,,,1.0,2007,$ 900 000 000,2000 est.,,$ 12 500,2000 est.,,
Slovenia,940000,2008 est.,Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president),1.43,2005,102.0,NA,4.25,2009 est.,ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics) trucks automobiles electric power equipment wood products textiles chemicals machine tools,,,5.7,2008 est.,4.4,2002 census,.si,0.1,2007 est.,280,2007 est.,100,2007 est.,857100,2007,0.64,2009 est.,1300000,2007,31.0,2006,46 07 N 14 49 E,13.5,2009 est.,0.0,2006,2.2,2008 est.,the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia remains unratified and in dispute; Slovenia also protests Croatia's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia,20273,NA,30.0,2003,Europe,Central Europe eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea between Austria and Croatia,conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia conventional short form: Slovenia local long form: Republika Slovenija local short form: Slovenija former: People's Republic of Slovenia Socialist Republic of Slovenia,46.6,NA,4.1,2008,adopted 23 December 1991 amended 14 July 1997 and 25 July 2000,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mariam MOZGAN chancery: 2410 California Street N.W. Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601 FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633 consulate(s) general: Cleveland New York,9717.0,2009 est.,24.0,2005,5,2007 est.,$ 40 420 000 000,30 June 2007,$ 29 590 000 000,2008 est.,4535,2005,41.7,2009 est.,54310,2006 est.,59110,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Danilo TURK (since 22 December 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Borut PAHOR (since 7 November 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 October and 11 November 2007 (next to be held in the 8 October 2012); following National Assembly elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 21 September 2008 (next National Assembly elections to be held in 8 October 2012) election results: Danilo TURK elected president; percent of vote - Danilo TURK 68.2% Alojze PETERLE 31.8%; Borut PAHOR elected prime minister by National Assembly vote,0.68,NA,1.1,2002 census,$ 28 960 000 000,31 December 2007,4.8,2008,14,2008,16.0,2006,12.9,2004,3.4,2004,5894000000.0,2007 est.,13400000000,2006 est.,name: Ljubljana geographic coordinates: 46 03 N 14 31 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918 the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia which though Communist distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe a strong economy and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.,2.5,2007,manufactured goods machinery and transport equipment chemicals food,6.82,31 December 2007,10.62,July 2009 est.,11.0,2008,$ 57 010 000 000,2008 est.,$ 11 960 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 7 627 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,182 municipalities (obcine singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina Beltinci Benedikt Bistrica ob Sotli Bled Bloke Bohinj Borovnica Bovec Braslovce Brda Brezice Brezovica Cankova Celje* Cerklje na Gorenjskem Cerknica Cerkno Cerkvenjak Crensovci Crna na Koroskem Crnomelj Destrnik Divaca Dobje Dobrepolje Dobrna Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec Dobrovnik-Dobronak Dolenjske Toplice Dol pri Ljubljani Domzale Dornava Dravograd Duplek Gorenja Vas-Poljane Gorisnica Gornja Radgona Gornji Grad Gornji Petrovci Grad Grosuplje Hajdina Hoce-Slivnica Hodos-Hodos Horjul Hrastnik Hrpelje-Kozina Idrija Ig Ilirska Bistrica Ivancna Gorica Izola-Isola Jesenice Jezersko Jursinci Kamnik Kanal Kidricevo Kobarid Kobilje Kocevje Komen Komenda Koper-Capodistria* Kostel Kozje Kranj* Kranjska Gora Krizevci Krsko Kungota Kuzma Lasko Lenart Lendava-Lendva Litija Ljubljana* Ljubno Ljutomer Logatec Loska Dolina Loski Potok Lovrenc na Pohorju Luce Lukovica Majsperk Maribor* Markovci Medvode Menges Metlika Mezica Miklavz na Dravskem Polju Miren-Kostanjevica Mirna Pec Mislinja Moravce Moravske Toplice Mozirje Murska Sobota* Muta Naklo Nazarje Nova Gorica* Novo Mesto* Odranci Oplotnica Ormoz Osilnica Pesnica Piran-Pirano Pivka Podcetrtek Podlehnik Podvelka Polzela Postojna Prebold Preddvor Prevalje Ptuj* Puconci Race-Fram Radece Radenci Radlje ob Dravi Radovljica Ravne na Koroskem Razkrizje Ribnica Ribnica na Pohorju Rogasovci Rogaska Slatina Rogatec Ruse Salovci Selnica ob Dravi Semic Sempeter-Vrtojba Sencur Sentilj Sentjernej Sentjur pri Celju Sevnica Sezana Skocjan Skofja Loka Skofljica Slovenj Gradec* Slovenska Bistrica Slovenske Konjice Smarje pri Jelsah Smartno ob Paki Smartno pri Litiji Sodrazica Solcava Sostanj Starse Store Sveta Ana Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah Sveti Jurij Tabor Tisina Tolmin Trbovlje Trebnje Trnovska Vas Trzic Trzin Turnisce Velenje* Velika Polana Velike Lasce Verzej Videm Vipava Vitanje Vodice Vojnik Vransko Vrhnika Vuzenica Zagorje ob Savi Zalec Zavrc Zelezniki Zetale Ziri Zirovnica Zuzemberk Zrece note: the Government of Slovenia has reported 210 municipalities,32.1,2005,0.9,2002,potatoes hops wheat sugar beets corn grapes; cattle sheep poultry,Slovenian Army (includes air and naval forces),8.97,2009 est.,6.0,2005,$ 22 550 000 000,2008 est.,Mediterranean climate on the coast continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east,machinery and transport equipment manufactured goods chemicals fuels and lubricants food,Liberal Democracy of Slovenia or LDS [Katarina KRESAL]; New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK (acting)]; Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Bojan SROT]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Social Democrats or SD [Borut PAHOR] (formerly ZLSD); ZARES [Gregor Golobic],2005692,July 2009 est.,noun: Slovene(s) adjective: Slovenian,lignite coal lead zinc building stone hydropower forests,0.52,2009 est.,despite its small size this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes,Democratic Party of Slovenian Pensioners or DeSUS (protecting the rights of the older generation); Slovenian Roma Association [Jozek Horvat MUC] other: Catholic Church,Slovenia which on 1 January 2007 became the first 2004 European Union entrant to adopt the euro is a model of economic success and stability for the region. With the highest per capita GDP in Central Europe Slovenia has excellent infrastructure a well-educated work force and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe. Privatization has lagged since 2002 and the economy has one of highest levels of state control in the EU. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for somewhat greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and have helped to lower unemployment. In March 2004 Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In December 2007 Slovenia was invited to begin the accession process for joining the OECD. Despite its economic success foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia has lagged behind the region average and taxes remain relatively high. Furthermore the labor market is often seen as inflexible and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China India and elsewhere.,1928000,2007,25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia),0,2007 est.,1073000000,2005,1105000000,2006 est.,0.9,2002 census,$ -2 920 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,6140000000.0,2007 est.,-0.6,NA,$ 41 630 000 000,31 December 2007,,,390559.0,2009 est.,Independence Day/Statehood Day 25 June (1991),29,2008,0.0,NA,flooding; earthquakes,slightly smaller than New Jersey,99.7,NA,76.92,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament consists of a National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve five-year terms; note - this is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws ask to review any National Assembly decision and call national referenda) and the National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 40 members are directly elected and 50 are elected on a proportional basis; note - the number of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; the constitution mandates 1 seat each for Slovenia's Hungarian and Italian minorities; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: National Assembly - last held 21 September 2008 (next to be held 8 October 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - SD 30.5% SDS 29.3% ZARES 9.4% DeSUS 7.5% SNS 5.5% SLS+SMS 5.2% LDS 5.2% other 7.4%; seats by party - SD 29 SDS 28 ZARES 9 DeSUS 7 SNS 5 SLS+SMS 5 LDS 5 Hungarian minority 1 Italian minority 1,based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,Australia Group BIS CE CEI EAPC EBRD EIB EMU EU FAO IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITU MIGA NAM (guest) NATO NSG OAS (observer) OECD (accession state) OIF (observer) OPCW OSCE PCA Schengen Convention SECI UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNIFIL UNTSO UNWTO UPU WCO WEU (associate partner) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC,12.0,NA,481180.0,2008 est.,1.7,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain,2.0,2008,1.0,2008,14130000000,2007 est.,1228,2007,Koper,18.0,NA,1.7,2008 est.,a short coastal strip on the Adriatic an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east,general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 140 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 386,1.28,2009 est.,6.7,2008 est.,parliamentary republic,three equal horizontal bands of white (top) blue and red with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav Slovenia's highest peak in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands,minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe and for precursor chemicals,$ 33 430 000 000,2008 est.,38709,2007,-0.11,2009 est.,4.3,2008 est.,,,$ 59 140 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Brad FREDEN embassy: Presernova 31 1000 Ljubljana mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana US Department of State 7140 Ljubljana Place Washington DC 20521-7140 telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500 FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555,$ 29 500,2008 est.,4000000,2006 est.
Guatemala,4056000,2008 est.,Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitucionalidad is Guatemala's highest court (five judges are elected for concurrent five-year terms); Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (13 members serve concurrent five-year terms and elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country who are named to five-year terms),5.6,2005,203.0,NA,27.84,2009 est.,sugar textiles and clothing furniture chemicals petroleum metals rubber tourism,990,2007,11.4,2008 est.,40.0,NA,.gt,0.8,2007 est.,59000,2007 est.,3900,2007 est.,1355000,2006,0.86,2009 est.,1320000,2006,26.0,1997,15 30 N 90 15 W,3.8,2009 est.,15.0,2000,13.1,2008 est.,annual ministerial meetings under the OAS-initiated Agreement on the Framework for Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Guatemalan land and maritime claims in Belize and the Caribbean Sea; the Line of Adjacency created under the 2002 Differendum serves in lieu of the contiguous international boundary to control squatting in the sparsely inhabited rain forests of Belize's border region; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States,108889,NA,1300.0,2003,Central America and the Caribbean,Central America bordering the North Pacific Ocean between El Salvador and Mexico and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize,conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala conventional short form: Guatemala local long form: Republica de Guatemala local short form: Guatemala,400.0,NA,4.1,2008,31 May 1985 effective 14 January 1986; suspended 25 May 1993; reinstated 5 June 1993; amended November 1993,chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco VILLAGRAN de Leon chancery: 2220 R Street NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952 FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908 consulate(s) general: Atlanta Chicago Denver Houston Los Angeles Miami New York Phoenix Providence San Francisco,163760.0,2009 est.,55.1,2007,15820,2007 est.,$ 6 498 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 7 862 000 000,2008 est.,15560,2006 est.,19.4,2009 est.,74230,2006 est.,72960,2006 est.,83070000,1 January 2008 est.,2960000000,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 January 2008); Vice President Jose Rafael ESPADA (since 14 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 January 2008); Vice President Jose Rafael ESPADA (since 14 January 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 9 September 2007; runoff held 4 November 2007 (next to be held September 2011) election results: Alvaro COLOM Caballeros elected president; percent of vote - Alvaro COLOM Caballeros 52.8% Otto PEREZ Molina 47.2%,7.59,NA,0.1,2001 census,,,4.4,2008,374,2008,10.0,2006,56.2,2004 est.,1.3,2006,131900000.0,2007 est.,6617000000,2006 est.,name: Guatemala geographic coordinates: 14 37 N 90 31 W time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in April; ends last Friday in September; note - there is no DST planned for 2007-2009,The Mayan civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996 the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the conflict which had left more than 100 000 people dead and had created by some estimates some 1 million refugees.,15.0,1999 est.,coffee sugar petroleum apparel bananas fruits and vegetables cardamom,12.84,31 December 2007,5.11,July 2009 est.,480.0,2008,$ 36 280 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,22 departments (departamentos singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz Baja Verapaz Chimaltenango Chiquimula El Progreso Escuintla Guatemala Huehuetenango Izabal Jalapa Jutiapa Peten Quetzaltenango Quiche Retalhuleu Sacatepequez San Marcos Santa Rosa Solola Suchitepequez Totonicapan Zacapa,111.3,2000,2.01,2000,sugarcane corn bananas coffee beans cardamom; cattle sheep pigs chickens,Army Navy (includes Marines) Air Force,27.98,2009 est.,2.6,2006,$ 4 693 000 000,2008 est.,tropical; hot humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands,fuels machinery and transport equipment construction materials grain fertilizers electricity,Center of Social Action or CASA [Eduardo SUGER]; Democracy Front or FRENTE [Alfonso CABRERA]; Democratic Union or UD [Manuel CONDE Orellana]; Encounter for Guatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENGRO]; Grand National Alliance or GANA [Alfredo VILLA]; Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Hector NUILA]; Guatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Efrain RIOS Montt]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Juan Guillermo GUTIERREZ]; National Unity for Hope or UNE [Juan Jose ALFARO Lemus]; Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Mario ESTRADA]; Patriot Party or PP [Ret. Gen. Otto PEREZ Molina]; Unionista Party or PU [Fritz GARCIA-GALLONT],13276517,July 2009 est.,noun: Guatemalan(s) adjective: Guatemalan,petroleum nickel rare woods fish chicle hydropower,-2.21,2009 est.,no natural harbors on west coast,Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity or AAI; Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural Commercial Industrial and Financial Associations or CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM,Guatemala is the most populous of the Central American countries with a GDP per capita roughly one-half that of Argentina Brazil and Chile. The agricultural sector accounts for about one-tenth of GDP two-fifths of exports and half of the labor force. Coffee sugar and bananas are the main products with sugar exports benefiting from increased global demand for ethanol. The 1996 signing of peace accords which ended 36 years of civil war removed a major obstacle to foreign investment and Guatemala since then has pursued important reforms and macroeconomic stabilization. The Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) entered into force in July 2006 and has since spurred increased investment in the export sector but concerns over security the lack of skilled workers and poor infrastructure continued to hamper foreign participation. The distribution of income remains highly unequal with more than half of the population below the national poverty line. Other ongoing challenges include increasing government revenues negotiating further assistance from international donors curtailing drug trafficking and rampant crime and narrowing the trade deficit. Given Guatemala's large expatriate community in the United States it is the top remittance recipient in Central America with inflows serving as a primary source of foreign income equivalent to nearly two-thirds of exports. Economic growth will slow in 2009 as export demand from US and other Central American markets drop and foreign investment slows amid the global slowdown.,10150000,2007,15 September 1821 (from Spain),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,,,$ -2 119 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,8110000.0,2007 est.,3.4,NA,$ 13 960 000 000,31 December 2007,,,2401297.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 15 September (1821),,,0.0,NA,numerous volcanoes in mountains with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms,slightly smaller than Tennessee,69.1,2002 census,70.29,2009 est.,unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (158 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 9 September 2007 (next to be held in September 2011) election results: percent of vote by party - UNE 30.4% GANA 23.4% PP 18.9% FRG 9.5% PU 5.1% other 12.7%; seats by party - UNE 48 GANA 37 PP 30 FRG 15 PU 8 CASA 5 EG 4 PAN 4 UCN 4 URNG 2 UD 1,civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,BCIE CACM FAO G-24 G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU ITUC LAES LAIA (observer) MIGA MINUSTAH MONUC NAM OAS OPANAL OPCW PCA RG SICA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNIFIL Union Latina UNMIS UNOCI UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,2861696.0,2008 est.,0.4,2006,party to: Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,deforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution,1.0,2008,2.0,2008,7643000000,2006 est.,332,2008,Puerto Quetzal Santo Tomas de Castilla,18.0,NA,1.4,2008 est.,mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau,general assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala domestic: state-owned telecommunications company privatized in the late 1990s opening the way for competition; fixed-line teledensity 11 per 100 persons; fixed-line investments are being concentrated on improving rural connectivity; mobile-cellular teledensity 80 per 100 persons international: country code - 502; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the SAM-1 fiber optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America parts of the Caribbean and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean),3.47,2009 est.,3.2,2005 est.,constitutional democratic republic,three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side) white and light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath,major transit country for cocaine and heroin; in 2005 cultivated 100 hectares of opium poppy after reemerging as a potential source of opium in 2004; potential production of less than 1 metric ton of pure heroin; marijuana cultivation for mostly domestic consumption; proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (particularly for cocaine); money laundering is a serious problem; corruption is a major problem,$ 13 380 000 000,2008 est.,14095,2000,2.07,2009 est.,3.8,2008 est.,,,$ 68 020 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen G. MCFARLAND embassy: 7-01 Avenida Reforma Zone 10 Guatemala City mailing address: APO AA 34024 telephone: [502] 2326-4000 FAX: [502] 2326-4654,$ 5 200,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Bosnia and Herzegovina,1863000,2007,BH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BH State Court (consists of nine judges and three divisions - Administrative Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities); a War Crimes Chamber opened in March 2005 note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts,1.89,2005,249.0,NA,9.1,2009 est.,steel coal iron ore lead zinc manganese bauxite vehicle assembly textiles tobacco products wooden furniture tank and aircraft assembly domestic appliances oil refining,,,7.3,2008 est.,,,.ba,0.1,2007 est.,900,2007 est.,100,2001 est.,1065000,2007,0.69,2009 est.,1055000,2007,33.0,September 1995,44 00 N 18 00 E,14.5,2009 est.,1.0,1998,10.2,2006 est.,sections along the Drina River remain in dispute between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia; discussions continue with Croatia on several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder final ratification of the 1999 border agreement,51197,NA,30.0,2003,Europe,Southeastern Europe bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina local long form: none local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina,20.0,NA,6.4,2008,the Dayton Peace Accords signed 14 December 1995 in Paris included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution,chief of mission: Ambassador Mitar KUJUNDZIC chancery: 2109 E Street NW Washington DC 20037 telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500 FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502 consulate(s) general: Chicago New York,25644.0,2009 est.,56.2,2007,0,2007 est.,$ 7 672 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 5 177 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,39.8,2009 est.,27590,2006 est.,27370,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006,chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Zeljko KOMSIC (chairman since 6 July 2009; presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Croat); other members of the three-member presidency rotating (every eight months): Haris SILAJDZIC (presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Bosniak); and Nebojsa RADMANOVIC (presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Serb) head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola SPIRIC (since 11 January 2007) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak one Croat one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term but then ineligible for four years); the chairmanship rotates every eight months and resumes where it left off following each national election; election last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in 2010); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives election results: percent of vote - Nebojsa RADMANOVIC with 53.3% of the votes for the Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC with 39.6% of the votes for the Croat seat; Haris SILAJDZIC with 62.8% of the votes for the Bosniak seat note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Borjana KRISTO (since 21 February 2007); Vice Presidents Spomenka MICIC (since NA 2007) and Mirsad KEBO (since NA 2007); President of the Republika Srpska: Rajko KUSMANOVIC (since 28 December 2007),1.31,NA,0.6,NA,,,4.8,2008,25,2008,,,25.0,2004 est.,2.8,2004,5123000000.0,2006 est.,8501000000,2006 est.,name: Sarajevo geographic coordinates: 43 52 N 18 25 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,"Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a ""Greater Serbia."" In March 1994 Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995 in Dayton Ohio the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign diplomatic and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Office of the High Representative (OHR) was established to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. In 1995-96 a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60 000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country. EUFOR's mission changed from peacekeeping to civil policing in October 2007 with its presence reduced from nearly 7 000 to less than 2 500 troops.",19.8,2007,metals clothing wood products,7.17,31 December 2007,8.63,July 2009 est.,,,$ 19 360 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)* the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district remains under international supervision,37.5,2003,,,wheat corn fruits vegetables; livestock,Bosnia and Herzegovina Armed Forces (OSBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina Air and Air Defense Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Zrakoplovstvo i Protuzracna Obrana ZPO) (2009),8.85,2009 est.,,,$ 8 516 000 000,2008 est.,hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short cool summers and long severe winters; mild rainy winters along coast,machinery and equipment chemicals fuels foodstuffs,Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Bosnian Patriotic Party of BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Marin TOPIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Marko TADIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BH [Dragan COVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ1990 [Bozo LJUBIC]; Croatian Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifet DOLIC]; Democratic Party of DP [Dragan CAVIC]; Democratic Peoples Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; Nasa Stranka or NS [Bojan BAJIC]; New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party for Work and Progress or RzB [Mladen IVANKOVIC-LIJANOVIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social Democratic Union or SDU [Sejfudin TOKIC]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC],4613414,July 2009 est.,noun: Bosnian(s) Herzegovinian(s) adjective: Bosnian Herzegovinian,coal iron ore bauxite copper lead zinc chromite cobalt manganese nickel clay gypsum salt sand forests hydropower,3.17,2009 est.,within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east,other: displaced persons associations; student councils; war veterans,The interethnic warfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace in place output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. Part of the lag in output was made up in 2003-08 when GDP growth exceeded 5% per year. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were shut down; foreign banks primarily from Western Europe now control most of the banking sector. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro and confidence in the currency and the banking sector has increased. Bosnia's private sector is growing and foreign investment is slowly increasing but government spending at nearly 40% of adjusted GDP remains high because of redundant government offices at the state entity and municipal level. Implementing privatization however has been slow particularly in the Federation where political division between ethnically-based political parties makes agreement on economic policy more difficult. A sizeable current account deficit and high unemployment rate remain the two most serious macroeconomic problems. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a predictable source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray market activity. National-level statistics have also improved over time but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007. Bosnia's economy has been largely sheltered from the global financial downtown although key economic indicators have worsened. Key exporters in the metal automobile and wood processing industries have reported a worsening performance and have announced layoffs and output reductions.,2450000,2007,1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence completed 1 March 1992; independence declared 3 March 1992),0,2007 est.,,,400000000,2006 est.,14.0,NA,$ -2 763 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,3015000000.0,2006 est.,1.4,NA,$ 8 895 000 000,31 December 2007,,,959226.0,2009 est.,National Day 25 November (1943),,,0.0,NA,destructive earthquakes,slightly smaller than West Virginia,96.7,2000 est.,78.5,2009 est.,bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats 5 Bosniak 5 Croat 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); and the national House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats 28 seats allocated for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats for the Republika Srpska; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures elections: House of Peoples - last constituted in January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007); national House of Representatives - elections last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in 2010) election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA; national House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 9 SBiH 8 SNSD 7 SDP 5 SDS 3 HDZ-BH 3 HDZ1990 2 other 5 note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak 17 Croat 17 Serb 7 other); last constituted December 2002; and a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 28 SBiH 24 SDP 17 HDZ-BH 8 HDZ1990 7 other 14; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in the fall of 2010); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SNSD 41 SDS 17 PDP 8 DNS 4 SBiH 4 SPRS 3 SDA 3 other 3; as a result of the 2002 constitutional reform process a 28-member Republika Srpska Council of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National Assembly including eight Croats eight Bosniaks eight Serbs and four members of the smaller communities,based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,BIS CE CEI EAPC EBRD FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MONUC NAM (observer) OAS (observer) OIC (observer) OPCW OSCE PFP SECI UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),,,1170645.0,2008 est.,4.5,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,12840000000,2006 est.,1000,2008,Bosanska Gradiska Bosanski Brod Bosanski Samac and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava River) Orasje,18.0,NA,11.6,2008 est.,mountains and valleys,general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network aided by a internationally sponsored program under ERBD resulted in sharp increases in the number of main telephone lines available; mobile cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density exceeds 50 per 100 persons international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2007),1.25,2009 est.,29.0,2007 est.,emerging federal democratic republic,a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle,increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy weak law enforcement and instances of corruption,$ 12 270 000 000,2008 est.,21846,2006,0.34,2009 est.,5.6,2008 est.,5.0,2007,$ 29 900 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Charles L. ENGLISH embassy: Alipasina 43 71000 Sarajevo mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [387] (33) 445-700 FAX: [387] (33) 659-722 branch office(s): Banja Luka Mostar,$ 6 500,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Kuwait,2088000,2008 est.,High Court of Appeal,0.17,2005,222.0,NA,8.96,2009 est.,petroleum petrochemicals cement shipbuilding and repair water desalination food processing construction materials,,,10.6,2008 est.,,,.kw,0.12,2001 est.,,,,,517000,2006,1.04,2009 est.,900000,2007,13.0,1997,29 30 N 45 45 E,2.9,2009 est.,1.0,1998,0.3,2008 est.,Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue negotiating a joint maritime boundary with Iran; no maritime boundary exists with Iraq in the Persian Gulf,17818,NA,130.0,2003,Middle East,Middle East bordering the Persian Gulf between Iraq and Saudi Arabia,conventional long form: State of Kuwait conventional short form: Kuwait local long form: Dawlat al Kuwayt local short form: Al Kuwayt,499.0,NA,4.1,2008,approved and promulgated 11 November 1962,chief of mission: Ambassador SALIM al-Abdallah al-Jabir al-Sabah chancery: 2940 Tilden Street NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 966-0702 FAX: [1] (202) 364-2868 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles,18122.0,2009 est.,,,2613000,2007 est.,$ 36 930 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 89 400 000 000,2008 est.,2356000,2005,26.2,2009 est.,334700,2006 est.,8022,2005,101500000000,1 January 2008 est.,1586000000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: Amir SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah (since 29 January 2006); Crown Prince NAWAF al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah head of government: Prime Minister NASIR AL-MUHAMMAD al-Ahmad al-Sabah (since 3 April 2007); First Deputy Prime Minister JABIR AL-MUBAREK al-Hamad al-Sabah (since 9 February 2006); Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD AL-SABAH al-Salim al-Sabah (since 9 February 2006) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister and approved by the amir elections: none; the amir is hereditary; the amir appoints the prime minister and deputy prime ministers,0.27,NA,4.0,NA,$ 188 000 000 000,31 December 2007,4.2,2008,7,2008,12.0,2006,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,39540000000,2006 est.,name: Kuwait geographic coordinates: 29 22 N 47 58 E time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Britain oversaw foreign relations and defense for the ruling Kuwaiti AL-SABAH dynasty from 1899 until independence in 1961. Kuwait was attacked and overrun by Iraq on 2 August 1990. Following several weeks of aerial bombardment a US-led UN coalition began a ground assault on 23 February 1991 that liberated Kuwait in four days. Kuwait spent more than $5 billion to repair oil infrastructure damaged during 1990-91. The AL-SABAH family has ruled since returning to power in 1991 and reestablished an elected legislature that in recent years has become increasingly assertive. The country witnessed the historic election in May 2009 of four women to its National Assembly.,,,oil and refined products fertilizers,8.54,31 December 2007,2.35,July 2009 est.,57.0,2008,$ 159 700 000 000,2008 est.,$ 1 220 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 28 290 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,6 governorates (muhafazat singular - muhafazah); Al Ahmadi Al 'Asimah Al Farwaniyah Al Jahra' Hawalli Mubarak al Kabir,0.02,1997,0.44,2000,practically no crops; fish,Kuwaiti Land Forces (KLF) Kuwaiti Navy Kuwaiti Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Kuwaitiya) Kuwaiti National Guard (KNG) (2008),21.81,2009 est.,3.8,2006,$ 58 080 000 000,2008 est.,dry desert; intensely hot summers; short cool winters,food construction materials vehicles and parts clothing,none; formation of political parties is in practice illegal but is not forbidden by law,2691158,July 2009 est.,noun: Kuwaiti(s) adjective: Kuwaiti,petroleum fish shrimp natural gas,16.02,2009 est.,strategic location at head of Persian Gulf,other: Islamists; merchants; political groups; secular liberals and pro-governmental deputies; Shia activists; tribal groups,Kuwait is a small rich relatively open economy with self-reported crude oil reserves of about 104 billion barrels - 8% of world reserves. Petroleum accounts for nearly half of GDP 95% of export revenues and 80% of government income. Kuwait experienced rapid economic growth over the last several years on the back of high oil prices and in 2008 posted its tenth consecutive budget surplus. As a result of this positive fiscal situation the need for economic reforms was less urgent and the government did not push through new initiatives. The drop in oil prices in late 2008 will reduce Kuwait's fiscal surplus in 2009. The global financial crisis may slow the pace of investment and development projects but Kuwait has vowed to use its considerable financial resources to stabilize the economy if necessary.,2774000,2007,19 June 1961 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,12500000000,2006 est.,15.0,NA,$ 61 920 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,2.5,NA,$ 78 250 000 000,31 December 2007,,,519854.0,2009 est.,National Day 25 February (1950),38,2008,0.0,NA,sudden cloudbursts are common from October to April and bring heavy rain which can damage roads and houses; sandstorms and dust storms occur throughout the year but are most common between March and August,slightly smaller than New Jersey,93.3,2005 census,77.71,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Umma (50 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; all cabinet ministers are also ex officio voting members of the National Assembly) elections: last held 16 May 2009 (next election to be held in 2013) election results: percent of vote by bloc - NA; seats by bloc - Sunni Muslim groups 11 liberals 7 Shiite Muslim groups 6 Popular Action Bloc 3 unaffiliated tribal groups 23,civil law system with Islamic law significant in personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ABEDA AfDB (nonregional member) AFESD AMF BDEAC CAEU FAO G-77 GCC IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt (signatory) ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC LAS MIGA NAM OAPEC OIC OPCW OPEC PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNITAR UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,568657.0,2008 est.,5.3,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection signed but not ratified: Marine Dumping,limited natural fresh water resources; some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities provide much of the water; air and water pollution; desertification,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,44750000000,2006 est.,,,Ash Shu'aybah Ash Shuwaykh Az Zawr (Mina' Sa'ud) Mina' 'Abd Allah Mina' al Ahmadi,,,8.0,2008 est.,flat to slightly undulating desert plain,general assessment: the quality of service is excellent domestic: new telephone exchanges provide a large capacity for new subscribers; trunk traffic is carried by microwave radio relay coaxial cable and open-wire and fiber-optic cable; a cellular telephone system operates throughout Kuwait and the country is well supplied with pay telephones international: country code - 965; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); linked to Bahrain Qatar UAE via the Fiber-Optic Gulf (FOG) cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 6 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean and 2 Arabsat),2.76,2009 est.,2.2,2004 est.,constitutional emirate,three equal horizontal bands of green (top) white and red with a black trapezoid based on the hoist side; design which dates to 1961 based on the Arab revolt flag of World War I,,$ 24 910 000 000,2008 est.,5749,2004,3.55,2009 est.,8.5,2008 est.,4.0,2007,$ 149 100 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah K. JONES embassy: Bayan 36302 Block 13 Al-Masjed Al-Aqsa Street (near the Bayan palace) Kuwait City mailing address: P. O. Box 77 Safat 13001 Kuwait; or PSC 1280 APO AE 09880-9000 telephone: [965] 259-1001 FAX: [965] 538-0282,$ 57 400,2008 est.,12500000000,2006 est.
Holy See (Vatican City),,,there are three tribunals responsible for civil and criminal matters within Vatican City; three other tribunals rule on issues pertaining to the Holy See note: judicial duties were established by the Motu Proprio of Pope PIUS XII on 1 May 1946,0.0,2005,3.2,NA,,,printing; production of coins medals postage stamps; mosaics and staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities,,,,,,,.va,,,,,,,5120,2005,,,93,2000,1.0,2008,41 54 N 12 27 E,,,3.0,2008,,,none,0,NA,0.0,NA,Europe,Southern Europe an enclave of Rome (Italy),conventional long form: The Holy See (State of the Vatican City) conventional short form: Holy See (Vatican City) local long form: Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano) local short form: Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano),0.0,NA,,,Fundamental Law promulgated by Pope JOHN PAUL II on 26 November 2000 effective 22 February 2001 (replaced the first Fundamental Law of 1929),chief of mission: Apostolic Nuncio Archbishop Pietro SAMBI chancery: 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 333-7121 FAX: [1] (202) 337-4036,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,chief of state: Pope BENEDICT XVI (since 19 April 2005) head of government: Secretary of State Cardinal Tarcisio BERTONE (since 15 September 2006) cabinet: Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City appointed by the pope elections: pope elected for life by the College of Cardinals; election last held 19 April 2005 (next to be held after the death of the current pope); secretary of state appointed by the pope election results: Joseph RATZINGER elected Pope BENEDICT XVI,0.68,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,name: Vatican City geographic coordinates: 41 54 N 12 27 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,"Popes in their secular role ruled portions of the Italian peninsula for more than a thousand years until the mid 19th century when many of the Papal States were seized by the newly united Kingdom of Italy. In 1870 the pope's holdings were further circumscribed when Rome itself was annexed. Disputes between a series of ""prisoner"" popes and Italy were resolved in 1929 by three Lateran Treaties which established the independent state of Vatican City and granted Roman Catholicism special status in Italy. In 1984 a concordat between the Holy See and Italy modified certain of the earlier treaty provisions including the primacy of Roman Catholicism as the Italian state religion. Present concerns of the Holy See include religious freedom international development the environment the Middle East China the decline of religion in Europe terrorism interreligious dialogue and reconciliation and the application of church doctrine in an era of rapid change and globalization. About one billion people worldwide profess the Catholic faith.",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,none,,,,,,Pontifical Swiss Guard (Corpo della Guardia Svizzera Pontificia) (2009),,,,,$ 374 000 000,2007,temperate; mild rainy winters (September to May) with hot dry summers (May to September),,none,826,July 2009 est.,noun: none adjective: none,none,,,landlocked; enclave in Rome Italy; world's smallest state; beyond the territorial boundary of Vatican City the Lateran Treaty of 1929 grants the Holy See extraterritorial authority over 23 sites in Rome and five outside of Rome including the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo (the Pope's summer residence),none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers),The Holy See is supported financially by a variety of sources including investments real estate income and donations from Catholic individuals dioceses and institutions; these help fund the Roman Curia (Vatican bureaucracy) diplomatic missions and media outlets. The separate Vatican City State budget includes the Vatican museums and post office and is supported financially by the sale of stamps coins medals and tourist mementos; by fees for admission to museums; and by publications sales. Moreover an annual collection taken up in dioceses and direct donations go to a non-budgetary fund known as Peter's Pence which is used directly by the Pope for charity disaster relief and aid to churches in developing nations. The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome.,,,11 February 1929 (from Italy); note - the three treaties signed with Italy on 11 February 1929 acknowledged among other things the full sovereignty of the Vatican and established its territorial extent; however the origin of the Papal States which over the years have varied considerably in extent may be traced back to the 8th century,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.1,NA,,,,,,,Election Day of Pope BENEDICT XVI 19 April (2005),,,19.0,NA,NA,about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington DC,100.0,NA,,,unicameral Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State,based on Code of Canon Law and revisions to it,CE (observer) IAEA Interpol IOM (observer) ITSO ITU ITUC NAM (guest) OAS (observer) OPCW OSCE UN (observer) UNCTAD UNHCR Union Latina (observer) UNWTO (observer) UPU WFTU WIPO WTO (observer),,,,,,,party to: Ozone Layer Protection signed but not ratified: Air Pollution Environmental Modification,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,urban; low hill,general assessment: automatic digital exchange domestic: connected via fiber optic cable to Telecom Italia network international: country code - 39; uses Italian system,,,,,ecclesiastical,two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the arms of the Holy See consisting of the crossed keys of Saint Peter surmounted by the three-tiered papal tiara centered in the white band,,,,,,0.0,2009 est.,,,,,,,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Julieta NOYES embassy: Villa Domiziana Via delle Terme Deciane 26 00153 Rome mailing address: PSC 833 Box 66 APO AE 09624 telephone: [39] (06) 4674-3428 FAX: [39] (06) 575-3411,,,,
Jordan,1615000,2008 est.,Court of Cassation (Supreme Court),1.18,2005,97.0,NA,14.97,2009 est.,clothing fertilizers potash phosphate mining pharmaceuticals petroleum refining cement inorganic chemicals light manufacturing tourism,,,14.9,2008 est.,,,.jo,0.1,2001 est.,600,2007 est.,500,2003 est.,585500,2007,0.93,2009 est.,1127000,2007,22.0,2007,31 00 N 36 00 E,4.2,2009 est.,31.0,2007,3.6,2008 est.,approximately two million Iraqis have fled the conflict in Iraq with the majority taking refuge in Syria and Jordan; 2004 Agreement settles border dispute with Syria pending demarcation,89342,NA,750.0,2003,Middle East,Middle East northwest of Saudi Arabia,conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan conventional short form: Jordan local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah local short form: Al Urdun former: Transjordan,26.0,NA,5.6,2008,1 January 1952; amended many times,chief of mission: Ambassador ZEID Ra'ad Zeid al-Hussein Prince chancery: 3504 International Drive NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664 FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110,67292.0,2009 est.,39.7,2007,0,2005 est.,$ 6 830 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 7 783 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005 est.,24.3,2009 est.,110700,2006 est.,112300,2005 est.,1000000,1 January 2008 est.,6031000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Crown Prince HUSSEIN (born 28 June 1994) eldest son of King ABDALLAH II head of government: Prime Minister Nader al-DAHABI (since 25 November 2007) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch elections: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch,0.71,NA,1.0,NA,$ 35 800 000 000,31 December 2008,4.6,2008,17,2008,13.0,2006,14.2,2002,3.0,2006,13000000.0,2006 est.,9852000000,2006 est.,name: Amman geographic coordinates: 31 57 N 35 56 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Thursday in March; ends last Friday in September,Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire the UK received a mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain separated out a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in the early 1920s and the area gained its independence in 1946; it adopted the name of Jordan in 1950. The country's long-time ruler was King HUSSEIN (1953-99). A pragmatic leader he successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US USSR and UK) various Arab states Israel and a large internal Palestinian population. Jordan lost the West Bank to Israel in the 1967 war and barely managed to defeat Palestinian rebels who threatened to overthrow the monarchy in 1970. King HUSSEIN in 1988 permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank. In 1989 he reinstituted parliamentary elections and initiated a gradual political liberalization; political parties were legalized in 1992. In 1994 he signed a peace treaty with Israel. King ABDALLAH II the son of King HUSSEIN assumed the throne following his father's death in February 1999. Since then he has consolidated his power and undertaken an aggressive economic reform program. Jordan acceded to the World Trade Organization in 2000 and began to participate in the European Free Trade Association in 2001. In 2003 Jordan staunchly supported the Coalition ouster of Saddam in Iraq and following the outbreak of insurgent violence in Iraq absorbed thousands of displaced Iraqis. Municipal elections were held in July 2007 under a system in which 20% of seats in all municipal councils were reserved by quota for women. Parliamentary elections were held in November 2007 and saw independent pro-government candidates win the vast majority of seats. In November 2007 King ABDALLAH instructed his new prime minister to focus on socioeconomic reform developing a healthcare and housing network for civilians and military personnel and improving the educational system.,2.7,2001 est.,clothing fertilizers potash phosphates vegetables pharmaceuticals,,,2.75,July 2009 est.,49.0,2008,$ 19 120 000 000,2008 est.,$ 16 500 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,,,12 governorates (muhafazat singular - muhafazah); Ajlun Al 'Aqabah Al Balqa' Al Karak Al Mafraq 'Amman At Tafilah Az Zarqa' Irbid Jarash Ma'an Madaba,0.9,1997,1.01,2000,citrus tomatoes cucumbers olives; sheep poultry stone fruits strawberries dairy,Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Land Force (RJLF) Royal Jordanian Navy Royal Jordanian Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Malakiya al-Urduniya RJAF) Special Operations Command (Socom); Public Security Directorate (normally falls under Ministry of Interior but comes under JAF in wartime or crisis) (2008),19.55,2009 est.,4.9,1999,$ 5 670 000 000,2008 est.,mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April),crude oil machinery transport equipment iron cereals,Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party [Fuad DABBOUR]; Ba'ath Arab Progressive Party [Tayseer al-HAMSI]; Call Party [Mohammed Abu BAKR]; Democratic People's Party [Ahmad Yusuf 'ALIYA]; Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'ed DIAB]; Islamic Action Front or IAF [Ishaq al-FARHAN]; Islamic Center Party [Marwan al-FA'OURI; Jordanian Communist Party [Munir HAMARNEH]; Jordanian National Party [Mona Abu BAKR]; Jordanian United Front [Amjad al-MAJALI]; Life Party [Thaher 'AMROU]; Message Party [Hazem QASHOU]; National Constitution Party [Ahmed al-SHUNAQ]; National Movement for Direct Democracy [Mohammed al-QAQ];,6342948,July 2009 est.,noun: Jordanian(s) adjective: Jordanian,phosphates potash shale oil,5.83,2009 est.,strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank,Anti-Normalization Committee [Ali Abu SUKKAR president vice chairman]; Jordan Bar Association [Saleh al-ARMUTI chairman]; Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF president]; Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood [Dr. Hamam SAID controller general],Jordan is a small Arab country with insufficient supplies of water oil and other natural resources. Poverty unemployment and inflation are fundamental problems but King ABDALLAH II since assuming the throne in 1999 has undertaken some broad economic reforms in a long-term effort to improve living standards. Since Jordan's graduation from its most recent IMF program in 2002 Amman has continued to follow IMF guidelines practicing careful monetary policy making substantial headway with privatization and opening the trade regime. Jordan's exports have significantly increased under the free trade accord with the US and Jordanian Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ) which allow Jordan to export goods with some Israeli content duty free to the US. In 2006 and 2008 Jordan used privatization proceeds to significantly reduce its debt-to-GDP ratio. These measures have helped improve productivity and have made Jordan more attractive for foreign investment. The government ended subsidies for petroleum and other consumer goods in 2008 in an effort to control the budget. The main challenges facing Jordan are reducing dependence on foreign grants reducing the growing budget deficit attracting investments and creating jobs. Jordan is currently exploring nuclear power generation to forestall energy shortfalls. Jordan's conservative banking sector has been largely protected from the worldwide financial crisis but many businesses particularly in the tourism and real estate sector are predicting a slow-down in 2009.,4771000,2007,25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration),0,2007 est.,2400000000,2007 est.,2250000000,2006 est.,2.0,NA,$ -2 425 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,472000000.0,2006 est.,3.1,NA,$ 19 530 000 000,31 December 2007,,,1382097.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 25 May (1946),21,2008,-408.0,NA,droughts; periodic earthquakes,slightly smaller than Indiana,89.9,2003 est.,78.87,2009 est.,bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of the Senate also called the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (55 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies also called the House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (110 seats; members elected using a single non-transferable vote system in multi-member districts to serve four-year terms); note - six seats are reserved for women nine seats are reserved for Christian candidates nine seats are reserved for Bedouin candidates and three seats are reserved for Jordanians of Chechen or Circassian descent elections: Chamber of Deputies - last held 20 November 2007 (next scheduled to be held in 2011) election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - IAF 6 independents and other 104; note - seven women serve in the Assembly six of whom filled women's quota seats and one was directly elected,based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ABEDA AFESD AMF CAEU FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC LAS MIGA MINURCAT MINUSTAH MONUC NAM OIC OPCW OSCE (partner) PCA UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMIL UNMIS UNOCI UNOMIG UNRWA UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,3.0,NA,1559155.0,2008 est.,8.6,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification,2.0,2008,1.0,2008,10080000000,2007 est.,507,2008,Al 'Aqabah,18.0,NA,5.7,2008 est.,mostly desert plateau in east highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River,general assessment: service has improved recently with increased use of digital switching equipment; microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services; Internet penetration remains modest and slow-growing domestic: 1995 telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005 monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; mobile-cellular usage is increasing rapidly and teledensity reached 80 per 100 persons in 2007 international: country code - 962; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia Middle East Europe; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat 1 Arabsat and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals); fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; participant in Medarabtel (2007),2.39,2009 est.,12.6,2008 est.,constitutional monarchy,three equal horizontal bands of black (top) representing the Abbassid Caliphate white representing the Ummayyad Caliphate and green representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916 and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God humanity national spirit humility social justice virtue and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I,,$ 15 030 000 000,2008 est.,8002,2007,2.26,2009 est.,5.8,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 30 760 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Robert S. BEECROFT embassy: Abdoun Amman mailing address: P. O. Box 354 Amman 11118 Jordan; Unit 70200 Box 5 DPO AE 09892-0200 telephone: [962] (6) 590-6000 FAX: [962] (6) 592-0121,$ 5 000,2008 est.,320000000,2006 est.
Saint Barthelemy,,,,,,0.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,.bl; note - .gp the internet country code for Guadeloupe and .fr the internet country code for France might also be encountered,,,,,,,,,0.99,2009 est.,,,,,17 90 N 62 85 W,10.2,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,,Central America and the Caribbean,located approximately 125 miles northwest of Guadeloupe,conventional long form: Overseas Collectivity of Saint Barthelemy conventional short form: Saint Barthelemy local long form: Collectivite d'outre mer de Saint-Barthelemy local short form: Saint-Barthelemy,,,,,4 October 1958 (French Constitution),none (overseas collectivity of France),20.0,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,,,39.1,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007) represented by Prefect Dominique LACROIX (since 21 March 2007) head of government: President of the Territorial Council Bruno MAGRAS (since 16 July 2007) cabinet: Executive Council; note - there is also an advisory economic social and cultural council elections: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council is elected by the members of the Council for a five-year term election results: Bruno MAGRAS unanimously elected president by the Territorial Council on 16 July 2007,0.73,NA,,,,,,,1,2008,,,,,,,,,,,name: Gustavia geographic coordinates: 17 53 N 62 51 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Discovered in 1493 by Christopher COLUMBUS who named it for his brother Bartolomeo St. Barthelemy was first settled by the French in 1648. In 1784 the French sold the island to Sweden who renamed the largest town Gustavia after the Swedish King GUSTAV III and made it a free port; the island prospered as a trade and supply center during the colonial wars of the 18th century. France repurchased the island in 1878 and placed it under the administration of Guadeloupe. St. Barthelemy retained its free port status along with various Swedish appellations such as Swedish street and town names and the three-crown symbol on the coat of arms. In 2003 the populace of the island voted to secede from Guadeloupe and in 2007 the island became a French overseas collectivity.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,tropical with practically no variation in temperature; has two seasons (dry and humid),,Action-Equilibre-Transparence [Maxime DESOUCHES]; Ensemble pour Saint-Barthelemy [Benoit CHAUVIN]; Saint-Barth d'Abord! or SBA [Bruno MAGRAS]; Tous Unis pour Saint-Barthelemy [Karine MIOT-RICHARD],7448,July 2009 est.,,has few natural resources its beaches being the most important,,,,The Marine Reserve (protection of fish); Rotary Club,The economy of Saint Barthelemy is based upon high-end tourism and duty-free luxury commerce serving visitors primarily from North America. The luxury hotels and villas host 70 000 visitors each year with another 130 000 arriving by boat. The relative isolation and high cost of living inhibits mass tourism. The construction and public sectors also enjoy significant investment in support of tourism. With limited fresh water resources all food must be imported as must all energy resources and most manufactured goods. Employment is strong and attracts labor from Brazil and Portugal.,,,none (overseas collectivity of France),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,1340.0,2009 est.,Bastille Day 14 July (1789); note - local holiday is St. Barthelemy Day 24 August,,,0.0,NA,,less than an eighth of the size of Washington DC,,,,,unicameral Territorial Council (19 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 1 and 8 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - SBA 72.2% Action-Equilibre-Transparence 9.9% Ensemble pour Saint-Barthelemy 7.9% Tous Unis pour Saint-Barthelemy 9.9%; seats by party - SBA 16 Action-Equilibre-Transparence 1 Ensemble pour Saint-Barthelemy 1 Tous Unis pour Saint-Barthelemy 1 note: Saint Barthelemy elects one seat to the French Senate; elections last held 21 September 2008 (next to be held in September 2014); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 1,the laws of France where applicable apply,UPU WFTU,,,,,,,,with no natural rivers or streams fresh water is in short supply especially in summer and provided by desalinization of sea water collection of rain water or imported via water tanker,,,1.0,2008,,,,,,,,,,hilly almost completely surrounded by shallow-water reefs with 20 beaches,general assessment: fully integrated access domestic: direct dial capability with both fixed and wireless systems international: country code - 590; undersea fiber-optic cable provides voice and data connectivity to Puerto Rico and Guadeloupe,,,,,,the flag of France is used,,,,,,,,,,,,,,none (overseas collectivity of France),,,,
Ashmore and Cartier Islands,,,,0.0,2005,0.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,12 14 S 123 05 E,,,,,,,as the closest Australian territory to Indonesia these islands became the target of human traffickers for the landing of illegal immigrants; in 2001 the Australian government removed these islands from the Australian Migration Zone making illegal arrivals ineligible for temporary visas and entry into Australia,5,NA,0.0,NA,Southeast Asia,Southeastern Asia islands in the Indian Ocean midway between northwestern Australia and Timor island,conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands,74.1,NA,,,,none (territory of Australia),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in 1931; formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports a rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983 it became a National Nature Reserve. Cartier Island a former bombing range became a marine reserve in 2000.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,tropical,,,,,,fish,,,Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983; Cartier Island Marine Reserve established in 2000,,no economic activity,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,NA,surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards,about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington DC,,,,,,the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the Northern Territory of Australia where applicable apply,,12.0,NA,,,,,,illegal killing of protected wildlife by traditional Indonesian fisherman as well as fishing by non-traditional Indonesian vessels are ongoing problems,,,,,,,,,none; offshore anchorage only,,,,,low with sand and coral,,,,,,,the flag of Australia is used,,,,,,,,,,,,,,none (territory of Australia),,,,
Spain,22850000,2008 est.,Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo,9.85,2005,1.2,NA,4.21,2009 est.,textiles and apparel (including footwear) food and beverages metals and metal manufactures chemicals shipbuilding automobiles machine tools tourism clay and refractory products footwear pharmaceuticals medical equipment,1000,2008,4.1,2008 est.,7.0,NA,.es,0.5,2007 est.,140000,2007 est.,2300,2007 est.,18583000,2007,0.72,2009 est.,19690000,2007,379.0,2008,40 00 N 4 00 W,14.5,2009 est.,2.0,2008,3.4,2008 est.,"in 2002 Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain a British colony and against a ""total shared sovereignty"" arrangement while demanding participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta Melilla and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas and surrounding waters; Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz",505370,NA,37800.0,2003,Europe,Southwestern Europe bordering the Bay of Biscay Mediterranean Sea North Atlantic Ocean and Pyrenees Mountains southwest of France,conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain conventional short form: Spain local long form: Reino de Espana local short form: Espana,4964.0,NA,4.4,2008,approved by legislature 31 October 1978; passed by referendum 6 December 1978; effective 29 December 1978,chief of mission: Ambassador Jorge DEZCALLAR de Mazarredo chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW Washington DC 20037 telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100 728-2340 FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670 consulate(s) general: Boston Chicago Houston Los Angeles Miami New Orleans New York San Francisco San Juan (Puerto Rico),187224.0,2009 est.,32.0,2005,29000,2007 est.,$ 2 478 000 000 000,30 September 2008 est.,$ 285 400 000 000,2008 est.,181800,2005,41.1,2009 est.,1611000,2007 est.,1777000,2005,150000000,1 January 2008 est.,2548000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE son of the monarch born 30 January 1968 head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister equivalent) Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO (since 17 April 2004); First Vice President (and Minister of the Presidency) Maria Teresa FERNANDEZ DE LA VEGA (since 18 April 2004) Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy and Finance) Elena SALGADO Mendez (since 8 April 2009) and Third Vice President (and Minister of Regional Affairs) Manuel CHAVES Gonzalez (since 8 April 2009) cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government but its recommendations are non-binding elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 and 11 April 2008 (next to be held in March 2012); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the president election results: Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO reelected President of the Government; percent of National Assembly vote - 46.94%,0.68,NA,,,$ 1 132 000 000 000,31 December 2008,4.2,2008,154,2008,16.0,2006,19.8,2005,2.6,2000,14520000000.0,2007 est.,276100000000,2008 est.,name: Madrid geographic coordinates: 40 24 N 3 41 W time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October note: Spain is divided into two time zones including the Canary Islands,Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain France and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975 and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. The government continues to battle the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization but its major focus for the immediate future will be on measures to reverse the severe economic recession that started in mid-2008.,4.0,2008 est.,machinery motor vehicles; foodstuffs pharmaceuticals medicines other consumer goods,,,9.99,July 2009 est.,560.0,2008,$ 1 683 000 000 000,2008 est.,$ 636 500 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 765 000 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia Aragon Asturias Baleares (Balearic Islands) Ceuta* Canarias (Canary Islands) Cantabria Castilla-La Mancha Castilla y Leon Cataluna (Catalonia) Comunidad Valenciana (Valencian Community) Extremadura Galicia La Rioja Madrid Melilla* Murcia Navarra Pais Vasco (Basque Country) note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas Penon de Alhucemas and Penon de Velez de la Gomera administered directly by the Spanish central government are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania),111.1,2005,37.22,2002,grain vegetables olives wine grapes sugar beets citrus; beef pork poultry dairy products; fish,Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra) Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola AE; includes Marine Corps) Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola EdA) (2009),9.72,2009 est.,4.2,2005,$ 598 100 000 000,2008 est.,temperate; clear hot summers in interior more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy cold winters in interior partly cloudy and cool along coast,machinery and equipment fuels chemicals semifinished goods foodstuffs consumer goods measuring and medical control instruments,Aragonese Party or CHA [Bizen FUSTER]; Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Inigo URKULLU]; Basque Solidarity or EA [Begona ERRAZTI]; Canarian Coalition or CC [Jose Torres STINGA] (a coalition of five parties); Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA]); Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC ERC ICV EUA); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Anxo Manuel QUINTANA Gonzalez]; Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan SAURA i Laporta]; Navarra yes or Na Bai [Uxue BARKOS Berruezo] (a coalition of four Navarran parties); Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]; Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Joan RIDAO]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO]; United Left or IU [Cayo LARA] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties),40525002,July 2009 est.,noun: Spaniard(s) adjective: Spanish,coal lignite iron ore copper lead zinc uranium tungsten mercury pyrites magnesite fluorspar gypsum sepiolite kaolin potash hydropower arable land,0.99,2009 est.,strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas,"Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Basta Ya (Spanish for ""Enough is Enough""; grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Nunca Mais (Galician for ""Never Again""; formed in response to the oil Tanker Prestige oil spill); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO. other: business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students",The Spanish economy grew every year from 1994 through 2008 before entering a recession that started in the third quarter of 2008. Spain's mixed capitalist economy supports a GDP that on a per capita basis is approaching that of the largest West European economies. The Socialist president Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO in office since 2004 has made mixed progress in carrying out key structural reforms. The economy was greatly affected especially after Zapatero's second term began in April 2008 by the bursting of the housing bubble and construction boom that had fueled much of the economic growth between 2001 and 2007. The global financial crisis exacerbated the economic downturn. GDP growth in 2008 was 1.1% well below the 3% or higher growth the country enjoyed from 1997 through 2007. The Spanish banking system is considered solid thanks in part to conservative oversight by the European Central Bank and government intervention to rescue banks on the scale seen elsewhere in Europe in 2008 was not necessary. After considerable success since the mid-1990s in reducing unemployment to a 2007 low of 8% Spain suffered a major spike in unemployment in the last few months of 2008 finishing the year with an unemployment rate over 13%.,48813000,2007,1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain,0,2007 est.,34470000000,2007 est.,34430000000,2007 est.,6.0,NA,$ -131 800 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,8773000000.0,2007 est.,0.9,NA,$ 2 976 000 000 000,31 December 2007,2004,,7899157.0,2009 est.,National Day 12 October (1492); year when Columbus first set foot in the Americas,158,2008,0.0,NA,periodic droughts,slightly more than twice the size of Oregon,97.9,2003 est.,80.05,2009 est.,bicameral; General Courts or Las Cortes Generales (National Assembly) consists of the Senate or Senado (264 seats as of 2008; 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 56 - as of 2008 - appointed by the regional legislatures; to serve four-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; each of the 50 electoral provinces fills a minimum of two seats and the North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla fill one seat each with members serving a four-year term; the other 248 members are determined by proportional representation based on popular vote on block lists who serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held on 9 March 2008 (next to be held not later than March 2012); Congress of Deputies - last held on 9 March 2008 (next to be held not later than March 2012) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 101 PSOE 88 Entesa Catalona de Progress 12 CiU 4 PNV 2 CC 1 members appointed by regional legislatures 56; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSOE 43.6% PP 40.1% CiU 3.1% PNV 1.2% ERC 1.2% other 10.8%; seats by party - PSOE 169 PP 154 CiU 10 PNV 6 ERC 3 other 8,civil law system with regional applications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ADB (nonregional member) AfDB (nonregional member) Arctic Council (observer) Australia Group BCIE BIS CE CERN EAPC EBRD EIB EMU ESA EU FAO IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC LAIA (observer) MIGA MINURCAT MONUC NAM (guest) NATO NEA NSG OAS (observer) OECD OPCW OSCE Paris Club PCA Schengen Convention SECI (observer) SICA (observer) UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL Union Latina UNRWA UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WEU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC,12.0,NA,9764937.0,2008 est.,1.2,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification,2.0,2008,12.0,2008,294300000000,2008 est.,15288,2008,Algeciras Barcelona Bilbao Cartagena Huelva Tarragona Valencia,18.0,NA,-2.3,2008 est.,large flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north,general assessment: well developed modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity is about 45 per 100 persons domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 170 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe Middle East Asia and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries,1.31,2009 est.,13.9,2008 est.,parliamentary monarchy,"three horizontal bands of red (top) yellow (double width) and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left Castile Leon Navarre and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of ""Plus Ultra"" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe",despite rigorous law enforcement efforts North African Latin American Galician and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime,$ 414 500 000 000,2008 est.,681224,2006,0.07,2009 est.,1.1,2008 est.,8.0,2007,$ 1 378 000 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Arnold A. CHACON embassy: Serrano 75 28006 Madrid mailing address: PSC 61 APO AE 09642 telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200 FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303 consulate(s) general: Barcelona,$ 34 600,2008 est.,88000000,2007 est.
Liberia,,,Supreme Court,1.98,2005,306.0,NA,138.24,2009 est.,rubber processing palm oil processing timber diamonds,,,11.2,2007 est.,20.0,NA,.lr,1.7,2007 est.,35000,2007 est.,2300,2007 est.,6900,2002,0.94,2009 est.,1000,2002,4.0,2007,6 30 N 9 30 W,2.8,2009 est.,0.0,2007,5.4,2002 est.,although civil unrest continues to abate with the assistance of 18 000 UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) peacekeepers as of January 2007 Liberian refugees still remain in Guinea Cote d'Ivoire Sierra Leone and Ghana; Liberia in turn shelters refugees fleeing turmoil in Cote d'Ivoire; despite the presence of over 9 000 UN forces (UNOCI) in Cote d'Ivoire since 2004 ethnic conflict continues to spread into neighboring states who can no longer send their migrant workers to Ivorian cocoa plantations; UN sanctions ban Liberia from exporting diamonds and timber,111369,NA,30.0,2003,Africa,Western Africa bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone,conventional long form: Republic of Liberia conventional short form: Liberia,579.0,NA,11.2,2008,6 January 1986,chief of mission: Ambassador Milton Nathaniel BARNES chancery: 5201 16th Street NW Washington DC 20011 telephone: [1] (202) 723-0437 FAX: [1] (202) 723-0436 consulate(s) general: New York,33281.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 3 200 000 000,2005 est.,$ 1 197 000 000,2006,23,2005,18.0,2009 est.,3687,2006 est.,3593,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF (since 16 January 2006); note - the President is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF (since 16 January 2006) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 November 2005 (next to be held in October 2011) election results: Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF elected president; percent of vote second round - Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF 59.6% George WEAH 40.4%,53.1,NA,2.5,NA,,,6.0,2008,52,2008,8.0,2000,80.0,2000 est.,,,0.0,2007 est.,297600000,2006 est.,name: Monrovia geographic coordinates: 6 18 N 10 48 W time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Settlement of freed slaves from the US in what is today Liberia began in 1822; by 1847 the Americo-Liberians were able to establish a republic. William TUBMAN president from 1944-71 did much to promote foreign investment and to bridge the economic social and political gaps between the descendents of the original settlers and the inhabitants of the interior. In 1980 a military coup led by Samuel DOE ushered in a decade of authoritarian rule. In December 1989 Charles TAYLOR launched a rebellion against DOE's regime that led to a prolonged civil war in which DOE himself was killed. A period of relative peace in 1997 allowed for elections that brought TAYLOR to power but major fighting resumed in 2000. An August 2003 peace agreement ended the war and prompted the resignation of former president Charles TAYLOR who faces war crimes charges in The Hague related to his involvement in Sierra Leone's civil war. After two years of rule by a transitional government democratic elections in late 2005 brought President Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF to power. The UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) maintains a strong presence throughout the country but the security situation is still fragile and the process of rebuilding the social and economic structure of this war-torn country will take many years.,8.0,2000 est.,rubber timber iron diamonds cocoa coffee,15.05,31 December 2007,20.73,July 2009 est.,,,$ 926 000 000,2008 est.,$ 124 200 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,,,15 counties; Bomi Bong Gbarpolu Grand Bassa Grand Cape Mount Grand Gedeh Grand Kru Lofa Margibi Maryland Montserrado Nimba River Cess River Gee Sinoe,232.0,1987,0.11,2000,rubber coffee cocoa rice cassava (tapioca) palm oil sugarcane bananas; sheep goats; timber,Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL): Army Navy Air Force,42.25,2009 est.,,,,,tropical; hot humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers,fuels chemicals machinery transportation equipment manufactured goods; foodstuffs,Alliance for Peace and Democracy or APD [Togba-na TIPOTEH]; Coalition for the Transformation of Liberia or COTOL [H. Varney SHERMAN]; Congress for Democratic Change or CDC [George WEAH]; Liberty Party or LP [Charles BRUMSKINE]; National Patriotic Party or NPP [Roland MASSAQUOI]; Unity Party or UP [Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF],3441790,July 2009 est.,noun: Liberian(s) adjective: Liberian,iron ore timber diamonds gold hydropower,5.13,2009 est.,facing the Atlantic Ocean the coastline is characterized by lagoons mangrove swamps and river-deposited sandbars; the inland grassy plateau supports limited agriculture,other: demobilized former military officers,Civil war and government mismanagement destroyed much of Liberia's economy especially the infrastructure in and around the capital Monrovia. Many businesses fled the country taking capital and expertise with them but with the conclusion of fighting and the installation of a democratically-elected government in 2006 some have returned. Richly endowed with water mineral resources forests and a climate favorable to agriculture Liberia had been a producer and exporter of basic products - primarily raw timber and rubber. Local manufacturing mainly foreign owned had been small in scope. President JOHNSON SIRLEAF a Harvard-trained banker and administrator has taken steps to reduce corruption build support from international donors and encourage private investment. Embargos on timber and diamond exports have been lifted opening new sources of revenue for the government. The reconstruction of infrastructure and the raising of incomes in this ravaged economy will largely depend on generous financial and technical assistance from donor countries and foreign investment in key sectors such as infrastructure and power generation.,563000,2007,26 July 1847,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,20.0,NA,$ -224 000 000,2007,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,5.6,NA,$ 1 157 000 000,31 December 2007,,,382334.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 26 July (1847),2204,2008,0.0,NA,dust-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to March),slightly larger than Tennessee,57.5,NA,41.84,2009 est.,bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (30 seats; note - number of seats changed in 11 October 2005 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve nine-year terms) and the House of Representatives (64 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 11 October 2005 (next to be held in October 2011); House of Representatives - last held 11 October 2005 (next to be held in October 2011) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - COTOL 7 NPP 4 CDC 3 LP 3 UP 3 APD 3 other 7; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CDC 15 LP 9 COTOL 8 UP 8 APD 5 NPP 4 other 15 note: junior senators - those who received the second most votes in each county in the 11 October 2005 election - will only serve a six-year first term because the Liberian constitution mandates staggered Senate elections to ensure continuity of government; all senators will be eligible for nine-year terms thereafter,dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American common law for the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten tribal practices for indigenous sector; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ACP AfDB AU ECOWAS FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ITU ITUC MIGA NAM OPCW UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),200.0,NA,729813.0,2008 est.,1.3,2006 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands signed but not ratified: Environmental Modification Marine Life Conservation,tropical rain forest deforestation; soil erosion; loss of biodiversity; pollution of coastal waters from oil residue and raw sewage,5.0,2008,1.0,2008,320000000,2006 est.,429,2008,Buchanan Monrovia,18.0,NA,,,mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau and low mountains in northeast,general assessment: the limited services available are found almost exclusively in the capital Monrovia; coverage extended to a number of other towns and rural areas by four mobile-cellular network operators domestic: fixed line service stagnant and extremely limited; mobile-cellular subscription base growing and teledensity approaching 20 per 100 persons international: country code - 231; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007),5.79,2009 est.,85.0,2003 est.,republic,11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US flag,transshipment point for Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine for the European and US markets; corruption criminal activity arms-dealing and diamond trade provide significant potential for money laundering but the lack of well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a major money-laundering center,$ 7 143 000 000,2006,10600,2000,2.67,2009 est.,7.5,2008 est.,,,$ 1 532 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Linda THOMAS-GREENFIELD embassy: 111 United Nations Drive P. O. Box 98 Mamba Point 1000 Monrovia 10 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [231] 7-705-4826 FAX: [231] 7-701-0370,$ 500,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Netherlands,7715000,2008 est.,Supreme Court or Hoge Raad (justices are nominated for life by the monarch),0.77,2005,450.0,NA,4.73,2009 est.,agroindustries metal and engineering products electrical machinery and equipment chemicals petroleum construction microelectronics fishing,6215,2007,2.5,2008 est.,,,.nl,0.2,2007 est.,18000,2007 est.,200,2007 est.,7334000,2007,0.76,2009 est.,15000000,2007,342.0,2008,52 30 N 5 45 E,14.9,2009 est.,1.0,2008,1.7,2008 est.,none,41543,NA,5650.0,2003,Europe,Western Europe bordering the North Sea between Belgium and Germany,conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands conventional short form: Netherlands local long form: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden local short form: Nederland,451.0,NA,4.5,2008,adopted 1815; amended many times most recently in 2002,"chief of mission: Ambassador Regina ""Renee"" JONES-BOS chancery: 4200 Linnean Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 244-5300 [1] 877-388-2443 FAX: [1] (202) 362-3430 consulate(s) general: Chicago Los Angeles Miami New York consulate(s): Boston",100341.0,2009 est.,30.9,2007,88950,2007 est.,$ 2 277 000 000 000,30 June 2007,$ 533 200 000 000,2008 est.,1639000,2005,40.4,2009 est.,984200,2007 est.,2648000,2005,100000000,1 January 2008 est.,1416000000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: Queen BEATRIX (since 30 April 1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 April 1967) son of the monarch head of government: Prime Minister Jan Peter BALKENENDE (since 22 July 2002); Deputy Prime Ministers Wouter BOS (since 22 February 2007) and Andre ROUVOET (since 22 February 2007) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers appointed by the monarch note: there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch heir apparent and councilors that provides consultations to the cabinet on legislative and administrative policy,0.68,NA,0.8,2008 est.,$ 456 200 000 000,31 December 2008,4.6,2008,27,2008,16.0,2006,10.5,2005,2.5,1999,5480000000.0,2007,122800000000,2007,name: Amsterdam geographic coordinates: 52 23 N 4 54 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October note: The Hague is the seat of government; time descriptions apply to the continental Netherlands only not to the Caribbean components,The Dutch United Provinces declared their independence from Spain in 1579; during the 17th century they became a leading seafaring and commercial power with settlements and colonies around the world. After a 20-year French occupation a Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830 Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I but suffered invasion and occupation by Germany in World War II. A modern industrialized nation the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EEC (now the EU) and participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999.,2.0,2005 est.,machinery and equipment chemicals fuels; foodstuffs,8.72,31 December 2007,8.74,July 2009 est.,365.0,2008,$ 909 500 000 000,2008 est.,$ 644 600 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 843 700 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,12 provinces (provincies singular - provincie); Drenthe Flevoland Friesland (Fryslan) Gelderland Groningen Limburg Noord-Brabant (North Brabant) Noord-Holland (North Holland) Overijssel Utrecht Zeeland (Zealand) Zuid-Holland (South Holland),89.7,2005,8.86,2001,grains potatoes sugar beets fruits vegetables; livestock,Royal Netherlands Army Royal Netherlands Navy (includes Naval Air Service and Marine Corps) Royal Netherlands Air Force (Koninklijke Luchtmacht KLu) Royal Military Police (2009),10.4,2009 est.,5.3,2005,$ 397 300 000 000,2008 est.,temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters,machinery and transport equipment chemicals fuels foodstuffs clothing,Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Pieter VAN GEEL]; Christian Union Party [Arie SLOB]; Democrats 66 or D66 [Alexander PECHTOLD]; Green Left Party [Femke HALSEMA]; Labor Party or PvdA [Mariette HAMER]; Party for Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]; Party for the Animals or PvdD [Marianne THIEME]; People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Liberal) or VVD [Mark RUTTE]; Reformed Political Party of SGP [Bas VAN DER VLIES]; Socialist Party [Agnes KANT]; plus a few minor parties,16715999,July 2009 est.,noun: Dutchman(men) Dutchwoman(women) adjective: Dutch,natural gas petroleum peat limestone salt sand and gravel arable land,2.46,2009 est.,located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine Maas or Meuse and Schelde),Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Rene PAAS]; Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Bernard WIENTJES]; Federation for Small and Medium-sized businesses or MKB [Loek HERMANS]; Netherlands Trade Union Federation or FNV [Agnes JONGERIUS]; Social Economic Council or SER [Alexander RINNOOY KAN]; Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or MHP [Ad VERHOEVEN],The Netherlands has a prosperous and open economy which depends heavily on foreign trade. The economy is noted for stable industrial relations moderate unemployment and inflation a sizable current account surplus and an important role as a European transportation hub. Industrial activity is predominantly in food processing chemicals petroleum refining and electrical machinery. A highly mechanized agricultural sector employs no more than 3% of the labor force but provides large surpluses for the food-processing industry and for exports. The Netherlands along with 11 of its EU partners began circulating the euro currency on 1 January 2002. The country has been one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the four largest investors in the US. The pace of job growth reached 10-year highs in 2007 but economic growth fell sharply in 2008 as fallout from the world financial crisis constricted demand and raised the specter of a recession in 2009.,17300000,2006,23 January 1579 (the northern provinces of the Low Countries conclude the Union of Utrecht breaking with Spain; on 26 July 1581 they formally declared their independence with an Act of Abjuration; however it was not until 30 January 1648 and the Peace of Westphalia that Spain recognized this independence),55660000000,2007 est.,25730000000,2007 est.,46420000000,2007 est.,2.2,2006,$ 65 670 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,23090000000.0,2007,0.9,NA,$ 1 684 000 000 000,31 December 2007,,,3143096.0,2009 est.,Queen's Day (Birthday of Queen-Mother JULIANA and accession to the throne of her oldest daughter BEATRIX) 30 April (1909 and 1980),622,2008,-7.0,NA,flooding,slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey,99.0,2003 est.,79.4,2009 est.,bicameral States General or Staten Generaal consists of the First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial councils to serve four-year terms) and the Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: First Chamber - last held 29 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2011); Second Chamber - last held 22 November 2006 (next to be held by early 2011) election results: First Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CDA 21 PvdA 14 VVD 14 Socialist Party 11 Christian Union 4 Green Left Party 4 D66 2 other 5; Second Chamber - percent of vote by party - CDA 26.5% PvdA 21.2% Socialist Party 16.6% VVD 14.6% Party for Freedom 5.9% Green Party 4.6% Christian Union 4.0% other 6.6%; seats by party - CDA 41 PvdA 33 Socialist Party 25 VVD 22 Party for Freedom 9 Green Party 7 Christian Union 6 other 7,based on civil law system incorporating French penal theory; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ADB (nonregional member) AfDB (nonregional member) Arctic Council (observer) Australia Group Benelux BIS CBSS (observer) CE CERN EAPC EBRD EIB EMU ESA EU FAO G-10 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM (guest) NATO NEA NSG OAS (observer) OECD OPCW OSCE Paris Club PCA Schengen Convention SECI (observer) UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMIS UNRWA UNTSO UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WEU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC,12.0,NA,3850800.0,2008 est.,1.6,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Air Pollution-Sulfur 85 Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Kyoto Protocol Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,water pollution in the form of heavy metals organic compounds and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain,3.0,2008,1.0,2008,105200000000,2007,2811,2008,Amsterdam IJmuiden Rotterdam Terneuzen Vlissingen,18.0,NA,2.9,2008 est.,mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast,general assessment: highly developed and well maintained domestic: extensive fixed-line fiber-optic network; large cellular telephone system with 5 major operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology; one in five households now use Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) services international: country code - 31; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 5 (3 Intelsat - 1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean 1 Eutelsat and 1 Inmarsat (2007),1.66,2009 est.,4.0,2008 est.,constitutional monarchy,three equal horizontal bands of red (top) white and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg which uses a lighter blue and is longer; the colors were those of WILLIAM I Prince of Orange who led the Dutch Revolt against Spanish sovereignty in the latter half of the 16th century; originally the upper band was orange but because it tended to fade to red over time the red shade was eventually made the permanent color; the banner is perhaps the oldest tricolor in continuous use,major European producer of synthetic drugs including ecstasy and cannabis cultivator; important gateway for cocaine heroin and hashish entering Europe; major source of US-bound ecstasy; large financial sector vulnerable to money laundering; significant consumer of ecstasy,$ 475 900 000 000,2008 est.,135470,2007,0.41,2009 est.,1.8,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 670 200 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael GALLAGHER embassy: Lange Voorhout 102 2514 EJ The Hague mailing address: PSC 71 Box 1000 APO AE 09715 telephone: [31] (70) 310-2209 FAX: [31] (70) 361-4688 consulate(s) general: Amsterdam,$ 40 300,2008 est.,76330000000,2007 est.
Jamaica,1304000,2008 est.,Supreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal; Privy Council in UK; member of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ),10.01,2005,0.0,NA,15.22,2009 est.,tourism bauxite/alumina agro processing light manufactures rum cement metal paper chemical products telecommunications,,,22.0,2008 est.,,,.jm,1.6,2007 est.,27000,2007 est.,1500,2007 est.,342000,2006,0.81,2009 est.,1500000,2007,7.0,1997,18 15 N 77 30 W,7.5,2009 est.,0.0,1998,5.2,2008 est.,none,10991,NA,250.0,2002,Central America and the Caribbean,Caribbean island in the Caribbean Sea south of Cuba,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Jamaica,1022.0,NA,4.1,2008,6 August 1962,chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony JOHNSON chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW Washington DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660 FAX: [1] (202) 452-0081 consulate(s) general: Miami New York,31257.0,2009 est.,45.5,2004,0,2005 est.,$ 10 200 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 2 602 000 000,2008 est.,1535,2005,23.7,2009 est.,73370,2006 est.,71280,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Dr. Patrick L. ALLEN (since 26 February 2009) head of government: Prime Minister Bruce GOLDING (since 11 September 2007) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general; the deputy prime minister is recommended by the prime minister,61.2,NA,2.6,2001 census,$ 12 330 000 000,31 December 2007,5.5,2008,27,2008,11.0,2003,14.8,2003 est.,2.1,2004,0.0,2007 est.,6100000000,2006 est.,name: Kingston geographic coordinates: 18 00 N 76 48 W time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington DC during Standard Time),The island - discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1494 - was settled by the Spanish early in the 16th century. The native Taino Indians who had inhabited Jamaica for centuries were gradually exterminated and replaced by African slaves. England seized the island in 1655 and established a plantation economy based on sugar cocoa and coffee. The abolition of slavery in 1834 freed a quarter million slaves many of whom became small farmers. Jamaica gradually obtained increasing independence from Britain. In 1958 it joined other British Caribbean colonies in forming the Federation of the West Indies. Jamaica gained full independence when it withdrew from the Federation in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence as rival gangs affiliated with the major political parties evolved into powerful organized crime networks involved in international drug smuggling and money laundering. Violent crime drug trafficking and poverty pose significant challenges to the government today. Nonetheless many rural and resort areas remain relatively safe and contribute substantially to the economy.,17.0,2006,alumina bauxite sugar rum coffee yams beverages chemicals wearing apparel mineral fuels,17.2,31 December 2007,6.43,July 2009 est.,,,$ 13 470 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,14 parishes; Clarendon Hanover Kingston Manchester Portland Saint Andrew Saint Ann Saint Catherine Saint Elizabeth Saint James Saint Mary Saint Thomas Trelawny Westmoreland note: for local government purposes Kingston and Saint Andrew were amalgamated in 1923 into the present single corporate body known as the Kingston and Saint Andrew Corporation,9.4,2000,0.41,2000,sugarcane bananas coffee citrus yams ackees vegetables; poultry goats milk; crustaceans mollusks,Jamaica Defense Force: Ground Forces Coast Guard Air Wing (2007),19.68,2009 est.,5.3,2005,$ 3 794 000 000,2008 est.,tropical; hot humid; temperate interior,food and other consumer goods industrial supplies fuel parts and accessories of capital goods machinery and transport equipment construction materials,Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Bruce GOLDING]; People's National Party or PNP [Portia SIMPSON-MILLER]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Michael WILLIAMS],2825928,July 2009 est.,noun: Jamaican(s) adjective: Jamaican,bauxite gypsum limestone,-5.7,2009 est.,strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel the main sea lanes for the Panama Canal,New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists pan-Africanists),The Jamaican economy is heavily dependent on services which now account for more than 60% of GDP. The country continues to derive most of its foreign exchange from tourism remittances and bauxite/alumina. Remittances account for nearly 20% of GDP and are equivalent to tourism revenues. Jamaica's economy already saddled with the lowest economic growth in Latin America will face increasing difficulties as the global economy slows. The economy faces serious long-term problems: a sizable merchandise trade deficit large-scale unemployment and underemployment and a debt-to-GDP ratio of almost 130%. Jamaica's onerous debt burden - the fourth highest per capita - is the result of government bailouts to ailing sectors of the economy most notably the financial sector in the mid-to-late 1990s. It hinders government spending on infrastructure and social programs as debt servicing accounts for nearly half of government expenditures. Inflation rose sharply in 2008 as a result of high prices for imported food and oil and should fall in 2009 with the decline in international oil prices. High unemployment exacerbates the serious crime problem including gang violence that is fueled by the drug trade. The GOLDING administration faces the difficult prospect of having to achieve fiscal discipline in order to maintain debt payments while simultaneously attacking a serious and growing crime problem that is hampering economic growth.,2495000,2006,6 August 1962 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,2.6,2001 census,$ -2 893 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,0.9,NA,$ 6 609 000 000,31 December 2007,,,573520.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 6 August (1962),20,2008,0.0,NA,hurricanes (especially July to November),slightly smaller than Connecticut,87.9,2003 est.,73.53,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (a 21-member body appointed by the governor general on the recommendations of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; ruling party is allocated 13 seats and the opposition is allocated 8 seats) and the House of Representatives (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 3 September 2007 (next to be held no later than October 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - JLP 50.1% PNP 49.8%; seats by party - JLP 33 PNP 27,based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP C Caricom CDB FAO G-15 G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt (signatory) ICRM IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITSO ITU LAES MIGA NAM OAS OPANAL OPCW UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,688480.0,2008 est.,0.6,2006 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste sewage and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions,15.0,2008,2.0,2008,7040000000,2006 est.,,,Kingston Port Esquivel Port Kaiser Port Rhoades Rocky Point,18.0,NA,-0.5,2008 est.,mostly mountains with narrow discontinuous coastal plain,general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network domestic: the 1999 agreement to open the market for telecommunications services resulted in rapid growth in mobile-cellular telephone usage while the number of fixed-lines in use has declined; combined mobile-cellular teledensity now exceeds 100 per 100 persons international: country code - 1-876; the Fibralink submarine cable network provides enhanced delivery of business and broadband traffic and is linked to the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) submarine cable in the Dominican Republic; the link to ARCOS-1 provides seamless connectivity to US parts of the Caribbean Central America and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2006),2.25,2009 est.,11.0,2008 est.,constitutional parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm,diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side); green represents hope vegetation and agriculture black reflects hardships overcome and to be faced and yellow recalls golden sunshine and the island's natural resources,transshipment point for cocaine from South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation and consumption of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program; corruption is a major concern; substantial money-laundering activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Jamaica for illicit financial transactions,$ 7 185 000 000,2008 est.,21552,2005,0.76,2009 est.,-0.6,2008 est.,,,$ 20 880 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Brenda LaGrange JOHNSON embassy: 142 Old Hope Road Kingston 6 mailing address: P.O. Box 541 Kingston 5 telephone: [1] (876) 702-6000 FAX: [1] (876) 702-6001,$ 7 400,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Oman,968800,2007,Supreme Court note: the nascent civil court system administered by region has judges who practice secular and Sharia law,0.12,2005,288.0,NA,16.88,2009 est.,crude oil production and refining natural and liquefied natural gas (LNG) production; construction cement copper steel chemicals optic fiber,,,12.5,2008 est.,,,.om,0.1,2001 est.,1300,2001 est.,200,2003 est.,268100,2007,1.04,2009 est.,340000,2007,13.0,1999,21 00 N 57 00 E,2.8,2009 est.,2.0,1999,2.1,2008 est.,boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave but details of the alignment have not been made public,309500,NA,720.0,2003,Middle East,Middle East bordering the Arabian Sea Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf between Yemen and UAE,conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman conventional short form: Oman local long form: Saltanat Uman local short form: Uman former: Muscat and Oman,2092.0,NA,6.8,2008,none; note - on 6 November 1996 Sultan QABOOS issued a royal decree promulgating a basic law considered by the government to be a constitution which among other things clarifies the royal succession provides for a prime minister bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government establishes a bicameral legislature and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens,chief of mission: Ambassador Hunaina bint Sultan bin Ahmad al-MUGHAIRI chancery: 2535 Belmont Road NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980 FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933,34407.0,2009 est.,,,758600,2008 est.,$ 6 879 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 37 710 000 000,2008 est.,593700,2008 est.,18.8,2009 est.,69100,2006 est.,15440,2005,4800000000,1 January 2008 est.,849500000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch elections: the monarch is hereditary,0.38,NA,,,$ 23 490 000 000,31 December 2007,7.2,2008,130,2008,11.0,2006,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,11190000000,2007,name: Muscat geographic coordinates: 23 37 N 58 35 E time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),The inhabitants of the area of Oman have long prospered on Indian Ocean trade. In the late 18th century a newly established sultanate in Muscat signed the first in a series of friendship treaties with Britain. Over time Oman's dependence on British political and military advisors increased but it never became a British colony. In 1970 QABOOS bin Said al-Said overthrew the restrictive rule of his father; he has ruled as sultan ever since. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world while preserving the longstanding close ties with the UK. Oman's moderate independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries.,,,petroleum reexports fish metals textiles,7.29,31 December 2007,3.65,July 2009 est.,263.0,2008,$ 56 320 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,5 regions (manatiq singular - mintaqat) and 4 governorates* (muhafazat singular - muhafazat) Ad Dakhiliyah Al Batinah Al Buraymi* Al Wusta Ash Sharqiyah Az Zahirah Masqat (Muscat)* Musandam* Zufar (Dhofar)*,1.0,1997,1.36,2000,dates limes bananas alfalfa vegetables; camels cattle; fish,Sultan's Armed Forces (SAF): Royal Army of Oman Royal Navy of Oman Royal Air Force of Oman (2008),34.79,2009 est.,4.0,2006,$ 15 950 000 000,2008 est.,dry desert; hot humid along coast; hot dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south,machinery and transport equipment manufactured goods food livestock lubricants,none,3418085,July 2009 est.,noun: Omani(s) adjective: Omani,petroleum copper asbestos some marble limestone chromium gypsum natural gas,0.24,2009 est.,strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz a vital transit point for world crude oil,none,Oman is a middle-income economy that is heavily dependent on dwindling oil resources but sustained high oil prices in recent years have helped build Oman's budget and trade surpluses and foreign reserves. As a result of its dwindling oil resources Oman is actively pursuing a development plan that focuses on diversification industrialization and privatization with the objective of reducing the oil sector's contribution to GDP to 9% by 2020. Some of these projects may be in jeopardy however because Muscat overestimated its ability to produce or secure the natural gas needed to power them. Oman actively seeks private foreign investors especially in the industrial information technology tourism and higher education fields. Industrial development plans focus on gas resources metal manufacturing petrochemicals and international transshipment ports. The drop in oil prices and the global financial crisis in 2008 will affect Oman's fiscal position and it may post a deficit in 2009 if oil prices stay low. In addition the global credit crisis is slowing the pace of investment and development projects - a trend that probably will continue into 2009.,2500000,2007,1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese),13100000000,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,11000000000,2007 est.,25.0,NA,$ 9 361 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,2.0,NA,$ 13 880 000 000,31 December 2007,,,563890.0,2009 est.,Birthday of Sultan QABOOS 18 November (1940),3,2008,0.0,NA,summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts,slightly smaller than Kansas,81.4,2003 census,74.16,2009 est.,bicameral Majlis Oman consists of Majlis al-Dawla or upper chamber (71 seats; members appointed by the monarch; has advisory powers only) and Majlis al-Shura or lower chamber (84 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; body has only advisory powers) elections: last held 27 October 2007 (next to be held in 2011) election results: new candidates won 46 seats and 38 members of the outgoing Majlis kept their positions; none of the 20 female candidates were elected,based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the monarch; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ABEDA AFESD AMF FAO G-77 GCC IBRD ICAO ICCt (signatory) IDA IDB IFAD IFC IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IPU ISO ITSO ITU LAS MIGA NAM OIC OPCW UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,626841.0,2008 est.,11.4,2005 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; limited natural fresh water resources,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,14430000000,2007,,,Mina' Qabus Salalah,21.0,NA,3.5,2008 est.,central desert plain rugged mountains in north and south,general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire microwave and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable domestic: fixed-line phone service gradually being introduced to remote villages using wireless local loop systems; fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership both increasing; open-wire microwave radiotelephone communications and a domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations international: country code - 968; the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable provide connectivity to Asia the Middle East and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) 1 Arabsat (2007),5.53,2009 est.,15.0,2004 est.,monarchy,three horizontal bands of white red and green of equal width with a broad vertical red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered near the top of the vertical band,,$ 16 660 000 000,2008 est.,42300,2005,3.14,2009 est.,6.7,2008 est.,2.0,2007,$ 67 000 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Gary A. GRAPPO embassy: Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street Al Khuwair area Muscat mailing address: P. O. Box 202 P.C. 115 Madinat Sultan Qaboos Muscat telephone: [968] 24-643-400 FAX: [968] 24-699771,$ 20 200,2008 est.,24100000000,2007 est.
Tanzania,21060000,2008 est.,Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts),1.16,2005,217.0,NA,69.28,2009 est.,agricultural processing (sugar beer cigarettes sisal twine); diamond gold and iron mining salt soda ash; cement oil refining shoes apparel wood products fertilizer,,,10.3,2008 est.,,,.tz,6.2,2007 est.,1400000,2007 est.,96000,2007 est.,165013,2008,0.78,2009 est.,400000,2007,3.0,1999,6 00 S 35 00 E,2.9,2009 est.,2.0,1998,22.5,2008 est.,Tanzania still hosts more than a half-million refugees more than any other African country mainly from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo despite the international community's efforts at repatriation; disputes with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant,947300,NA,1840.0,2003,Africa,Eastern Africa bordering the Indian Ocean between Kenya and Mozambique,conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania conventional short form: Tanzania local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania local short form: Tanzania former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar,1424.0,NA,6.1,2008,25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984,chief of mission: Ambassador Ombeni Yohana SEFUE chancery: 2139 R Street NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125 FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408,487742.0,2009 est.,34.6,2000,0,2007 est.,$ 5 353 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 2 413 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,18.0,2009 est.,27270,2006 est.,26760,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,6513000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001) note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was reelected to that office on 30 October 2005 cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 14 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2010); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Jakaya KIKWETE elected president; percent of vote - Jakaya KIKWETE 80.3% Ibrahim LIPUMBA 11.7% Freeman MBOWE 5.9%,1089.33,NA,1.0,NA,$ 587 900 000,2005,5.0,2008,124,2008,,,36.0,2002 est.,2.9,2000,0.0,2007 est.,2225000000,2006 est.,name: Dar es Salaam geographic coordinates: 6 48 S 39 17 E time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) note: legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on a regular basis,Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995 which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.,20.0,2002 est.,gold coffee cashew nuts manufactures cotton,16.03,31 December 2007,12.59,July 2009 est.,8.0,2008,$ 20 630 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,26 regions; Arusha Dar es Salaam Dodoma Iringa Kagera Kigoma Kilimanjaro Lindi Manyara Mara Mbeya Morogoro Mtwara Mwanza Pemba North Pemba South Pwani Rukwa Ruvuma Shinyanga Singida Tabora Tanga Zanzibar Central/South Zanzibar North Zanzibar Urban/West,91.0,2001,5.18,2000,coffee sisal tea cotton pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums) cashew nuts tobacco cloves corn wheat cassava (tapioca) bananas fruits vegetables; cattle sheep goats,Tanzanian People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania JWTZ): Army Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard) Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing) National Service (2007),34.29,2009 est.,2.2,1999,$ 4 099 000 000,2008 est.,varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands,consumer goods machinery and transportation equipment industrial raw materials crude oil,Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party [Christopher MTIKLA] (unregistered); Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREME]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO],41048532,July 2009 est.,noun: Tanzanian(s) adjective: Tanzanian,hydropower tin phosphates iron ore coal diamonds gemstones gold natural gas nickel,-1.3,2009 est.,Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west and Lake Nyasa in the southwest,Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF; Free Zanzibar; Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA,Tanzania is in the bottom ten percent of the world's economies in terms of per capita income. The economy depends heavily on agriculture which accounts for more than 40% of GDP provides 85% of exports and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions however limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry traditionally featured the processing of agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank the IMF and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's out-of-date economic infrastructure and to alleviate poverty. Long-term growth through 2005 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals led by gold. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported real GDP growth of 7.1% in 2008.,9358000,2008,26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,146000000,2006 est.,30.0,NA,$ -2 695 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,123000000.0,2006 est.,4.2,NA,$ 2 501 000 000,31 December 2007,,,5473552.0,2009 est.,Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar) 26 April (1964),9,2008,0.0,NA,flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought,slightly larger than twice the size of California,69.4,2002 census,52.01,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats; 232 members elected by popular vote 37 allocated to women nominated by the president 5 to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; to serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 14 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2010) election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 206 CUF 19 CHADEMA 5 other 2 women appointed by the president 37 Zanzibar representatives 5 Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 30 CUF 19; 1 seat was nullified with a rerun to take place soon,based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP AfDB AU C EAC EADB FAO G-6 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM OPCW SADC UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL UNMIS UNOCI UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,9108177.0,2008 est.,0.2,2005 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade especially for ivory,18.0,2008,1.0,2008,2682000000,2006 est.,3689,2008,Dar es Salaam,18.0,NA,9.1,2008 est.,plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north south,general assessment: telecommunications services are inadequate; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under construction domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service aided by multiple providers is increasing; trunk service provided by open-wire microwave radio relay tropospheric scatter and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital international: country code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean 1 Atlantic Ocean),4.46,2009 est.,,,republic,divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue,growing role in transshipment of Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for South African European and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for southern Africa; money laundering remains a problem,$ 6 259 000 000,2008 est.,78891,2003,2.04,2009 est.,7.1,2008 est.,,,$ 54 260 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Mark GREEN embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road Msasani Dar es Salaam mailing address: P. O. Box 9123 Dar es Salaam telephone: [255] (22) 266-8001 FAX: [255] (22) 266-8238 266-8373,$ 1 300,2008 est.,146000000,2006 est.
Isle of Man,39690,2001,High Court of Justice (justices are appointed by the Lord Chancellor of England on the nomination of the lieutenant governor),0.0,2002,0.0,NA,5.37,2009 est.,financial services light manufacturing tourism,,,3.1,December 2006 est.,,,.im,,,,,,,51000,1999,0.7,2009 est.,,,0.0,1999,54 15 N 4 30 W,16.9,2009 est.,0.0,1998,1.0,2000 est.,none,572,NA,0.0,NA,Europe,Western Europe island in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Isle of Man abbreviation: I.O.M.,160.0,NA,,,unwritten; note - The Isle of Man Constitution Act of 1961 does not embody the unwritten Manx Constitution,none (British crown dependency),446.0,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,,,40.2,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,chief of state: Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir Paul K. HADDACKS (since 17 October 2005) head of government: Chief Minister Tony BROWN (since 14 December 2006) cabinet: Council of Ministers elections: the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch; the chief minister is elected by the Tynwald for a five-year term; election last held 14 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2011) election results: House of Keys speaker Tony BROWN elected chief minister by the Tynwald,0.5,NA,,,,,,,1,2008,,,,,,,,,,,name: Douglas geographic coordinates: 54 09 N 4 29 W time difference: UTC 0 (five hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,Part of the Norwegian Kingdom of the Hebrides until the 13th century when it was ceded to Scotland the isle came under the British crown in 1765. Current concerns include reviving the almost extinct Manx Gaelic language. Isle of Man is a British crown dependency but is not part of the UK. However the UK Government remains constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.,2.0,2001,tweeds herring processed shellfish beef lamb,,,10.76,July 2009 est.,,,$ 2 719 000 000,2005 est.,,,,,none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government but there are 24 local authorities each with its own elections,,,,,cereals vegetables; cattle sheep pigs poultry,,10.77,2009 est.,,,$ 943 000 000,FY05/06 est.,temperate; cool summers and mild winters; overcast about a third of the time,timber fertilizers fish,Alliance for Progressive Government; Liberal Vannin Party [Peter KARRAN]; Man Labor Party; Man Nationalist Party (Mec Vannin) [Bernard MOFFATT] note: most members sit as independents,76512,July 2009 est.,noun: Manxman (men) Manxwoman (women) adjective: Manx,none,5.23,2009 est.,one small islet the Calf of Man lies to the southwest and is a bird sanctuary,Alliance for Progressive Government or APG (a government watchdog); Mec Vannin (political party advocating a sovereign state and environment policies); note - has only had one member elected to the Tynwald,Offshore banking manufacturing and tourism are key sectors of the economy. The government offers incentives to high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on the island; this has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in high-income industries. As a result agriculture and fishing once the mainstays of the economy have declined in their contributions to GDP. The Isle of Man also attracts online gambling sites and the film industry. Trade is mostly with the UK. The Isle of Man enjoys free access to EU markets.,,,none (British crown dependency),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,-0.2,NA,,,,,14338.0,2009 est.,Tynwald Day 5 July,273,2008,0.0,NA,NA,slightly more than three times the size of Washington DC,,,78.82,2009 est.,bicameral Tynwald consists of the Legislative Council (11 seats; members composed of the President of Tynwald the Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man a nonvoting attorney general and 8 others named by the House of Keys) and the House of Keys (24 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Keys - last held 23 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2011) election results: House of Keys - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Liberal Vannin Party 2 Man Labor Party 1 independents 21,the laws of the UK where applicable apply and Manx statutes,UPU,12.0,NA,,,,,,waste disposal (both household and industrial); transboundary air pollution,,,1.0,2008,,,63,2008,Douglas Ramsey,16.0,NA,,,hills in north and south bisected by central valley,general assessment: NA domestic: landline telefax mobile cellular telephone system international: fiber-optic cable microwave radio relay satellite earth station submarine cable,1.65,2009 est.,1.5,December 2006 est.,parliamentary democracy,red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria) in the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag a two-sided emblem is used,,,,500,2008,0.52,2009 est.,5.2,2005,,,$ 2 719 000 000,2005 est.,none (British crown dependency),$ 35 000,2005 est.,,
Gabon,581000,2008 est.,Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consisting of three chambers - Judicial Administrative and Accounts; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal; Court of State Security; County Courts,0.64,2005,298.0,NA,51.78,2009 est.,petroleum extraction and refining; manganese gold; chemicals ship repair food and beverages textiles lumbering and plywood cement,1600,2008,5.3,2008 est.,,,.ga,5.9,2007 est.,49000,2007 est.,2300,2007 est.,26500,2007,0.72,2009 est.,145000,2007,4.0,2001,1 00 S 11 45 E,3.9,2009 est.,4.0,2001,5.6,2008 est.,UN urges Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane Island and lesser islands and to establish a maritime boundary in hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay,267667,NA,70.0,2003,Africa,Western Africa bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator between Republic of the Congo and Equatorial Guinea,conventional long form: Gabonese Republic conventional short form: Gabon local long form: Republique Gabonaise local short form: Gabon,885.0,NA,4.2,2008,adopted 14 March 1991,chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos BOUNGOU chancery: Suite 200 2034 20th Street NW Washington DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 797-1000 FAX: [1] (202) 332-0668 consulate(s): New York,16933.0,2009 est.,,,243900,2007 est.,$ 2 473 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 9 333 000 000,2008 est.,255500,2005,18.6,2009 est.,13170,2006 est.,2485,2005,1660000000,1 January 2008 est.,28320000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President (interim) Rose Francine ROGOMBE (since 10 June 2009) head of government: Prime Minister Paul BIYOGHE MBA (since 15 July 2009) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 27 November 2005 (next to be held on 30 August 2009); prime minister appointed by the president; note - elections have been moved up due to the death of the former president BONGO in June 2009 election results: President El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba reelected; percent of vote - El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba 79.2% Pierre MAMBOUNDOU 13.6% Zacharie MYBOTO 6.6% note: President BONGO died on 8 June 2009 after serving as president for 32 years in accordance with the constitution he was replaced on an interim basis by the president of the Senate Rose Francine ROGOMBE on 10 June 2009 new elections should be held within 45 days,447.81,NA,,,,,4.0,2008,39,2008,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,1365000000,2006 est.,name: Libreville geographic coordinates: 0 23 N 9 27 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Until recently only two autocratic presidents had ruled Gabon since its independence from France in 1960. The recent president of Gabon El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba -one of the longest-serving heads of state in the world - had dominated the country's political scene for four decades. President BONGO introduced a nominal multiparty system and a new constitution in the early 1990s. However allegations of electoral fraud during local elections in 2002-03 and the presidential elections in 2005 exposed the weaknesses of formal political structures in Gabon. President BONGO died in June 2009 and was replaced in accordance with the constitution by Rose Francine ROGOMBE the president of the Senate. New elections are planned for the summer of 2009. This will be the first Gabonese elections in which BONGO is not participating. Despite political conditions a small population abundant natural resources and considerable foreign support have helped make Gabon one of the more prosperous and stable African countries.,15.0,2000 est.,crude oil 70% timber manganese uranium (2001),15.0,31 December 2007,12.76,July 2009 est.,240.0,2008,$ 15 910 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,9 provinces; Estuaire Haut-Ogooue Moyen-Ogooue Ngounie Nyanga Ogooue-Ivindo Ogooue-Lolo Ogooue-Maritime Woleu-Ntem,164.0,1987,0.12,2000,cocoa coffee sugar palm oil rubber; cattle; okoume (a tropical softwood); fish,Army Navy Air Force National Gendarmerie National Police,35.57,2009 est.,3.8,2000,$ 2 932 000 000,2008 est.,tropical; always hot humid,machinery and equipment foodstuffs chemicals construction materials,Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [General Jean Boniface ASSELE]; Congress for Democracy and Justice or CDJ [Jules Aristide Bourdes OGOULIGUENDE]; Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE [Divungui-di-Ndinge DIDJOB]; Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG (former sole party) [Simplice Nguedet MANZELA]; Gabonese Party for Progress or PGP [Benoit Mouity NZAMBA]; Gabonese Union for Democracy and Development or UGDD [Zacherie MYBOTO]; National Rally of Woodcutters or RNB; National Rally of Woodcutters-Rally for Gabon or RNB-RPG (Bucherons) [Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE]; Party of Development and Social Solidarity or PDS [Seraphin Ndoat REMBOGO]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Louis Gaston MAYILA]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pierre Claver MAGANGA-MOUSSAVOU]; Union for Democracy and Social Integration or UDIS; Union of Gabonese Patriots or UPG [Pierre MAMBOUNDOU],1514993,July 2009 est.,noun: Gabonese (singular and plural) adjective: Gabonese,petroleum natural gas diamond niobium manganese uranium gold timber iron ore hydropower,-3.48,2009 est.,a small population and oil and mineral reserves have helped Gabon become one of Africa's wealthier countries; in general these circumstances have allowed the country to maintain and conserve its pristine rain forest and rich biodiversity,NA,Gabon enjoys a per capita income four times that of most sub-Saharan African nations but because of high income inequality a large proportion of the population remains poor. Gabon depended on timber and manganese until oil was discovered offshore in the early 1970s. The oil sector now accounts for more than 50% of GDP. Gabon continues to face fluctuating prices for its oil timber and manganese exports. Despite the abundance of natural wealth poor fiscal management hobbles the economy. In 1997 an IMF mission to Gabon criticized the government for overspending on off-budget items overborrowing from the central bank and slipping on its schedule for privatization and administrative reform. The rebound of oil prices since 1999 have helped growth but drops in production have hampered Gabon from fully realizing potential gains and will continue to temper the gains for most of this decade. In December 2000 Gabon signed a new agreement with the Paris Club to reschedule its official debt. A follow-up bilateral repayment agreement with the US was signed in December 2001. Gabon signed a 14-month Stand-By Arrangement with the IMF in May 2007 and received Paris Club debt rescheduling later that year.,1169000,2007,17 August 1960 (from France),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,100000000,2006 est.,,,$ 2 727 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,2.1,NA,$ 359 800 000,31 December 2007,,,190519.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 17 August (1960),2,2008,0.0,NA,NA,slightly smaller than Colorado,63.2,1995 est.,53.11,2009 est.,bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (102 seats; members elected by members of municipal councils and departmental assemblies to serve six-year terms) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 18 January 2009 (next to be held in January 2015); National Assembly - last held 17 and 24 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2011) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDG 75 GPR 6 UGDD 3 CLR 2 PGCI 2 UPG 2 ADERE 1 independents 9; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDG 82 RPG 8 UPG 8 UGDD 4 ADERE 3 CLR 2 PGP-Ndaot 2 PSD 2 independents 4 others 5,based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACCT ACP AfDB AU BDEAC CEMAC FAO FZ G-24 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINURCAT NAM OIC OIF OPCW UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNMIS UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,331181.0,2008 est.,3.4,2005 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,deforestation; poaching,5.0,2008,1.0,2008,1671000000,2006 est.,814,2008,Gamba Libreville Lucinda Port-Gentil,21.0,NA,1.0,2008 est.,narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south,general assessment: adequate service by African standards and improving with the help of a growing mobile cell network system with multiple providers; mobile-cellular subscribership reached 80 per 100 persons in 2007 domestic: adequate system of cable microwave radio relay tropospheric scatter radiotelephone communication stations and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations international: country code - 241; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007),4.65,2009 est.,21.0,2006 est.,republic; multiparty presidential regime,three equal horizontal bands of green (top) yellow and blue,,$ 2 577 000 000,2008 est.,9170,2004,1.93,2009 est.,3.6,2008 est.,,,$ 21 440 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Eunice S. REDDICK embassy: Boulevard du Bord de Mer Libreville mailing address: Centre Ville B. P. 4000 Libreville; pouch:2270 Libreville Place Washington DC 20521-2270 telephone: [241] 76 20 03 through 76 20 04 after hours - 07380171 FAX: [241] 74 55 07,$ 14 400,2008 est.,100000000,2006 est.
Congo Democratic Republic of the,23530000,2007 est.,Constitutional Court; Appeals Court or Cour de Cassation; Council of State; High Military Court; plus civil and military courts and tribunals,0.47,2005,217.0,NA,81.21,2009 est.,mining (diamonds gold copper cobalt coltan zinc) mineral processing consumer products (including textiles footwear cigarettes processed foods and beverages) cement commercial ship repair,15000,2008,16.7,2007 est.,,,.cd,4.2,2003 est.,1100000,2003 est.,100000,2003 est.,9700,2006,0.68,2009 est.,230400,2007,4.0,2001,0 00 N 25 00 E,2.5,2009 est.,2.0,2001,11.0,2000 est.,heads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledged in 2004 to abate tribal rebel and militia fighting in the region including northeast Congo where the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) organized in 1999 maintains over 16 500 uniformed peacekeepers; members of Uganda's Lords Resistance Army forces continue to seek refuge in Congo's Garamba National Park as peace talks with the Uganda government evolve; the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area; Uganda and DROC dispute Rukwanzi island in Lake Albert and other areas on the Semliki River with hydrocarbon potential; boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda river claimed by Zambia near the DROC village of Pweto,2344858,NA,110.0,2003,Africa,Central Africa northeast of Angola,conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo conventional short form: DRC local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo local short form: RDC former: Congo Free State Belgian Congo Congo/Leopoldville Congo/Kinshasa Zaire abbreviation: DRC,37.0,NA,5.4,2008,18 February 2006,chief of mission: Ambassador Faida MITIFU chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW Washington DC 20009: note - Consular Office at 1726 M Street NW Washington DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690 through 7691 FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609,811238.0,2009 est.,,,22160,2007 est.,$ 10 000 000 000,2007 est.,$ 6 100 000 000,2007,19820,2005,16.4,2009 est.,10460,2006 est.,8220,2006 est.,180000000,1 January 2008 est.,991100000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 17 January 2001); note - following the assassination of his father Joseph KABILA succeeded to the presidency which he retained through the 2003-06 transition; he was subsequently elected president in October 2006 head of government: Prime Minister Adolphe MUZITO (since 10 October 2008) cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president elections: under the new constitution the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 30 July 2006 and 29 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2011); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Joseph KABILA elected president; percent of vote (second round) - Joseph KABILA 58% Jean-Pierre BEMBA Gombo 42% note: Joseph KABILA succeeded his father Laurent Desire KABILA following the latter's assassination in January 2001; negotiations with rebel leaders led to the establishment of a transitional government in July 2003 with free elections held on 30 July 2006 and a run-off on 29 October 2006 confirming Joseph KABILA as president,401.04,NA,,,,,4.8,2008,200,2008,,,,,,,1799000000.0,2006 est.,5158000000,2006 est.,name: Kinshasa geographic coordinates: 4 19 S 15 18 E time difference: UTC+1 (six hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Established as a Belgian colony in 1908 the Republic of the Congo gained its independence in 1960 but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections as well as through the use of brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and Burundi led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. He renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola Chad Namibia Sudan and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. A cease-fire was signed in July 1999 by the DRC Congolese armed rebel groups Angola Namibia Rwanda Uganda and Zimbabwe but sporadic fighting continued. Laurent KABILA was assassinated in January 2001 and his son Joseph KABILA was named head of state. In October 2002 the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying eastern Congo; two months later the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A transitional government was set up in July 2003. Joseph KABILA as president and four vice presidents represented the former government former rebel groups the political opposition and civil society. The transitional government held a successful constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the presidency National Assembly and provincial legislatures in 2006. KABILA was inaugurated president in December 2006. The National Assembly was installed in September 2006. Its president Vital KAMERHE was chosen in December. Provincial assemblies were constituted in early 2007 and elected governors and national senators in January 2007.,,,diamonds gold copper cobalt wood products crude oil coffee,,,11.63,July 2009 est.,37.0,2008,$ 12 960 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,10 provinces (provinces singular - province) and 1 city* (ville); Bandundu Bas-Congo Equateur Kasai-Occidental Kasai-Oriental Katanga Kinshasa* Maniema Nord-Kivu Orientale Sud-Kivu note: according to the Constitution adopted in December 2005 the current administrative divisions will be subdivided into 26 new provinces by 2009,1283.0,2001,0.36,2000,coffee sugar palm oil rubber tea quinine cassava (tapioca) palm oil bananas root crops corn fruits; wood products,Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces d'Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo FARDC): Army National Navy (La Marine Nationale) Congolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Congolaise FAC) (2008),42.63,2009 est.,,,$ 700 000 000,2006 est.,tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October) dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March) dry season (April to October),foodstuffs mining and other machinery transport equipment fuels,Christian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO]; Congolese Rally for Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA]; Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC; Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]; Movement for the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]; People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Joseph KABILA]; Social Movement for Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI]; Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI]; Union of Mobutuist Democrats or UDEMO [MOBUTU Nzanga],68692542,July 2009 est.,noun: Congolese (singular and plural) adjective: Congolese or Congo,cobalt copper niobium tantalum petroleum industrial and gem diamonds gold silver zinc manganese tin uranium coal hydropower timber,1.07,2009 est.,straddles equator; has narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands,MONUC - UN organization working with the government; FARDC (Forces Arm�es de la R�publique D�mocratique du Congo) - Army of the Democratic Republic of the Congo which commits atrocities on citizens; FDLA (Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Rwanda) - Rwandan militia group,The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation endowed with vast potential wealth - is slowly recovering from two decades of decline. Conflict that began in August 1998 has dramatically reduced national output and government revenue increased external debt and resulted in the deaths of more than 5 million people from violence famine and disease. Foreign businesses curtailed operations due to uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict lack of infrastructure and the difficult operating environment. Conditions began to improve in late 2002 with the withdrawal of a large portion of the invading foreign troops. The transitional government reopened relations with international financial institutions and international donors and President KABILA began implementing reforms although progress has been slow and the International Monetary Fund curtailed their program for the DRC at the end of March 2006 because of fiscal overruns. Much economic activity still occurs in the informal sector and is not reflected in GDP data. Renewed activity in the mining sector the source of most export income boosted Kinshasa's fiscal position and GDP growth from 2006-2008 however renewed strife in the second half of 2008 combined with a fall in world market prices for the DRC's key mineral exports inflicted major damage on the economy and halted growth. Government reforms may lead to increased government revenues outside budget assistance and foreign direct investment although an uncertain legal framework corruption a lack of transparency in government policy are long-term problems. The DRC government has applied to the IMF for an Exogenous Shock Facility in the amount of $200 million to help it deal with its deteriorating financial situation and the World Bank will consider a separate $100 million in emergency funding. The global recession probably will cut economic growth in 2009 to half its 2008 level.,6592000,2007,30 June 1960 (from Belgium),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,10.0,NA,$ -402 000 000,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,6000000.0,2006 est.,5.1,NA,$ 559 500 000,31 December 2007,,,8925355.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 30 June (1960),1,2008,0.0,NA,periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); in the east in the Great Rift Valley there are active volcanoes,slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US,67.2,2001 est.,54.36,2009 est.,bicameral legislature consists of a Senate (108 seats; members elected by provincial assemblies to serve five-year terms) and a National Assembly (500 seats; 61 members elected by majority vote in single-member constituencies 439 members elected by open list proportional-representation in multi-member constituencies; to serve five-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 19 January 2007 (next to be held by 2012); National Assembly - last held 30 July 2006 (next to be held in July 2011) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 22 MLC 14 FR 7 RCD 7 PDC 6 CDC 3 MSR 3 PALU 2 independents 26 others 18 (political parties that won a single seat); National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 111 MLC 64 PALU 34 MSR 27 FR 26 RCD 15 independents 63 others 160 (includes 63 political parties that won 10 or fewer seats),civil law based on Belgian law with Napleonic Civil Code influence; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ACCT ACP AfDB AU CEPGL COMESA FAO G-24 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO (suspended) ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM OIF OPCW PCA SADC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,14101263.0,2008 est.,2.5,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands signed but not ratified: Environmental Modification,poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees responsible for significant deforestation soil erosion and wildlife poaching; mining of minerals (coltan - a mineral used in creating capacitors diamonds and gold) causing environmental damage,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,7243000000,2006 est.,4007,2008,Banana Boma Bukavu Bumba Goma Kalemie Kindu Kinshasa Kisangani Matadi Mbandaka,18.0,NA,,,vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east,general assessment: inadequate; state-owned fixed-line operator has been unable to expand fixed-line connections and there are now fewer than 10 000 connections - less than 1 per 1000 persons; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure the use of cellular services has surged and subscribership in 2007 reached 6.6 million - 10 per 100 persons domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations international: country code - 243; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007),6.2,2009 est.,,,republic,sky blue field divided diagonally from the lower hoist corner to upper fly corner by a red stripe bordered by two narrow yellow stripes; a yellow five-pointed star appears in the upper hoist corner,one of Africa's biggest producers of cannabis but mostly for domestic consumption; traffickers exploit lax shipping controls to transit pseudoephedrine through the capital; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leaves the banking system vulnerable to money laundering the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center (2008),$ 5 200 000 000,2007,153497,2004,3.21,2009 est.,8.0,2008 est.,,,$ 21 050 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador William GARVELINK embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs Kinshasa mailing address: Unit 31550 APO AE 09828 telephone: [243] (81) 225-5872 FAX: [243] (81) 301-0561,$ 300,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Monaco,44000,2005 est.,Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council),0.0,2005,4.4,NA,5.0,2009 est.,tourism construction small-scale industrial and consumer products,,,1.9,2000,,,.mc,,,,,,,34000,2005,0.68,2009 est.,20000,2006,5.0,1998,43 44 N 7 24 E,14.6,2009 est.,1.0,2008,0.0,2005,none,2,NA,,,Europe,Western Europe bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France near the border with Italy,conventional long form: Principality of Monaco conventional short form: Monaco local long form: Principaute de Monaco local short form: Monaco,4.1,NA,,,17 December 1962; modified 2 April 2002,chief of mission: Ambassador to the US and Representative to the UN Gilles NOGHES chancery: 3400 International Drive NW Suite 2K-100 Washington DC 20008 telephone: (202) 234-1530 FAX: (202) 552-5778 consulate(s) general: New York,182.0,2009 est.,,,,,$ 18 000 000 000,2000 est.,$ 716 300 000,2005,,,45.7,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005) head of government: Minister of State Jean-Paul PROUST (since 1 June 2005) cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the monarch elections: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government,0.68,NA,16.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,name: Monaco geographic coordinates: 43 44 N 7 25 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present-day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling Grimaldi family secured control in the late 13th century and a principality was established in 1338. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then the principality's mild climate splendid scenery and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.,,,,,,12.74,July 2009 est.,,,,,,,,,none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government but there are four quarters (quartiers singular - quartier); Fontvieille La Condamine Monaco-Ville Monte-Carlo,,,,,none,no regular military forces; the Palace Guard performs ceremonial duties,9.1,2009 est.,4.4,2004,$ 863 000 000,2005 est.,Mediterranean with mild wet winters and hot dry summers,,Union for Monaco or UPM (including National Union for the Future of Monaco or UNAM); Rally and Issues for Monaco or REM; Monaco Together,32965,July 2009 est.,noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s) adjective: Monegasque or Monacan,none,7.58,2009 est.,second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban,NA,Monaco bordering France on the Mediterranean coast is a popular resort attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a major banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small high-value-added nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors including tobacco the telephone network and the postal service. Living standards are high roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.,17200,2005,1419 (beginning of rule by the House of Grimaldi),,,,,,,10.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.3,NA,,,,,5406.0,2009 est.,National Day (Saint Rainier's Day) 19 November (1857),70,2008,0.0,NA,NA,about three times the size of The Mall in Washington DC,99.0,2003 est.,80.09,2009 est.,unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system 8 by proportional representation; to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 3 February 2008 (next to be held in February 2013) election results: percent of vote by party - UPM 52.2% REM 40.5% Monaco Together 7.3%; seats by party - UPM 21 REM 3,based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,CE FAO IAEA ICAO ICC ICCt (signatory) ICRM IFRCS IHO IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IPU ITSO ITU OIF OPCW OSCE Schengen Convention UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO Union Latina UNWTO UPU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO,12.0,NA,6687.0,2008 est.,,,party to: Air Pollution Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,NA,,,,,,,,,Monaco,18.0,NA,,,hilly rugged rocky,general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers domestic: combined fixed line and mobile telephone density exceeds 100% international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system,1.75,2009 est.,0.0,2005,constitutional monarchy,two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red,,$ 916 100 000,2005,50,2007,0.39,2009 est.,0.9,,1.0,2007,$ 976 300 000,2006 est.,the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France) under the authority of the US ambassador to France handles routine diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco,$ 30 000,2006 est.,,
Samoa,66270,2007 est.,Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; District Court; Land and Titles Court,21.13,2005,0.0,NA,24.22,2009 est.,food processing building materials auto parts,,,6.0,2007 est.,,,.ws,,,,,,,19500,2005,0.8,2009 est.,8000,2006,2.0,2002,13 35 S 172 20 W,5.7,2009 est.,0.0,2004,11.6,2004 est.,none,2831,NA,,,Oceania,Oceania group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean about half way between Hawaii and New Zealand,conventional long form: Independent State of Samoa conventional short form: Samoa local long form: Malo Sa'oloto Tuto'atasi o Samoa local short form: Samoa former: Western Samoa,403.0,NA,4.0,2008,1 January 1962,chief of mission: Ambassador Aliioaiga Feturi ELISAIA chancery: 800 Second Avenue Suite 400D New York NY 10017 telephone: [1] (212) 599-6196 through 6197 FAX: [1] (212) 599-0797 consulate(s) general: Pago Pago (American Samoa),2477.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 177 000 000,2004,$ 131 000 000,2006,0,2005,20.8,2009 est.,1130,2006 est.,1128,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: TUIATUA Tupua Tamasese Efi (since 20 June 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA (since 1998); Deputy Prime Minister MISA Telefoni (since 2001) cabinet: Cabinet consists of 12 members appointed by the chief of state on the prime minister's advice elections: chief of state is elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 15 June 2007 (next to be held in 2012); following legislative elections the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the chief of state with the approval of the Legislative Assembly election results: TUIATUA Tupua Tamasese Efi unanimously elected by the Legislative Assembly,2.71,NA,0.4,2001 census,,,2.9,2008,4,2008,12.0,2001,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,101400000,2006 est.,name: Apia geographic coordinates: 13 50 S 171 44 W time difference: UTC-11 (6 hours behind Washington DC during Standard Time),"New Zealand occupied the German protectorate of Western Samoa at the outbreak of World War I in 1914. It continued to administer the islands as a mandate and then as a trust territory until 1962 when the islands became the first Polynesian nation to reestablish independence in the 20th century. The country dropped the ""Western"" from its name in 1997.",,,fish coconut oil and cream copra taro automotive parts garments beer,12.65,31 December 2007,5.79,July 2009 est.,,,$ 537 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,11 districts; A'ana Aiga-i-le-Tai Atua Fa'asaleleaga Gaga'emauga Gagaifomauga Palauli Satupa'itea Tuamasaga Va'a-o-Fonoti Vaisigano,,,,,coconuts bananas taro yams coffee cocoa,no regular military forces; Samoa Police Force (2008),28.06,2009 est.,4.3,2002,$ 78 100 000,FY04/05 est.,tropical; rainy season (November to April) dry season (May to October),machinery and equipment industrial supplies foodstuffs,Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA]; Samoa Christian Party or TCP [Tuala Tiresa MALIETOA]; Samoa Democratic United Party or SDUP [LE MAMEA Ropati]; Samoa Party or SP [Su'a Rimoni Ah CHONG]; Samoa Progressive Political Party or SPPP [Toeolesulusulu SIUEVA],219998,July 2009 est.,noun: Samoan(s) adjective: Samoan,hardwood forests fish hydropower,-8.81,2009 est.,occupies an almost central position within Polynesia,NA,The economy of Samoa has traditionally been dependent on development aid family remittances from overseas agriculture and fishing. The country is vulnerable to devastating storms. Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force and furnishes 90% of exports featuring coconut cream coconut oil and copra. The fish catch declined during the El Nino of 2002-03 but returned to normal by mid-2005. The manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. One factory in the Foreign Trade Zone employs 3 000 people to make automobile electrical harnesses for an assembly plant in Australia. Tourism is an expanding sector accounting for 25% of GDP; 122 000 tourists visited the islands in 2007. The Samoan Government has called for deregulation of the financial sector encouragement of investment and continued fiscal discipline while at the same time protecting the environment. Observers point to the flexibility of the labor market as a basic strength for future economic advances. Foreign reserves are in a relatively healthy state the external debt is stable and inflation is low.,86000,2007,1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0.1,2001 census,$ -24 000 000,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,1.7,NA,$ 215 100 000,31 December 2007,,,40957.0,2009 est.,Independence Day Celebration 1 June (1962); note - 1 January 1962 is the date of independence from the New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship; it is observed in June,1,2008,0.0,NA,occasional typhoons; active volcanism,slightly smaller than Rhode Island,99.7,2003 est.,71.86,2009 est.,unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fono (49 seats 47 elected by voters affiliated with traditional village-based electoral districts 2 elected by independent mostly non-Samoan or part-Samoan voters who cannot (or choose not to) establish a village affiliation; only chiefs (matai) may stand for election to the Fono from the 47 village-based electorates; members serve five-year terms) elections: election last held 31 March 2006 (next election to be held not later than March 2011) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - HRPP 35 SDUP 10 independents 4,based on English common law and local customs; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP ADB C FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO IOC IPU ITU ITUC MIGA OPCW PIF Sparteca SPC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UPU WCO WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),12.0,NA,53417.0,2008 est.,,,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,soil erosion deforestation invasive species overfishing,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,109000000,2006 est.,,,Apia,21.0,NA,2.8,2000,two main islands (Savaii Upolu) and several smaller islands and uninhabited islets; narrow coastal plain with volcanic rocky rugged mountains in interior,general assessment: adequate domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 50 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 685; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean),4.16,2009 est.,,,parliamentary democracy,red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation,,$ 324 000 000,2006,2337,2001,1.35,2009 est.,3.3,2008 est.,,,$ 1 057 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: none; US Ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Samoa embassy: Accident Corporation Building 5th Floor Matafele Apia mailing address: P. O. Box 3430 Matafele Apia telephone: [685] 21436/21631/21452/22696 FAX: [685] 22030,$ 4 900,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
New Zealand,2250000,2008 est.,Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; High Court; note - judges appointed by the governor general,5.54,2005,0.0,NA,4.92,2009 est.,food processing wood and paper products textiles machinery transportation equipment banking and insurance tourism mining,,,4.0,2008 est.,,,.nz,0.1,2007 est.,1400,2007 est.,200,2003 est.,1706000,2007,0.84,2009 est.,3360000,2007,41.0,1997,41 00 S 174 00 E,12.8,2009 est.,4.0,1998,4.4,2008 est.,asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency),267710,NA,2850.0,2003,Oceania,Oceania islands in the South Pacific Ocean southeast of Australia,conventional long form: none conventional short form: New Zealand abbreviation: NZ,15134.0,NA,4.3,2008,consists of a series of legal documents including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand parliaments as well as The Constitution Act 1986 which is the principal formal charter; adopted 1 January 1987 effective 1 January 1987,chief of mission: Ambassador Roy N. FERGUSON chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800 FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227 consulate(s) general: New York Santa Monica,29809.0,2009 est.,36.2,1997,47850,2007 est.,$ 59 080 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 30 800 000 000,2008 est.,14570,2005,36.6,2009 est.,158400,2007 est.,137300,2005,55000000,1 January 2008 est.,29670000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006) head of government: Prime Minister John KEY (since 19 November 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Bill ENGLISH (since 19 November 2008) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general,1.38,NA,0.5,2001 census,$ 47 450 000 000,31 December 2007,5.8,2008,121,2008,19.0,2006,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,38930000000,2006 est.,name: Wellington geographic coordinates: 41 28 S 174 51 E time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April note: New Zealand is divided into two time zones - New Zealand standard time (12 hours in advance of UTC) and Chatham Islands time (45 minutes in advance of New Zealand standard time),The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840 their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain the Treaty of Waitangi in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. In that same year the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.,7.0,2006 est.,dairy products meat wood and wood products fish machinery,12.83,31 December 2007,7.05,July 2009 est.,172.0,2008,$ 135 700 000 000,2008 est.,$ 72 920 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,,,16 regions and 1 territory*; Auckland Bay of Plenty Canterbury Chatham Islands* Gisborne Hawke's Bay Manawatu-Wanganui Marlborough Nelson Northland Otago Southland Taranaki Tasman Waikato Wellington West Coast,397.0,1995,2.11,2000,dairy products lamb and mutton; wheat barley potatoes pulses fruits vegetables; wool beef; fish,New Zealand Defense Force (NZDF): New Zealand Army Royal New Zealand Navy Royal New Zealand Air Force (2009),13.94,2009 est.,6.2,2006,$ 54 410 000 000,2008 est.,temperate with sharp regional contrasts,machinery and equipment vehicles and aircraft petroleum electronics textiles plastics,ACT New Zealand [Rodney HIDE]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS]; Maori Party [Tariana TURIA and Pita SHARPLES]; National Party or NP [John KEY]; New Zealand First Party or NZ First [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Phil GOFF]; Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; United Future or UF [Peter DUNNE],4213418,July 2009 est.,noun: New Zealander(s) adjective: New Zealand,natural gas iron ore sand coal timber hydropower gold limestone,2.46,2009 est.,almost 90% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world,Women's Electoral Lobby or WEL other: apartheid groups; civil rights groups; farmers groups; Maori; nuclear weapons groups; women's rights groups,Over the past 20 years the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes - but left behind some at the bottom of the ladder - and broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector. Per capita income has risen for nine consecutive years and reached $27 900 in 2008 in purchasing power parity terms. Debt-driven consumer spending drove robust growth in the first half of the decade helping fuel a large balance of payments deficit that posed a challenge for economic managers. Inflationary pressures caused the central bank to raise its key rate steadily from January 2004 until it was among the highest in the OECD in 2007-08; international capital inflows attracted to the high rates further strengthened the currency and housing market however aggravating the current account deficit. The economy fell into recession in 2008. In line with global peers the central bank has cut interest rates aggressively; the new government is responding with plans to raise productivity growth and develop infrastructure.,4245000,2007,26 September 1907 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,4572000000,2007 est.,1.3,2001 census,$ -11 300 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,1.0,NA,$ 200 100 000 000,31 December 2007,,,825981.0,2009 est.,Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand) 6 February (1840); ANZAC Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli Turkey) 25 April (1915),13,2008,0.0,NA,earthquakes are common though usually not severe; volcanic activity,about the size of Colorado,99.0,2003 est.,80.36,2009 est.,unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (usually 120 seats; 69 members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies including 7 Maori constituencies and 51 proportional seats chosen from party lists; serve three-year terms) elections: last held 8 November 2008 (next to be held not later than 27 November 2011) election results: percent of vote by party - NP 44.9% NZLP 34% Green Party 6.7% NZ First 4% ACT New Zealand 3.7% Maori 2.4% Progressive 0.9% UF 0.9% other 6.6%; seats by party - NP 58 NZLP 43 Green Party 9 ACT New Zealand 5 Maori 5 Progressive 1 UF 1 note: results of 2008 election saw the total number of seats increase to 122,based on English law with special land legislation and land courts for the Maori; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ADB ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986) APEC ARF ASEAN (dialogue partner) Australia Group BIS C CP EAS EBRD FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC NAM (guest) NSG OECD OPCW PCA PIF Sparteca SPC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMIS UNMIT UNTSO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,997134.0,2008 est.,1.0,2005 est.,party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: Antarctic Seals Marine Life Conservation,deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by invasive species,3.0,2008,1.0,2008,42410000000,2007 est.,4128,2008,Auckland Lyttelton Marsden Point Tauranga Wellington Whangarei,18.0,NA,-2.2,2008 est.,predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains,general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems domestic: NA international: country code - 64; the Southern Cross submarine cable system provides links to Australia Fiji and the US; satellite earth stations - 8 (1 Inmarsat - Pacific Ocean 7 other),2.1,2009 est.,4.2,2008 est.,parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm,blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation,significant consumer of amphetamines,$ 32 450 000 000,2008 est.,93576,2006,0.94,2009 est.,0.2,2008 est.,,,$ 116 600 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador William P. McCORMICK embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace Thorndon Wellington mailing address: P. O. Box 1190 Wellington; PSC 467 Box 1 APO AP 96531-1034 telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000 FAX: [64] (4) 499-0490 consulate(s) general: Auckland,$ 27 900,2008 est.,4573000000,2007 est.
Yemen,6454000,2008 est.,Supreme Court,0.25,2005,288.0,NA,54.7,2009 est.,crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement; commercial ship repair,,,19.0,2008 est.,,,.ye,0.1,2001 est.,12000,2001 est.,,,968300,2006,0.92,2009 est.,320000,2007,3.0,2007,15 00 N 48 00 E,2.5,2009 est.,1.0,1998,10.3,2008 est.,Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities,527968,NA,5500.0,2003,Middle East,Middle East bordering the Arabian Sea Gulf of Aden and Red Sea between Oman and Saudi Arabia,conventional long form: Republic of Yemen conventional short form: Yemen local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah local short form: Al Yaman former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen],1906.0,NA,4.3,2008,16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994 and February 2001,chief of mission: Ambassador Abd al-Wahab Abdallah al-HAJRI chancery: 2319 Wyoming Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760 FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017,263402.0,2009 est.,37.7,2005,320600,2007 est.,$ 5 979 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 8 977 000 000,2008 est.,336600,2005,16.8,2009 est.,135400,2006 est.,62850,2005,3440000000,1 January 2008 est.,478500000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990 the former president of North Yemen assumed office upon the merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994) head of government: Prime Minister Ali Muhammad MUJAWWAR (since 31 March 2007) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 20 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2013); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of vote - Ali Abdallah SALIH 77.2% Faysal BIN SHAMLAN 21.8%,184.78,NA,,,,,4.3,2008,54,2008,7.0,2005,45.2,2003,2.9,2005,0.0,2007 est.,3804000000,2006 est.,name: Sanaa geographic coordinates: 15 21 N 44 12 E time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000 Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to a delimitation of their border.,,,crude oil coffee dried and salted fish,18.0,31 December 2007,7.61,July 2009 est.,22.0,2008,$ 27 560 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,19 governorates (muhafazat singular - muhafazah); Abyan 'Adan Ad Dali' Al Bayda' Al Hudaydah Al Jawf Al Mahrah Al Mahwit 'Amran Dhamar Hadramawt Hajjah Ibb Lahij Ma'rib Sa'dah San'a' Shabwah Ta'izz note: for electoral and administrative purposes the capital city of Sanaa is treated as an additional governorate,4.1,1997,6.63,2000,grain fruits vegetables pulses qat coffee cotton; dairy products livestock (sheep goats cattle camels) poultry; fish,Army (includes Republican Guard) Navy (includes Marines) Yemen Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Jamahiriya al Yemeniya; includes Air Defense Force) (2009),42.14,2009 est.,9.6,2001,$ 9 243 000 000,2008 est.,mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot dry harsh desert in east,food and live animals machinery and equipment chemicals,General People's Congress or GPC [Abdul-Kader BAJAMMAL]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Mohammed Abdullah AL-YADOUMI (acting)]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdal Malik al-MAKHLAFI]; National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Dr. Qasim SALAM]; Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih MUQBIL]; note - there are at least seven more active political parties,23822783,July 2009 est.,noun: Yemeni(s) adjective: Yemeni,petroleum fish rock salt marble; small deposits of coal gold lead nickel and copper; fertile soil in west,,,strategic location on Bab el Mandeb the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden one of world's most active shipping lanes,Muslim Brotherhood; Women National Committee other: conservative tribal groups,Yemen one of the poorest countries in the Arab world reported average annual growth in the range of 3-4% from 2000 through 2007. In 2008 growth declined slightly as the price of oil dropped and the slowing global economy reduced demand for oil. Yemen's economic fortunes depend mostly on declining oil resources but the country is trying to diversify its earnings. In 2006 Yemen began an economic reform program designed to bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. As a result of the program international donors pledged about $5 billion for development projects. A liquefied natural gas facility is scheduled to open in 2009. Yemen has limited exposure to the international financial system and no capital markets however the global financial crisis probably will reduce international aid in 2009.,2978000,2006,22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note - previously North Yemen became independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate in 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,,,$ -1 113 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,4.9,NA,$ 2 224 000 000,31 December 2007,,,3733704.0,2009 est.,Unification Day 22 May (1990),4,2008,0.0,NA,sandstorms and dust storms in summer,slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming,50.2,2003 est.,63.27,2009 est.,a bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and a House of Representatives (301 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) elections: last held on 27 April 2003 (scheduled April 2009 election postponed for two years) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GPC 228 Islah 47 YSP 7 Nasserite Unionist Party 3 National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party 2 independents 14,based on Islamic law Turkish law English common law and local tribal customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,AFESD AMF CAEU FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt (signatory) ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU ITUC LAS MIGA MINURCAT MINURSO MONUC NAM OAS (observer) OIC OPCW UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMIL UNMIS UNOCI UNOMIG UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),12.0,NA,4852555.0,2008 est.,6.6,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification,3.0,2008,1.0,2008,5017000000,2006 est.,,,Aden Hudaydah Mukalla,18.0,NA,2.8,2008 est.,narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula,general assessment: since unification in 1990 efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay cable tropospheric scatter GSM and CDMA mobile-cellular telephone systems; fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains low by regional standards international: country code - 967; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean) 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti,6.32,2009 est.,35.0,2003 est.,republic,three equal horizontal bands of red (top) white and black; similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars in the white band and of Iraq which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band,,$ 8 829 000 000,2008 est.,71300,2005,3.45,2009 est.,3.2,2008 est.,,,$ 55 290 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen A. SECHE embassy: Sa'awan Street Sanaa mailing address: P. O. Box 22347 Sanaa telephone: [967] (1) 755-2000 ext. 2153 or 2266 FAX: [967] (1) 303-182,$ 2 400,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
European Union,224400000,2008 est.,"Court of Justice of the European Communities (ensures that the treaties are interpreted and applied uniformly throughout the EU; resolve constitutional issues among the EU institutions) - 27 justices (one from each member state) appointed for a six-year term; note - for the sake of efficiency the court can sit with 13 justices known as the ""Grand Chamber""; Court of First Instance - 27 justices appointed for a six-year term",,,3.2,NA,5.72,2009 est.,among the world's largest and most technologically advanced the EU industrial base includes: ferrous and non-ferrous metal production and processing metal products petroleum coal cement chemicals pharmaceuticals aerospace rail transportation equipment passenger and commercial vehicles construction equipment industrial equipment shipbuilding electrical power equipment machine tools and automated manufacturing systems electronics and telecommunications equipment fishing food and beverage processing furniture paper textiles tourism,52332,2006,3.5,2008 est.,,,.eu; note - see country entries of member states for individual country codes,,,,,,,238000000,2005,0.68,2009 est.,247000000,2006,2700.0,NA,,15.44,2009 est.,71.0,NA,2.0,2008 est.,"as a political union the EU has no border disputes with neighboring countries but Estonia has no land boundary agreements with Russia Slovenia disputes its land and maritime boundaries with Croatia and Spain has territorial and maritime disputes with Morocco and with the UK over Gibraltar; the EU has set up a Schengen area - consisting of 22 EU member states that have signed the convention implementing the Schengen agreements or ""acquis"" (1985 and 1990) on the free movement of persons and the harmonization of border controls in Europe; these agreements became incorporated into EU law with the implementation of the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam on 1 May 1999; in addition non-EU states Iceland and Norway (as part of the Nordic Union) have been included in the Schengen area since 1996 (full members in 2001) and Switzerland since 2008 bringing the total current membership to 25; the UK (since 2000) and Ireland (since 2002) take part in only some aspects of the Schengen area especially with respect to police and criminal matters; nine of the 12 new member states that joined the EU since 2004 joined Schengen on 21 December 2007; of the three remaining EU states Cyprus is expected to join by 2009 while Romania and Bulgaria continue to enhance their border security systems",4324782,NA,168050.0,2003 est.,Europe,Europe between the North Atlantic Ocean in the west and Russia Belarus and Ukraine to the east,,65992.9,NA,,,none note: based on a series of treaties: the Treaty of Paris which set up the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951; the Treaties of Rome which set up the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) in 1957; the Single European Act in 1986; the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht) in 1992; the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997; and the Treaty of Nice in 2003; note - a new draft Constitutional Treaty signed on 29 October 2004 in Rome gave member states two years for ratification either by parliamentary vote or national referendum before it was scheduled to take effect on 1 November 2006; defeat in French and Dutch referenda in May-June 2005 dealt a severe setback to the ratification process; in June 2007 the European Council agreed on a clear and concise mandate for an Intergovernmental Conference to form a political agreement and put it into legal form; this agreement known as the Reform Treaty would have served as a constitution and was presented to the European Council in October 2007 for individual country ratification; it was rejected by Irish voters in June 2008 again stalling the ratification process,chief of mission: Ambassador John BRUTON chancery: 2300 M Street NW Washington DC 20037 telephone: [1] (202) 862-9500 FAX: [1] (202) 429-1766,,,31.0,2005 est.,2676000,2007 est.,,,$ 1 952 000 000 000,2007,2196000,2007 est.,,,14380000,2007 est.,8613000,2007 est.,6146000000,1 January 2008,2476000000000,1 January 2008 est.,"chief of union: President of the European Commission Jose Manuel DURAO BARROSO (since 22 November 2004) cabinet: European Commission (composed of 27 members one from each member country; each commissioner responsible for one or more policy areas) elections: the president of the European Commission is designated by member governments and is confirmed by the European Parliament; working from member state recommendations the Commission president then assembles a ""college"" of Commission members; the European Parliament confirms the entire Commission for a five-year term; the last confirmation process was held 18 November 2004 (next to be held in 2009) election results: European Parliament approved the European Commission by a vote of 449 to 149 with 82 abstentions note: the European Council brings together heads of state and government and the president of the European Commission and meets at least four times a year; its aim is to provide the impetus for the major political issues relating to European integration and to issue general policy guidelines",0.68,NA,,,$ 14 370 000 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,,,,,,,,,2.8,2001 est.,,,2926000000000,2007 est.,name: Brussels (Belgium) Strasbourg (France) Luxembourg geographic coordinates: 50 50 N 4 20 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October note: the Council of the European Union meets in Brussels Belgium; the European Parliament meets in Brussels and Strasbourg France; the Court of Justice of the European Communities meets in Luxembourg,Following the two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century a number of European leaders in the late 1940s became convinced that the only way to establish a lasting peace was to unite the two chief belligerent nations - France and Germany - both economically and politically. In 1950 the French Foreign Minister Robert SCHUMAN proposed an eventual union of all Europe the first step of which would be the integration of the coal and steel industries of Western Europe. The following year the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was set up when six members Belgium France West Germany Italy Luxembourg and the Netherlands signed the Treaty of Paris. The ECSC was so successful that within a few years the decision was made to integrate other parts of the countries' economies. In 1957 the Treaties of Rome created the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the six member states undertook to eliminate trade barriers among themselves by forming a common market. In 1967 the institutions of all three communities were formally merged into the European Community (EC) creating a single Commission a single Council of Ministers and the European Parliament. Members of the European Parliament were initially selected by national parliaments but in 1979 the first direct elections were undertaken and they have been held every five years since. In 1973 the first enlargement of the EC took place with the addition of Denmark Ireland and the United Kingdom. The 1980s saw further membership expansion with Greece joining in 1981 and Spain and Portugal in 1986. The 1992 Treaty of Maastricht laid the basis for further forms of cooperation in foreign and defense policy in judicial and internal affairs and in the creation of an economic and monetary union - including a common currency. This further integration created the European Union (EU). In 1995 Austria Finland and Sweden joined the EU raising the membership total to 15. A new currency the euro was launched in world money markets on 1 January 1999; it became the unit of exchange for all of the EU states except the United Kingdom Sweden and Denmark. In 2002 citizens of the 12 euro-area countries began using the euro banknotes and coins. Ten new countries joined the EU in 2004 - Cyprus the Czech Republic Estonia Hungary Latvia Lithuania Malta Poland Slovakia and Slovenia - and in 2007 Bulgaria and Romania joined bringing the current membership to 27. In order to ensure that the EU can continue to function efficiently with an expanded membership the Treaty of Nice (in force as of 1 February 2003) set forth rules streamlining the size and procedures of EU institutions. An effort to establish an EU constitution begun in October 2004 failed to attain unanimous ratification. A new effort undertaken in June 2007 calls for the creation of an Intergovernmental Conference to form a political agreement known as the Reform Treaty which is to serve as a constitution. Unlike the constitution however the Reform Treaty would amend existing treaties rather than replace them. In June 2008 the Irish rejected the Reform Treaty in a referendum.,5.6,2007 est.,machinery motor vehicles aircraft plastics pharmaceuticals and other chemicals fuels iron and steel nonferrous metals wood pulp and paper products textiles meat dairy products fish alcoholic beverages.,8.03,31 December 2007,10.28,2009 est.,,,$ 18 850 000 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,,wheat barley oilseeds sugar beets wine grapes; dairy products cattle sheep pigs poultry; fish,,9.9,2009 est.,,,,,cold temperate; potentially subarctic in the north to temperate; mild wet winters; hot dry summers in the south,machinery vehicles aircraft plastics crude oil chemicals textiles metals foodstuffs clothing,Confederal Group of the European United Left-Nordic Green Left or GUE/NGL [Francis WURTZ]; European People's Party-European Democrats or EPP-ED [Joseph DAUL]; Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe or ALDE [Graham R. WATSON]; Group of Greens/European Free Alliance or Greens/EFA [Monica FRASSONI and Daniel Marc COHN-BENDIT]; Identity Tradition Sovereignty Group or ITS [Bruno GOLLNISCH]; Independence/Democracy Group or IND/DEM [Hanne DAHL and Nigel FARAGE]; Socialist Group in the European Parliament or PES [Martin SCHULZ]; Union for Europe of the Nations Group or UEN [Brian CROWLEY and Cristiana MUSCARDINI],491582852,July 2009 est.,,iron ore natural gas petroleum coal copper lead zinc bauxite uranium potash salt hydropower arable land timber fish,1.46,2009 est.,,,Internally the EU is attempting to lower trade barriers adopt a common currency and move toward convergence of living standards. Internationally the EU aims to bolster Europe's trade position and its political and economic power. Because of the great differences in per capita income among member states (from $7 000 to $69 000) and historic national animosities the EU faces difficulties in devising and enforcing common policies. For example since 2003 Germany and France have flouted the member states' treaty obligation to prevent their national budgets from running more than a 3% deficit. Between 2004 and 2007 the EU admitted 12 countries that are in general less advanced technologically and economically than the other 15. Eleven established EU member states introduced the euro as their common currency on 1 January 1999 (Greece did so two years later) but the UK Sweden and Denmark chose not to participate. Of the 12 most recent member states only Slovenia (1 January 2007) and Cyprus and Malta (1 January 2008) have adopted the euro; the remaining nine are legally required to adopt the currency upon meeting EU's fiscal and monetary convergence criteria.,466000000,2005,7 February 1992 (Maastricht Treaty signed establishing the EU); 1 November 1993 (Maastricht Treaty entered into force),,,,,497300000000,2007 est.,,,$ 51 400 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,,,,,$ 20 940 000 000 000,31 December 2007,,,,,Europe Day 9 May (1950); note - a Union-wide holiday the day that Robert SCHUMAN proposed the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community to achieve an organized Europe,,,-7.0,NA,flooding along coasts; avalanches in mountainous area; earthquakes in the south; volcanic eruptions in Italy; periodic droughts in Spain; ice floes in the Baltic,less than one-half the size of the US,,,78.67,2009 est.,two legislative bodies consisting of the Council of the European Union (27 member-state ministers having 345 votes; the number of votes is roughly proportional to member-states' population; note - the Council is the main decision-making body of the EU) and the European Parliament (736 seats; seats allocated among member states in proportion to population; members elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term) elections: last held 4-7 June 2009 (next to be held in June 2014) election results: percent of vote - EPP 35.9% PES 21.9% ALDE 10.9% Greens/EFA 7.2% UEN 4.8% GUE/NGL 4.3% IND/DEM 2.4% others 12.6%; seats by party - EPP 266 PES 161 ALDE 80 Greens/EFA 53 UEN 35 GUE/NGL 32 IND/DEM 18 others 93,comparable to the legal systems of member states; first supranational law system,European Union: ARF (dialogue member) ASEAN (dialogue member) IDA OAS (observer) PIF (partner) SAARC (observer) UN (observer) European Community: Australian Group CBSS CERN FAO EBRD G-10 LAIA NSG (observer) OECD UNRWA WCO WTO ZC (observer) European Central Bank: BIS European Investment Bank: EBRD WADB (nonregional member),,,,,,,party to: Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Air Pollution-Sulphur 94 Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,NA,3.0,2008,107.0,2008,3103000000000,2007 est.,229450,2008,Antwerp (Belgium) Barcelona (Spain) Braila (Romania) Bremen (Germany) Burgas (Bulgaria) Constanta (Romania) Copenhagen (Denmark) Galati (Romania) Gdansk (Poland) Hamburg (Germany) Helsinki (Finland) Las Palmas (Canary Islands Spain) Le Havre (France) Lisbon (Portugal) London (UK) Marseille (France) Naples (Italy) Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece) Riga (Latvia) Rotterdam (Netherlands) Stockholm (Sweden) Talinn (Estonia) Tulcea (Romania) Varna (Bulgaria),,,-0.6,2008 est.,fairly flat along the Baltic and Atlantic coast; mountainous in the central and southern areas,note - see individual country entries of member states,1.51,2009 est.,7.4,2008 est.,,blue field with 12 five-pointed gold stars arranged in a circle in the center representing the union of the peoples of Europe; the number of stars is fixed,,$ 1 690 000 000 000,2007,5454446,2008,0.11,2009 est.,1.0,2008 est.,100.0,2007,$ 14 820 000 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Christopher MURRAY embassy: 13 Zinnerstraat/Rue Zinner B-1000 Brussels mailing address: same as above telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111 FAX: [32] (2) 508-2063,$ 33 400,2008 est.,197800000000,2007 est.
Jersey,53560,June 2006,Royal Court (judges elected by an electoral college and the bailiff),0.0,2005,0.0,NA,4.73,2009 est.,tourism banking and finance dairy electronics,,,3.7,December 2006,0.9,2001 census,.je,,,,,,,73900,2001,0.8,2009 est.,27000,2005,2.0,2008,49 15 N 2 10 W,16.1,2009 est.,0.0,2008,1.0,2005,none,116,NA,,,Europe,Western Europe island in the English Channel northwest of France,conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey conventional short form: Jersey,70.0,NA,,,unwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice,none (British crown dependency),541.0,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,,,42.9,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Andrew RIDGEWAY (since 14 June 2006) head of government: Chief Minister Terry LE SUEUR (12 December 2008); Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE (since February 1995) cabinet: Cabinet (since December 2005) elections: ministers of the Cabinet including the chief minister are elected by the Assembly of States; the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch,0.5,NA,1.1,2001 census,,,,,1,2008,,,,,,,,,630100000,2004 est.,name: Saint Helier geographic coordinates: 49 11 N 2 06 W time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. Jersey is a British crown dependency but is not part of the UK. However the UK Government is constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.,,,light industrial and electrical goods dairy cattle foodstuffs textiles,,,9.26,July 2009 est.,,,$ 5 100 000 000,2005 est.,,,,,none (British crown dependency); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government but there are 12 parishes including Grouville Saint Brelade Saint Clement Saint Helier Saint John Saint Lawrence Saint Martin Saint Mary Saint Ouen Saint Peter Saint Saviour and Trinity,,,,,potatoes cauliflower tomatoes; beef dairy products,,8.63,2009 est.,,,$ 829 000 000,2005,temperate; mild winters and cool summers,machinery and transport equipment manufactured goods foodstuffs mineral fuels chemicals,two declared parties: Centre Party; Jersey Democratic Alliance note: all senators and deputies elected in 2008 were independents,91626,July 2009 est.,noun: Channel Islander(s) adjective: Channel Islander,arable land,2.73,2009 est.,largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier,Institute of Directors Jersey branch (provides business support); Jersey Hospitality Association [Robert JONES] (trade association); Jersey Rights Association [David ROTHERHAM] (human rights); La Societe Jersiaise (education and conservation group); Progress Jersey [Darius J. PEARCE Daren O'TOOLE Gino RISOLI] (human rights); Royal Jersey Agriculture and Horticultural Society or RJA&HS (development and management of the Jersey breed of cattle); Save Jersey's Heritage (protects heritage through building preservation),Jersey's economy is based on international financial services agriculture and tourism. In 2005 the finance sector accounted for about 50% of the island's output. Potatoes cauliflower tomatoes and especially flowers are important export crops shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export income earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU countries. Tourism accounts for one-quarter of GDP. In recent years the government has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey with the result that an electronics industry has developed displacing more traditional industries. All raw material and energy requirements are imported as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs. Light taxes and death duties make the island a popular tax haven. Living standards come close to those of the UK.,83900,2004,none (British crown dependency),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.6,NA,,,,,16826.0,2009 est.,Liberation Day 9 May (1945),,,0.0,NA,NA,about two-thirds the size of Washington DC,,,79.75,2009 est.,unicameral Assembly of the States of Jersey (58 seats; 55 are voting members of which 12 are senators elected for six-year terms 12 are constables or heads of parishes elected for three-year terms 29 are deputies elected for three-year terms the bailiff and the deputy bailiff and 3 non-voting members includes the Dean of Jersey the Attorney General and the Solicitor General appointed by the monarch) elections: last held 15 October 2008 for senators and 26 November 2008 for deputies (next to be held in 2011) election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 55,the laws of the UK where applicable apply and local statutes; justice is administered by the Royal Court,,3.0,NA,,,,,,NA,,,1.0,2008,,,,,Gorey Saint Aubin Saint Helier,16.0,NA,,,gently rolling plain with low rugged hills along north coast,general assessment: state owned partially-competitive market; increasingly modern with some broadband access domestic: digital telephone system launch announced in 2006 and currently being implemented international: submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey the UK and France (2008),1.57,2009 est.,2.2,2006 est.,parliamentary democracy,white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag; in the upper quadrant surmounted by a yellow crown a red shield with the three lions of England in yellow,,,,358,2002,0.21,2009 est.,,,,,$ 5 100 000 000,2005 est.,none (British crown dependency),$ 57 000,2005 est.,,
Atlantic Ocean,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0 00 N 25 00 W,,,,,,,some maritime disputes (see littoral states),76762000,NA,,,Political Map of the World,body of water between Africa Europe the Southern Ocean and the Western Hemisphere,,111866.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean but larger than the Indian Ocean Southern Ocean and Arctic Ocean). The Kiel Canal (Germany) Oresund (Denmark-Sweden) Bosporus (Turkey) Strait of Gibraltar (Morocco-Spain) and the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are important strategic access waterways. The decision by the International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 to delimit a fifth world ocean the Southern Ocean removed the portion of the Atlantic Ocean south of 60 degrees south latitude.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December but are most frequent from August to November,,,,,,oil and gas fields fish marine mammals (seals and whales) sand and gravel aggregates placer deposits polymetallic nodules precious stones,,,major chokepoints include the Dardanelles Strait of Gibraltar access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the Strait of Dover Straits of Florida Mona Passage The Sound (Oresund) and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean,,The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily trafficked sea routes between and within the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of natural resources e.g. fishing dredging of aragonite sands (The Bahamas) and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean Sea Gulf of Mexico and North Sea).,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,-8605.0,NA,icebergs common in Davis Strait Denmark Strait and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September; hurricanes (May to December),slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,endangered marine species include the manatee seals sea lions turtles and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US southern Brazil and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea Gulf of Mexico Lake Maracaibo Mediterranean Sea and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea North Sea and Mediterranean Sea,,,,,,,,,Alexandria (Egypt) Algiers (Algeria) Antwerp (Belgium) Barcelona (Spain) Buenos Aires (Argentina) Casablanca (Morocco) Colon (Panama) Copenhagen (Denmark) Dakar (Senegal) Gdansk (Poland) Hamburg (Germany) Helsinki (Finland) Las Palmas (Canary Islands Spain) Le Havre (France) Lisbon (Portugal) London (UK) Marseille (France) Montevideo (Uruguay) Montreal (Canada) Naples (Italy) New Orleans (US) New York (US) Oran (Algeria) Oslo (Norway) Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece) Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Rotterdam (Netherlands) Saint Petersburg (Russia) Stockholm (Sweden),,,,,surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea Denmark Strait and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Pakistan,50580000,2008 est.,Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Sharia Court,0.84,2005,523.0,NA,65.14,2009 est.,textiles and apparel food processing pharmaceuticals construction materials paper products fertilizer shrimp,,,20.3,2008 est.,1.0,NA,.pk,0.1,2007 est.,96000,2007 est.,5100,2007 est.,4546000,2008,0.88,2009 est.,17500000,2007,20.0,2006,30 00 N 70 00 E,4.2,2009 est.,31.0,2006,20.4,2008 est.,various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin) India (Jammu and Kashmir) and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005 Pakistan with UN assistance repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afghanistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their porous border; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor and control the border with Afghanistan and to stem terrorist or other illegal activities,796095,NA,182300.0,2003,Asia,Southern Asia bordering the Arabian Sea between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north,conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan conventional short form: Pakistan local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan local short form: Pakistan former: West Pakistan,1046.0,NA,4.8,2008,12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977 restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999 restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored on 15 December 2007,chief of mission: Ambassador Husain HAQQANI chancery: 3517 International Court Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500 FAX: [1] (202) 686-1544 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles New York Sunnyvale (California) consulate(s): Chicago Houston,1964090.0,2009 est.,30.6,FY07/08,68670,2007 est.,$ 44 150 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 21 900 000 000,2008 est.,28060,2005,20.8,2009 est.,345000,2006 est.,290600,2005,395600000,1 January 2008 est.,792800000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Asif Ali ZARDARI (since 9 September 2008) note: following President Pervez MUSHARRAF's resignation on 18 August 2008 elections were held on 6 September in which Asif Ali ZARDARI won a clear majority; ZARDARI'S inauguration as president of Pakistan on 9 September solidified the country's return to civilian government after more than eight years of military rule head of government: Prime Minister Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI (since 25 March 2008) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister elections: the president is elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate National Assembly and the provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 6 September 2008 (next to be held not later than 2013); note - any person who is a Muslim and not less than 45 years of age and is qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly can contest the presidential election; the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly; election last held on 24 March 2008 election results: Asif Ali ZARDARI elected president; ZARDARI 481 votes SIDDIQUE 153 votes SYED 44 votes; Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI elected prime minister; GILANI 264 votes Pervaiz ELAHI 42 votes; several abstentions,58.26,NA,3.57,NA,$ 70 260 000 000,31 December 2007,4.4,2008,143,2008,6.0,2006,24.0,FY05/06 est.,3.9,2005,0.0,2007 est.,68400000000,2006 est.,name: Islamabad geographic coordinates: 33 42 N 73 10 E time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr in 2009 - begins third Wednesday in April; ends first Sunday in November; note - a new policy of daylight saving time was initiated by the government in 2008; the specific date of the start of DST has varied over the last two years,The Indus Valley civilization one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5 000 years spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C. remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians Greeks Scythians Arabs (who brought Islam) Afghans and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002. Mounting public dissatisfaction with President MUSHARRAF coupled with the assassination of the prominent and popular political leader Benazir BHUTTO in late 2007 and MUSHARRAF's resignation in August 2008 led to the September presidential election of Asif ZARDARI BHUTTO's widower. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control Islamist militants many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. The November 2008 Mumbai attacks again inflamed Indo-Pakistan relations. The Pakistani Government is also faced with a deteriorating economy as foreign exchange reserves decline the currency depreciates and the current account deficit widens.,20.3,2005 est.,textiles (garments bed linen cotton cloth yarn) rice leather goods sports goods chemicals manufactures carpets and rugs,,,7.68,July 2009 est.,792.0,2008,$ 160 900 000 000,2008 est.,$ 25 440 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 1 032 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,4 provinces 1 territory* and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan Federally Administered Tribal Areas* Islamabad Capital Territory** North-West Frontier Province Punjab Sindh note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas,233.8,2003,169.39,2000,cotton wheat rice sugarcane fruits vegetables; milk beef mutton eggs,Army (includes National Guard) Navy (includes Marines and Maritime Security Agency) Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2008),27.62,2009 est.,2.6,2006,$ 22 300 000 000,2008 est.,mostly hot dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north,petroleum petroleum products machinery plastics transportation equipment edible oils paper and paperboard iron and steel tea,Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Fazlur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged with PML); National Peoples Party or NPP; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz Sharif or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; Pakistan Peoples Party-SHERPAO or PPP-S [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI chairman; Asif Ali ZARDARI co-chairman]; Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI] note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently,176242949,July 2009 est.,noun: Pakistani(s) adjective: Pakistani,land extensive natural gas reserves limited petroleum poor quality coal iron ore copper salt limestone,-0.48,2009 est.,controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent,other: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants,Pakistan an impoverished and underdeveloped country has suffered from decades of internal political disputes low levels of foreign investment and declining exports of manufactures. Faced with untenable budgetary deficits high inflation and hemorrhaging foreign exchange reserves the government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008. Between 2004-07 GDP growth in the 6-8% range was spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors despite severe electricity shortfalls. Poverty levels decreased by 10% since 2001 and Islamabad steadily raised development spending in recent years. In 2008 the fiscal deficit - a result of chronically low tax collection and increased spending - exceeded Islamabad's target of 4% of GDP. Inflation remains the top concern among the public jumping from 7.7% in 2007 to 20.8% in 2008 primarily because of rising world fuel and commodity prices. In addition the Pakistani rupee has depreciated significantly as a result of political and economic instability.,88020000,2008,14 August 1947 (from British India),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,30800000000,2007 est.,5.0,NA,$ -14 990 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,3.0,NA,$ 65 050 000 000,31 December 2007,,,32602910.0,2009 est.,Republic Day 23 March (1956),15,2008,0.0,NA,frequent earthquakes occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August),slightly less than twice the size of California,49.9,2005 est.,64.49,2009 est.,bicameral parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; serve five-year terms) elections: Senate - last held on 3 March 2009 (next to be held in March 2012); National Assembly - last held on 18 February 2008 with by-elections on 26 June 2008 (next to be held in 2013) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 27 PML-Q 21 MMA 9 PML-N 7 ANP 6 MQM 6 JUI-F 4 BNP-A 2 JWP 1 NPP 1 PKMAP 1 PML-F 1 PPP 1 independents 13; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 124 PML-N 91 PML 54 MQM 25 ANP 13 MMA 7 PML-F 5 BNP-A 1 NPP 1 PPP-S 1 independents 17; note - 3 seats remain unfilled,based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ADB ARF C CP ECO FAO G-24 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINURCAT MINURSO MONUC NAM OAS (observer) OIC OPCW PCA SAARC SACEP SCO (observer) UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMIL UNMIS UNMIT UNOCI UNOMIG UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,40114017.0,2008 est.,3.0,2007 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation,water pollution from raw sewage industrial wastes and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification,14.0,2008,11.0,2008,93260000000,2007 est.,7791,2007,Karachi Port Muhammad Bin Qasim,18.0,NA,4.6,2008 est.,flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west,general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments into fixed-line and mobile networks; mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed reaching some 88 million in 2008 up from only about 300 000 in 2000; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; main line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting main line service to rural areas domestic: microwave radio relay coaxial cable fiber-optic cable cellular and satellite networks international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia the Middle East and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2008),3.6,2009 est.,7.4,2008 est.,federal republic,green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent star and color green are traditional symbols of Islam,significant transit area for Afghan drugs including heroin opium morphine and hashish bound for Iran Western markets the Gulf States Africa and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking terrorism corruption and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2 300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication fines and arrests,$ 38 300 000 000,2008 est.,259197,2007,1.95,2009 est.,5.8,2008 est.,18.0,2007,$ 452 700 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON embassy: Diplomatic Enclave Ramna 5 Islamabad mailing address: P. O. Box 1048 Unit 62200 APO AE 09812-2200 telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000 FAX: [92] (51) 2276427 consulate(s) general: Karachi consulate(s): Lahore Peshawar,$ 2 600,2008 est.,30800000000,2007 est.
Albania,1441000,2007 est.,Constitutional Court Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term) and multiple appeals and district courts,4.21,2005,112.0,NA,18.62,2009 est.,food processing textiles and clothing; lumber oil cement chemicals mining basic metals hydropower,43,2008,3.4,2008 est.,,,.al,,,,,,,353600,2005,0.87,2009 est.,471200,2006,65.0,2005,41 00 N 20 00 E,9.8,2009 est.,1.0,2005,19.8,2008 est.,"the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in neighboring countries advocate for a ""greater Albania "" but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals; the mass emigration of unemployed Albanians remains a problem for developed countries chiefly Greece and Italy",28748,NA,3530.0,2003,Europe,Southeastern Europe bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea between Greece in the south and Montenegro and Kosovo to the north,conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania,362.0,NA,4.2,2008,approved by parliament on 21 October 1998; adopted by popular referendum on 22 November 1998; promulgated 28 November 1998,chief of mission: Ambassador Aleksander SALLABANDA chancery: 2100 S Street NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942 FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342 consulate(s) general: New York,31673.0,2009 est.,26.7,2005,6425,2007 est.,$ 1 550 000 000,2004,$ 1 345 000 000,2008 est.,749,2005 est.,29.9,2009 est.,30900,2006 est.,24860,2005 est.,199100000,1 January 2008 est.,849500000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President of the Republic Bamir TOPI (since 24 July 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 September 2005) cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister nominated by the president and approved by parliament elections: president elected by the Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); four election rounds held between 8 and 20 July 2007 (next election to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Bamir TOPI elected president; Assembly vote fourth round (three-fifths majority (84 votes) required): Bamir TOPI 85 votes Neritan CEKA 5 votes,79.55,NA,2.0,NA,,,5.8,2008,8,2008,11.0,2004,25.0,2004 est.,3.2,2005,0.0,2007 est.,3607000000,2007 est.,name: Tirana (Tirane) geographic coordinates: 41 19 N 19 49 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912 but was conquered by Italy in 1939. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944. Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960) and then with China (to 1978). In the early 1990s Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment widespread corruption a dilapidated physical infrastructure powerful organized crime networks and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991 but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997; however there have been claims of electoral fraud in every one of Albania's post-communist elections. In the 2005 general elections the Democratic Party and its allies won a decisive victory on pledges to reduce crime and corruption promote economic growth and decrease the size of government. The election and particularly the orderly transition of power was considered an important step forward. Albania joined NATO in April 2009 and is a potential candidate for EU accession. Although Albania's economy continues to grow the country is still one of the poorest in Europe hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure.,15.0,September 2006 est.,textiles and footwear; asphalt metals and metallic ores crude oil; vegetables fruits tobacco,14.1,31 December 2007,5.55,July 2009 est.,207.0,2008,$ 13 520 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,12 counties (qarqe singular - qark); Berat Diber Durres Elbasan Fier Gjirokaster Korce Kukes Lezhe Shkoder Tirane Vlore,41.7,2001,1.71,2000,wheat corn potatoes vegetables fruits sugar beets grapes; meat dairy products,Joint Force Command (includes Land Naval and Aviation Brigade Commands) Joint Support Command (includes Logistic Command) Training and Doctrine Command (2009),15.29,2009 est.,2.9,2002,$ 3 458 000 000,2008 est.,mild temperate; cool cloudy wet winters; hot clear dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter,machinery and equipment foodstuffs textiles chemicals,Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nard NDOKA]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or AD [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; G99 Political Movement [Erion VELIAJ]; Liberal Union Party or BLD [Arjan STAROVA]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Artur ROSHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party of Albania or PDSSh [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Socialist Party 1991 [Petro KOCI]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNj [Vangjel DULE],3639453,July 2009 est.,noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian,petroleum natural gas coal bauxite chromite copper iron ore nickel salt timber hydropower,-4.28,2009 est.,strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea),Citizens Advocacy Office [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA],Lagging behind its Balkan neighbors Albania is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. Macroeconomic growth has averaged around 5% over the last five years and inflation is low and stable. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and recently adopted a fiscal reform package aimed at reducing the large gray economy and attracting foreign investment. The economy is bolstered by annual remittances from abroad representing about 15% of GDP mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy; this helps offset the towering trade deficit. The agricultural sector which accounts for over half of employment but only about one-fifth of GDP is limited primarily to small family operations and subsistence farming because of lack of modern equipment unclear property rights and the prevalence of small inefficient plots of land. Energy shortages because of a reliance on hydropower and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure contribute to Albania's poor business environment and lack of success in attracting new foreign investment. The completion of a new thermal power plant near Vlore has helped diversify generation capacity and plans to upgrade transmission lines between Albania and Montenegro and Kosovo would help relieve the energy shortages. Also with help from EU funds the government is taking steps to improve the poor national road and rail network a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth.,2300000,2007,28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,30000000,2006 est.,10.0,NA,$ -1 906 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,2800000000.0,2007 est.,1.9,NA,$ 7 247 000 000,31 December 2007,2004,,768536.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 28 November (1912),24,2008,0.0,NA,destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought,slightly smaller than Maryland,98.7,2001 census,77.96,2009 est.,unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 seats; 100 members elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 3 July 2005 (next to be held in 2009) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PD 56 PS 42 PR 11 PSD 7 LSI 5 other 19 note: Parliament in November 2008 approved an electoral reform package that will transform the electoral system from a majority system to a regional proportional system; the code will also establish an electoral threshold limiting smaller party representation,has a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court for its citizens,BSEC CE CEI EAPC EBRD FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITU ITUC MIGA NATO OIC OIF OPCW OSCE SECI UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNOMIG UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,908527.0,2008 est.,1.49,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents,1.0,2008,3.0,2008,2892000000,2007 est.,896,2008,Durres Sarande Shengjin Vlore,18.0,NA,3.0,2008 est.,mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast,general assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines the density of main lines remains low with roughly 10 lines per 100 people; cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density is approximately 75 telephones per 100 persons domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity mobile phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of Albania's neighbors; Internet broadband services initiated in 2005; Internet cafes are popular in Tirana and have started to spread outside the capital international: country code - 355; submarine cable provides connectivity to Italy Croatia and Greece; the Trans-Balkan Line a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria Macedonia and Turkey; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and when necessary by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2007),2.01,2009 est.,12.5,2008 est.,emerging democracy,red with a black two-headed eagle in the center; the design is claimed to be that of 15th-century hero George Castriota SKANDERBERG who led a successful uprising against the Turks that resulted in a short-lived independence for some Albanian regions (1443-1478),increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates hashish and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and expanding cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics arms contraband and illegal aliens,$ 4 898 000 000,2008 est.,18000,2002,0.55,2009 est.,6.1,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 21 820 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador John L. WITHERS II embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit Labinoti #103 Tirana mailing address: US Department of State 9510 Tirana Place Dulles VA 20189-9510 telephone: [355] (4) 2247285 FAX: [355] (4) 2232222,$ 6 000,2008 est.,30000000,2006 est.
West Bank,605000,2006,,16.9,2001,97.0,NA,15.96,2009 est.,cement quarrying textiles soap olive-wood carvings and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in the settlements and industrial centers,,,11.5,2008,,,.ps; note - same as Gaza Strip,,,,,,,350400,2007,0.71,2009 est.,355500,2007,30.0,2008,32 00 N 35 15 E,3.7,2009 est.,0.0,2008,8.0,2007 est.,"West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a ""seam line"" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew from four settlements in the northern West Bank in August 2005; since 1948 about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires supervise armistice agreements prevent isolated incidents from escalating and assist other UN personnel in the region",5860,NA,,,Middle East,Middle East west of Jordan,conventional long form: none conventional short form: West Bank,0.0,NA,,,,,28745.0,2009 est.,,,,,$ 1 300 000 000,2007 est.,$ 339 000 000,2006,,,20.5,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,,3.56,NA,17.0,NA,$ 2 475 000 000,31 December 2007,,,2,2008,13.0,2006,46.0,2007 est.,,,,,,,,The September 1993 Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements provided for a transitional period of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Under a series of agreements signed between May 1994 and September 1999 Israel transferred to the Palestinian Authority (PA) security and civilian responsibility for Palestinian-populated areas of the West Bank and Gaza. Negotiations to determine the permanent status of the West Bank and Gaza stalled following the outbreak of an intifada in September 2000 as Israeli forces reoccupied most Palestinian-controlled areas. In April 2003 the Quartet (US EU UN and Russia) presented a roadmap to a final settlement of the conflict by 2005 based on reciprocal steps by the two parties leading to two states Israel and a democratic Palestine. The proposed date for a permanent status agreement was postponed indefinitely due to violence and accusations that both sides had not followed through on their commitments. Following Palestinian leader Yasir ARAFAT's death in late 2004 Mahmud ABBAS was elected PA president in January 2005. A month later Israel and the PA agreed to the Sharm el-Sheikh Commitments in an effort to move the peace process forward. In September 2005 Israel unilaterally withdrew all its settlers and soldiers and dismantled its military facilities in the Gaza Strip and withdrew settlers and redeployed soldiers from four small northern West Bank settlements. Nonetheless Israel controls maritime airspace and most access to the Gaza Strip. A November 2005 PA-Israeli agreement authorized the reopening of the Rafah border crossing between the Gaza Strip and Egypt under joint PA and Egyptian control. In January 2006 the Islamic Resistance Movement HAMAS won control of the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC). The international community refused to accept the HAMAS-led government because it did not recognize Israel would not renounce violence and refused to honor previous peace agreements between Israel and the PA. HAMAS took control of the PA government in March 2006 but President ABBAS had little success negotiating with HAMAS to present a political platform acceptable to the international community so as to lift economic sanctions on Palestinians. The PLC was unable to convene throughout most of 2006 as a result of Israel's detention of many HAMAS PLC members and Israeli-imposed travel restrictions on other PLC members. Violent clashes took place between Fatah and HAMAS supporters in the Gaza Strip in 2006 and early 2007 resulting in numerous Palestinian deaths and injuries. ABBAS and HAMAS Political Bureau Chief MISHAL in February 2007 signed the Mecca Agreement in Saudi Arabia that resulted in the formation of a Palestinian National Unity Government (NUG) headed by HAMAS member Ismail HANIYA. However fighting continued in the Gaza Strip and in June 2007 HAMAS militants succeeded in a violent takeover of all military and governmental institutions in the Gaza Strip. ABBAS dismissed the NUG and through a series of presidential decrees formed a PA government in the West Bank led by independent Salam FAYYAD. HAMAS rejected the NUG's dismissal and has called for resuming talks with Fatah but ABBAS has ruled out negotiations until HAMAS agrees to a return of PA control over the Gaza Strip and recognizes the FAYYAD-led government. FAYYAD and his PA government initiated a series of security and economic reforms to improve conditions in the West Bank. ABBAS participated in talks with Israel's Prime Minister OLMERT and secured the release of some Palestinian prisoners and previously withheld customs revenue. During a November 2007 international meeting in Annapolis Maryland ABBAS and OLMERT agreed to resume peace negotiations with the goal of reaching a final peace settlement.,15.0,June 2008,olives fruit vegetables limestone,7.73,31 December 2006,3.66,July 2009 est.,,,$ 6 641 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,,olives citrus vegetables; beef dairy products,,25.44,2009 est.,,,$ 1 149 000 000,2006,temperate; temperature and precipitation vary with altitude warm to hot summers cool to mild winters,food consumer goods construction materials,,2461267,July 2009 est.,noun: NA adjective: NA,arable land,0.0,2009 est.,landlocked; highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal aquifers; there are about 340 Israeli civilian sites - including 100 small outpost communities in the West Bank and 29 sites in East Jerusalem (July 2008 est.),,The West Bank - the larger of the two areas comprising the Palestinian Authority (PA) - has experienced a general decline in economic conditions since the second intifada began in September 2000. The downturn has been largely a result of Israeli closure policies - the imposition of closures and access restrictions in response to security concerns in Israel - which disrupted labor and trading relationships. In 2001 and even more severely in 2002 Israeli military measures in PA areas resulted in the destruction of capital the disruption of administrative structures and widespread business closures. International aid of at least $1.14 billion to the West Bank and Gaza Strip in 2004 prevented the complete collapse of the economy and allowed some reforms in the government's financial operations. In 2005 high unemployment and limited trade opportunities - due to continued closures both within the West Bank and externally - stymied growth. Israel's and the international community's financial embargo of the PA when HAMAS ran the PA during March 2006 - June 2007 interrupted the provision of PA social services and the payment of PA salaries. Since then the FAYYAD government in the West Bank has restarted salary payments and the provision of services but would be unable to operate absent high levels of international assistance.,1026000,2007,,,,,,,,8.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,3.3,NA,$ 368 200 000,31 December 2007,,,515102.0,2009 est.,,,,-408.0,NA,droughts,slightly smaller than Delaware,92.4,2004 est.,74.54,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,,,adequacy of fresh water supply; sewage treatment,,,1.0,2008,,,,,,,,2.4,2005,mostly rugged dissected upland some vegetation in west but barren in east,general assessment: NA domestic: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for fixed line services; the Palestinian JAWAL company provides cellular services international: country code - 970 (2004),3.22,2009 est.,16.3,2008 est.,,,,$ 1 300 000 000,2006,5147,2006,2.18,2009 est.,0.8,2008 est.,,,$ 11 950 000 000,2008 est.,,$ 2 900,2008 est.,,
Macau,337400,2008 est.,Court of Final Appeal in Macau Special Administrative Region,0.0,2005,0.34,NA,3.22,2009 est.,tourism gambling clothing textiles electronics footwear toys,,,6.2,December 2008,1.3,2001 census,.mo,,,,,,,177851,2008,0.88,2009 est.,300000,2007,1.0,2008,22 10 N 113 33 E,7.7,2009 est.,0.0,2008,0.1,2007 est.,none,28,NA,,,Southeast Asia,Eastern Asia bordering the South China Sea and China,conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region conventional short form: Macau local long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese) local short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese),41.0,NA,4.7,2008,"Basic Law approved on 31 March 1993 by China's National People's Congress is Macau's ""mini-constitution""",none (special administrative region of China),4052.0,2009 est.,,,0,2008 est.,$ 0,2006,$ 2 000 000 000,2008 est.,0,2008,35.2,2009 est.,7942,2008 est.,5027,2008 est.,0,1 January 2008 est.,300000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President of China HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003) head of government: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 December 1999) cabinet: Executive Council consists of 1 government secretary 3 legislators 4 businessmen 1 pro-Beijing unionist and 1 pro-Beijing educator elections: chief executive chosen by a 300-member Election Committee for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 26 July 2009 (next to be held on in July 2014) election results: Edmund HO Hau-wah reelected with 296 votes in 2004 election; Fernando CHUI Sai-on elected in 2009 with 282 votes takes office on 20 December 2009,8.0,NA,5.7,2006 census,$ 2 300 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,4.0,2008,1,2008,14.0,2006,,,,,0.0,2008 est.,3311000000,2008 est.,,"Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987 Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China on 20 December 1999. In this agreement China promised that under its ""one country two systems"" formula China's socialist economic system would not be practiced in Macau and that Macau would enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.",2.1,2008 est.,clothing textiles footwear toys electronics machinery and parts,,,3.5,July 2009 est.,,,$ 22 040 000 000,2008 est.,$ 7 900 000 000,2007,$ 1 900 000 000,2007,none (special administrative region of the People's Republic of China),,,,,only 2% of land area is cultivated mainly by vegetable growers; fishing mostly for crustaceans is important; some of the catch is exported to Hong Kong,no regular military forces; defense is the responsibility of China (2009),8.88,2009 est.,2.4,2005,$ 2 900 000 000,2008,subtropical; marine with cool winters warm summers,raw materials and semi-manufactured goods consumer goods (foodstuffs beverages tobacco) capital goods mineral fuels and oils,New Hope [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]; Development Union [KWAN Tsui-hang]; Macau Development Alliance [Angela LEONG On-kei]; Macau United Citizens' Association [CHAN Meng-kam]; New Democratic Macau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]; Union for Promoting Progress [LEONG Heng-teng] note: there is no political party ordinance so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies,559846,July 2009 est.,noun: Chinese adjective: Chinese,NEGL,14.56,2009 est.,essentially urban; an area of land reclaimed from the sea measuring 5.2 sq km and known as Cotai now connects the islands of Coloane and Taipa; the island area is connected to the mainland peninsula by three bridges,Civic Power [Agnes LAM Lok-fong]; Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO]; Macau Worker's Union [HO Heng-kuok]; Roman Catholic Church; Union for Democracy Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong],Macau's economy has enjoyed strong growth in recent years on the back of its expanding tourism and gaming sectors. After opening up its locally-controlled casino industry to foreign competition in 2001 the territory attracted tens of billions of dollars in foreign investment transforming Macao into the world's largest gaming center. By 2006 Macau's gaming revenue surpassed that of the Las Vegas strip and gaming-related taxes accounted for 75% of total government revenue. In 2008 government revenue from gaming was set to double 2006 collections. The expanding casino sector and China's decision beginning in 2002 to relax travel restrictions reenergized Macau's tourism industry. This city of just over 500 000 hosted more than 30 million visitors in 2008. Almost 60% of these came from mainland China despite increasing restrictions on travel to the SAR. Macau's traditional manufacturing industry has been in a slow decline since the termination of the Multi-Fiber Agreement in 2005. In 2008 exports of textiles and garments generated only $1.1 billion compared to $13.7 billion in gross gaming receipts. The Closer Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) between Macau and mainland China that came into effect on 1 January 2004 offers many Macau-made products tariff-free access to the mainland. Macau's currency the Pataca is closely tied to the Hong Kong dollar which is also freely accepted in the territory.,856200,2008,none (special administrative region of China),0,2008 est.,81900000,2008 est.,81600000,2008 est.,15.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,2215000000.0,2008 est.,0.7,NA,,,,,122962.0,2009 est.,National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China) 1 October (1949); note - 20 December 1999 is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day,,,0.0,NA,typhoons,less than one-sixth the size of Washington DC,91.3,2001 census,84.36,2009 est.,unicameral Legislative Assembly (29 seats; 12 members elected by popular vote 10 by indirect vote and 7 appointed by the chief executive; serve four-year terms) elections: last held 25 September 2005 (next to be held on 20 September 2009) election results: percent of vote - New Democratic Macau Association 18.8% Macau United Citizens' Association 16.6% Union for Development 13.3% Union for Promoting Progress 9.6% Macau Development Alliance 9.3% others 32.4%; seats by political group - New Democratic Macau Association 2 Macau United Citizens' Association 2 Union for Development 2 Union for Promoting Progress 2 Macau Development Alliance 1 New Hope 1 Convergence for Development 1 General Union for the Good of Macau 1; 10 seats filled by professional and business groups; seven members appointed by chief executive,based on Portuguese civil law system,IHO IMF IMO (associate) ISO (correspondent) UNESCO (associate) UNWTO (associate) UPU WCO WFTU WMO WTO,,,121825.0,2008 est.,,,party to: Marine Dumping (associate member) Ship Pollution (associate member),NA,,,1.0,2008,1106000000,2008 est.,,,Macau,18.0,NA,,,generally flat,general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services domestic: termination of monopoly over mobile-cellular telephone services in 2001 spurred sharp increase in subscriptions with mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 190 per 100 persons in 2008; fixed-line subscribership appears to have peaked and is now in decline international: country code - 853; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable network that provides links to Asia the Middle East and Europe; HF radiotelephone communication facility; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2008),0.91,2009 est.,3.0,2008,limited democracy,light green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white beneath an arc of five gold five-pointed stars: one large in the center of the arc and two smaller on either side; the lotus is the floral emblem of Macau the three petals represent the peninsula and two islands that make up Macau; the five stars echo those on the flag of China,transshipment point for drugs going into mainland China; consumer of opiates and amphetamines,$ 5 400 000 000,2008 est.,404,2008,2.0,2009 est.,15.0,2008,1.0,2007,$ 18 140 000 000,2008 est.,the US has no offices in Macau; US Consulate General in Hong Kong is accredited to Macau,$ 30 000,2007,0,2008 est.
Norfolk Island,,,Supreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions,0.0,2005,0.0,NA,,,tourism light industry ready mixed concrete,,,,,,,.nf,,,,,,,2532,2004,,,700,2002 est.,1.0,2005,29 02 S 167 57 E,15.9,2009 est.,0.0,2005,,,none,36,NA,,,Oceania,Oceania island in the South Pacific Ocean east of Australia,conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island conventional short form: Norfolk Island,32.0,NA,,,Norfolk Island Act of 1979 as amended in 2005,none (territory of Australia),,,,,,,,,$ 1 500 000,FY91/92,,,,,,,,,,,,,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by the Australian governor general head of government: Acting Administrator Owen WALSH (since October 2007) cabinet: Executive Council is made up of 4 of the 9 members of the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy and acts as an advisor to the administrator elections: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia,1.21,NA,,,,,,,1,2008,,,,,,,,,,,name: Kingston geographic coordinates: 29 03 S 167 58 E time difference: UTC+11.5 (16.5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Two British attempts at establishing the island as a penal colony (1788-1814 and 1825-55) were ultimately abandoned. In 1856 the island was resettled by Pitcairn Islanders descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions.,10.0,NA,postage stamps seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm small quantities of avocados,,,,,,,,,,,,,none (territory of Australia),,,,,Norfolk Island pine seed Kentia palm seed cereals vegetables fruit; cattle poultry,,,,,,$ 4 600 000,FY99/00,subtropical; mild little seasonal temperature variation,NA,none,2141,July 2009 est.,noun: Norfolk Islander(s) adjective: Norfolk Islander(s),fish,,,most of the 32 km coastline consists of almost inaccessible cliffs but the land slopes down to the sea in one small southern area on Sydney Bay where the capital of Kingston is situated,none,Tourism the primary economic activity has steadily increased over the years and has brought a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific islands. The agricultural sector has become self sufficient in the production of beef poultry and eggs.,0,2002,none (territory of Australia),,,,,,,3.2,2006 census,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Bounty Day (commemorates the arrival of Pitcairn Islanders) 8 June (1856),,,0.0,NA,typhoons (especially May to July),about 0.2 times the size of Washington DC,,,,,unicameral Legislative Assembly (9 seats; members elected by electors who have nine equal votes each but only four votes can be given to any one candidate; to serve three-year terms) elections: last held 21 March 2007 (next to be held by 28 March 2010) election results: seats - independents 9 (note - no political parties),based on the laws of Australia local ordinances and acts; English common law applies in matters not covered by either Australian or Norfolk Island law,UPU,12.0,NA,,,,,,NA,,,1.0,2008,,,,,none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade,18.0,NA,,,volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains,general assessment: adequate domestic: free local calls international: country code - 672; undersea coaxial cable links with Australia and New Zealand; satellite earth station - 1,,,,,NA,three vertical bands of green (hoist side) white and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band,,,,80,2008,0.01,2009 est.,,,,,,,none (territory of Australia),,,,
United Arab Emirates,3266000,2008 est.,Union Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president),0.77,2005,410.0,NA,12.7,2009 est.,petroleum and petrochemicals; fishing aluminum cement fertilizers commercial ship repair construction materials some boat building handicrafts textiles,,,20.0,2008 est.,,,.ae,0.18,2001 est.,,,,,1385000,2007,1.05,2009 est.,2300000,2007,15.0,2004,24 00 N 54 00 E,0.9,2009 est.,2.0,2004,1.5,2008 est.,boundary agreement was signed and ratified with Oman in 2003 for entire border including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclaves but contents of the agreement and detailed maps showing the alignment have not been published; Iran and UAE dispute Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island which Iran occupies,83600,NA,760.0,2003,Middle East,Middle East bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf between Oman and Saudi Arabia,conventional long form: United Arab Emirates conventional short form: none local long form: Al Imarat al Arabiyah al Muttahidah local short form: none former: Trucial Oman Trucial States abbreviation: UAE,1318.0,NA,4.5,2008,2 December 1971; made permanent in 1996,chief of mission: Ambassador Yousef bin Mani Saeed al-OTAIBA chancery: 3522 International Court NW Suite 400 Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 243-2400 FAX: [1] (202) 243-2432,23793.0,2009 est.,,,2948000,2007 est.,$ 126 900 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 210 500 000 000,2008 est.,2703000,2005 est.,30.1,2009 est.,381000,2006 est.,232300,2005,97800000000,1 January 2008 est.,6071000000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President KHALIFA bin Zayid al-Nuhayyan (since 3 November 2004) ruler of Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) (since 4 November 2004); Vice President and Prime Minister MUHAMMAD BIN RASHID al-Maktum (since 5 January 2006) head of government: Prime Minister and Vice President MUHAMMAD bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 5 January 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers SULTAN bin Zayid al-Nuhayyan (since 20 November 1990) and HAMDAN bin Zayid al-Nuhayyan (since 20 October 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president note: there is also a Federal Supreme Council (FSC) composed of the seven emirate rulers; the FSC is the highest constitutional authority in the UAE; establishes general policies and sanctions federal legislation; meets four times a year; Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) and Dubayy (Dubai) rulers have effective veto power elections: president and vice president elected by the FSC for five-year terms (no term limits) from among the seven FSC members; election last held 3 November 2004 upon the death of the UAE's Founding Father and first President ZAYID bin Sultan al Nuhayyan (next to be held in 2009); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president election results: KHALIFA bin Zayid al-Nuhayyan elected president by a unanimous vote of the FSC; MUHAMMAD bin Rashid al-Maktum unanimously affirmed vice president after the 2006 death of his brother Sheikh Maktum bin Rashid al-Maktum,3.67,NA,8.0,NA,$ 224 700 000 000,31 December 2007,4.8,2008,39,2008,11.0,2003,19.5,2003,,,0.0,2007 est.,57880000000,2006 est.,name: Abu Dhabi geographic coordinates: 24 28 N 54 22 E time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),The Trucial States of the Persian Gulf coast granted the UK control of their defense and foreign affairs in 19th century treaties. In 1971 six of these states - Abu Zaby 'Ajman Al Fujayrah Ash Shariqah Dubayy and Umm al Qaywayn - merged to form the United Arab Emirates (UAE). They were joined in 1972 by Ra's al Khaymah. The UAE's per capita GDP is on par with those of leading West European nations. Its generosity with oil revenues and its moderate foreign policy stance have allowed the UAE to play a vital role in the affairs of the region.,7.0,2000 est.,crude oil 45% natural gas reexports dried fish dates,,,2.11,July 2009 est.,90.0,2008,$ 270 000 000 000,2008 est.,$ 62 690 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 28 950 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,7 emirates (imarat singular - imarah); Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) 'Ajman Al Fujayrah Ash Shariqah (Sharjah) Dubayy (Dubai) Ra's al Khaymah Umm al Qaywayn (Quwayn),0.2,1997,2.3,2000,dates vegetables watermelons; poultry eggs dairy products; fish,United Arab Emirates Armed Forces: Army Navy (includes Marines) Air Force and Air Defense National Coast Guard (2008),16.02,2009 est.,1.3,2005,$ 48 310 000 000,2008 est.,desert; cooler in eastern mountains,machinery and transport equipment chemicals food,none; political parties are not allowed,4798491,July 2009 est.,noun: Emirati(s) adjective: Emirati,petroleum natural gas,22.98,2009 est.,strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz a vital transit point for world crude oil,NA,The UAE has an open economy with a high per capita income and a sizable annual trade surplus. Successful efforts at economic diversification have reduced the portion of GDP based on oil and gas output to 25%. Since the discovery of oil in the UAE more than 30 years ago the UAE has undergone a profound transformation from an impoverished region of small desert principalities to a modern state with a high standard of living. The government has increased spending on job creation and infrastructure expansion and is opening up utilities to greater private sector involvement. In April 2004 the UAE signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement with Washington and in November 2004 agreed to undertake negotiations toward a Free Trade Agreement with the US. The country's Free Trade Zones - offering 100% foreign ownership and zero taxes - are helping to attract foreign investors. Higher oil revenue strong liquidity housing shortages and cheap credit in 2005-07 led to a surge in asset prices (shares and real estate) and consumer inflation. The global financial crisis and the resulting tight international credit market and falling oil prices have already begun to deflate asset prices and will result in slower economic growth for 2009. Dependence on oil and a large expatriate workforce are significant long-term challenges. The UAE's strategic plan for the next few years focuses on diversification and creating more opportunities for nationals through improved education and increased private sector employment.,7595000,2007,2 December 1971 (from the UK),6848000000,2005 est.,1343000000,2005,43110000000,2006 est.,4.0,NA,$ 34 300 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,2.9,NA,$ 155 400 000 000,31 December 2007,,,788632.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 2 December (1971),58,2008,0.0,NA,frequent sand and dust storms,slightly smaller than Maine,77.9,2003 est.,76.11,2009 est.,unicameral Federal National Council (FNC) or Majlis al-Ittihad al-Watani (40 seats; 20 members appointed by the rulers of the constituent states 20 members elected to serve two-year terms) elections: elections for one half of the FNC (the other half remains appointed) held in the UAE on 18-20 December 2006; the new electoral college - a body of 6 689 Emiratis (including 1 189 women) appointed by the rulers of the seven emirates - were the only eligible voters and candidates; 456 candidates including 65 women ran for 20 contested FNC seats; one female from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi won a seat and 8 women were among the 20 appointed members note: reviews legislation but cannot change or veto,based on a dual system of Sharia and civil courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ABEDA AFESD AMF FAO G-77 GCC IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt (signatory) ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IPU ISO ITSO ITU LAS MIGA NAM OAPEC OIC OPCW OPEC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,884853.0,2008 est.,3.1,2005 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea,lack of natural freshwater resources compensated by desalination plants; desertification; beach pollution from oil spills,1.0,2008,2.0,2008,62760000000,2006 est.,,,Mina' Zayid (Abu Dhabi) Al Fujayrah Mina' Jabal 'Ali (Dubai) Mina' Rashid (Dubai) Mina' Saqr (Ra's al Khaymah) Khawr Fakkan (Sharjah),,,6.7,2008 est.,flat barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast desert wasteland; mountains in east,general assessment: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai domestic: microwave radio relay fiber optic and coaxial cable international: country code - 971; linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia,2.42,2009 est.,2.4,2001,federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE federal government and other powers reserved to member emirates,three equal horizontal bands of green (top) white and black with a wider vertical red band on the hoist side,the UAE is a drug transshipment point for traffickers given its proximity to Southwest Asian drug-producing countries; the UAE's position as a major financial center makes it vulnerable to money laundering; anti-money-laundering controls improving but informal banking remains unregulated,$ 145 800 000 000,2008 est.,4080,2008,3.69,2009 est.,7.7,2008 est.,5.0,2007,$ 184 600 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Richard G. OLSON Jr. embassy: Embassies District Plot 38 Sector W59-02 Street No. 4 Abu Dhabi mailing address: P. O. Box 4009 Abu Dhabi telephone: [971] (2) 414-2200 FAX: [971] (2) 414-2603 consulate(s) general: Dubai,$ 40 000,2008 est.,48790000000,2006 est.
Guam,,,Federal District Court (judge is appointed by the president); Territorial Superior Court (judges appointed for eight-year terms by the governor),,,,,,,US military tourism construction transshipment services concrete products printing and publishing food processing textiles,,,,,,,.gu,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,13 28 N 144 47 E,,,,,,,none,,,,,Oceania,Oceania island in the North Pacific Ocean about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines,conventional long form: Territory of Guam conventional short form: Guam local long form: Guahan local short form: Guahan,,,,,Organic Act of Guam 1 August 1950,none (territory of the US),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009) head of government: Governor Felix P. CAMACHO (since 6 January 2003); Lieutenant Governor Dr. Michael W. CRUZ (since 1 January 2007) cabinet: heads of executive departments; appointed by the governor with the consent of the Guam legislature elections: under the US Constitution residents of unincorporated territories such as Guam do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (can serve two consecutive terms then must wait a full term before running again); election last held 7 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2010) election results: Felix P. CAMACHO reelected governor; Dr. Michael W. CRUZ elected lieutenant governor; percent of vote - NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,name: Hagatna (Agana) geographic coordinates: 13 28 N 144 44 E time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Guam was ceded to the US by Spain in 1898. Captured by the Japanese in 1941 it was retaken by the US three years later. The military installation on the island is one of the most strategically important US bases in the Pacific.,,,transshipments of refined petroleum products construction materials fish food and beverage products,,,,,,,,,,,,,none (territory of the US),,,,,fruits copra vegetables; eggs pork poultry beef,,,,,,,,tropical marine; generally warm and humid moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season (January to June) rainy season (July to December); little seasonal temperature variation,petroleum and petroleum products food manufactured goods,Democratic Party [leader Michael PHILLIPS]; Republican Party [Philip J. FLORES] (controls the legislature),,,noun: Guamanian(s) (US citizens) adjective: Guamanian,aquatic wildlife (supporting tourism) fishing (largely undeveloped),,,largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago; strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean,Guam Federation of Teachers' Union; Guam Waterworks Authority Workers other: activists; indigenous groups,The economy depends largely on US military spending and tourism. Total US grants wage payments and procurement outlays amounted to $1.3 billion in 2004. Over the past 30 years the tourist industry has grown to become the largest income source following national defense. The Guam economy continues to experience expansion in both its tourism and military sectors.,,,none (territory of the US),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Discovery Day first Monday in March (1521),,,,,frequent squalls during rainy season; relatively rare but potentially destructive typhoons (June - December),three times the size of Washington DC,,,,,unicameral Legislature (15 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms) elections: last held 4 November 2008 (next to be held in November 2010) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 10 Republican Party 5 note: Guam elects one nonvoting delegate to the US House of Representatives; election last held 4 November 2008 (next to be held in November 2010); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 1,modeled on US; US federal laws apply,IOC SPC UPU,,,,,,,,extirpation of native bird population by the rapid proliferation of the brown tree snake an exotic invasive species,,,,,,,,,Apra Harbor,,,,,volcanic origin surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coralline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water) with steep coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north low hills in center mountains in south,general assessment: modern system integrated with US facilities for direct dialing including free use of 800 numbers domestic: modern digital system including cellular mobile service and local access to the Internet international: country code - 1-671; major landing point for submarine cables between Asia and the US (Guam is a trans-Pacific communications hub for major carriers linking the US and Asia); satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean),,,,,NA,territorial flag is dark blue with a narrow red border on all four sides; centered is a red-bordered pointed vertical ellipse containing a beach scene outrigger canoe with sail and a palm tree with the word GUAM superimposed in bold red letters; US flag is the national flag,,,,,,,,,,,,,,none (territory of the US),,,,
Kosovo,550000,2007 est.,Supreme Court; district courts; municipal courts note: the Kosovo Constitution dictates that the Supreme Court of Kosovo is the highest judicial authority and provides for a Kosovo Judicial Council (KJC) that proposes to the president candidates for appointment or reappointment as judges and prosecutors; the KJC is also responsible for decisions on the promotion and transfer of judges and disciplinary proceedings against judges; at least 15 percent of Supreme Court and district court judges shall be from non-majority communities,,,79.0,NA,,,mineral mining construction materials base metals leather machinery appliances,,,5.3,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,,106300,2006,0.74,2009 est.,,,,,42 35 N 21 00 E,6.6,2009 est.,,,20.0,2007 est.,Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaring itself as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008,10887,NA,,,Europe,Southeast Europe between Serbia and Macedonia,conventional long form: Republic of Kosovo conventional short form: Kosovo local long form: Republika e Kosoves (Republika Kosovo) local short form: Kosova (Kosovo),0.0,NA,,,adopted by the Kosovo Assembly on 9 April 2008; effective 15 June 2008,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Avni SPAHIU chancery: 900 19th Street NW Suite 400 Washington DC 2006 telephone: 202-436-3581,,,30.0,FY05/06,0,2007,,,,,,,25.9,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,chief of state: President Fatmir SEJDIU (since 10 February 2006) head of government: Prime Minister Hashim THACI (since 9 January 2008) cabinet: ministers; elected by the Kosovo Assembly elections: the president is elected for a five-year term by the Kosovo Assembly; election last held 9 January 2008 (next to be held by in 2013); the prime minister is elected by the Kosovo Assembly election results: Fatmir SEJDIU reelected president after three rounds; Hashim THACI elected prime minister by the Assembly,0.68,NA,5.0,NA,,,,,10,2008,,,37.0,2007 est.,,,,,4281000000,2006,name: Pristina (Prishtine Prishtina) geographic coordinates: 42 40 N 21 10 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,Ethnic Serbs migrated to the territories of modern Kosovo in the 7th century but did not fully incorporate them into the Serbian realm until the early 13th century. The defeat of the Serbian empire at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule during which large numbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosovo. By the end of the 19th century Albanians replaced the Serbs as the dominant ethnic group in Kosovo. Serbia reacquired control over Kosovo from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War of 1912. Kosovo became an autonomous province of Serbia with status almost equivalent to that of a republic under the 1974 Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Despite legislative concessions Albanian nationalism increased in the 1980s which led to riots and calls for Kosovo's independence. At the same time Serb nationalist leaders such as Slobodan MILOSEVIC exploited Kosovo Serb claims of maltreatment to secure votes from supporters many of whom viewed Kosovo as their cultural heartland. Under MILOSEVIC's leadership Serbia instituted a new constitution in 1989 that revoked Kosovo's status as an autonomous province of Serbia. Kosovo Albanian leaders responded in 1991 by organizing a referendum that declared Kosovo independent. Under MILOSEVIC Serbia carried out repressive measures against the Albanians in the early 1990s as the unofficial Kosovo government led by Ibrahim RUGOVA used passive resistance in an attempt to try to gain international assistance and recognition of an independent Kosovo. Albanians dissatisfied with RUGOVA's passive strategy in the 1990s created the Kosovo Liberation Army and launched an insurgency. Starting in 1998 Serbian military police and paramilitary forces conducted a counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians. International attempts to mediate the conflict failed and MILOSEVIC's rejection of a proposed settlement led to a three-month NATO bombing campaign against Serbia beginning in March 1999 that forced Serbia to agree to withdraw its military and police forces from Kosovo. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) placed Kosovo under a transitional administration the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) pending a determination of Kosovo's future status. A UN-led process began in late 2005 to determine Kosovo's final status. The negotiations ran in stages between 2006 and 2007 but ended without agreement between Belgrade and Pristina. On 17 February 2008 the Kosovo Assembly declared Kosovo independent. Since then over fifty countries have recognized Kosovo. Serbia continues to reject Kosovo's independence and subsequently has sought an advisory opinion with the backing of the General Assembly from the International Court of Justice on the legality under international law of Kosovo's independence declaration.,16.5,2007 est.,mining and processed metal products scrap metals leather products machinery appliances,,,,,,,$ 3 237 000 000,2007 est.,,,,,30 municipalities (komunat singular - komuna in Albanian; opstine singular - opstina in Serbian); Decan (Decani) Dragash (Dragas) Ferizaj (Urosevac) Fushe Kosove (Kosovo Polje) Gjakove (Dakovica) Gjilan (Gnjilane) Gllogovc/Drenas (Glogovac) Istog (Istok) Kacanik Kamenice/Dardana (Kamenica) Kline (Klina) Leposaviq (Leposavic) Lipjan (Lipljan) Malisheve (Malisevo) Mitrovice (Mitrovica) Novoberde (Novo Brdo) Obiliq (Obilic) Peje (Pec) Podujeve (Podujevo) Prishtine (Pristina) Prizren Rahovec (Orahovac) Shterpce (Strpce) Shtime (Stimlje) Skenderaj (Srbica) Suhareke (Suva Reka) Viti (Vitina) Vushtrri (Vucitrn) Zubin Potok Zvecan,,,,,wheat corn berries potatoes peppers,,,,,,$ 1 190 000 000,2007 est.,influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December,foodstuffs wood petroleum chemicals machinery and electrical equipment,Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosovo or PShDK [Tome MARKU]; Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Alliance for a New Kosovo or AKR [Behgjet PACOLLI]; Alliance of Independent Social Democrats of Kosovo and Metohija or SDSKIM [Slavisa PETKOVIC]; Autonomous Liberal Party of SLS [Slobodan PETROVIC]; Bosniak Vakat Coalition [Dzezair MURATI]; Citizens' Initiative of Gora or GIG [Murselj HALJILJI]; Council of Independent Social Democrats of Kosovo or SNSDKIM [Ljubisa ZIVIC]; Democratic Action Party or SDA [Numan BALIC]; Democratic Ashkali Party of Kosovo or PDAK; Democratic League of Dardania or LDD [Nexhat DACI]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Fatmir SEJDIU]; Democratic Party of Ashkali of Kosovo or PDAK [Sabit RAHMANI]; Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Democratic Party Vatan [Sadik IDRIZI]; Democratic Union of Ashkalis or BDA [Sabit RRAHMANI]; Justice Party or PD [Sylejman QERKEZI]; Kosovo Democratic Turkish Party of KDTP [Mahir YAGCILAR]; Liberal Party of Kosovo or PLK [Gjergi DEDAJ]; New Democratic Initiative of Kosovo or IRDK [Xhevdet NEZIRAJ]; New Democratic Party or ND [Branislav GRBIC]; New Kosovo Alliance or AKR [Behxhet PACOLLI]; Popular Movement of Kosovo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]; Reform Party Ora [Teuta SAHATCIA]; Serb National Party or SNS [Mihailo SCEPANOVIC]; Serbian Kosovo and Metohija Party or SKMS [Dragisa MIRIC]; Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohija [Oliver IVANOVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Kosovo or PSDK [Agim CEKU]; United Roma Party of Kosovo or PREBK [Haxhi Zylfi MERXHA],1804838,July 2009 est.,noun: Kosovar (Albanian) Kosovac (Serbian) adjective: Kosovar (Albanian) Kosovski (Serbian) note: Kosovan a neutral term is sometimes also used as a noun or adjective,nickel lead zinc magnesium lignite kaolin chrome bauxite,,,,Council for the Defense of Human Rights and Freedom (human rights); Humanitarian Law Centre (human rights); Movement for Self-Determination; Serb National Council (SNV),Over the past few years Kosovo's economy has shown significant progress in transitioning to a market-based system and maintaining macroeconomic stability but it is still highly dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. Remittances from the diaspora - located mainly in Germany and Switzerland - are estimated to account for about 15% of GDP and donor-financed activities and aid for another 15%. Kosovo's citizens are the poorest in Europe with an average annual per capita income of only $2 300. Unemployment around 40% of the population is a significant problem that encourages outward migration and black market activity. Most of Kosovo's population lives in rural towns outside of the capital Pristina. Inefficient near-subsistence farming is common - the result of small plots limited mechanization and lack of technical expertise. With international assistance Kosovo has been able to privatize 50% of its state-owned enterprises (SOEs) by number and over 90% of SOEs by value. Minerals and metals - including lignite lead zinc nickel chrome aluminum magnesium and a wide variety of construction materials - once formed the backbone of industry but output has declined because of ageing equipment and insufficient investment. A limited and unreliable electricity supply due to technical and financial problems is a major impediment to economic development. Kosovo's Ministry of Energy and Mining has solicited expressions of interest from private investors to develop a new power plant in order to address Kosovo and the region's unmet and growing demands for power. The official currency of Kosovo is the euro but the Serbian dinar is also used in Serb enclaves. Kosovo's tie to the euro has helped keep core inflation low. Kosovo has one of the most open economies in the region and continues to work with the international community on measures to improve the business environment and attract foreign investment.,562000,2006,17 February 2008 (from Serbia),,,,,0,2007,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,388848.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 17 February (2008),,,297.0,NA,,slightly larger than Delaware,91.9,2007 Census,,,unicameral national Assembly (120 seats; 100 seats directly elected 10 seats guaranteed for ethnic Serbs 10 seats guaranteed for other ethnic minorities; to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 17 November 2007 (next to be held in 2011) election results: percent of vote by party - PDK 34.3% LDK 22.6% AKR 12.3% LDD 10.0% AAK 9.6% other 11.2%; seats by party - PDK 37 LDK 25 AKR 13 LDD 11 AAK 10 other 4,evolving legal system based on terms of UN Special Envoy Martti AHTISAARI's Plan for Kosovo's supervised independence,ITUC WFTU,,,,,,,,,4.0,2008,1.0,2008,832000000,2006,430,2007,,18.0,NA,,,flat fluvial basin with an elevation of 400-700 m above sea level surrounded by several high mountain ranges with elevations of 2 000 to 2 500 m,,,,40.0,2007 est.,republic,centered on a dark blue field is the geographical shape of Kosovo in a gold color surmounted by six white five-pointed stars - each representing one of the major ethnic groups of Kosovo - arrayed in a slight arc,,,,1924,2006,,,5.1,2007 est.,2.0,2008,$ 5 000 000 000,2007 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Tina KAIDANOW embassy: Arberia/Dragodan Nazim Hikmet 30 Pristina Kosovo mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [381] 38 59 59 3000 FAX: [381] 38 549 890,$ 2 300,2007 est.,0,2007
India,523500000,2008 est.,"Supreme Court (one chief justice and 25 associate justices are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65 or are removed for ""proved misbehavior"")",2.8,2005,605.0,NA,30.15,2009 est.,textiles chemicals food processing steel transportation equipment cement mining petroleum machinery software,14500,2008,8.3,2008 est.,1.2,2001 census,.in,0.3,2007 est.,2400000,2007 est.,310000,2001 est.,37750000,2009,0.9,2009 est.,80000000,2007,562.0,1997,20 00 N 77 00 E,5.3,2009 est.,68.0,1998,17.6,2008 est.,since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005 consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged militarized boundary regional nuclear proliferation Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan and other matters continue; various talks and confidence-building measures have cautiously begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin) India (Jammu and Kashmir) and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India and Pakistan have maintained the 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; discussions with Bangladesh remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary to exchange territory for 51 Bangladeshi exclaves in India and 111 Indian exclaves in Bangladesh to allocate divided villages and to stop illegal cross-border trade migration violence and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesh protests India's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the border; dispute with Bangladesh over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; India seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Burma to keep Indian Nagaland and Assam separatists from hiding in remote areas along the borders; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal,3287263,NA,558080.0,2003,Asia,Southern Asia bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal between Burma and Pakistan,conventional long form: Republic of India conventional short form: India local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya local short form: India/Bharat,7000.0,NA,4.1,2008,26 January 1950; amended many times,chief of mission: Ambassador Meera SHANKAR chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000 FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351 consulate(s) general: Chicago Houston New York San Francisco,10820590.0,2009 est.,36.8,2004,880500,2007 est.,$ 166 400 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 176 400 000 000,2008 est.,450700,2005 est.,25.3,2009 est.,2722000,2007 est.,2159000,2005 est.,5700000000,1 January 2008 est.,1075000000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Pratibha PATIL (since 25 July 2007); Vice President Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since 22 May 2004) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held in July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held in August 2007 (next to be held August 2012); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held April - May 2004 (next to be held no later than May 2009) election results: Pratibha PATIL elected president; percent of vote - Pratibha PATIL 65.8% Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT - 34.2%,41.49,NA,3.0,2000,$ 650 000 000 000,31 December 2008,4.1,2008,345,2008,9.0,2005,25.0,2007 est.,3.6,2005,378000000.0,2006 est.,517200000000,2006 est.,name: New Delhi geographic coordinates: 28 36 N 77 12 E time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science art and culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkic in the 12th were followed by those of European traders beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons testing in 1998 caused Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output India faces pressing problems such as significant overpopulation environmental degradation extensive poverty and widespread corruption.,12.0,2003,petroleum products textile goods gems and jewelry engineering goods chemicals leather manufactures,,,6.23,July 2009 est.,2.0,2008,$ 1 237 000 000 000,2008 est.,$ 144 200 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 58 180 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands* Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chandigarh* Chhattisgarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli* Daman and Diu* Delhi* Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Lakshadweep* Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Puducherry* Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal,1907.8,1999,585.0,2000,rice wheat oilseed cotton jute tea sugarcane potatoes; onions dairy products sheep goats poultry; fish,Army Navy (includes naval air arm) Air Force (Bharatiya Vayu Sena) Coast Guard (2009),21.76,2009 est.,3.2,2005,$ 126 700 000 000,2008 est.,varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north,crude oil machinery gems fertilizer chemicals,All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA]; All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [Kumari MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath SINGH]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of India or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI-M [Prakash KARAT]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADAV]; Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [Shibu SOREN]; Left Front (an alliance of Indian leftist parties); Lok Jan Shakti Party or LJSP [Ram Vilas PASWAN]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Pattali Makkal Katchi or PMK [S. RAMADOSS]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; note - India has dozens of national and regional political parties; only parties or coalitions with four or more seats in the People's Assembly are listed,1166079217,July 2009 est.,noun: Indian(s) adjective: Indian,coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world) iron ore manganese mica bauxite titanium ore chromite natural gas diamonds petroleum limestone arable land,-0.05,2009 est.,dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga third tallest mountain in the world lies on the border with Nepal,All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group); Bajrang Dal (religious organization); National Socialist Council of Nagaland in the northeast (separatist group); Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (religious organization); Vishwa Hindu Parishad (religious organization other: numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy,India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming modern agriculture handicrafts a wide range of modern industries and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth accounting for more than half of India's output with less than one third of its labor force. Slightly more than half of the work force is in agriculture leading the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government to articulate a rural economic development program that includes creating basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. The government has reduced controls on foreign trade and investment. Higher limits on foreign direct investment were permitted in a few key sectors such as telecommunications. However tariff spikes in sensitive categories including agriculture and incremental progress on economic reforms still hinder foreign access to India's vast and growing market. Privatization of government-owned industries remains stalled and continues to generate political debate; populist pressure from within the UPA government had restrained needed initiatives. The economy has posted an average growth rate of more than 7% in the decade since 1997 reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. India achieved 9.6% GDP growth in 2006 9.0% in 2007 and 6.6% in 2008 significantly expanding manufactures through late 2008. India also is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Strong growth combined with easy consumer credit a real estate boom and fast-rising commodity prices fueled inflation concerns from mid-2006 to August 2008. Rising tax revenues from better tax administration and economic expansion helped New Delhi make progress in reducing its fiscal deficit for three straight years before skyrocketing global commodity prices more than doubled the cost of government energy and fertilizer subsidies. The ballooning subsidies amidst slowing growth brought the return of a large fiscal deficit in 2008. In the long run the huge and growing population is the fundamental social economic and environmental problem.,362300000,2009,15 August 1947 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,10000000000,2007 est.,41700000000,2007 est.,0.1,2001 census,$ -37 510 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,3189000000.0,2006 est.,2.4,NA,$ 769 300 000 000,31 December 2007,,,237042868.0,2009 est.,Republic Day 26 January (1950),501,2008,0.0,NA,droughts; flash floods as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes,slightly more than one-third the size of the US,61.0,2001 census,69.89,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members up to 12 of whom are appointed by the president the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) elections: People's Assembly - last held in five phases 16 22-23 30 April and 7 13 May 2009 (next must be held by May 2014) election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - INC 206 BJP 116 SP 23 BSP 21 JD (U) 20 AITC 19 DMK 18 CPI-M 16 BJD 14 SS 11 AIADMK 9 NCP 9 other 61 vacant 2,based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims Christians and Hindus,ADB AfDB (nonregional member) ARF ASEAN (dialogue partner) BIMSTEC BIS C CERN (observer) CP EAS FAO G-15 G-20 G-24 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC LAS (observer) MIGA MONUC NAM OAS (observer) OPCW PCA PIF (partner) SAARC SACEP SCO (observer) UN UNCTAD UNDOF UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL UNITAR UNMIS UNMIT UNOCI UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,283047141.0,2008 est.,2.5,2006,party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources,1.0,2008,16.0,2008,665300000000,2007 est.,63327,2007,Chennai Haldia Jawaharal Nehru Kandla Kolkata (Calcutta) Mormugao Mumbai (Bombay) New Mangalore Vishakhapatnam,18.0,NA,4.8,2008 est.,upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south flat to rolling plain along the Ganges deserts in west Himalayas in north,general assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid growth; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country with services primarily concentrated in the urban areas; steady improvement is taking place with the recent admission of private and private-public investors but combined fixed and mobile telephone density remains low at about 35 for each 100 persons nationwide and much lower for persons in rural areas; extremely rapid growth in cellular service with modest declines in fixed lines domestic: mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT) with 6 satellites supporting 33 000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT) international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems including Sea-Me-We-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay) Sea-Me-We-4 with a landing site at Chennai Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay) South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras) and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras) provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay) New Delhi Kolkata (Calcutta) Chennai (Madras) Jalandhar Kanpur Gandhinagar Hyderabad and Ernakulam (2008),2.72,2009 est.,6.8,2008 est.,federal republic,three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top) white and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Niger which has a small orange disk centered in the white band,world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production,$ 305 500 000 000,2008 est.,3316452,2006,1.55,2009 est.,6.6,2008 est.,30.0,2007,$ 3 267 000 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires A. Peter BURLEIGH embassy: Shantipath Chanakyapuri New Delhi 110021 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [91] (011) 2419-8000 FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017 consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras) Kolkata (Calcutta) Mumbai (Bombay),$ 2 800,2008 est.,31700000000,2007 est.
Azerbaijan,5782000,2008 est.,Supreme Court,2.61,2005,9.0,NA,54.6,2009 est.,petroleum and natural gas petroleum products oilfield equipment; steel iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles,,,20.8,2008 est.,1.0,1999 census,.az,0.2,2007 est.,7800,2007 est.,100,2007 est.,1254000,2007,0.58,2009 est.,1036000,2007,2.0,1997,40 30 N 47 30 E,6.7,2009 est.,1.0,1998,6.0,2008 est.,Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan; over 800 000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230 000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan into Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan Kazakhstan and Russia have ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance while Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbaijan's hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian; Azerbaijan and Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas,86600,NA,14550.0,2003,Asia,Southwestern Asia bordering the Caspian Sea between Iran and Russia with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range,conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan conventional short form: Azerbaijan local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi local short form: Azarbaycan former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic,0.0,NA,4.5,2008,adopted 12 November 1995; modified by referendum 24 August 2002,chief of mission: Ambassador Yashar ALIYEV chancery: 2741 34th Street NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500 FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911 Consulate(s) general: Los Angeles,85344.0,2009 est.,36.5,2001,1099000,2008 est.,$ 2 997 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 30 590 000 000,2008 est.,795600,2007 est.,28.2,2009 est.,160000,2007 est.,4267,2005,7000000000,1 January 2008 est.,849500000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003) head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 October 2008 (next to be held in October 2013); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 89% Igbal AGHAZADE 2.9% five other candidates with smaller percentages note: several political parties boycotted the election due to unfair conditions; OSCE observers concluded that the election did not meet international standards,0.82,NA,1.5,NA,,,4.9,2008,35,2008,11.0,2006,24.0,2005 est.,6.1,2005,800000000.0,2007 est.,27500000000,2007 est.,name: Baku (Baki Baky) geographic coordinates: 40 23 N 49 52 E time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Muslim population - was briefly independent from 1918 to 1920; it regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh region (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and must support some 600 000 internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the government has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced in recent years the promise of widespread wealth from development of Azerbaijan's energy sector remains largely unfulfilled.,12.1,2005,oil and gas 90% machinery cotton foodstuffs,19.13,31 December 2007,8.3,July 2009 est.,1.0,2008,$ 53 260 000 000,2008 est.,$ 7 844 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 5 232 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular) 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular) 1 autonomous republic (muxtar respublika) rayons: Abseron Rayonu Agcabadi Rayonu Agdam Rayonu Agdas Rayonu Agstafa Rayonu Agsu Rayonu Astara Rayonu Balakan Rayonu Barda Rayonu Beylaqan Rayonu Bilasuvar Rayonu Cabrayil Rayonu Calilabad Rayonu Daskasan Rayonu Davaci Rayonu Fuzuli Rayonu Gadabay Rayonu Goranboy Rayonu Goycay Rayonu Haciqabul Rayonu Imisli Rayonu Ismayilli Rayonu Kalbacar Rayonu Kurdamir Rayonu Lacin Rayonu Lankaran Rayonu Lerik Rayonu Masalli Rayonu Neftcala Rayonu Oguz Rayonu Qabala Rayonu Qax Rayonu Qazax Rayonu Qobustan Rayonu Quba Rayonu Qubadli Rayonu Qusar Rayonu Saatli Rayonu Sabirabad Rayonu Saki Rayonu Salyan Rayonu Samaxi Rayonu Samkir Rayonu Samux Rayonu Siyazan Rayonu Susa Rayonu Tartar Rayonu Tovuz Rayonu Ucar Rayonu Xacmaz Rayonu Xanlar Rayonu Xizi Rayonu Xocali Rayonu Xocavand Rayonu Yardimli Rayonu Yevlax Rayonu Zangilan Rayonu Zaqatala Rayonu Zardab Rayonu cities: Ali Bayramli Sahari Baki Sahari Ganca Sahari Lankaran Sahari Mingacevir Sahari Naftalan Sahari Saki Sahari Sumqayit Sahari Susa Sahari Xankandi Sahari Yevlax Sahari autonomous republic: Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi,30.3,1997,17.25,2000,cotton grain rice grapes fruit vegetables tea tobacco; cattle pigs sheep goats,Army Navy Air and Air Defense Forces (2008),17.62,2009 est.,2.1,2006,$ 12 690 000 000,2008 est.,dry semiarid steppe,machinery and equipment oil products foodstuffs metals chemicals,"Azadliq (Freedom) coalition (Popular Front Party Liberal Party Citizens' Development Party); Azerbaijan Democratic Party or ADP [Sardar JALALOGLU]; Azerbaijan Democratic Reforms Party (ADRP) Youth Movement [Ramin HAJILI]; Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF now split in two [Ali KARIMLI leader of ""Reform"" APF party; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU leader of ""Classic"" APF party]; Azerbaijan Public Forum [Eldar NAMAZOV]; Citizens' Development Party [Ali ALIYEV]; Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Dalga Youth Movement [Vafa JAFAROVA]; Green Party [Mais GULALIYEV and Tarana MAMMADOVA]; Hope (Umid) Party [Iqbal AGAZADE]; Ireli Youth Movement [Jeyhun OSMANLI Roya TALIBOVA Farhad MAMMADOV Elnara GARIBOVA Elnur MAMMADOV Ziya ALIYEV]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA]; Magam Youth Movement [Emin HUSEYNOV]; Motherland Party [Fazail AGAMALI]; Musavat (Equality) [Isa GAMBAR chairman]; Musavat Party Youth Movement [Elnur MAMMADLI]; National Democratic Party or Grey Wolves (Nationalist Pan-Turkic) [Iskender HAMIDOV]; Open Society Party [Rasul GULIYEV in exile in the US]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Ayaz RUSTAMOV]; Popular Front Party Youth Movement [Seymur KHAZIYEV]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV (in exile)]; Turkish Nationalist Party [Vugar BAYTURAN]; United Azerbaijan Party [Karrar ABILOV]; United Azerbaijan National Unity Party [Hajibaba AZIMOV]; United Party [Tahir KARIMLI]; Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party [President Ilham ALIYEV]; Yeni Azerbaijan Party Youth Movement [Ramil HASANOV]; Yox (No) Youth Movement [Ali ISMAYILOV] note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties;",8238672,July 2009 est.,noun: Azerbaijani(s) adjective: Azerbaijani,petroleum natural gas iron ore nonferrous metals bauxite,-1.69,2009 est.,both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked,Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (self-proclaimed); Karabakh Liberation Organization; Sadval Lezgin movement; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani Forces or UPAF,Azerbaijan's high economic growth during 2006-08 is attributable to large and growing oil exports but the non-energy sector also featured double-digit growth in 2008 spurred by growth in the construction banking and real estate sectors. However the current global economic slowdown presents some challenges for the Azerbaijani economy as oil prices have plummeted since mid-2008 and local banks face a more uncertain international financial environment. Azerbaijan's oil production declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms which have committed $60 billion to long-term oilfield development should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company began in November 1997. A consortium of Western oil companies built a $4 billion pipeline from Baku to Turkey's Mediterranean port of Ceyhan which will pump 1.2 million barrels a day from a large offshore field when at full capacity. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy but its considerable energy resources brighten its medium-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress: the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region pervasive corruption and potential for a sharp downturn in the construction and real estate sectors. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices the location of new oil and gas pipelines in the region and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its energy wealth to promote sustainable growth in non-energy sectors of the economy and spur employment.,4300000,2007,30 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union),0,2007 est.,0,2005,9770000000,2007 est.,1.8,NA,$ 16 450 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,500000000.0,2007 est.,1.0,NA,$ 5 726 000 000,31 December 2007,,,1727464.0,2009 est.,Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan 28 May (1918),89,2008,-28.0,NA,droughts,slightly smaller than Maine,98.8,1999 census,66.66,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 6 November 2005 (next to be held in November 2010) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Yeni 58 Azadliq coalition 8 CSP 2 Motherland 2 other parties with single seats 9 independents 42 undetermined 4,based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ADB BSEC CE CIS EAPC EBRD ECO FAO GCTU GUAM IAEA IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM (observer) OAS (observer) OIC OPCW OSCE PFP SECI (observer) UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),,,2278888.0,2008 est.,2.6,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air soil and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills from the use of DDT pesticide and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton,1.0,2008,2.0,2008,23800000000,2007 est.,2122,2008,Baku (Baki),18.0,NA,6.0,2008 est.,large flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea,general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 15 main lines per 100 persons is low; mobile-cellular penetration is increasing and is currently about 50 telephones per 100 persons domestic: fixed-line telephony and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecommunications monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market with three providers in 2006; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan international: country code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2007),2.04,2009 est.,0.8,2008 est.,republic,three equal horizontal bands of blue (top) red and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band,limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe,$ 7 575 000 000,2008 est.,59141,2004,0.76,2009 est.,11.6,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 73 650 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Anne E. DERSE embassy: 83 Azadlig Prospecti Baku AZ1007 mailing address: American Embassy Baku US Department of State 7050 Baku Place Washington DC 20521-7050 telephone: [994] (12) 4980-335 through 337 FAX: [994] (12) 4656-671,$ 9 000,2008 est.,9770000000,2007 est.
Lesotho,854600,2007 est.,High Court (chief justice appointed by the monarch acting on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts; customary or traditional court,0.13,2005,909.0,NA,77.4,2009 est.,food beverages textiles apparel assembly handicrafts construction tourism,,,10.7,2008 est.,,,.ls,23.2,2007 est.,270000,2007 est.,18000,2007 est.,53100,2006,0.66,2009 est.,70000,2007,1.0,2007,29 30 S 28 30 E,5.0,2009 est.,1.0,2007,15.1,2008 est.,none,30355,NA,30.0,2003,Africa,Southern Africa an enclave of South Africa,conventional long form: Kingdom of Lesotho conventional short form: Lesotho local long form: Kingdom of Lesotho local short form: Lesotho former: Basutoland,0.0,NA,5.2,2008,2 April 1993,chief of mission: Ambassador David Mohlomi RANTEKOA chancery: 2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 797-5533 through 5536 FAX: [1] (202) 234-6815,25964.0,2009 est.,63.2,1995,0,2007 est.,$ 619 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 953 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,21.4,2009 est.,1400,2006 est.,1500,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,"chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February 1995 while his father was in exile head of government: Prime Minister Pakalitha MOSISILI (since 23 May 1998) cabinet: Cabinet elections: according to the constitution the leader of the majority party in the Assembly automatically becomes prime minister; the monarch is hereditary but under the terms of the constitution that came into effect after the March 1993 election the monarch is a ""living symbol of national unity"" with no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to depose the monarch determine who is next in the line of succession or who shall serve as regent in the event that the successor is not of mature age",6.36,NA,0.3,NA,,,1.5,2008,28,2008,10.0,2006,49.0,1999,1.0,2003,0.0,2007 est.,226000000,2006 est.,name: Maseru geographic coordinates: 29 19 S 27 29 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966. The Basuto National Party ruled for the first two decades. King MOSHOESHOE was exiled in 1990 but returned to Lesotho in 1992 and was reinstated in 1995. Constitutional government was restored in 1993 after seven years of military rule. In 1998 violent protests and a military mutiny following a contentious election prompted a brief but bloody intervention by South African and Botswanan military forces under the aegis of the Southern African Development Community. Subsequent constitutional reforms restored relative political stability. Peaceful parliamentary elections were held in 2002 but the National Assembly elections of February 2007 were hotly contested and aggrieved parties continue to periodically demonstrate their distrust of the results.,14.0,2002 est.,manufactures 75% (clothing footwear road vehicles) wool and mohair food and live animals (2000),14.13,31 December 2007,22.2,July 2009 est.,,,$ 1 652 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,10 districts; Berea Butha-Buthe Leribe Mafeteng Maseru Mohale's Hoek Mokhotlong Qacha's Nek Quthing Thaba-Tseka,5.2,1987,0.05,2000,corn wheat pulses sorghum barley; livestock,Lesotho Defense Force (LDF): Army (includes Air Wing) (2008),24.14,2009 est.,13.0,2006,$ 758 700 000,2008 est.,temperate; cool to cold dry winters; hot wet summers,food; building materials vehicles machinery medicines petroleum products,Alliance of Congress Parties or ACP including the Lesotho People's Congress or LCP [Kelebone MAOPE] the Basotholand African Congress or BAC [Khauhelo RALITAPOLE] and a faction of the Basotho Congress Party or BCP [Ntsukunyane MPHANYA]; All Basotho Convention or ABC [Thomas THABANE]; Basotho Batho Democratic Party or BBDP; Basotho Congress Party or BCP; Basotho Democratic National Party or BDNP [Thabang NYEOE]; Basotho National Party or BNP [Maj. Gen. Justin Metsing LEKHANYA]; Basotholand African National Congress or BANC; Christian Democratic Party or CDP [Enerst RAMOKOENA]; Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD (the governing party) [Pakalitha MOSISILI]; Lesotho Workers Party or LWP [Macaefa BILLY]; National Independent Party or NIP [Anthony MANYELI],2130819,July 2009 est.,noun: Mosotho (singular) Basotho (plural) adjective: Basotho,water agricultural and grazing land diamonds sand clay building stone,-0.78,2009 est.,landlocked completely surrounded by South Africa; mountainous more than 80% of the country is 1 800 m above sea level,Media Institute of Southern Africa Lesotho chapter [Thabang MATJAMA] (pushes for media freedom),Small landlocked and mountainous Lesotho relies on remittances from miners employed in South Africa and customs duties from the Southern Africa Customs Union for the majority of government revenue. However the government has recently strengthened its tax system to reduce dependency on customs duties. Completion of a major hydropower facility in January 1998 permitted the sale of water to South Africa and generated royalties for Lesotho. Lesotho produces about 90% of its own electrical power needs. As the number of mineworkers has declined steadily over the past several years a small manufacturing base has developed based on farm products that support the milling canning leather and jute industries as well as a rapidly expanding apparel-assembly sector. The latter has grown significantly mainly due to Lesotho qualifying for the trade benefits contained in the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act. The economy is still primarily based on subsistence agriculture especially livestock although drought has decreased agricultural activity. The extreme inequality in the distribution of income remains a major drawback. Lesotho has signed an Interim Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF. In July 2007 Lesotho signed a Millennium Challenge Account Compact with the US worth $362.5 million.,456000,2007,4 October 1966 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,,,$ 111 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,50000000.0,2007 est.,3.5,NA,,,,,240868.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 4 October (1966),,,1400.0,NA,periodic droughts,slightly smaller than Maryland,84.8,2003 est.,40.38,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (33 members - 22 principal chiefs and 11 other members appointed by the ruling party) and the Assembly (120 seats 80 by popular vote and 40 by proportional vote; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms) elections: last held 17 February 2007 (next to be held in 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LCD 61 NIP 21 ABC 17 LWP 10 ACP 4 BNP 3 other 4,based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ACP AfDB AU C FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF Interpol IOC IPU ISO (subscriber) ITU MIGA NAM OPCW SACU SADC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,,,522485.0,2008 est.,2.6,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing severe soil erosion and soil exhaustion; desertification; Highlands Water Project controls stores and redirects water to South Africa,4.0,2008,1.0,2008,200000000,2006 est.,,,,18.0,NA,10.0,2008 est.,mostly highland with plateaus hills and mountains,general assessment: rudimentary system consisting of a modest but growing number of landlines a small microwave radio relay system and a small radiotelephone communication system; mobile-cellular telephone system is expanding domestic: privatized in 2001 Telecom Lesotho tasked with providing an additional 50 000 fixed-line connections within five years a target not met; mobile-cellular service is expanding with a subscribership approaching 25 per 100 persons; rural services are scant international: country code - 266; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007),3.06,2009 est.,45.0,2002,parliamentary constitutional monarchy,three horizontal stripes of blue (top) white and green in the proportions of 3:4:3; the colors represent rain peace and prosperity respectively; centered in the white stripe is a black Basotho hat representing the indigenous people; the flag was unfurled in October 2006 to celebrate 40 years of independence,,$ 1 882 000 000,2008 est.,7091,2003,0.12,2009 est.,6.8,2008 est.,,,$ 3 370 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Robert NOLAN embassy: 254 Kingsway Maseru West (Consular Section) mailing address: P. O. Box 333 Maseru 100 Lesotho telephone: [266] 22 312666 FAX: [266] 22 310116,$ 1 600,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,57520,2007 est.,Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (consisting of a High Court and Court of Appeals; based on Saint Lucia; two judges of the Supreme Court reside in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines),17.95,2005,0.0,NA,15.14,2009 est.,food processing cement furniture clothing starch,,,6.1,2007 est.,,,.vc,,,,,,,22800,2007,0.82,2009 est.,57000,2007,1.0,2004,13 15 N 61 12 W,7.8,2009 est.,0.0,2004,10.0,2001 est.,joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation a criterion under UNCLOS which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea,389,NA,10.0,2003,Central America and the Caribbean,Caribbean islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean north of Trinidad and Tobago,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,84.0,NA,5.2,2008,27 October 1979,chief of mission: Ambassador La Celia A. PRINCE chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW Washington DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 364-6730 FAX: [1] (202) 364-6736 consulate(s) general: New York,1009.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 223 000 000,2004,$ 193 000 000,2006,0,2005,28.9,2009 est.,1570,2006 est.,1460,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Fredrick Nathaniel BALLANTYNE (since 2 September 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Ralph E. GONSALVES (since 29 March 2001) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister,2.7,NA,2.0,NA,,,9.2,2008,6,2008,12.0,2005,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,120000000,2006 est.,name: Kingstown geographic coordinates: 13 09 N 61 14 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Resistance by native Caribs prevented colonization on St. Vincent until 1719. Disputed between France and the United Kingdom for most of the 18th century the island was ceded to the latter in 1783. Between 1960 and 1962 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was a separate administrative unit of the Federation of the West Indies. Autonomy was granted in 1969 and independence in 1979.,17.0,1980 est.,bananas eddoes and dasheen (taro) arrowroot starch; tennis racquets,8.8,31 December 2007,6.91,July 2009 est.,,,$ 597 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,6 parishes; Charlotte Grenadines Saint Andrew Saint David Saint George Saint Patrick,,,0.01,1995,bananas coconuts sweet potatoes spices; small numbers of cattle sheep pigs goats; fish,no regular military forces; Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force Coast Guard (2007),15.27,2009 est.,8.1,2005,$ 85 800 000,2000 est.,tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November),foodstuffs machinery and equipment chemicals and fertilizers minerals and fuels,New Democratic Party or NDP [Arnhim EUSTACE]; Unity Labor Party or ULP [Ralph GONSALVES] (formed by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party or SVLP and the Movement for National Unity or MNU),104574,July 2009 est.,noun: Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s) adjective: Saint Vincentian or Vincentian,hydropower cropland,-11.8,2009 est.,the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is comprised of 32 islands and cays,NA,Economic growth slowed in 2008 after reaching a 10-year high of nearly 7% in 2006 and will likely slow in 2009 with the global economic downturn though it will be above average for Latin America. Success of the economy hinges upon seasonal variations in agriculture tourism and construction activity as well as remittance inflows. Much of the workforce is employed in banana production and tourism but persistent high unemployment has prompted many to leave the islands. This lower-middle-income country is vulnerable to natural disasters - tropical storms wiped out substantial portions of crops in 1994 1995 and 2002. In 2007 the islands had more than 200 000 tourist arrivals mostly to the Grenadines. Saint Vincent is home to a small offshore banking sector and has moved to adopt international regulatory standards. The government's ability to invest in social programs and respond to external shocks is constrained by its high debt burden - 25% of current revenues are directed towards debt servicing. An agreement with Italy to write-off debt reduced the public debt-to-GDP ratio to about 70%. The GONSALVES administration is directing government resources to infrastructure projects including a new international airport that is expected to be completed in 2011.,104000,2007,27 October 1979 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,12.0,NA,$ -149 000 000,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,1.3,NA,$ 387 800 000,31 December 2007,,,22250.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 27 October (1979),525,2008,0.0,NA,hurricanes; Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint Vincent is a constant threat,twice the size of Washington DC,96.0,1970 est.,73.65,2009 est.,unicameral House of Assembly (21 seats 15 elected representatives and six appointed senators; representatives are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 7 December 2005 (next to be held in 2010) election results: percent of vote by party - ULP 55.3% NDP 44.7%; seats by party - ULP 12 NDP 3,based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP C Caricom CDB FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC ISO (subscriber) ITU ITUC MIGA NAM OAS OECS OPANAL OPCW UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WTO,12.0,NA,34373.0,2008 est.,,,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,pollution of coastal waters and shorelines from discharges by pleasure yachts and other effluents; in some areas pollution is severe enough to make swimming prohibitive,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,129000000,2006 est.,,,Kingstown,18.0,NA,,,volcanic mountainous,general assessment: adequate system domestic: islandwide fully automatic telephone system; VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the Grenadines; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 100 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 1-784; the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and Southern Caribbean fiber optic system (SCF) submarine cables carry international calls; connectivity also provided by VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados; SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and Saint Lucia; access to Intelsat earth station in Martinique through Saint Lucia,1.98,2009 est.,15.0,2001 est.,parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm,three vertical bands of blue (hoist side) gold (double width) and green; the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V pattern,transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; small-scale cannabis cultivation,$ 578 000 000,2006,829,2003,-0.34,2009 est.,5.0,2008 est.,,,$ 1 103 000 000,2008 est.,the US does not have an embassy in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,$ 10 500,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Kenya,17370000,2007 est.,Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court,0.97,2005,232.0,NA,54.7,2009 est.,small-scale consumer goods (plastic furniture batteries textiles clothing soap cigarettes flour) agricultural products horticulture oil refining; aluminum steel lead; cement commercial ship repair tourism,,,26.3,2008 est.,,,.ke,6.7,2003 est.,1200000,2003 est.,150000,2003 est.,264800,2007,0.84,2009 est.,3000000,2007,8.0,2008,1 00 N 38 00 E,2.6,2009 est.,6.0,2008,16.7,2007 est.,"Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to almost a quarter of a million refugees including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the ""Ilemi Triangle "" which Kenya has administered since colonial times",580367,NA,1030.0,2003,Africa,Eastern Africa bordering the Indian Ocean between Somalia and Tanzania,conventional long form: Republic of Kenya conventional short form: Kenya local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya local short form: Kenya former: British East Africa,536.0,NA,4.2,2008,12 December 1963; amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979 1982 1986 1988 1991 1992 1997 2001; note - a new draft constitution was defeated by popular referendum in 2005,chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Rateng Oginga OGEGO chancery: 2249 R Street NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101 FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles consulate(s): New York,408657.0,2009 est.,42.5,2008 est.,0,2008 est.,$ 7 084 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 4 958 000 000,2008 est.,5137,2005,18.7,2009 est.,65530,2006 est.,72780,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002); Vice President Stephene Kalonzo MUSYOKA (since 10 January 2008); head of government: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002); Vice President Stephene Kalonzo MUSYOKA (since 10 January 2008); note - the roles of the president and prime minister are not well defined at this juncture; constitutionally the president remains chief of state and head of government but the prime minister is charged with coordinating government business cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president and headed by the prime minister who is the leader of the largest party in parliament elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving the largest number of votes in absolute terms the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote in at least five of Kenya's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 27 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2012); vice president appointed by the president election results: President Mwai KIBAKI reelected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 46% Raila ODINGA 44% Kalonzo MUSYOKA 9%,68.31,NA,1.0,NA,$ 13 390 000 000,31 December 2007,5.1,2008,180,2008,9.0,2004,50.0,2000 est.,1.8,2005,58300000.0,2007 est.,4863000000,2008 est.,name: Nairobi geographic coordinates: 1 17 S 36 49 E time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978 when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997 which were marred by violence and fraud but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI running as the candidate of the multiethnic united opposition group the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's NARC coalition splintered in 2005 over the constitutional review process. Government defectors joined with KANU to form a new opposition coalition the Orange Democratic Movement which defeated the government's draft constitution in a popular referendum in November 2005. KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from ODM candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1 500 people died. UN-sponsored talks in late February produced a powersharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister.,25.0,2003 est.,tea horticultural products coffee petroleum products fish cement,13.34,31 December 2007,9.72,July 2009 est.,4.0,2008,$ 31 420 000 000,2008 est.,$ 2 541 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 47 000 000,2008 est.,7 provinces and 1 area*; Central Coast Eastern Nairobi Area* North Eastern Nyanza Rift Valley Western,30.2,1990,1.58,2000,tea coffee corn wheat sugarcane fruit vegetables; dairy products beef pork poultry eggs,Kenyan Armed Forces: Kenyan Army Kenyan Navy Kenyan Air Force (2008),36.64,2009 est.,6.9,2006,$ 6 648 000 000,2008 est.,varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior,machinery and transportation equipment petroleum products motor vehicles iron and steel resins and plastics,Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-Kenya [Musikari KOMBO]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Reuben OYONDI]; Kenya African National Union or KANU [Uhuru KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition-Kenya or NARC-Kenya [Martha KARUA]; Orange Democratic Movement or ODM [Raila ODINGA]; Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]; Party of National Unity or PNU [Mwai KIBAKI]; Shirikisho Party of Kenya or SPK [Chirau Ali MWAKWERE],39002772,July 2009 est.,noun: Kenyan(s) adjective: Kenyan,limestone soda ash salt gemstones fluorspar zinc diatomite gypsum wildlife hydropower,0.0,2009 est.,the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value,Council of Islamic Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Idris MOHAMMED]; Kenya Human Rights Commission [L. Muthoni WANYEKI]; Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Ndung'u WAINANA]; National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY] other: labor unions,The regional hub for trade and finance in East Africa Kenya has been hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. In 1997 the IMF suspended Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program due to the government's failure to maintain reforms and curb corruption. A severe drought from 1999 to 2000 compounded Kenya's problems causing water and energy rationing and reducing agricultural output. As a result GDP contracted by 0.2% in 2000. The IMF which had resumed loans in 2000 to help Kenya through the drought again halted lending in 2001 when the government failed to institute several anticorruption measures. Despite the return of strong rains in 2001 weak commodity prices endemic corruption and low investment limited Kenya's economic growth to 1.2%. Growth lagged at 1.1% in 2002 because of erratic rains low investor confidence meager donor support and political infighting up to the elections. In the key December 2002 elections Daniel Arap MOI's 24-year-old reign ended and a new opposition government took on the formidable economic problems facing the nation. After some early progress in rooting out corruption and encouraging donor support the KIBAKI government was rocked by high-level graft scandals in 2005 and 2006. In 2006 the World Bank and IMF delayed loans pending action by the government on corruption. The international financial institutions and donors have since resumed lending despite little action on the government's part to deal with corruption. Post-election violence in early 2008 coupled with the effects of the global financial crisis on remittance and exports reduced GDP growth to 2.2% in 2008 down from 7% the previous year.,11440000,2007,12 December 1963 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,2.0,NA,$ -2 745 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,22500000.0,2007 est.,4.0,NA,$ 10 670 000 000,31 December 2007,,,5662755.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 12 December (1963),1,2008,0.0,NA,recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons,slightly more than twice the size of Nevada,85.1,2003 est.,57.86,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly or Bunge usually referred to as Parliament (224 seats; 210 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms 12 nominated members who are appointed by the president but selected by the parties in proportion to their parliamentary vote totals 2 ex-officio members) elections: last held 27 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODM 99 PNU 46 ODM-K 16 KANU 14 other 35; ex-officio 2; seats appointed by the president - ODM 6 PNU 3 ODM-K 2 KANU 1,based on Kenyan statutory law Kenyan and English common law tribal law and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991,ACP AfDB AU C COMESA EAC EADB FAO G-15 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IGAD ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINURSO MONUC NAM OPCW PCA UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMIL UNMIS UNOCI UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,8805736.0,2008 est.,2.8,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching,10.0,2008,1.0,2008,5223000000,2008 est.,2778,2008,Mombasa,18.0,NA,4.8,2008 est.,low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west,general assessment: inadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system domestic: no recent growth in fixed-line infrastructure and the sole provider Telkom Kenya is slated for privatization; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage international: country code - 254; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat,4.56,2009 est.,40.0,2008 est.,republic,three equal horizontal bands of black (top) red and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center,widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities,$ 11 070 000 000,2008 est.,63574,2008,2.69,2009 est.,2.2,2008 est.,,,$ 61 830 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Michael RANNEBERGER embassy: US Embassy United Nations Avenue Nairobi; P. O. Box 606 Village Market Nairobi 00621 mailing address: Box 21A Unit 64100 APO AE 09831 telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000 FAX: [254] (20) 363-410,$ 1 600,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Belarus,4869000,2007,Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives),0.6,2005,171.0,NA,6.43,2009 est.,metal-cutting machine tools tractors trucks earthmovers motorcycles televisions synthetic fibers fertilizer textiles radios refrigerators,2500,2003,14.8,2008 est.,,,.by,0.2,2007 est.,13000,2007 est.,1100,2007 est.,3672000,2007,0.47,2009 est.,6000000,2007,47.0,1995,53 00 N 28 00 E,14.3,2009 est.,11.0,1998,8.5,2008 est.,Boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania in 2006; 1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Ukraine remains unratified over unresolved financial claims preventing demarcation and diminishing border security,207600,NA,1310.0,2003,Europe,Eastern Europe east of Poland,conventional long form: Republic of Belarus conventional short form: Belarus local long form: Respublika Byelarus' local short form: Byelarus' former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic,0.0,NA,5.4,2008,15 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective 27 November 1996; revised again 17 October 2004 removing presidential term limits,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge D'Affaires Oleg KRAVCHENKO chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW Washington DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604 FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805 consulate(s) general: New York,56834.0,2009 est.,27.9,2005,33700,2007 est.,$ 16 110 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 33 040 000 000,2008 est.,256400,2005 est.,38.6,2009 est.,179700,2006 est.,394100,2005 est.,198000000,1 January 2008 est.,2832000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994) head of government: Prime Minister Sergey SIDORSKIY (since 19 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir SEMASHKO (since December 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution the next election should have been held in 1999 however Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held 9 September 2001; an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the president to run in a third election which was held on 19 March 2006; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 82.6% Aleksandr MILINKEVICH 6% Aleksandr KOZULIN 2.3%; note - election marred by electoral fraud,2130.0,NA,1.1,1999 census,,,4.4,2008,65,2008,14.0,2006,27.1,2003 est.,3.6,2005,5789000000.0,2006 est.,30430000000,2006 est.,name: Minsk geographic coordinates: 53 54 N 27 34 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the accord serious implementation has yet to take place. Since his election in July 1994 as the country's first president Aleksandr LUKASHENKO has steadily consolidated his power through authoritarian means. Government restrictions on freedom of speech and the press peaceful assembly and religion remain in place.,14.0,2003 est.,machinery and equipment mineral products chemicals metals textiles foodstuffs,8.58,31 December 2007,13.86,July 2009 est.,1528.0,2008,$ 57 680 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,6 provinces (voblastsi singular - voblasts') and 1 municipality* (horad); Brest Homyel' Horad Minsk* Hrodna Mahilyow Minsk Vitsyebsk note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers,58.0,1997,2.79,2000,grain potatoes vegetables sugar beets flax; beef milk,Belarus Armed Forces: Land Force Air and Air Defense Force (2009),9.71,2009 est.,6.1,2006,$ 25 150 000 000,2008 est.,cold winters cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime,mineral products machinery and equipment chemicals foodstuffs metals,pro-government parties: Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Communist Party of Belarus or KPB; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Nikolay ULAKHOVICH chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party [Sergey GAYDUKEVICH]; Republican Party of Labor and Justice [Viktor SOKOLOV]; Social-Sports Party [Vladimir ALEXANDROVICH] opposition parties: Belarusian Christian Democracy Party (unregistered) [Pavel SEVERINETS]; Belarusian Party of Communists or PKB [Sergey KALYAKIN]; Belarusian Party of Labor (unregistered) [Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV Leonid LEMESHONAK]; Belarusian Popular Front or BPF [Levon BARSHCHEVSKIY]; Belarusian Social-Democratic Gramada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH]; Belarusian Social Democratic Party Hramada (People's Assembly) or BSDPH [Anatoliy LEVKOVICH]; European Coalition [Nikolay STATKEVICH]; Green Party [Oleg GROMYKO]; Party of Freedom and Progress (unregistered) [Vladimir NOVOSYAD]; United Civic Party or UCP [Anatoliy LEBEDKO]; Women's Party Hope (Nadezhda) [Valentina MATUSEVICH chairperson] other opposition includes: Christian Conservative BPF [Zyanon PAZNIAK]; Ecological Party of Greens [Mikhail KARTASH]; Party of Popular Accord [Sergey YERMAKK]; Republican Party [Vladimir BELAZOR],9648533,July 2009 est.,noun: Belarusian(s) adjective: Belarusian,forests peat deposits small quantities of oil and natural gas granite dolomitic limestone marl chalk sand gravel clay,0.38,2009 est.,landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of Belarusian terrain and for its 11 000 lakes,Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH]; Belarusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]; Belarusian Helsinki Committee [Tatiana PROTKO]; Belarusian Organization of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]; BPF-Youth [Franak VYACHORKA]; Charter 97 [Andrey SANNIKOV]; For Freedom [Aleksandr MILINKEVICH]; Lenin Communist Union of Youth (youth wing of the Belarusian Party of Communists or PKB); National Strike Committee of Entrepreneurs [Aleksandr VASILYEV Valery LEVONEVSKY]; Partnership NGO [Nikolay ASTREYKA]; Perspektiva kiosk watchdog NGO [Anatol SHUMCHENKO]; Vyasna [Ales BYALATSKY]; Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]; Young Belarus (Malady Belarus) [Artur FINKEVICH]; Youth Front (Malady Front) [Dmitriy DASHKEVICH]; Zubr youth group [Vladimir KOBETS],"Belarus has seen little structural reform since 1995 when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of ""market socialism."" In keeping with this policy LUKASHENKO reimposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and expanded the state's right to intervene in the management of private enterprises. Since 2005 the government has re-nationalized a number of private companies. In addition businesses have been subject to pressure by central and local governments e.g. arbitrary changes in regulations numerous rigorous inspections retroactive application of new business regulations and arrests of ""disruptive"" businessmen and factory owners. A wide range of redistributive policies has helped those at the bottom of the ladder; the Gini coefficient is among the lowest in the world. Because of these restrictive economic policies Belarus has had trouble attracting foreign investment. Nevertheless government statistics indicate GDP growth has been strong in recent years reaching more than 9% in 2008 despite the roadblocks of a tough centrally directed economy with a high rate of inflation. Belarus receives discounted oil and natural gas from Russia and much of Belarus' growth can be attributed to the re-export of Russian oil at market prices. Trade with Russia - by far its largest single trade partner - decreased in 2007-08 largely as a result of a change in the way the Value Added Tax (VAT) on trade was collected. Russia has introduced an export duty on oil shipped to Belarus which will increase gradually through 2009 and a requirement that Belarusian duties on re-exported Russian oil be shared with Russia - 80% was slated to go to Russia in 2008 and 85% in 2009. Russia also increased Belarusian natural gas prices from $47 per thousand cubic meters (tcm)in 2006 to $100 per tcm in 2007 and to $128 per tcm in 2008 and plans to increase prices gradually to world levels by 2011. Russia's recent policy of bringing energy prices for Belarus to world market levels may result in a slowdown in economic growth in Belarus over the next few years. Some policy measures including improving energy efficiency and diversifying exports have been introduced but external borrowing has been the main mechanism used to manage the growing pressures on the economy. Belarus felt the effects of the global financial crisis in late 2008 and reached agreement with Russia in November for a $2 billion stabilization loan and with the IMF for a $2.5 billion stand-by agreement in January 2009. In line with IMF conditionality Belarus devalued the ruble approximately 20% in January 2009 and has tightened some fiscal and monetary policies. Belarus's economic growth is likely to slow in 2009 as it faces decreasing demand for its exports and will find it difficult to increase external borrowing if the credit markets continue to tighten.",6960000,2007,25 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union),0,2007 est.,21600000000,2007 est.,21760000000,2007 est.,20.0,NA,$ -5 063 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,10150000000.0,2006 est.,0.0,NA,$ 12 160 000 000,31 December 2007,,,1720049.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops 25 August 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union,,,90.0,NA,NA,slightly smaller than Kansas,99.6,1999 census,70.63,2009 est.,bicameral National Assembly or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members elected by regional councils and eight members appointed by the president to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Predstaviteley (110 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Palata Predstaviteley - last held 28 September and 3 October 2008 (next to be held fall of 2012); international observers determined that despite minor improvements the election ultimately fell short of democratic standards; pro-LUKASHENKO candidates won every seat election results: Soviet Respubliki - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Palata Predstaviteley - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA,based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,BSEC (observer) CEI CIS CSTO EAEC EAPC EBRD FAO GCTU IAEA IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM NSG OPCW OSCE PCA PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),,,2491643.0,2008 est.,1.4,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Sulfur 85 Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,29910000000,2006 est.,5538,2008,Mazyr,18.0,NA,12.0,2008 est.,generally flat and contains much marshland,general assessment: Belarus lags behind its neighbors in upgrading telecommunications infrastructure; state-owned Beltelcom is the sole provider of fixed-line local and long distance service; fixed-line teledensity of roughly 35 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of about 70 per 100 persons; modernization of the network progressing with roughly two-thirds of switching equipment now digital domestic: fixed-line penetration is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved; 3 GSM wireless networks are experiencing rapid growth; strict government controls on telecommunications technologies international: country code - 375; Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL) Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); 3 fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia Poland Russia and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat Eutelsat and Intersputnik earth stations (2007),1.24,2009 est.,1.6,2005,republic in name although in fact a dictatorship,red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side bears Belarusian national ornamentation in red; the red band color recalls past struggles from oppression the green band represents hope and the many forests of the country,limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via Russia and to the Baltics and Western Europe; a small and lightly regulated financial center; anti-money-laundering legislation does not meet international standards and was weakened further when know-your-customer requirements were curtailed in 2008; few investigations or prosecutions of money-laundering activities (2008),$ 39 160 000 000,2008 est.,94797,2005,-0.38,2009 est.,9.2,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 114 100 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jonathan MOORE embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya Street Minsk 220002 mailing address: PSC 78 Box B Minsk APO 09723 telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83 217-7347 through 7348 FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853,$ 11 800,2008 est.,164000000,2007 est.
Tajikistan,2100000,2008,Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president),0.89,2005,414.0,NA,41.03,2009 est.,aluminum zinc lead; chemicals and fertilizers cement vegetable oil metal-cutting machine tools refrigerators and freezers,200,2008,20.5,2008,,,.tj,0.3,2007 est.,10000,2007 est.,500,2007 est.,340000,2007,0.74,2009 est.,19500,2005,24.0,2009,39 00 N 71 00 E,3.6,2009 est.,16.0,2009,22.7,2008 est.,in 2006 China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan,143100,NA,7220.0,2003,Asia,Central Asia west of China,conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan conventional short form: Tajikistan local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston local short form: Tojikiston former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic,0.0,NA,5.4,2008,6 November 1994,chief of mission: Ambassador Abdujabbor SHIRINOV chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW Washington DC 20037 telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090 FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091,78460.0,2009 est.,32.6,2006,503,2008,$ 1 643 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 1 493 000 000,2008 est.,,,21.9,2009 est.,10600,2008,10100,2008,12000000,1 January 2008 est.,5663000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992) head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president approved by the Supreme Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3% Olimjon BOBOEV 6.2% other 14.5%,2.97,NA,1.1,2000 census,,,9.8,2008,26,2008,10.0,2006,60.0,2007 est.,3.3,2007 est.,1000000000.0,2008 est.,17800000000,2008,name: Dushanbe geographic coordinates: 38 35 N 68 48 E time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Sughd province. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. There have been no major security incidents in recent years although the country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development and security assistance which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.,7.5,2000 est.,aluminum electricity cotton fruits vegetable oil textiles,,,6.83,July 2009 est.,38.0,2008,$ 4 788 000 000,2008 est.,$ 102 000 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 10 870 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,2 provinces (viloyatho singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa) Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh) Viloyati Sughd (Khujand) note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses,99.7,1997,11.96,2000,cotton grain fruits grapes vegetables; cattle sheep goats,Ground Forces Air and Air Defense Forces Mobile Forces (2008),26.9,2009 est.,3.4,2006,$ 899 600 000,2008 est.,midlatitude continental hot summers mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains,electricity petroleum products aluminum oxide machinery and equipment foodstuffs,Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV (imprisoned October 2005); Rahmatullo VALIYEV deputy]; Islamic Revival Party [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NARZIEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV],7349145,July 2009 est.,noun: Tajikistani(s) adjective: Tajikistani,hydropower some petroleum uranium mercury brown coal lead zinc antimony tungsten silver gold,-1.28,2009 est.,landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak) was the tallest mountain in the former USSR,splinter parties recognized by the government but not by the base of the party: Democratic Party or DPT [Masud SOBIROV] (splintered from ISKANDAROV's DPT); Socialist Party or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV] (splintered from NARZIEV's SPT) unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV],Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan nearly half of the labor force works abroad primarily in Russia supporting families in Tajikistan through remittances. The exact number of labor migrants is unknown but estimated at around 1 million. Less than 7% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop but this sector is burdened with debt and obsolete infrastructure. Mineral resources include silver gold uranium and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant hydropower facilities and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms corruption weak governance widespread unemployment seasonal power shortages and the external debt burden. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002 including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan's $300 million debt. Completion of the Sangtuda I hydropower dam - built with Russian investment - and the Sangtuda II and Rogun dams will add substantially to electricity output. If finished according to Tajik plans Rogun will be the world's tallest dam. Tajikistan has also received substantial infrastructure development loans from the Chinese government to improve roads and an electricity transmission network. To help increase north-south trade the US funded a $36 million bridge which opened in August 2007 and links Tajikistan and Afghanistan. While Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997 nearly two-thirds of the population continues to live in poverty. Economic growth reached 10.6% in 2004 but dropped to below 8% in 2005-08 as the effects of higher oil prices and then the international financial crisis began to register - mainly in the form of lower prices for key commodities and lower remittances from Tajiks working in Russia due to the declining economic conditions in that country.,3500000,2007,9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union),0,2008,512700000,2008,542700000,2008,5.0,2003 est.,$ -783 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,3000000000.0,2008 est.,1.6,NA,,,,,1428218.0,2009 est.,Independence Day (or National Day) 9 September (1991),,,300.0,NA,earthquakes; floods,slightly smaller than Wisconsin,99.5,2000 census,65.33,2009 est.,bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; to serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: National Assembly - last held 25 March 2005 (next to be held in February 2010); Assembly of Representatives 27 February and 13 March 2005 (next to be held in February 2010) election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDPT 29 CPT 2 independents 3; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 74.9% CPT 13.6% Islamic Revival Party 8.9% other 2.5%; seats by party - PDPT 51 CPT 5 Islamic Revival Party 2 independents 5,based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ADB CIS CSTO EAEC EAPC EBRD ECO FAO GCTU IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU MIGA OIC OPCW OSCE PFP SCO UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),,,1897356.0,2008 est.,3.9,2005 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Environmental Modification Ozone Layer Protection Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides,1.0,2008,2.0,2008,14800000000,2008,680,2008,,18.0,NA,-4.0,2008 est.,Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest,general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements domestic: the domestic telecommunications network has historically been under funded and poorly maintained; main line availability has not changed significantly since 1998; mobile cellular use aided by competition among multiple operators has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2008),2.99,2009 est.,2.3,2008 est.,republic,three horizontal stripes of red (top) a wider stripe of white and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe,major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and to a lesser extent Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates,$ 4 122 000 000,2008 est.,27767,2000,1.88,2009 est.,7.9,2008 est.,,,$ 15 400 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Tracey Ann JACOBSON embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue Dushanbe 734019 mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place Dulles VA 20189 telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00 FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50,$ 2 100,2008 est.,16000000,2008
Greenland,32120,2004,High Court or Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret or Eastern Division of the High Court or Supreme Court in Copenhagen),0.0,2005,0.0,NA,10.72,2009 est.,fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut); gold niobium tantalite uranium iron and diamond mining; handicrafts hides and skins small shipyards,,,1.0,2005 est.,,,.gl,,,100,NA,,,36000,2006,1.01,2009 est.,52000,2007,1.0,1997,72 00 N 40 00 W,6.9,2009 est.,0.0,2008,,,managed dispute between Canada and Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland,2166086,NA,,,Arctic Region,Northern North America island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean northeast of Canada,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Greenland local long form: none local short form: Kalaallit Nunaat,44087.0,NA,4.4,2008,(November 2008) Act on Greenland Self Government,none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark),491.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 25 000 000,1999,$ 480 000 000,2006,150,2005,33.5,2009 est.,3927,2006 est.,4089,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972) represented by High Commissioner Soren MOLLER (since April 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Hans ENOKSEN (since 14 December 2002) cabinet: Home Rule Government is elected by the Parliament (Landsting) on the basis of the strength of parties elections: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by parliament (usually the leader of the majority party); election results: Hans ENOKSEN reelected prime minister note: government coalition - Siumut and Inuit Ataqatigiit,5.02,NA,12.0,2000,,,4.1,2008,15,2008,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,283700000,2006 est.,name: Nuuk (Godthab) geographic coordinates: 64 11 N 51 45 W time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October note: Greenland is divided into four time zones,Greenland the world's largest island is about 81% ice-capped. Vikings reached the island in the 10th century from Iceland; Danish colonization began in the 18th century and Greenland was made an integral part of Denmark in 1953. It joined the European Community (now the EU) with Denmark in 1973 but withdrew in 1985 over a dispute centered on stringent fishing quotas. Greenland was granted self-government in 1979 by the Danish parliament; the law went into effect the following year. Greenland voted in favor of increased self-rule in November 2008 and acquired complete responsibilty for internal affairs in June 2009. Denmark however continues to exercise control of Greenland's foreign affairs security and financial policy in consultation with Greenland's Home Rule Government.,,,fish and fish products 94% (prawns 63%) (2001 est.),,,8.14,July 2009 est.,,,$ 1 700 000 000,2005,,,,,3 districts (landsdele); Avannaa (Nordgronland) Tunu (Ostgronland) Kitaa (Vestgronland) note: there are 18 municipalities in Greenland,,,,,forage crops garden and greenhouse vegetables; sheep reindeer; fish,no regular military forces,14.76,2009 est.,,,$ 1 270 000 000,2005,arctic to subarctic; cool summers cold winters,machinery and transport equipment manufactured goods food petroleum products,Atassut Party (Solidarity) [Finn KARLSEN] (a conservative party favoring continuing close relations with Denmark); Demokratiit [Per BERTHELSEN]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood) [Josef MOTZFELDT] (a leftist party favoring complete independence from Denmark rather than home rule); Kattusseqatigiit (Candidate List) (an independent right-of-center party with no official platform); Siumut (Forward Party) [Hans ENOKSEN] (a social democratic party advocating more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark),57600,July 2009 est.,noun: Greenlander(s) adjective: Greenlandic,coal iron ore lead zinc molybdenum diamonds gold platinum niobium tantalite uranium fish seals whales hydropower possible oil and gas,-5.99,2009 est.,dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast; close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap,other: conservationists; environmentalists,The economy remains critically dependent on exports of shrimp and fish and on a substantial subsidy - about $700 million in 2008-09 - from the Danish Government which supplies about 60% of government revenues. The public sector including publicly-owned enterprises and the municipalities plays the dominant role in the economy. Several interesting hydrocarbon and mineral exploration activities are ongoing and in 2007 a US firm signed an agreement with the Greenland Home Rule government to study the feasibility of building a multi-billion dollar aluminum smelter and hydropower plant. Denmark plans to reduce its subsidies to Greenland as revenues from oil exports come onstream.,66400,2007,none (extensive self-rule as part of the Kingdom of Denmark; foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,0.9,NA,,,,,10809.0,2009 est.,June 21 (longest day),2,2008,0.0,NA,continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island,slightly more than three times the size of Texas,100.0,2001 est.,70.07,2009 est.,unicameral Parliament or Landsting (31 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: last held on 2 Juner 2009 (next to be held by 2014) election results: percent of vote by party - Inuit Ataqatigiit 43.7% Siumut 26.5% Demokratiit 12.7% Atassut 10.9%; Kattusseqatigiit 3.8% other 2.4%; seats by party - IA 14 Siumut 9 Demokraatiit 4 Atassut 3 Kattusseqatigiit 1 note: two representatives were elected to the Danish Parliament or Folketing on 13 November 2007 (next to be held in November 2011); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Siumut 1 Inuit Ataqatigiit 1,the laws of Denmark where applicable apply,Arctic Council NC NIB UPU,3.0,NA,15221.0,2008 est.,,,,protection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life including whaling and seal hunting,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,305000000,2006 est.,,,Sisimiut,18.0,NA,,,flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow mountainous barren rocky coast,general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite cables and microwave radio relay; totally digitalized in 1995 domestic: microwave radio relay and satellite international: country code - 299; satellite earth stations - 15 (12 Intelsat 1 Eutelsat 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean)) (2000),2.19,2009 est.,9.3,2005 est.,parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy,two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is red the bottom half is white,,$ 712 000 000,2006,,,0.06,2009 est.,2.0,2005 est.,,,$ 1 100 000 000,2001 est.,none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark),$ 20 000,2001 est.,0,2007 est.
Turkey,24060000,2008 est.,Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court,3.39,2005,9.0,NA,25.78,2009 est.,textiles food processing autos electronics mining (coal chromite copper boron) steel petroleum construction lumber paper,1200,2008,10.4,2008 est.,,,.tr,0.1,2001 est.,,,,,18413000,2007,0.84,2009 est.,13150000,2006,635.0,1995,39 00 N 35 00 E,6.1,2009 est.,6.0,2001,8.8,2008 est.,complex maritime air and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh,783562,NA,52150.0,2003,Middle East,Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe) bordering the Black Sea between Bulgaria and Georgia and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Syria,conventional long form: Republic of Turkey conventional short form: Turkey local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti local short form: Turkiye,7200.0,NA,4.1,2008,7 November 1982; amended 17 May 1987 1995 2001 and 2007; note - amendment passed by referendum concerning presidential elections on 21 October 2007,chief of mission: Ambassador Nabi SENSOY chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700 FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744 consulate(s) general: Chicago Houston Los Angeles New York,663689.0,2009 est.,43.6,2003,42800,2007 est.,$ 276 800 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 140 800 000 000,2008 est.,114600,2005,27.7,2009 est.,676600,2007 est.,714100,2005,300000000,1 January 2008 est.,8495000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Cemil CICEK (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Ali BABACAN (since 1 May 2009); Deputy Prime Minister Bulent ARINC (since 1 May 2009) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister elections: president elected directly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament election results: on 28 August 2007 the National Assembly elected Abdullah GUL president on the third ballot; National Assembly vote - 339 note: in October 2007 Turkish voters approved a referendum package of constitutional amendments including a provision for direct presidential elections,1.32,NA,,,$ 286 600 000 000,31 December 2007,4.9,2008,103,2008,11.0,2006,20.0,2002,1.9,2005,2576000000.0,2007 est.,141500000000,2006 est.,name: Ankara geographic coordinates: 39 56 N 32 52 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,"Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL who was later honored with the title Ataturk or ""Father of the Turks."" Under his authoritarian leadership the country adopted wide-ranging social legal and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then Turkish political parties have multiplied but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960 1971 1980) which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997 the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a ""post-modern coup"" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the ""Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus "" which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30 000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999 the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004 KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO; it holds a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council from 2009-10. In 1964 Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decade it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy; it began accession membership talks with the European Union in 2005.",24.7,2005,apparel foodstuffs textiles metal manufactures transport equipment,,,6.1,July 2009 est.,3636.0,2008,$ 798 900 000 000,2008 est.,$ 128 700 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 13 560 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,81 provinces (iller singular - ili); Adana Adiyaman Afyonkarahisar Agri Aksaray Amasya Ankara Antalya Ardahan Artvin Aydin Balikesir Bartin Batman Bayburt Bilecik Bingol Bitlis Bolu Burdur Bursa Canakkale Cankiri Corum Denizli Diyarbakir Duzce Edirne Elazig Erzincan Erzurum Eskisehir Gaziantep Giresun Gumushane Hakkari Hatay Igdir Isparta Istanbul Izmir (Smyrna) Kahramanmaras Karabuk Karaman Kars Kastamonu Kayseri Kilis Kirikkale Kirklareli Kirsehir Kocaeli Konya Kutahya Malatya Manisa Mardin Mersin (Icel) Mugla Mus Nevsehir Nigde Ordu Osmaniye Rize Sakarya Samsun Sanliurfa Siirt Sinop Sirnak Sivas Tekirdag Tokat Trabzon (Trebizond) Tunceli Usak Van Yalova Yozgat Zonguldak,234.0,2003,39.78,2001,tobacco cotton grain olives sugar beets hazelnuts pulse citrus; livestock,Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri) Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry) Turkish Air Force (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2009),18.66,2009 est.,4.0,2004,$ 160 500 000 000,2008 est.,temperate; hot dry summers with mild wet winters; harsher in interior,machinery chemicals semi-finished goods fuels transport equipment,Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party) or Anavatan [Erkan MUMCU]; note - True Path Party or DYP has merged with the Motherland Party; Democratic Party or DP [Husamettin CINDORUK]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Masum TURKER]; Democratic Society Party or DTP [Ahmet TURK]; Felicity Party or SP [Numan KURTULMUS] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party); Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Hayri KOZANOGLU]; Grand Unity Party or BBP; note - Mushin YAZICIOGLU former leader of the Grand Unity Party was killed in an March 2009 helicopter crash; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI] (sometimes translated as Nationalist Action Party); People's Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasar Nuri OZTURK]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Ugur CILASUN (acting)]; Young Party or GP [Cem Cengiz UZAN] note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turkey had as of 31 January 2009,76805524,July 2009 est.,noun: Turk(s) adjective: Turkish,coal iron ore copper chromium antimony mercury gold barite borate celestite (strontium) emery feldspar limestone magnesite marble perlite pumice pyrites (sulfur) clay arable land hydropower,0.56,2009 est.,strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus Sea of Marmara Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat the legendary landing place of Noah's ark is in the far eastern portion of the country,Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer Cihad VARDAN]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugurl KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa KUMLU]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Arzuhan Dogan YALCINDAG]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU],Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for about 30% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector yet the state remains a major participant in basic industry banking transport and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However other sectors notably the automotive and electronics industries are rising in importance within Turkey's export mix. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994 1999 and 2001. The economy turned around with the implementation of economic reforms and 2004 GDP growth reached 9% followed by roughly 5% annual growth from 2005-07. Due to global contractions annual growth is estimated to have fallen to 1.5% in 2008. Inflation fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30-year low - but climbed to over 10% in 2008. Despite the strong economic gains from 2002-07 which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets IMF backing and tighter fiscal policy the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high external debt. Further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost foreign direct investment. The stock value of FDI currently stands at about $85 billion. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006 marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. In 2007 and 2008 Turkish financial markets weathered significant domestic political turmoil including turbulence sparked by controversy over the selection of former Foreign Minister Abdullah GUL as Turkey's 11th president and the possible closure of the Justice and Development Party (AKP). Economic fundamentals are sound marked by moderate economic growth and foreign direct investment. Nevertheless the Turkish economy may be faced with more negative economic indicators in 2009 as a result of the global economic slowdown. In addition Turkey's high current account deficit leaves the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence.,61976000,2007,29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire),31000000,2007 est.,35830000000,2007 est.,36600000000,2007 est.,0.2,NA,$ -41 600 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,863000000.0,2007 est.,1.9,NA,$ 355 000 000 000,31 December 2007,2004,,16995299.0,2009 est.,Republic Day 29 October (1923),612,2008,0.0,NA,severe earthquakes especially in northern Turkey along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van,slightly larger than Texas,87.4,2004 est.,71.96,2009 est.,unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held on 22 July 2007 (next to be held in November 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 46.7% CHP 20.8% MHP 14.3% independents 5.2% and other 13.0%; seats by party - AKP 341 CHP 112 MHP 71 independents 26; note - seats by party as of 31 January 2009 - AKP 340 CHP 97 MHP 70 DTP 21 DSP 13 ODP 1 BBP 1 independents 5 vacant 2 (DTP entered parliament as independents; DSP entered parliament on CHP's party list); only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats,civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ADB (nonregional member) Australia Group BIS BSEC CE CERN (observer) EAPC EBRD ECO EU (applicant) FAO G-20 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM IDA IDB IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA NATO NEA NSG OAS (observer) OECD OIC OPCW OSCE PCA SECI UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL UNMIS UNOCI UNOMIG UNRWA UNWTO UPU WCO WEU (associate) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC,6.0,NA,19432688.0,2008 est.,5.3,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: Environmental Modification,water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic,2.0,2008,3.0,2008,181600000000,2007 est.,8697,2008,Aliaga Diliskelesi Izmir Kocaeli (Izmit) Mercin Limani Nemrut Limani,18.0,NA,-0.6,2008 est.,high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges,general assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially in mobile-cellular services domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile-cellular telephone service is growing rapidly international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy Greece Israel Bulgaria Romania and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002),2.21,2009 est.,10.7,2008 est.,republican parliamentary democracy,red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening,key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and to a lesser extent the US - via air land and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls,$ 193 900 000 000,2008 est.,426951,2006,1.31,2009 est.,1.5,2008 est.,18.0,2007,$ 906 500 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador James F. JEFFREY embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard Kavaklidere 06100 Ankara mailing address: PSC 93 Box 5000 APO AE 09823 telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555 FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019 consulate(s) general: Istanbul consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir,$ 12 000,2008 est.,893000000,2007 est.
Afghanistan,15000000,2004 est.,the constitution establishes a nine-member Stera Mahkama or Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed for 10-year terms by the president with approval of the Wolesi Jirga) and subordinate High Courts and Appeals Courts; there is also a minister of justice; a separate Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission established by the Bonn Agreement is charged with investigating human rights abuses and war crimes,0.21,2005,76.0,NA,151.95,2009 est.,small-scale production of textiles soap furniture shoes fertilizer cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas coal copper,1200,2008,13.0,2007 est.,4.0,NA,.af,0.01,2001 est.,,,,,280000,2005,0.93,2009 est.,580000,2007,7.0,2006,33 00 N 65 00 E,2.4,2009 est.,1.0,2006,26.0,2008 est.,Pakistan has built fences in some portions of its border with Afghanistan which remains open in some areas to foreign terrorists and other illegal activities,652230,NA,27200.0,2003,Asia,Southern Asia north and west of Pakistan east of Iran,conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afghanestan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan,0.0,NA,4.8,2008,new constitution drafted 14 December 2003-4 January 2004; signed 16 January 2004; ratified 26 January 2004,chief of mission: Ambassador Said Tayeb JAWAD chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 483-6410 FAX: [1] (202) 483-6488 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles New York,361733.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 8 000 000 000,2004,$ 327 000 000,2007,0,2005,17.6,2009 est.,5036,2006 est.,4534,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,49550000000,1 January 2008 est.,"chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); First Vice President Ahmad Zia MASOOD; Second Vice President Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 December 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; former King ZAHIR Shah held the honorific ""Father of the Country "" and presided symbolically over certain occasions but lacked any governing authority; the honorific is not hereditary; King ZAHIR Shah died on 23 July 2007 head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); First Vice President Ahmad Zia MASOOD; Second Vice President Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 December 2004) cabinet: 25 ministers; note - under the new constitution ministers are appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly elections: the president and two vice presidents are elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if no candidate receives 50% or more of the vote in the first round of voting the two candidates with the most votes will participate in a second round; a president can only be elected for two terms; election last held 9 October 2004 (next to be held 20 August 2009) election results: Hamid KARZAI elected president; percent of vote - Hamid KARZAI 55.4% Yunus QANUNI 16.3% Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ 11.6% Abdul Rashid DOSTAM 10.0% Abdul Latif PEDRAM 1.4% Masooda JALAL 1.2%",46.0,NA,2.0,NA,,,6.7,2008,50,2008,4.0,2004,53.0,2003,,,0.0,2007 est.,1418000000,2007 est.,name: Kabul geographic coordinates: 34 31 N 69 11 E time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 Communist counter-coup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan Communist regime touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-Communist mujahedin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City a US Allied and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama BIN LADIN. The UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution a presidential election in 2004 and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004 Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. Despite gains toward building a stable central government a resurgent Taliban and continuing provincial instability - particularly in the south and the east - remain serious challenges for the Afghan Government.,10.0,2004 est.,opium fruits and nuts handwoven carpets wool cotton hides and pelts precious and semi-precious gems,18.14,31 December 2007,19.18,July 2009 est.,466.0,2008,$ 12 850 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,34 provinces (welayat singular - welayat); Badakhshan Badghis Baghlan Balkh Bamyan Daykundi Farah Faryab Ghazni Ghor Helmand Herat Jowzjan Kabul Kandahar Kapisa Khost Kunar Kunduz Laghman Logar Nangarhar Nimroz Nuristan Paktika Paktiya Panjshir Parwan Samangan Sar-e Pul Takhar Uruzgan Wardak Zabul,65.0,1997,23.26,2000,opium wheat fruits nuts; wool mutton sheepskins lambskins,Afghan Armed Forces: Afghan National Army (ANA includes Afghan National Army Air Corps) (2009),45.46,2009 est.,,,$ 890 000 000,2007 est.,arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers,capital goods food textiles petroleum products,Afghanistan Peoples' Treaty Party [Sayyed Amir TAHSEEN]; Afghanistan's Islamic Mission Organization [Abdul Rasoul SAYYAF]; Afghanistan's Islamic Nation Party [Toran Noor Aqa Ahmad ZAI]; Afghanistan's National Islamic Party [Rohullah LOUDIN]; Afghanistan's Welfare Party [Meer Asef ZAEEFI]; Afghan Social Democratic Party [Anwarul Haq AHADI]; Afghan Society for the Call to the Koran and Sunna [Mawlawee Samiullah NAJEEBEE]; Comprehensive Movement of Democracy and Development of Afghanistan Party [Sher Mohammad BAZGAR]; Democratic Party of Afghanistan [Tawos ARAB]; Democratic Party of Afghanistan [Abdul Kabir RANJBAR]; Elites People of Afghanistan Party [Abdul Hamid JAWAD]; Freedom and Democracy Movement of Afghanistan [Abdul Raqib Jawid KOHISTANEE]; Freedom Party of Afghanistan [Ilaj Abdul MALEK]; Freedom Party of Afghanistan [Dr. Ghulam Farooq NEJRABEE]; Hizullah-e-Afghanistan [Qari Ahmad ALI]; Human Rights Protection and Development Party of Afghanistan [Baryalai NASRATI]; Islamic Justice Party of Afghanistan [Mohammad Kabir MARZBAN]; Islamic Movement of Afghanistan [Mohammad Ali JAWID]; Islamic Movement of Afghanistan Party [Mohammad Mukhtar MUFLEH]; Islamic Party of Afghanistan [Mohammad Khalid FAROOQI Abdul Hadi ARGHANDIWAL]; Islamic Party of the Afghan Land [Mohammad Hassan FEROZKHEL]; Islamic People's Movement of Afghanistan [Ilhaj Said Hussain ANWARY]; Islamic Society of Afghanistan [Ustad RABBANI]; Islamic Unity of the Nation of Afghanistan Party [Qurban Ali URFANI]; Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan [Mohammad Karim KHALILI]; Islamic Unity Party of the People of Afghanistan [Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ]; Labor and Progress of Afghanistan Party [Zulfiqar OMID]; Muslim People of Afghanistan Party [Besmellah JOYAN]; Muslim Unity Movement Party of Afghanistan [Wazir Mohammad WAHDAT]; National and Islamic Sovereignty Movement Party of Afghanistan [Ahmad Shah AHMADZAI]; National Congress Party of Afghanistan [Abdul Latif PEDRAM]; National Country Party [Ghulam MOHAMMAD]; National Development Party of Afghanistan [Dr. Aref BAKTASH]; National Freedom Seekers Party [Abdul Hadi DABEER]; National Independence Party of Afghanistan [Taj Mohammad WARDAK]; National Islamic Fighters Party of Afghanistan [Amanat NINGARHAREE]; National Islamic Front of Afghanistan [Pir Sayed Ahmad GAILANEE]; National Islamic Moderation Party of Afghanistan [Qara Bik Eized YAAR]; National Islamic Movement of Afghanistan [Sayed NOORULLAH] National Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan [Mohammad AKBAREE]; National Movement of Afghanistan [Ahmad Wali MASOOUD]; National Party of Afghanistan [Abdul Rashid ARYAN]; National Patch of Afghanistan Party [Sayed Kamal SADAT]; National Peace Islamic Party of Afghanistan [Shah Mohammood Popal ZAI]; National Peace & Islamic Party of the Tribes of Afghanistan [Abdul Qaher SHARIATEE]; National Peace & Unity Party of Afghanistan [Abdul Qader IMAMI]; National Prosperity and Islamic Party of Afghanistan [Mohammad Osman SALEKZADA]; National Prosperity Party [Mohammad Hassan JAHFAREE]; National Solidarity Movement of Afghanistan [Pir Sayed Eshaq GAILANEE]; National Solidarity Party of Afghanistan [Sayed Mansoor NADREEI]; National Sovereignty Party [Sayed Mustafa KAZEMI]; National Stability Party [Mohammad Same KHAROTI]; National Stance Party [Habibullah JANEBDAR]; National Tribal Unity Islamic Party of Afghanistan [Mohammad Shah KHOGYANI]; National United Front [Burhanuddin RABBANI] (a coalition); National Unity Movement [Sultan Mohammad GHAZI]; National Unity Movement of Afghanistan [Mohammad Nadir AATASH]; National Unity Party of Afghanistan [Abdul Rashid JALILI]; New Afghanistan Party [Mohammad Yunis QANUNI]; Peace and National Welfare Activists Society [Shamsul Haq Noor SHAMS]; Peace Movement [Shahnawaz TANAI]; People's Aspirations Party of Afghanistan [Ilhaj Saraj-u-din ZAFAREE]; People's Freedom Seekers Party of Afghanistan [Feda Mohammad EHSAS]; People's Liberal Freedom Seekers Party of Afghanistan [Ajmal SUHAIL]; People's Message Party of Afghanistan [Noor Aqa WAINEE]; People's Movement of the National Unity of Afghanistan [Abdul Hakim NOORZAI]; People's Party of Afghanistan [Ahmad Shah ASAR]; People's Prosperity Party of Afghanistan [Ustad Mohammad ZAREEF]; People's Sovereignty Movement of Afghanistan [Hayatullah SUBHANEE]; People's Uprising Party of Afghanistan [Sayed Zahir Qayed Omul BELADI]; People's Welfare Party of Afghanistan [Mia Gul WASIQ]; People's Welfare Party of Afghanistan [Mohammad Zubair PAIROZ]; Progressive Democratic Party of Afghanistan [Wali ARYA]; Republican Party [Sebghatullah SANJAR]; Solidarity Party of Afghanistan [Abdul Khaleq NEMAT]; The Afghanistan's Mujahid Nation's Islamic Unity Movement [Saeedullah SAEED]; The People of Afghanistan's Democratic Movement [Sharif NAZARI]; Tribes Solidarity Party of Afghanistan [Mohammad Zarif NASERI]; Understanding and Democracy Party of Afghanistan [Ahamad SHAHEEN] United Afghanistan Party [Mohammad Wasil RAHIMEE]; United Islamic Party of Afghanistan [Wahidullah SABAWOON]; Young Afghanistan's Islamic Organization [Sayed Jawad HUSSINEE]; Youth Solidarity Party of Afghanistan [Mohammad Jamil KARZAI]; note - includes only political parties approved by the Ministry of Justice,33609937,July 2009 est.,noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan,natural gas petroleum coal copper chromite talc barites sulfur lead zinc iron ore salt precious and semiprecious stones,21.0,2009 est.,landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor),other: religious groups; tribal leaders; ethnically based groups,Afghanistan's economy is recovering from decades of conflict. The economy has improved significantly since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001 largely because of the infusion of international assistance the recovery of the agricultural sector and service sector growth. Real GDP growth exceeded 7% in 2008. Despite the progress of the past few years Afghanistan is extremely poor landlocked and highly dependent on foreign aid agriculture and trade with neighboring countries. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of housing clean water electricity medical care and jobs. Criminality insecurity and the Afghan Government's inability to extend rule of law to all parts of the country pose challenges to future economic growth. It will probably take the remainder of the decade and continuing donor aid and attention to significantly raise Afghanistan's living standards from its current level among the lowest in the world. International pledges made by more than 60 countries and international financial institutions at the Berlin Donors Conference for Afghan reconstruction in March 2004 reached $8.9 billion for 2004-09. While the international community remains committed to Afghanistan's development pledging over $57 billion at three donors' conferences since 2002 Kabul will need to overcome a number of challenges. Expanding poppy cultivation and a growing opium trade generate roughly $3 billion in illicit economic activity and looms as one of Kabul's most serious policy concerns. Other long-term challenges include: budget sustainability job creation corruption government capacity and rebuilding war torn infrastructure.,5400000,2008,19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,20000000,2006 est.,1.0,NA,$ -67 000 000,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,608000000.0,2007 est.,5.4,NA,$ 12 040 000,31 December 2007,,,4072945.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 19 August (1919),,,258.0,NA,damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts,slightly smaller than Texas,28.1,2000 est.,44.64,2009 est.,the bicameral National Assembly consists of the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats one-third elected from provincial councils for four-year terms one-third elected from local district councils for three-year terms and one-third nominated by the president for five-year terms) and the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (no more than 249 seats) directly elected for five-year terms note: on rare occasions the government may convene a Loya Jirga (Grand Council) on issues of independence national sovereignty and territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of the constitution and prosecute the president; it is made up of members of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils elections: last held 18 September 2005 (next to be held for the Wolesi Jirga by September 2009; next was to be held for the provincial councils to the Meshrano Jirga by September 2008) election results: the single non-transferable vote (SNTV) system used in the election did not make use of political party slates; most candidates ran as independents,based on mixed civil and Sharia law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ADB CP ECO FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF Interpol IOC IOM ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU MIGA NAM OIC OPCW OSCE (partner) SAARC SACEP SCO (guest) UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),,,7004819.0,2008 est.,1.9,2006 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection signed but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Life Conservation,limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,839000000,2007 est.,,,Kheyrabad Shir Khan,18.0,NA,,,mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest,general assessment: limited landline telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks in major cities domestic: aided by the presence of multiple providers mobile-cellular telephone service is improving rapidly international: country code - 93; five VSAT's installed in Kabul Herat Mazar-e-Sharif Kandahar and Jalalabad provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2007),6.53,2009 est.,40.0,2008 est.,Islamic republic,"three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side) red and green with the national emblem in white centered on the red band and slightly overlapping the other two bands; the center of the emblem features a mosque with pulpit and flags on either side below the mosque are numerals for the solar year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar the year of Afghan independence from the UK); this central image is circled by a border consisting of sheaves of wheat on the left and right in the upper-center is an Arabic inscription of the Shahada (Muslim creed) below which are rays of the rising sun over the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning ""God is great"") and at bottom center is a scroll bearing the name Afghanistan",world's largest producer of opium; poppy cultivation decreased 22% to 157 000 hectares in 2008 but remains at a historically high level; less favorable growing conditions in 2008 reduced potential opium production to 5 500 metric tons down 31 percent from 2007; if the entire opium crop were processed 648 metric tons of pure heroin potentially could be produced; the Taliban and other antigovernment groups participate in and profit from the opiate trade which is a key source of revenue for the Taliban inside Afghanistan; widespread corruption and instability impede counterdrug efforts; most of the heroin consumed in Europe and Eurasia is derived from Afghan opium; vulnerable to drug money laundering through informal financial networks; regional source of hashish (2008),$ 4 850 000 000,2007,42150,2006,2.63,2009 est.,7.5,2008 est.,9.0,2007,$ 23 030 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE Jr. embassy: The Great Masood Road Kabul mailing address: U.S. Embassy Kabul APO AE 09806 telephone: [93] 0700 108 001 FAX: [93] 0700 108 564,$ 800,2008 est.,20000000,2006 est.
Fiji,335000,2007 est.,Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeal; High Court; Magistrates' Courts,4.65,2005,0.0,NA,11.58,2009 est.,tourism sugar clothing copra gold silver lumber small cottage industries,203,2008,4.8,2007,,,.fj,0.1,2007 est.,600,2003 est.,200,2003 est.,108400,2007,0.82,2009 est.,80000,2006,,,18 00 S 175 00 E,4.8,2009 est.,0.0,1998,8.9,2004 est.,none,18274,NA,30.0,2003,Oceania,Oceania island group in the South Pacific Ocean about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand,conventional long form: Republic of the Fiji Islands conventional short form: Fiji local long form: Republic of the Fiji Islands/Matanitu ko Viti local short form: Fiji/Viti,1129.0,NA,5.4,2008,enacted 25 July 1997; effective 28 July 1998; note - it encourages multiculturalism and makes multiparty government mandatory,chief of mission: Ambassador Winston THOMPSON chancery: 2000 M Street NW Suite 710 Washington DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 466-8320 FAX: [1] (202) 466-8325,8755.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 127 000 000,2004 est.,$ 1 202 000 000,2006,2848,2005,25.5,2009 est.,9971,2006 est.,10900,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: Acting-President Ratu Epeli NAILATIKAU (since 30 July 2009); note - former President ILOILOVATU announced his retirement in late July and stepped down effective 30 July 2009; Vice President Ratu Epeli NAILATIKAU will serve as acting-president pending the selection of a new president head of government: Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE (since 10 September 2000); note - although QARASE is still the legal prime minister he has been confined to his home island; former President ILOILOVATU appointed Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA interim prime minister under the military regime cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament; note - coup leader Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA has appointed an interim cabinet elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president; election last held 8 March 2006 election results: Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda elected president by the Great Council of Chiefs; percent of vote - NA,1.69,NA,1.2,2007 census,$ 522 200 000,31 December 2007,4.1,2008,28,2008,13.0,2005,25.5,FY90/91,,,0.0,2007 est.,1016000000,2006 est.,name: Suva (on Viti Levu) geographic coordinates: 18 08 S 178 25 E time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Fiji became independent in 1970 after nearly a century as a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). The coups and a 1990 constitution that cemented native Melanesian control of Fiji led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. A new constitution enacted in 1997 was more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo-Fijian but a civilian-led coup in May 2000 ushered in a prolonged period of political turmoil. Parliamentary elections held in August 2001 provided Fiji with a democratically elected government led by Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE. Re-elected in May 2006 QARASE was ousted in a December 2006 military coup led by Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA who initially appointed himself acting president but in January 2007 became interim prime minister. Since taking power BAINIMARAMA has neutralized his opponents crippled Fiji's democratic institutions and refused to hold elections.,30.0,2001 est.,sugar garments gold timber fish molasses coconut oil,9.01,31 December 2007,5.66,July 2009 est.,,,$ 3 783 000 000,2008 est.,$ 6 702 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,,,4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central Eastern Northern Rotuma* Western,28.6,1987,0.07,2000,sugarcane coconuts cassava (tapioca) rice sweet potatoes bananas; cattle pigs horses goats; fish,Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF): Land Forces Naval Forces (2009),21.92,2009 est.,6.5,2004,$ 1 363 000 000,2006,tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation,manufactured goods machinery and transport equipment petroleum products food chemicals,Dodonu Ni Taukei Party or DNT [Fereti S. DEWA]; Fiji Democratic Party or FDP [Filipe BOLE] (a merger of the Christian Democrat Alliance or VLV [Poesci Waqalevu BUNE] Fijian Association Party or FAP Fijian Political Party or SVT (primarily Fijian) [Sitiveni RABUKA] and New Labor Unity Party or NLUP [Ofa SWANN]); Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]; General Voters Party or GVP (became part of United General Party); Girmit Heritage Party or GHP; Justice and Freedom Party or AIM; Lio 'On Famor Rotuma Party or LFR; National Federation Party or NFP (primarily Indian) [Pramond RAE]; Nationalist Vanua Takolavo Party or NVTLP [Saula TELAWA]; Party of National Unity or PANU [Ponipate LESAVUA]; Party of the Truth or POTT; United Fiji Party/Sogosogo Duavata ni Lewenivanua or SDL [Laisenia QARASE]; United Peoples Party or UPP [Millis Mick BEDDOES],944720,July 2009 est.,noun: Fijian(s) adjective: Fijian,timber fish gold copper offshore oil potential hydropower,-2.47,2009 est.,includes 332 islands; approximately 110 are inhabited,Group Against Racial Discrimination or GARD [Dr. Anirudk SINGH] (for restoration of a democratic government); Viti Landowners Association,Fiji endowed with forest mineral and fish resources is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports remittances from Fijians working abroad and a growing tourist industry - with 400 000 to 500 000 tourists annually - are the major sources of foreign exchange. Fiji's sugar has special access to European Union markets but will be harmed by the EU's decision to cut sugar subsidies. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity but is not efficient. Fiji's tourism industry was damaged by the December 2006 coup and is facing an uncertain recovery time. In 2007 tourist arrivals were down almost 6% with substantial job losses in the service sector and GDP dipped nearly 7%. The coup has created a difficult business climate. The EU has suspended all aid until the interim government takes steps toward new elections. Long-term problems include low investment uncertain land ownership rights and the government's inability to manage its budget. Overseas remittances from Fijians working in Kuwait and Iraq have decreased significantly. Fiji's current account deficit reached 23% of GDP in 2006.,437000,2007,10 October 1970 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0.3,2007 census,$ -507 000 000,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,1.6,NA,$ 1 948 000 000,31 December 2007,,,192363.0,2009 est.,Independence Day second Monday of October (1970),9,2008,0.0,NA,cyclonic storms can occur from November to January,slightly smaller than New Jersey,93.7,2003 est.,70.73,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (32 seats; 14 appointed by the president on the advice of the Great Council of Chiefs 9 appointed by the president on the advice of the Prime Minister 8 on the advice of the opposition leader and 1 appointed on the advice of the council of Rotuma) and the House of Representatives (71 seats; 23 reserved for ethnic Fijians 19 reserved for ethnic Indians 3 reserved for other ethnic groups 1 reserved for the council of Rotuma constituency encompassing the whole of Fiji and 25 open seats; members serve five-year terms) elections: House of Representatives - last held 6-13 May 2006 (next to be held in 2011) election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - SDL 44.6% FLP 39.2% UPP 0.8% independents 4.9% other 10.5%; seats by party - SDL 36 FLP 31 UPP 2 independents 2,based on British system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP ADB C (suspended) CP FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA OPCW PCA PIF Sparteca SPC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNMIS UNMIT UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,238556.0,2008 est.,2.2,2005 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Law of the Sea Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,deforestation; soil erosion,7.0,2008,1.0,2008,928000000,2007 est.,597,2008,Lautoka Suva,21.0,NA,,,mostly mountains of volcanic origin,general assessment: modern local interisland and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone telegraph and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center domestic: telephone or radio telephone links to almost all inhabited islands; most towns and large villages have automatic telephone exchanges and direct dialing; combined fixed and mobile-cellular density is about 60 per 100 persons international: country code - 679; access to important cable links between US and Canada as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth stations - 2 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean) (2007),2.65,2009 est.,7.6,1999,republic,light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane a palm tree bananas and a white dove,,$ 3 120 000 000,2006,3440,2000,1.38,2009 est.,1.2,2008 est.,,,$ 3 616 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador C. Steven McGANN embassy: 31 Loftus Street Suva mailing address: P. O. Box 218 Suva telephone: [679] 331-4466 FAX: [679] 330-0081,$ 3 900,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Bangladesh,70860000,2008 est.,Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president),3.08,2005,193.0,NA,59.02,2009 est.,cotton textiles jute garments tea processing paper newsprint cement chemical fertilizer light engineering sugar,8370,2007,8.9,2008 est.,,,.bd,0.1,2001 est.,12000,2007 est.,500,2007 est.,1187000,2007,0.9,2009 est.,500000,2007,15.0,1999,24 00 N 90 00 E,4.0,2009 est.,2.0,2006,19.1,2008 est.,discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary exchange territory for 51 small Bangladeshi exclaves in India and 111 small Indian exclaves in Bangladesh allocate divided villages and stop illegal cross-border trade migration violence and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesh protests India's fencing and walling off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; a joint Bangladesh-India boundary commission resurveyed and reconstructed 92 missing pillars in 2007; dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; after 21 years Bangladesh resumes talks with Burma on delimiting a maritime boundary,143998,NA,47250.0,2003,Asia,Southern Asia bordering the Bay of Bengal between Burma and India,conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh conventional short form: Bangladesh local long form: Gana Prajatantri Banladesh local short form: Banladesh former: East Bengal East Pakistan,580.0,NA,4.1,2008,4 November 1972; effective 16 December 1972; suspended following coup of 24 March 1982; restored 10 November 1986; amended many times,chief of mission: Ambassador M. Humayun KABIR chancery: 3510 International Drive NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183 FAX: [1] (202) 244-7830/2771 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles New York,1538865.0,2009 est.,33.2,2005,6746,2007 est.,$ 21 520 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 13 970 000 000,2008 est.,1351,2005,23.3,2009 est.,89940,2006 est.,83220,2005,28000000,1 January 2008 est.,141600000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Zillur RAHMAN (since 12 February 2009) head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wajed (since 6 January 2009) cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last election held on 11 February 2009 (next scheduled election to be held in 2014) election results: Zillur RAHMAN declared president-elect by the Election Commission on 11 February 2009 (sworn in on 12 February); he ran unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA,59.51,NA,2.0,1998,$ 6 793 000 000,31 December 2007,4.7,2008,17,2008,8.0,2004,45.0,2004 est.,4.3,2005,0.0,2007 est.,21370000000,2006 est.,name: Dhaka geographic coordinates: 23 43 N 90 24 E time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh in the 16th century; eventually the British came to dominate the region and it became part of British India. In 1947 West Pakistan and East Bengal (both primarily Muslim) separated from India (largely Hindu) and jointly became the new country of Pakistan. East Bengal became East Pakistan in 1955 but the awkward arrangement of a two-part country with its territorial units separated by 1 600 km left the Bengalis marginalized and dissatisfied. East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan in 1971 and was renamed Bangladesh. A military-backed emergency caretaker regime suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. In contrast to the strikes and violent street rallies that had marked Bangladeshi politics in previous years the parliamentary elections finally held in late December 2008 were mostly peaceful. Sheikh HASINA Wajed was reappointed prime minister. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season hampering economic development.,11.0,FY95/96,garments jute and jute goods leather frozen fish and seafood,16.0,31 December 2007,9.23,July 2009 est.,2597.0,2008,$ 83 040 000 000,2008 est.,$ 5 971 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 97 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,6 divisions; Barisal Chittagong Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi Sylhet,1210.6,1999,79.4,2000,rice jute tea wheat sugarcane potatoes tobacco pulses oilseeds spices fruit; beef milk poultry,Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army (Sena Bahini) Bangladesh Navy (Noh Bahini BN) Bangladesh Air Force (Biman Bahini BAF) (2009),24.68,2009 est.,2.7,2005,$ 8 825 000 000,2008 est.,tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot humid summer (March to June); humid warm rainy monsoon (June to October),machinery and equipment chemicals iron and steel textiles foodstuffs petroleum products cement,Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Manjurul A. KHAN]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh or JIB [Matiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY and Oli AHMED],156050883,July 2009 est.,noun: Bangladeshi(s) adjective: Bangladeshi,natural gas arable land timber coal,-2.53,2009 est.,most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal,Advocacy to End Gender-based Violence through the MoWCA (Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs) other: environmentalists; Islamist groups; religious leaders; teachers; union leaders,The economy has grown 5-6% per year since 1996 despite inefficient state-owned enterprises delays in exploiting natural gas resources insufficient power supplies and slow implementation of economic reforms. Bangladesh remains a poor overpopulated and inefficiently-governed nation. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector with rice as the single-most-important product. Garment exports and remittances from Bangladeshis working overseas mainly in the Middle East and East Asia fuel economic growth. In 2008 Bangladesh pursued a monetary policy aimed at maintaining high employment but created higher inflation in the process.,34370000,2007,16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,15700000000,2007 est.,1.0,1998,$ 628 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,3.5,NA,$ 40 100 000 000,31 December 2007,,,24946041.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh,40,2008,0.0,NA,droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season,slightly smaller than Iowa,47.9,2001 Census,60.25,2009 est.,unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies; members serve five-year terms elections: last held 29 December 2008 (next to be held in 2013) election results: percent of vote by party - AL 49% BNP 33.2% JP 7% JIB 4.6% other 6.2%; seats by party - AL 230 BNP 30 JP 27 JIB 2 other 11,based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ADB ARF BIMSTEC C CP FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt (signatory) ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINURCAT MINURSO MONUC NAM OIC OPCW SAARC SACEP UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMIL UNMIS UNMIT UNOCI UNOMIG UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,41199340.0,2008 est.,1.5,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution especially of fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,22780000000,2007 est.,2768,2008,Chittagong Mongla Port,18.0,NA,6.9,2008 est.,mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast,general assessment: inadequate for a modern country; fixed-line telephone density remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and is approaching 25 per 100 persons domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links and some fiber-optic cable in cities international: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe the Middle East and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2007),2.74,2009 est.,2.5,2008 est.,parliamentary democracy,green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh,transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries,$ 19 590 000 000,2008 est.,239226,2003,1.29,2009 est.,4.9,2008 est.,,,$ 224 000 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador James F. MORIARTY embassy: Madani Avenue Baridhara Dhaka 1212 mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323 Dhaka 1000 telephone: [880] (2) 885-5500 FAX: [880] (2) 882-3744,$ 1 500,2008 est.,15700000000,2007 est.
Eritrea,,,High Court - regional subregional and village courts; also have military and special courts,0.03,2005,109.0,NA,43.33,2009 est.,food processing beverages clothing and textiles light manufacturing salt cement,,,18.0,2008 est.,,,.er,1.3,2007 est.,38000,2007 est.,2600,2007 est.,37500,2006,0.84,2009 est.,120000,2007,2.0,2006,15 00 N 39 00 E,3.6,2009 est.,2.0,2000,17.4,2008 est.,Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) which has monitored the 25-km-wide Temporary Security Zone in Eritrea since 2000 is extended for six months in 2007 despite Eritrean restrictions on its operations and reduced force of 17 000; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups,117600,NA,210.0,2003,Africa,Eastern Africa bordering the Red Sea between Djibouti and Sudan,conventional long form: State of Eritrea conventional short form: Eritrea local long form: Hagere Ertra local short form: Ertra former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia,2234.0,NA,5.0,2008,adopted on 23 May 1997 but has not yet been fully implemented,chief of mission: Ambassador GHIRMAI Ghebremariam chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW Washington DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991 FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304 consulate(s) general: Oakland (California),62265.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 311 000 000,2000 est.,$ 13 000 000,2008 est.,55,2005,18.4,2009 est.,5186,2006 est.,4924,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993) cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority; members appointed by the president elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); the most recent and only election held 8 June 1993 (next election date uncertain as the National Assembly did not hold a presidential election in December 2001 as anticipated) election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95% other 5%,13.79,NA,3.0,NA,,,5.4,2008,14,2008,4.0,2004,50.0,2004 est.,,,0.0,2007 est.,216000000,2006 est.,name: Asmara (Asmera) geographic coordinates: 15 20 N 38 56 E time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),"Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a federation. Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. Eritrea hosted a UN peacekeeping operation that monitored a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) on the border with Ethiopia. Eritrea's denial of fuel to the mission caused the UN to withdraw the mission and terminate its mandate 31 July 2008. An international commission organized to resolve the border dispute posted its findings in 2002. However both parties have been unable to reach agreement on implementing the decision. On 30 November 2007 the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission remotely demarcated the border by coordinates and dissolved itself leaving Ethiopia still occupying several tracts of disputed territory including the town of Badme. Eritrea accepted the EEBC's ""virtual demarcation"" decision and called on Ethiopia to remove its troops from the TSZ which it states is Eritrean territory. Ethiopia has not accepted the virtual demarcation decision.",20.0,2004 est.,livestock sorghum textiles food small manufactures,,,8.43,July 2009 est.,,,$ 1 479 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,6 regions (zobatat singular - zoba); Anseba Debub (Southern) Debubawi K'eyih Bahri (Southern Red Sea) Gash Barka Ma'akel (Central) Semenawi Keyih Bahri (Northern Red Sea),6.3,2001,0.3,2000,sorghum lentils vegetables corn cotton tobacco sisal; livestock goats; fish,Eritrean Armed Forces: Ground Forces Navy Air Force (2008),34.2,2009 est.,2.4,2006,$ 234 600 000,2008 est.,hot dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands,machinery petroleum products food manufactured goods,People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afworki] (the only party recognized by the government); note - a National Assembly committee drafted a law on political parties in January 2001 but the full National Assembly has yet to debate or vote on it,5647168,July 2009 est.,noun: Eritrean(s) adjective: Eritrean,gold potash zinc copper salt possibly oil and natural gas fish,,,strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993,Eritrean Democratic Party (EDP) [HAGOS Mesfin]; Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ (includes Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement or EIJM also known as the Abu Sihel Movement); Eritrean Islamic Salvation or EIS (also known as the Arafa Movement); Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean National Alliance or ENA (a coalition including EIJ EIS ELF and a number of ELF factions) [HERUY Tedla Biru]; Eritrean Public Forum or EPF [ARADOM Iyob],Since independence from Ethiopia in 1993 Eritrea has faced the economic problems of a small desperately poor country accentuated by the recent implementation of restrictive economic policies. Eritrea has a command economy under the control of the sole political party the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ). Like the economies of many African nations the economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture with 80% of the population involved in farming and herding. The Ethiopian-Eritrea war in 1998-2000 severely hurt Eritrea's economy. GDP growth fell to zero in 1999 and to -12.1% in 2000. The May 2000 Ethiopian offensive into northern Eritrea caused some $600 million in property damage and loss including losses of $225 million in livestock and 55 000 homes. The attack prevented planting of crops in Eritrea's most productive region causing food production to drop by 62%. Despite the fighting Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure asphalting new roads improving its ports and repairing war-damaged roads and bridges. Since the war's conclusion the government has maintained a firm grip on the economy expanding the use of the military and party-owned businesses to complete Eritrea's development agenda. The government strictly controls the use of foreign currency by limiting access and availability. Few private enterprises remain in Eritrea. Eritrea's economy depends heavily on taxes paid by members of the diaspora. Erratic rainfall and the delayed demobilization of agriculturalists from the military continue to interfere with agricultural production and Eritrea's recent harvests have been unable to meet the food needs of the country. The Government continues to place its hope for additional revenue on the development of several international mining projects. Despite difficulties for international companies in working with the Eritrean Government a Canadian mining company signed a contract with the Government in 2007 and plans to begin mineral extraction in 2010. Eritrea also opened a free trade zone at the port of Massawa in 2008. Eritrea's economic future depends upon its ability to master social problems such as illiteracy unemployment and low skills and more importantly on the government's willingness to support a true market economy.,70000,2007,24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,,,$ -229 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,5.4,NA,$ 1 711 000 000,31 December 2007,,,834018.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 24 May (1993),5,2008,-75.0,NA,frequent droughts; locust swarms,slightly larger than Pennsylvania,58.6,2003 est.,61.78,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: in May 1997 following the adoption of the new constitution 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF) 60 members of the 527-member Constituent Assembly which had been established in 1997 to discuss and ratify the new constitution and 15 representatives of Eritreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as the country's legislative body until countrywide elections to a National Assembly were held; although only 75 of 150 members of the Transitional National Assembly were elected the constitution stipulates that once past the transition stage all members of the National Assembly will be elected by secret ballot of all eligible voters; National Assembly elections scheduled for December 2001 were postponed indefinitely,primary basis is the Ethiopian legal code of 1957 with revisions; new civil commercial and penal codes have not yet been promulgated; government also issues unilateral proclamations setting laws and policies; also relies on customary and post-independence-enacted laws and for civil cases involving Muslims Islamic law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP AfDB AU COMESA FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt (signatory) IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS (observer) ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC ISO (correspondent) ITU ITUC LAS (observer) MIGA NAM OPCW PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO,12.0,NA,1096120.0,2008 est.,6.3,2006 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Ozone Layer Protection signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare,1.0,2008,2.0,2008,253000000,2006 est.,306,2008,Assab Massawa,18.0,NA,2.0,2008 est.,dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands descending on the east to a coastal desert plain on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains,general assessment: inadequate; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular subscribership is only about 2 per 100 persons domestic: inadequate; most telephones are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system (2002) international: country code - 291; note - international connections exist,4.72,2009 est.,,,transitional government note: following a successful referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993 a National Assembly composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature; the constitution ratified in May 1997 did not enter into effect pending parliamentary and presidential elections; parliamentary elections were scheduled in December 2001 but were postponed indefinitely; currently the sole legal party is the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ),red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle,,$ 601 000 000,2008 est.,4010,2000,2.58,2009 est.,2.0,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 3 946 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald MCMULLEN embassy: 179 Ala Street Asmara mailing address: P. O. Box 211 Asmara telephone: [291] (1) 120004 FAX: [291] (1) 127584,$ 700,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Solomon Islands,202500,2007,Court of Appeal,0.62,2005,0.0,NA,19.03,2009 est.,fish (tuna) mining timber,,,6.3,2007 est.,,,.sb,,,,,,,7600,2006,0.9,2009 est.,8000,2006,,,8 00 S 159 00 E,3.5,2009 est.,1.0,2004,11.0,2005 est.,since 2003 RAMSI consisting of police military and civilian advisors drawn from 15 countries has assisted in reestablishing and maintaining civil and political order while reinforcing regional stability and security,28896,NA,,,Oceania,Oceania group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean east of Papua New Guinea,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Solomon Islands local long form: none local short form: Solomon Islands former: British Solomon Islands,5313.0,NA,4.2,2008,7 July 1978,chief of mission: Ambassador Collin David BECK chancery: 800 Second Avenue Suite 400L New York NY 10017 telephone: [1] (212) 599-6192 6193 FAX: [1] (212) 661-8925,6837.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 166 000 000,2004,$ 237 000 000,2006,0,2005,19.7,2009 est.,1320,2006 est.,1426,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Frank KABUI (since 7 July 2009) head of government: Prime Minister Derek SIKUA (since 20 December 2007); note - Prime Minister Manasseh SOGAVARE defeated in a no confidence vote in parliament on 13 December 2007; SIKUA elected on 20 December 2007 cabinet: Cabinet consists of 20 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of parliament for up to five years (eligible for a second term); following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of parliament,7.34,NA,0.2,1999 census,,,5.3,2008,35,2008,8.0,2005,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,70000000,2007 est.,name: Honiara geographic coordinates: 9 26 S 159 57 E time difference: UTC+11 (16 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),The UK established a protectorate over the Solomon Islands in the 1890s. Some of the most bitter fighting of World War II occurred on this archipelago. Self-government was achieved in 1976 and independence two years later. Ethnic violence government malfeasance and endemic crime have undermined stability and civil society. In June 2003 then Prime Minister Sir Allan KEMAKEZA sought the assistance of Australia in reestablishing law and order; the following month an Australian-led multinational force arrived to restore peace and disarm ethnic militias. The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI) has generally been effective in restoring law and order and rebuilding government institutions.,5.0,2000 est.,timber fish copra palm oil cocoa,14.12,31 December 2007,3.77,July 2009 est.,,,$ 460 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,9 provinces and 1 capital territory*; Central Choiseul Guadalcanal Honiara* Isabel Makira Malaita Rennell and Bellona Temotu Western,44.7,1987,,,cocoa beans coconuts palm kernels rice potatoes vegetables fruit; timber; cattle pigs; fish,no regular military forces; Solomon Islands Police Force (2009),27.69,2009 est.,3.3,1999,$ 49 700 000,2003,tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather,food plant and equipment manufactured goods fuels chemicals,Association of Independent Members or AIM [Thomas CHAN]; Christian Alliance Solomon Islands or CASI [Edward RONIA]; LAFARI Party [John GARO]; National Party [Francis HILLY]; People's Alliance Party or PAP [Sir Allan KEMAKEZA]; Social Credit Party or SOCRED [Manasseh Damukana SOGAVARE]; Solomon First Party [David QUAN]; Solomon Islands Democratic Party [Gabriel SURI]; Solomon Islands Labor Party or SILP [Joses TUHANUKU]; Solomon Islands Liberal Party [Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU]; Solomon Islands Party for Rural Advancement or SIPRA [Job D. TAUSINGA]; United Party [Sir Peter KENILOREA] note: in general Solomon Islands politics is characterized by fluid coalitions,595613,July 2009 est.,noun: Solomon Islander(s) adjective: Solomon Islander,fish forests gold bauxite phosphates lead zinc nickel,,,strategic location on sea routes between the South Pacific Ocean the Solomon Sea and the Coral Sea; on 2 April 2007 an undersea earthquake measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale occurred 345 km WNW of the capital Honiara; the resulting tsunami devastated coastal areas of Western and Choiseul provinces with dozens of deaths and thousands dislocated; the provincial capital of Gizo was especially hard hit,Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM); Malaita Eagle Force (MEF); note - these rival armed ethnic factions crippled the Solomon Islands in a wave of violence from 1999 to 2003,The bulk of the population depends on agriculture fishing and forestry for at least part of its livelihood. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead zinc nickel and gold. Prior to the arrival of RAMSI severe ethnic violence the closing of key businesses and an empty government treasury culminated in economic collapse. RAMSI's efforts to restore law and order and economic stability have led to modest growth as the economy rebuilds.,10900,2007,7 July 1978 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0.2,1999 census,$ -143 000 000,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,4.1,NA,$ 126 500 000,31 December 2007,,,121368.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 7 July (1978),,,0.0,NA,typhoons but rarely destructive; geologically active region with frequent earthquakes tremors and volcanic activity; tsunamis,slightly smaller than Maryland,,,73.69,2009 est.,unicameral National Parliament (50 seats; members elected from single-member constituencies by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held on 5 April 2006 (next to be held in 2010) election results: percent of vote by party - National Party 6.9% PAP 6.3% SIPRA 6.3% Liberal 5% Democratic 4.9% SOCRED 4.3% LAFARI 2.8% independents 60.3%; seats by party - National Party 4 SIPRA 4 Democratic 3 PAP 3 LAFARI 2 Liberal 2 SOCRED 2 independents 30,English common law which is widely disregarded; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP ADB C ESCAP FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICCt (signatory) ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO IOC ITU MIGA OPCW PIF Sparteca SPC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UPU WHO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,141051.0,2008 est.,3.0,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Environmental Modification Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,deforestation; soil erosion; many of the surrounding coral reefs are dead or dying,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,70000000,2007 est.,,,Honiara Malloco Bay Viru Harbor,21.0,NA,,,mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls,general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 677; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean),3.52,2009 est.,,,parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm,divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is green,,$ 256 000 000,2006,1360,2002,2.39,2009 est.,7.3,2008 est.,3.0,2007,$ 1 078 000 000,2008 est.,the US does not have an embassy in Solomon Islands (embassy closed July 1993); the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to the Solomon Islands,$ 1 900,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Turks and Caicos Islands,4848,1990 est.,Supreme Court; Court of Appeal,0.0,2005,0.0,NA,13.89,2009 est.,tourism offshore financial services,,,4.0,1995,,,.tc,,,,,,,5700,2002,0.95,2009 est.,,,0.0,2003,21 45 N 71 35 W,4.2,2009 est.,0.0,2003,,,have received Haitians fleeing economic and civil disorder,948,NA,,,Central America and the Caribbean,Caribbean two island groups in the North Atlantic Ocean southeast of The Bahamas north of Haiti,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Turks and Caicos Islands abbreviation: TCI,389.0,NA,,,Turks and Caicos Islands Constitution (Interim Amendment) Order 2009 S.I. 2009/701 - effective 14 August 2009 - suspended Ministerial government the House of Assembly and the constitutional right to trial by jury and imposed direct British rule,none (overseas territory of the UK),218.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,,,$ 169 200 000,2000,0,2005,27.9,2009 est.,80,2006 est.,84,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Gordon WETHERELL (since 5 August 2008) head of government: Governor Gordon WETHERELL (since 14 August 2009); note - the office of premier is suspended by the Order in Council effective 14 August 2009 cabinet: under provisions of the Order in Council the cabinet is suspended effective 14 August 2009 and replaced by an Advisory Council appointed by the governor elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch note: following an investigation into allegations of widespread corruption and misconduct within the Turks and Caicos Government the UK foreign minister directed the governor to bring into effect on 14 August 2009 an Order in Council suspending Ministerial government and the House of Assembly and imposing direct rule for a period of up to two years,,,10.0,NA,,,,,8,2008,11.0,2005,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,9300000,2006 est.,name: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town) geographic coordinates: 21 28 N 71 08 W time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October,The islands were part of the UK's Jamaican colony until 1962 when they assumed the status of a separate crown colony upon Jamaica's independence. The governor of The Bahamas oversaw affairs from 1965 to 1973. With Bahamian independence the islands received a separate governor in 1973. Although independence was agreed upon for 1982 the policy was reversed and the islands remain a British overseas territory.,,,lobster dried and fresh conch conch shells,,,4.18,July 2009 est.,,,,,,,,,none (overseas territory of the UK),,,,,corn beans cassava (tapioca) citrus fruits; fish,,20.79,2009 est.,,,$ 33 600 000,1997-98 est.,tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry,food and beverages tobacco clothing manufactures construction materials,People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Floyd SEYMOUR]; Progressive National Party or PNP [Michael Eugene MISICK],22942,July 2009 est.,noun: none adjective: none,spiny lobster conch,9.02,2009 est.,about 40 islands (eight inhabited),NA,The Turks and Caicos economy is based on tourism offshore financial services and fishing. Most capital goods and food for domestic consumption are imported. The US is the leading source of tourists accounting for more than three-quarters of the 175 000 visitors that arrived in 2004. Major sources of government revenue also include fees from offshore financial activities and customs receipts.,1700,1999,none (overseas territory of the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,12.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,2.2,NA,,,,,4648.0,2009 est.,Constitution Day 30 August (1976),1,2008,0.0,NA,frequent hurricanes,2.5 times the size of Washington DC,98.0,1970 est.,75.42,2009 est.,under provisions of the Order in Council the unicameral House of Assembly is dissolved and all seats vacated for a period of up to two years; in the interim a Consultative Forum appointed by the governor will be established elections: last held 9 February 2007 (next to be held by July 2011) election results: under provisions of the Order in Council all seats in the House of Assembly are vacated,based on laws of England and Wales with a few adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas,Caricom (associate) CDB Interpol (subbureau) UPU,12.0,NA,,,,,,limited natural fresh water resources private cisterns collect rainwater,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,10000000,2006 est.,,,Grand Turk Providenciales,18.0,NA,,,low flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps,general assessment: fully digital system with international direct dialing domestic: full range of services available; GSM wireless service available international: country code - 1-649; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber optic telecommunications submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America parts of the Caribbean and the US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean),2.95,2009 est.,10.0,1997 est.,NA,blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield is yellow and contains a conch shell lobster and cactus,transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe,,,121,2003,2.56,2009 est.,4.9,2000 est.,,,$ 216 000 000,2002 est.,none (overseas territory of the UK),$ 11 500,2002 est.,0,2007 est.
Saint Lucia,79700,2007,Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (consists of a High Court and a Court of Appeals; based on Saint Lucia; three judges of the Supreme Court reside in Saint Lucia); member of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ),6.45,2005,0.0,NA,13.43,2009 est.,clothing assembly of electronic components beverages corrugated cardboard boxes tourism; lime processing coconut processing,,,1.9,2007 est.,,,.lc,,,,,,,51100,2002,0.82,2009 est.,110000,2007,2.0,2003,13 53 N 60 58 W,9.2,2009 est.,0.0,2003,5.0,2005 est.,joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation a criterion under UNCLOS which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea,616,NA,30.0,2003,Central America and the Caribbean,Caribbean island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean north of Trinidad and Tobago,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Saint Lucia,158.0,NA,7.5,2008,22 February 1979,chief of mission: Ambassador Michael LOUIS chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW Washington DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 364-6792 through 6795 FAX: [1] (202) 364-6723 consulate(s) general: Miami New York,1511.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 257 000 000,2004,$ 288 000 000,2006,0,2005,29.8,2009 est.,2780,2006 est.,2631,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Dame Pearlette LOUISY (since September 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Stephenson KING (since 9 September 2007); note - Sir John COMPTON died in office 7 September 2007 cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general,2.7,NA,2.4,2001 census,,,4.8,2008,2,2008,13.0,2006,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,289200000,2006 est.,name: Castries geographic coordinates: 14 01 N 61 00 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),The island with its fine natural harbor at Castries was contested between England and France throughout the 17th and early 18th centuries (changing possession 14 times); it was finally ceded to the UK in 1814. Even after the abolition of slavery on its plantations in 1834 Saint Lucia remained an agricultural island dedicated to producing tropical commodity crops. Self-government was granted in 1967 and independence in 1979.,21.7,2002 est.,bananas 41% clothing cocoa vegetables fruits coconut oil,8.34,31 December 2007,6.8,July 2009 est.,,,$ 1 031 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,11 quarters; Anse-la-Raye Castries Choiseul Dauphin Dennery Gros-Islet Laborie Micoud Praslin Soufriere Vieux-Fort,,,0.01,1997,bananas coconuts vegetables citrus root crops cocoa,no regular military forces; Royal Saint Lucia Police Force (includes Special Service Unit and Coast Guard) (2007),15.1,2009 est.,6.6,2006,$ 141 200 000,2000 est.,tropical moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season January to April rainy season May to August,food 23% manufactured goods 21% machinery and transportation equipment 19% chemicals fuels,National Alliance or NA [George ODLUM]; Saint Lucia Freedom Party or SFP [Martinus FRANCOIS]; Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Kenneth ANTHONY]; Sou Tout Apwe Fete Fini or STAFF [Christopher HUNTE]; United Workers Party or UWP [Stephenson KING],160267,July 2009 est.,noun: Saint Lucian(s) adjective: Saint Lucian,forests sandy beaches minerals (pumice) mineral springs geothermal potential,-4.14,2009 est.,the twin Pitons (Gros Piton and Petit Piton) striking cone-shaped peaks south of Soufriere are one of the scenic natural highlights of the Caribbean,NA,The island nation has been able to attract foreign business and investment especially in its offshore banking and tourism industries with a surge in foreign direct investment in 2006 attributed to the construction of several tourism projects. Although crops such as bananas mangos and avocados continue to be grown for export tourism provides Saint Lucia's main source of income and the industry is the island's biggest employer. The tourism sector is likely to face declining revenues with the global economic downturn as US and European travel declines. The manufacturing sector is the most diverse in the Eastern Caribbean area and the government is trying to revitalize the banana industry although recent hurricanes have caused exports to contract. Saint Lucia is vulnerable to a variety of external shocks including volatile tourism receipts natural disasters and dependence on foreign oil. The public debt-to-GDP ratio is about 70% and high debt servicing obligations constrain the KING administration's ability to respond to adverse external shocks. Economic fundamentals remain solid even though unemployment needs to be reduced.,105700,2005,22 February 1979 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,1.1,2001 census,$ -199 000 000,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,1.4,NA,$ 1 217 000 000,31 December 2007,,,32094.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 22 February (1979),,,0.0,NA,hurricanes; volcanic activity,3.5 times the size of Washington DC,90.1,2001 est.,76.45,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (11 seats; six members appointed on the advice of the prime minister three on the advice of the leader of the opposition and two after consultation with religious economic and social groups) and the House of Assembly (17 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Assembly - last held 11 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2011) election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - UWP 50% SLP 46.9% other 3.1%; seats by party - UWP 11 SLP 6,based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP C Caricom CDB FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICCt (signatory) ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC ISO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM OAS OECS OIF OPANAL OPCW UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,48358.0,2008 est.,,,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,deforestation; soil erosion particularly in the northern region,,,1.0,2008,325000000,2007 est.,,,Castries Cul-de-Sac Vieux-Fort,18.0,NA,,,volcanic and mountainous with some broad fertile valleys,general assessment: adequate system domestic: system is automatically switched international: country code - 1-758; the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and Southern Caribbean fiber optic system (SCF) submarine cables along with Intelsat from Martinique carry calls internationally; direct microwave radio relay link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; tropospheric scatter to Barbados,1.84,2009 est.,20.0,2003 est.,parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm,blue with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the upper edges of the arrowhead have a white border,transit point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe,$ 791 000 000,2006,1210,2002,0.42,2009 est.,2.3,2008 est.,,,$ 1 801 000 000,2008 est.,the US does not have an embassy in Saint Lucia; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Saint Lucia,$ 11 300,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Gaza Strip,267000,2006,,21.0,2002,11.0,NA,18.35,2009 est.,textiles food processing,,,11.5,2008,,,.ps; note - same as West Bank,,,,,,,350400,2007,0.68,2009 est.,355500,2007,1.0,2008,31 25 N 34 20 E,2.6,2009 est.,0.0,2008,8.0,2007 est.,West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel removed settlers and military personnel from the Gaza Strip in August 2005,360,NA,,,Middle East,Middle East bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Egypt and Israel,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Gaza Strip local long form: none local short form: Qita Ghazzah,40.0,NA,,,,,18200.0,2009 est.,,,,,$ 1 300 000 000,2007 est.,$ 339 000 000,2006,,,17.4,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,,3.56,NA,,,,,,,1,2008,13.0,2006,80.0,2007 est.,,,0.0,2008,230000,2005,,The September 1993 Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements provided for a transitional period of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Under a series of agreements signed between May 1994 and September 1999 Israel transferred to the Palestinian Authority (PA) security and civilian responsibility for Palestinian-populated areas of the West Bank and Gaza. Negotiations to determine the permanent status of the West Bank and Gaza stalled following the outbreak of an intifada in September 2000 as Israeli forces reoccupied most Palestinian-controlled areas. In April 2003 the Quartet (US EU UN and Russia) presented a roadmap to a final settlement of the conflict by 2005 based on reciprocal steps by the two parties leading to two states Israel and a democratic Palestine. The proposed date for a permanent status agreement was postponed indefinitely due to violence and accusations that both sides had not followed through on their commitments. Following Palestinian leader Yasir ARAFAT's death in late 2004 Mahmud ABBAS was elected PA president in January 2005. A month later Israel and the PA agreed to the Sharm el-Sheikh Commitments in an effort to move the peace process forward. In September 2005 Israel unilaterally withdrew all its settlers and soldiers and dismantled its military facilities in the Gaza Strip and withdrew settlers and redeployed soldiers from four small northern West Bank settlements. Nonetheless Israel controls maritime airspace and most access to the Gaza Strip. A November 2005 PA-Israeli agreement authorized the reopening of the Rafah border crossing between the Gaza Strip and Egypt under joint PA and Egyptian control. In January 2006 the Islamic Resistance Movement HAMAS won control of the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC). The international community refused to accept the HAMAS-led government because it did not recognize Israel would not renounce violence and refused to honor previous peace agreements between Israel and the PA. HAMAS took control of the PA government in March 2006 but President ABBAS had little success negotiating with HAMAS to present a political platform acceptable to the international community so as to lift economic sanctions on Palestinians. The PLC was unable to convene throughout most of 2006 as a result of Israel's detention of many HAMAS PLC members and Israeli-imposed travel restrictions on other PLC members. Violent clashes took place between Fatah and HAMAS supporters in the Gaza Strip in 2006 and early 2007 resulting in numerous Palestinian deaths and injuries. ABBAS and HAMAS Political Bureau Chief MISHAL in February 2007 signed the Mecca Agreement in Saudi Arabia that resulted in the formation of a Palestinian National Unity Government (NUG) headed by HAMAS member Ismail HANIYA. However fighting continued in the Gaza Strip and in June HAMAS militants succeeded in a violent takeover of all military and governmental institutions in the Gaza Strip. ABBAS dismissed the NUG and through a series of Presidential decrees formed a PA government in the West Bank led by independent Salam FAYYAD. HAMAS rejected the NUG's dismissal and has called for resuming talks with Fatah but ABBAS has ruled out negotiations until HAMAS agrees to a return of PA control over the Gaza Strip and recognizes the FAYYAD-led government. FAYYAD and his PA government initiated a series of security and economic reforms to improve conditions in the West Bank. ABBAS participated in talks with Israel's Prime Minister OLMERT and secured the release of some Palestinian prisoners and previously withheld customs revenue. During a November 2007 international meeting in Annapolis Maryland ABBAS and OLMERT agreed to resume peace negotiations with the goal of reaching a final peace settlement. Late November 2007 through June 2008 witnessed a substantial increase in Israeli-Palestinian violence. An Egyptian-brokered truce in June 2008 between Israel and HAMAS brought about a five-month pause in hostilities but spiraling end-of-year violence culminated with massive Israeli air assaults on HAMAS installations in late December followed by Israeli ground attacks in early January 2009. Israel in mid January unilaterally stopped the attacks and HAMAS responded by suspending rocket and mortar fire. The fighting resulted in the deaths of an estimated 1 100 to 1 400 Palestinians and left tens of thousands of people homeless. International donors pledged $4.5 billion in aid to rebuild the Gaza Strip but by mid-May 2009 only a small fraction of the aid had been delivered.,5.0,June 2008,citrus flowers textiles,7.73,31 December 2006,3.44,July 2009 est.,,,$ 6 641 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,,olives citrus fruit vegetables flowers beef dairy products,Palestinian Authority security forces have operated only in the West Bank not in the Gaza Strip since Hamas seized power in June 2007; law and order and other security functions are performed by Hamas security organizations (2008),36.93,2009 est.,,,$ 1 149 000 000,2006,temperate mild winters dry and warm to hot summers,food consumer goods construction materials,,1551859,July 2009 est.,noun: NA adjective: NA,arable land natural gas,0.0,2009 est.,strategic strip of land along Mideast-North African trade routes has experienced an incredibly turbulent history; the town of Gaza itself has been besieged countless times in its history,,High population density limited land access and strict internal and external security controls have kept economic conditions in the Gaza Strip - the smaller of the two areas under the Palestinian Authority (PA) - even more degraded than in the West Bank. The beginning of the second intifada in September 2000 sparked an economic downturn largely the result of Israeli closure policies; these policies which were imposed to address security concerns in Israel disrupted labor and trade access to and from the Gaza Strip. In 2001 and even more severely in 2003 Israeli military measures in PA areas resulted in the destruction of capital the disruption of administrative structures and widespread business closures. The Israeli withdrawal from the Gaza Strip in September 2005 offered some medium-term opportunities for economic growth but Israeli-imposed crossings closures which became more restrictive after HAMAS violently took over the territory in June 2007 have resulted in widespread private sector layoffs and shortages of most goods. The status of the crossings which are closed to all but the most basic goods has not changed following Israel's military offensive into the Gaza Strip in early 2009.,1026000,2007,,,,,,,,0.7,NA,,,,,,,,,,,90000.0,2005,3.3,NA,$ 368 200 000,31 December 2007,,,297380.0,2009 est.,,,,0.0,NA,droughts,slightly more than twice the size of Washington DC,92.4,2004 est.,73.42,2009 est.,,,,,,337670.0,2008 est.,,,,desertification; salination of fresh water; sewage treatment; water-borne disease; soil degradation; depletion and contamination of underground water resources,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,140000,2005,,,Gaza,,,2.4,2005,flat to rolling sand- and dune-covered coastal plain,general assessment: NA domestic: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for fixed line services; the Palestinian JAWAL company provides cellular services international: country code - 970 (2004),5.03,2009 est.,41.3,June 2008,,,,$ 2 840 000 000,2006,,,3.35,2009 est.,0.8,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 11 950 000 000,2008 est.,,$ 2 900,2008 est.,,
San Marino,22660,2008,Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII,0.0,2005,39.0,NA,5.34,2009 est.,tourism banking textiles electronics ceramics cement wine,,,-3.5,2008,,,.sm,,,,,,,21000,2006,0.76,2009 est.,15400,2006,1.0,1997,43 46 N 12 25 E,16.8,2009 est.,0.0,2008,0.1,2007,none,61,NA,,,Europe,Southern Europe an enclave in central Italy,conventional long form: Republic of San Marino conventional short form: San Marino local long form: Repubblica di San Marino local short form: San Marino,0.0,NA,,,8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution,chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI chancery: 888 27th Street NW Suite 900 Washington DC 20006 telephone: 202-337-2260,160.0,2009 est.,,,,,,,$ 4 628 000 000,2007,,,41.5,2009 est.,,,,,,,,,chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Massimo CENCI and Captain Regent Oscar MINA (for the period 1 April-30 September 2009) head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Antonella MULARONI (since 3 December 2008) cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in March 2009 (next to be held in September 2009); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held 9 November 2008 (next to be held by 2013) election results: Massimo CENCI and Oscar MINA elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Antonella MULARONI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which has 10 other members all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles,0.67,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,name: San Marino geographic coordinates: 43 56 N 12 25 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco) San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy; social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.,0.1,2008 est.,building stone lime wood chestnuts wheat wine baked goods hides ceramics,7.58,31 December 2007,8.48,July 2009 est.,,,$ 850 000 000,2004,,,,,9 municipalities (castelli singular - castello); Acquaviva Borgo Maggiore Chiesanuova Domagnano Faetano Fiorentino Montegiardino San Marino Citta Serravalle,,,,,wheat grapes corn olives; cattle pigs horses beef cheese hides,no regular military forces; Voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari Voluntar) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2008),9.63,2009 est.,,,$ 652 900 000,2006,Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm sunny summers,wide variety of consumer manufactures food,Christian Democrats or PDCS [Pasquale VALENTINI]; Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Democrats of the Center or DdC [Giovanni LONGERNINI]; Freedom List (including NPS and We Sammarinesi or NS [Gabriele GATTEI]; New Socialist Party or NPS [Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats or PDS [Paride ANDREOLI]; Popular Alliance or AP [Carlo FRANCIOSI]; Union of Moderates (including National Alliance or ANS [Glcuco SANSOVINI] and San Marino Populars or pop [Romeo MORRI and Angela VENTURINI]; United Left of SU [Alessandro ROSSI],30324,July 2009 est.,noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural) adjective: Sammarinese,building stone,10.32,2009 est.,landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines,NA,San Marino's economy relies heavily on its tourism and banking industries as well as from the manufacture and export of ceramics clothing fabrics furniture paints spirits tiles and wine. The economy also benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The San Marino government sworn in on 3 December 2008 will continue to work towards an economic cooperation agreement with Italy - a longstanding priority - as well as harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU members. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy which supplies much of its food.,17390,2006,3 September 301,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.9,NA,$ 7 511 000 000,31 December 2007,,,5343.0,2009 est.,Founding of the Republic 3 September (AD 301),,,55.0,NA,NA,about one third times the size of Washington DC,96.0,NA,81.97,2009 est.,unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 9 November 2008 (next to be held by June 2013) election results: percent of vote by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 54.2%: PDCS 31.9% AP 11.5% Freedom List 6.3% San Marino Union of Moderates 4.2%; Reforms and Freedom coalition 45.8%: Party of Socialists and Democrats 32% United Left 8.6% Democrats of the Center 4.9%; seats by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 35: PDCS 22 AP 7 the Freedom List 4 San Marino Union of Moderates 2; Reforms and Freedom coalition 25: Party of Socialists and Democrats 18 United Left 5 Democrats of the Center 2,based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,CE FAO IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM (observer) IPU ITU ITUC OPCW OSCE UN UNCTAD UNESCO Union Latina UNWTO UPU WFTU WHO WIPO,,,6613.0,2008 est.,,,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Desertification Whaling signed but not ratified: Air Pollution,NA,,,,,,,,,,18.0,NA,3.1,2007,rugged mountains,general assessment: adequate connections domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 130 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network,1.36,2009 est.,3.1,2008,republic,two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty),,$ 3 744 000 000,2007,292,2006,1.15,2009 est.,4.3,2007 est.,,,$ 1 662 000 000,2007,the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino,$ 41 900,2007,,
Pacific Ocean,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0 00 N 160 00 W,,,,,,,some maritime disputes (see littoral states),155557000,NA,,,Political Map of the World,body of water between the Southern Ocean Asia Australia and the Western Hemisphere,,135663.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the world's five oceans (followed by the Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean and Arctic Ocean). Strategically important access waterways include the La Perouse Tsugaru Tsushima Taiwan Singapore and Torres Straits. The decision by the International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 to delimit a fifth ocean the Southern Ocean removed the portion of the Pacific Ocean south of 60 degrees south.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,planetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and westerly winds are well-developed patterns modified by seasonal fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America; continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the summer months when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the land and a dry season during the winter months when dry winds blow from the Asian landmass back to the ocean; tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and east Asia from May to December,,,,,,oil and gas fields polymetallic nodules sand and gravel aggregates placer deposits fish,,,the major chokepoints are the Bering Strait Panama Canal Luzon Strait and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the Pacific Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean,,The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the world economy and particularly to those nations its waters directly touch. It provides low-cost sea transportation between East and West extensive fishing grounds offshore oil and gas fields minerals and sand and gravel for the construction industry. In 1996 over 60% of the world's fish catch came from the Pacific Ocean. Exploitation of offshore oil and gas reserves is playing an ever-increasing role in the energy supplies of the US Australia NZ China and Peru. The high cost of recovering offshore oil and gas combined with the wide swings in world prices for oil since 1985 has led to fluctuations in new drillings.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,-10924.0,NA,"surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and earthquake activity sometimes referred to as the ""Pacific Ring of Fire""; subject to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east Asia from May to December (most frequent from July to October); tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico and strike Central America and Mexico from June to October (most common in August and September); cyclical El Nino/La Nina phenomenon occurs in the equatorial Pacific influencing weather in the Western Hemisphere and the western Pacific; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north from October to May; persistent fog in the northern Pacific can be a maritime hazard from June to December",about 15 times the size of the US; covers about 28% of the global surface; almost equal to the total land area of the world,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,endangered marine species include the dugong sea lion sea otter seals turtles and whales; oil pollution in Philippine Sea and South China Sea,,,,,,,,,Bangkok (Thailand) Hong Kong (China) Kao-hsiung (Taiwan) Los Angeles (US) Manila (Philippines) Pusan (South Korea) San Francisco (US) Seattle (US) Shanghai (China) Singapore Sydney (Australia) Vladivostok (Russia) Wellington (NZ) Yokohama (Japan),,,,,surface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a clockwise warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in the southern Pacific by a counterclockwise cool-water gyre; in the northern Pacific sea ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk in winter; in the southern Pacific sea ice from Antarctica reaches its northernmost extent in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific is dominated by the East Pacific Rise while the western Pacific is dissected by deep trenches including the Mariana Trench which is the world's deepest,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Mongolia,1068000,2008,Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president),0.0,2005,3543.0,NA,39.88,2009 est.,construction and construction materials; mining (coal copper molybdenum fluorspar tin tungsten and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing,580,2007,28.0,2008 est.,90.0,1999,.mn,0.1,2007 est.,500,2007 est.,200,2003 est.,148200,2008,0.77,2009 est.,320000,2007,68.0,2008,46 00 N 105 00 E,4.0,2009 est.,4.0,2006,18.8,2008,none,1564116,NA,840.0,2003,Asia,Northern Asia between China and Russia,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Mongolia local long form: none local short form: Mongol Uls former: Outer Mongolia,0.0,NA,6.4,2008,13 January 1992,chief of mission: Ambassador Khasbazaryn BEKHBAT chancery: 2833 M Street NW Washington DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117 FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227 consulate(s) general: New York,27344.0,2009 est.,32.8,2002,3216,2008,$ 1 600 000 000,2008,$ 2 539 000 000,2008,2902,2008,25.3,2009 est.,12780,2008,17680,2008,,,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009) head of government: Prime Minister Sanjaa BAYAR (since 22 November 2007); First Deputy Prime Minister (Norov ALTANKHUYAG (since 20 September 2008); Vice Prime Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 6 December 2007) cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament) elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 24 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2013); following legislative elections leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural election results: in elections in May 2009 Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ elected president; percent of vote - Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ 51.24% Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR 47.44% others 1.32%,1165.0,NA,0.1,2000,$ 412 000 000,31 December 2008,3.2,2008,44,2008,12.0,2006,36.1,2004,2.9,2005,15800000.0,2008,3491000000,2008,name: Ulaanbaatar geographic coordinates: 47 55 N 106 55 E time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia however represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more Mongols live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992 but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party. The prime minister and most cabinet members are MPRP members.,5.0,2008,copper apparel livestock animal products cashmere wool hides fluorspar other nonferrous metals coal,17.54,31 December 2007,6.12,July 2009 est.,,,$ 4 991 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,21 provinces (aymguud singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay Bayanhongor Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan Darhan-Uul Dornod Dornogovi Dundgovi Dzavhan (Zavkhan) Govi-Altay Govisumber Hentiy Hovd Hovsgol Omnogovi Orhon Ovorhangay Selenge Suhbaatar Tov Ulaanbaatar* Uvs,34.8,1999,0.44,2000,wheat barley vegetables forage crops; sheep goats cattle camels horses,Mongolian Armed Forces: Mongolian Army Mongolian Air Force; there is no navy (2009),21.05,2009 est.,5.0,2004,$ 1 710 000 000,2008,desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges),machinery and equipment fuel cars food products industrial consumer goods chemicals building materials sugar tea,Democratic Party or DP [Norov ALTANHUYAG]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Sanjaa BAYAR],3041142,July 2009 est.,noun: Mongolian(s) adjective: Mongolian,oil coal copper molybdenum tungsten phosphates tin nickel zinc fluorspar gold silver iron,,,landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia,other: human rights groups; women's groups,Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits. Copper coal gold molybdenum fluorspar uranium tin and tungsten account for a large part of industrial production and foreign direct investment. Soviet assistance at its height one-third of GDP disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession because of political inaction and natural disasters as well as economic growth because of reform-embracing free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000-02 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices and new gold production. Until late 2008 Mongolia experienced a soaring inflation rate with year-to-year inflation reaching nearly 40% - the highest inflation rate in over a decade. In late 2008 falling commodity prices in this import-reliant country helped lower inflation but by that time the country had begun to feel the effects of the global financial crisis. Falling prices for copper and other mineral exports reduced government revenues and is forcing cuts in spending. The global credit crisis has stalled growth in key sectors especially those that had been fueled by foreign investment. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. Mongolia purchases 95% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Trade with China represents more than half of Mongolia's total external trade - China receives about 70% of Mongolia's exports. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally are sizable but have fallen due to the economic crisis; money laundering is a growing concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on favorable terms. Mongolia which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.,1796000,2008,11 July 1921 (from China),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,4.0,2004,$ -1 000 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,197500000.0,2008,1.2,NA,$ 1 183 000 000,31 December 2007,,,706774.0,2009 est.,Independence Day/Revolution Day 11 July (1921),77,2008,518.0,NA,"dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; ""zud "" which is harsh winter conditions",slightly smaller than Alaska,97.8,2000 census,67.65,2009 est.,unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms elections: last held 29 June 2008 (next to be held in June 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPRP 45 DP 27 others 4; note - 1 seat disputed and unfilled,"blend of Soviet and German systems that employ ""continental"" or ""civil"" code; case-precedent may be used to inform judges but all decisions must refer to the law as written; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction",ADB ARF CP EBRD FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINURSO MONUC NAM OPCW OSCE (partner) SCO (observer) UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNMIL UNMIS UNOMIG UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,,,860669.0,2008 est.,1.4,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation overgrazing and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,3979000000,2008,1810,2008,,18.0,NA,3.0,2006 est.,vast semidesert and desert plains grassy steppe mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central,general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas domestic: very low fixed-line density; there are multiple mobile cellular service providers and subscribership is increasing rapidly; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7,2.23,2009 est.,2.8,2008,parliamentary,"three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side) blue and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem (""soyombo"" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire sun moon earth water and the yin-yang symbol)",,$ 3 615 000 000,2008,49249,2008,1.49,2009 est.,8.9,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 9 557 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Mark C. MINTON embassy: Big Ring Road 11th Micro Region Ulaanbaatar 14171 Mongolia mailing address: PSC 461 Box 300 FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 1021 Ulaanbaatar-13 telephone: [976] (11) 329-095 FAX: [976] (11) 320-776,$ 3 200,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
France,27970000,2008 est.,Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (judges are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of the Judiciary); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (three members appointed by the president three appointed by the president of the National Assembly and three appointed by the president of the Senate); Council of State or Conseil d'Etat,2.03,2005,4.4,NA,3.33,2009 est.,machinery chemicals automobiles metallurgy aircraft electronics; textiles food processing; tourism,3760,2008,2.8,2008 est.,100.0,NA,metropolitan France - .fr; French Guiana - .gf; Guadeloupe - .gp; Martinique - .mq; Reunion - .re,0.4,2007 est.,140000,2007 est.,1600,2007 est.,35533000,2007,0.72,2009 est.,31295000,2007,584.0,1995,metropolitan France: 46 00 N 2 00 E French Guiana: 4 00 N 53 00 W Guadeloupe: 16 15 N 61 35 W Martinique: 14 40 N 61 00 W Reunion: 21 06 S 55 36 E,16.4,2009 est.,2.0,1998,2.0,2008 est.,Madagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India Europa Island Glorioso Islands and Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); France and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia,643427,NA,,,metropolitan France: Europe French Guiana: South America Guadeloupe: Central America and the Caribbean Martinique: Central America and the Caribbean Reunion: World,metropolitan France: Western Europe bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Italy and Spain French Guiana: Northern South America bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Brazil and Suriname Guadeloupe: Caribbean islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean southeast of Puerto Rico Martinique: Caribbean island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean north of Trinidad and Tobago Reunion: Southern Africa island in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar,conventional long form: French Republic conventional short form: France local long form: Republique francaise local short form: France,3427.0,NA,4.3,2008,adopted by referendum 28 September 1958; effective 4 October 1958; amended many times note: amended concerning election of president in 1962; amended to comply with provisions of 1992 EC Maastricht Treaty 1997 Amsterdam Treaty 2003 Treaty of Nice; amended to tighten immigration laws in 1993; amended in 2000 to change the seven-year presidential term to a five-year term; amended in 2005 to make the EU constitutional treaty compatible with the Constitution of France and to ensure that the decision to ratify EU accession treaties would be made by referendum,chief of mission: Ambassador Pierre VIMONT chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW Washington DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000 FAX: [1] (202) 944-6166 consulate(s) general: Atlanta Boston Chicago Houston Los Angeles Miami New Orleans New York San Francisco,373334.0,2009 est.,32.7,2008,71400,2007,$ 5 370 000 000 000,30 September 2008,$ 601 900 000 000,2008 est.,584700,2005,39.4,2009 est.,1950000,2007,2465000,2005,122000000,1 January 2008 est.,7277000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Francois FILLON (since 17 May 2007) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (changed from seven-year term in October 2000); election last held 22 April and 6 May 2007 (next to be held spring 2012); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly majority and appointed by the president election results: Nicolas SARKOZY wins the election; first round: percent of vote - Nicolas SARKOZY 31.18% Segolene ROYAL 25.87% Francois BAYROU 18.57% Jean-Marie LE PEN 10.44% others 13.94%; second round: SARKOZY 53.1% and ROYAL 46.9%,0.68,NA,,,$ 2 771 000 000 000,31 December 2007,4.2,2008,475,2008,16.0,2006,6.2,2004,3.0,2004,67600000000.0,2007,480000000000,2007 est.,name: Paris geographic coordinates: 48 52 N 2 20 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October note: applies to metropolitan France only not to its overseas departments collectivities or territories,Although ultimately a victor in World Wars I and II France suffered extensive losses in its empire wealth manpower and rank as a dominant nation-state. Nevertheless France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. Since 1958 it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent years its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe including the introduction of a common exchange currency the euro in January 1999. At present France is at the forefront of efforts to develop the EU's military capabilities to supplement progress toward an EU foreign policy.,3.8,2005,machinery and transportation equipment aircraft plastics chemicals pharmaceutical products iron and steel beverages,,,8.56,July 2009 est.,3036.0,2008,$ 2 978 000 000 000,2008 est.,$ 1 147 000 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 1 624 000 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,"26 regions (regions singular - region); Alsace Aquitaine Auvergne Basse-Normandie (Lower Normandy) Bourgogne (Burgundy) Bretagne (Brittany) Centre Champagne-Ardenne Corse (Corsica) Franche-Comte Guadeloupe Guyane (French Guiana) Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) Ile-de-France Languedoc-Roussillon Limousin Lorraine Martinique Midi-Pyrenees Nord-Pas-de-Calais Pays de la Loire Picardie Poitou-Charentes Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Reunion Rhone-Alpes note: France is divided into 22 metropolitan regions (including the ""territorial collectivity"" of Corse or Corsica) and 4 overseas regions (including French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique and Reunion) and is subdivided into 96 metropolitan departments and 4 overseas departments (which are the same as the overseas regions)",189.0,2005,33.16,2000,wheat cereals sugar beets potatoes wine grapes; beef dairy products; fish,Army (Armee de Terre; includes Marines Foreign Legion Army Light Aviation) Navy (Marine Nationale includes Naval Air Maritime Gendarmerie (Coast Guard)) Air Force (Armee de l'Air includes Air Defense) National Gendarmerie (2009),12.57,2009 est.,5.7,2005,$ 1 407 000 000 000,2008 est.,metropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong cold dry north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral French Guiana: tropical; hot humid; little seasonal temperature variation Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average Reunion: tropical but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November) hot and rainy (November to April),machinery and equipment vehicles crude oil aircraft plastics chemicals,Communist Republican and Citizen or CRC; Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU] (previously Union for French Democracy or UDF); Democratic and Social European Rally or RDSE [Yvon COLLIN] (mainly Radical Republican and Socialist Parties and PRG); French Communist Party or PCF [Marie-George BUFFET]; Greens [Cecile DUFLOT]; Left Radical Party or PRG [Jean-Michel BAYLET] (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG); Movement for France or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS]; National Front or FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; New Center or NC [Herve MORIN]; Radical Party [Jean-Louis BORLOO]; Rally for France or RPF [Charles PASQUA]; Republican and Citizen Movement or MRC [Jean Pierre CHEVENEMENT and Georges SARRE]; Socialist Party or PS [Martine AUBRY]; Union Centrist-UDF or UC-UDF [Michel MERCIER]; Union for a Popular Movement or UMP [Xavier BERTRAND],64057792,July 2009 est.,noun: Frenchman(men) Frenchwoman(women) adjective: French,metropolitan France: coal iron ore bauxite zinc uranium antimony arsenic potash feldspar fluorspar gypsum timber fish French Guiana: gold deposits petroleum kaolin niobium tantalum clay,1.48,2009 est.,largest West European nation,Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT left-leaning labor union with approximately 803 000 members; Confederation Generale des Cadres or CGC independent white-collar union with 196 000 members; Confederation Generale du Travail or CGT historically communist labor union with approximately 700 000 members; Confederation Generale du Travail - Force Ouvriere or FO independent labor union with an estimated 300 000 members; Mouvement des Entreprises de France or MEDEF employers' union with 750 000 companies as members (claimed) French Guiana: conservationists; gold mining pressure groups; hunting pressure groups Guadeloupe: Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG; General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers or CGT-G; General Union of Guadeloupe Workers or UGTG; Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI; The Socialist Renewal Movement Martinique: Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC; Central Union for Martinique Workers or CSTM; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants; Proletarian Action Group or GAP Reunion: NA,France is in the midst of transition from a well-to-do modern economy that has featured extensive government ownership and intervention to one that relies more on market mechanisms. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies banks and insurers and has ceded stakes in such leading firms as Air France France Telecom Renault and Thales. It maintains a strong presence in some sectors particularly power public transport and defense industries. The telecommunications sector is gradually being opened to competition. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws tax policies and social spending that reduce income disparity and the impact of free markets on public health and welfare. Widespread opposition to labor reform has in recent years hampered the government's ability to revitalize the economy. During 2007-08 the government implemented several important labor reforms including a de facto extension of the 35-hour workweek by allowing employees to work longer overtime hours. During 2009 the government is expected to delay or even renounce other reform efforts due to the on-going financial crisis. GDP growth dropped to 0.7% in 2008; the French government plans to increase public investment and continue injecting capital into the banking sector to alleviate the negative effects of the crisis during 2009. As a result of lower fiscal revenues and increased expenditures the general government deficit is expected to exceed the euro-zone ceiling 3% of GDP. France's tax burden remains one of the highest in Europe - at nearly 50% of GDP in 2005. With at least 75 million foreign tourists per year France is the most visited country in the world and maintains the third largest income in the world from tourism.,56719000,2007,486 (Frankish tribes unified); 843 (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire),966000000,2007 est.,42900000000,2007 est.,42690000000,2007 est.,1.0,NA,$ -52 910 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,10800000000.0,2007,0.8,NA,$ 3 397 000 000 000,31 December 2007,,,11811260.0,2009 est.,Fete de la Federation 14 July (1790); note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille (on 14 July 1789) and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale (National Holiday) and quatorze juillet (14th of July),138,2008,-2.0,NA,metropolitan France: flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in south near the Mediterranean overseas departments: hurricanes (cyclones); flooding; volcanic activity (Guadeloupe Martinique Reunion),slightly less than the size of Texas,99.0,2003 est.,80.98,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (343 seats 321 for metropolitan France and overseas departments 2 for New Caledonia 2 for Mayotte 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon 1 for Saint-Barthelemy 1 for Saint-Martin 3 for overseas territories and 12 for French nationals abroad; members are indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve six-year terms; one third elected every three years); note - between 2006 and 2011 15 new seats will be added to the Senate for a total of 348 seats - 326 for metropolitan France and overseas departments 2 for New Caledonia 2 for Mayotte 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon 1 for Saint-Barthelemy 1 for Saint-Martin 3 for overseas territories and 12 for French nationals abroad; starting in 2008 members will be indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve six-year terms with one-half elected every three years; and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats 555 for metropolitan France 15 for overseas departments 7 for dependencies; members are elected by popular vote under a single-member majority system to serve five-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 21 September 2008 (next to be held in September 2014); National Assembly - last held 10 and 17 June 2007 (next to be held in June 2012) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 151 PS 116 UC-UDF 29 CRC 23 RDSE 17 other 7; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - UMP 46.37% PS 42.25% miscellaneous left wing parties 2.47% PCF 2.28% NC 2.12% PRG 1.65% miscellaneous right wing parties 1.17% the Greens 0.45% other 1.24%; seats by party - UMP 313 PS 186 NC 22 miscellaneous left wing parties 15 PCF 15 miscellaneous right wing parties 9 PRG 7 the Greens 4 other 6,civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ADB (nonregional member) AfDB (nonregional member) Arctic Council (observer) Australia Group BDEAC BIS BSEC (observer) CBSS (observer) CE CERN EAPC EBRD EIB EMU ESA EU FAO FZ G-20 G-5 G-7 G-8 G-10 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO InOC Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINURCAT MINURSO MINUSTAH MONUC NATO NEA NSG OAS (observer) OECD OIF OPCW OSCE Paris Club PCA PIF (partner) Schengen Convention SECI (observer) SPC UN UN Security Council UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL Union Latina UNITAR UNMIL UNOCI UNOMIG UNRWA UNTSO UNWTO UPU WADB (nonregional) WCL WCO WEU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC,12.0,NA,14379630.0,2008 est.,2.6,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Air Pollution-Sulfur 85 Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Antarctic Seals Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes agricultural runoff,3.0,2008,14.0,2008,570000000000,2007 est.,29213,2008,Bordeaux Calais Dunkerque Le Havre Marseille Nantes Paris Rouen Strasbourg,18.0,NA,-1.8,2008 est.,metropolitan France: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous especially Pyrenees in south Alps in east French Guiana: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains Guadeloupe: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin Martinique: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano Reunion: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast,general assessment: highly developed domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive use of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system international: country code - 33; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe Asia Australia the Middle East and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean) NA Eutelsat 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries overseas departments: country codes: French Guiana - 594; Guadeloupe - 590; Martinique - 596; Reunion - 262,1.98,2009 est.,7.4,2008 est.,republic,"three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side) white and red; known as the ""Le drapeau tricolore"" (French Tricolor) the origin of the flag dates to 1790 and the French Revolution; the design and/or colors are similar to a number of other flags including those of Belgium Chad Ireland Cote d'Ivoire Luxembourg and Netherlands; the official flag for all French dependent areas",metropolitan France: transshipment point for South American cocaine Southwest Asian heroin and European synthetics French Guiana: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe Martinique: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe,$ 692 000 000 000,2008 est.,951500,2006,0.55,2009 est.,0.7,2008 est.,3.0,2007,$ 2 097 000 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mark A. PEKALA embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel 75382 Paris Cedex 08 mailing address: PSC 116 APO AE 09777 telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22 FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83 consulate(s) general: Marseille Strasbourg,$ 32 700,2008 est.,953000000,2007 est.
Jan Mayen,,,,0.0,2005,0.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,71 00 N 8 00 W,,,,,,,none,377,NA,0.0,NA,Arctic Region,Northern Europe island between the Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea northeast of Iceland,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Jan Mayen,124.1,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,1,2008,,,,,,,,,,,,This desolate arctic mountainous island was named after a Dutch whaling captain who indisputably discovered it in 1614 (earlier claims are inconclusive). Visited only occasionally by seal hunters and trappers over the following centuries the island came under Norwegian sovereignty in 1929. The long dormant Haakon VII Toppen/Beerenberg volcano resumed activity in 1970; the most recent eruption occurred in 1985. It is the northernmost active volcano on earth.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog,,,,,,none,,,barren volcanic island with some moss and grass,,Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable natural resources. Economic activity is limited to providing services for employees of Norway's radio and meteorological stations on the island.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,NA,dominated by the volcano Haakon VII Toppen/Beerenberg; volcanic activity resumed in 1970; the most recent eruption occurred in 1985,slightly more than twice the size of Washington DC,,,,,,the laws of Norway where applicable apply,,4.0,NA,,,,,,NA,1.0,2008,,,,,,,none; offshore anchorage only,,,,,volcanic island partly covered by glaciers,,,,,,,the flag of Norway is used,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Rwanda,4446000,2007,Supreme Court; High Courts of the Republic; Provincial Courts; District Courts; mediation committees,10.25,2005,169.0,NA,81.61,2009 est.,cement agricultural products small-scale beverages soap furniture shoes plastic goods textiles cigarettes,,,15.4,2008 est.,,,.rw,2.8,2007 est.,150000,2007 est.,7800,2007 est.,23100,2007,0.66,2009 est.,100000,2007,2.0,2004,2 00 S 30 00 E,2.4,2009 est.,0.0,2007,22.3,2008 est.,fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels armed gangs and various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi Democratic Republic of the Congo Rwanda and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping international mediation and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless 57 000 Rwandan refugees still reside in 21 African states including Zambia Gabon and 20 000 who fled to Burundi in 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place,26338,NA,90.0,2003,Africa,Central Africa east of Democratic Republic of the Congo,conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda conventional short form: Rwanda local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda local short form: Rwanda former: Ruanda German East Africa,0.0,NA,5.1,2008,new constitution passed by referendum 26 May 2003,chief of mission: Ambassador James KOMONYO chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW Washington DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882 FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544,106741.0,2009 est.,46.8,2000,0,2007 est.,$ 1 400 000 000,2004 est.,$ 213 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,18.7,2009 est.,5320,2006 est.,5597,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,56630000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000) head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: President elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 25 August 2003 (next to be held in September 2010) election results: Paul KAGAME elected president in first direct popular vote; Paul KAGAME 95.05% Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU 3.62% Jean-Nepomuscene NAYINZIRA 1.33%,550.0,NA,1.0,NA,,,4.2,2008,9,2008,8.0,2005,60.0,2001 est.,2.1,2000,10000000.0,2007 est.,234600000,2006 est.,name: Kigali geographic coordinates: 1 57 S 30 04 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),In 1959 three years before independence from Belgium the majority ethnic group the Hutus overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years thousands of Tutsis were killed and some 150 000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and began a civil war in 1990. The war along with several political and economic upheavals exacerbated ethnic tensions culminating in April 1994 in the genocide of roughly 800 000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the killing in July 1994 but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi Tanzania Uganda and Zaire. Since then most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC; the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda much as the RPF tried in 1990. Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms - including Rwanda's first local elections in March 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in August and September 2003 - the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output and ethnic reconciliation is complicated by the real and perceived Tutsi political dominance. Kigali's increasing centralization and intolerance of dissent the nagging Hutu extremist insurgency across the border and Rwandan involvement in two wars in recent years in the neighboring DRC continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts to escape its bloody legacy.,10.0,2000,coffee tea hides tin ore,15.84,31 December 2007,14.02,July 2009 est.,,,$ 4 027 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,4 provinces (in French - provinces singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - intara for singular and plural) and 1 city* (in French - ville; in Kinyarwanda - umujyi); Est (Eastern) Kigali* Nord (Northern) Ouest (Western) Sud (Southern),5.2,2003,0.15,2000,coffee tea pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums) bananas beans sorghum potatoes; livestock,Rwandan Defense Forces: Army Air Force,39.67,2009 est.,3.8,2005,$ 930 400 000,2008 est.,temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible,foodstuffs machinery and equipment steel petroleum products cement and construction material,Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Alfred MUKEZAMFURA]; Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA] (officially banned); Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Protais MITALI]; Party for Democratic Renewal (officially banned); Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA],10473282,July 2009 est.,noun: Rwandan(s) adjective: Rwandan,gold cassiterite (tin ore) wolframite (tungsten ore) methane hydropower arable land,2.17,2009 est.,landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural,IBUKA (association of genocide survivors),Rwanda is a poor rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa and is landlocked with few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary foreign exchange earners are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base severely impoverished the population particularly women and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy to pre-1994 levels although poverty levels are higher now. GDP has rebounded and inflation has been curbed. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem food production often does not keep pace with population growth requiring food imports. Rwanda continues to receive substantial aid money and obtained IMF-World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative debt relief in 2005-06. Rwanda also received Millennium Challenge Account Threshold status in 2006. The government has embraced an expansionary fiscal policy to reduce poverty by improving education infrastructure and foreign and domestic investment and pursuing market-oriented reforms although energy shortages instability in neighboring states and lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continue to handicap growth.,635100,2007,1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0.1,NA,$ -265 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,130000000.0,2007 est.,4.2,NA,$ 209 200 000,31 December 2005,,,1452768.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 1 July (1962),,,950.0,NA,periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo,slightly smaller than Maryland,70.4,2003 est.,50.52,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament consists of Senate (26 seats; 12 members elected by local councils 8 appointed by the president 4 by the Political Organizations Forum 2 represent institutions of higher learning; to serve eight-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies (80 seats; 53 members elected by popular vote 24 women elected by local bodies 3 selected by youth and disability organizations; serve five-year terms) elections: Senate - members appointed as part of the transitional government (next to be held in 2011); Chamber of Deputies - last held 15 September 2008 (next to be held September 2013) election results: percent of vote by party - RPF 78.8% PSD 13.1% PL 7.5%; seats by party - RPF 42 PSD 7 PL 4 additional 27 members indirectly elected,based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP AfDB AU CEPGL COMESA EAC EADB FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINURCAT NAM OIF OPCW UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNMIS UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,,,2392933.0,2008 est.,2.9,2006 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Ozone Layer Protection Wetlands signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea,deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching,2.0,2008,1.0,2008,134000000,2006 est.,,,Cyangugu Gisenyi Kibuye,18.0,NA,7.5,2008 est.,mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east,general assessment: small inadequate telephone system primarily serves business and government domestic: the capital Kigali is connected to the centers of the provinces by microwave radio relay and recently by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density is only about 7 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service),5.25,2009 est.,,,republic; presidential multiparty system,three horizontal bands of sky blue (top double width) yellow and green with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band,,$ 809 000 000,2008 est.,14008,2004,2.78,2009 est.,7.5,2008 est.,,,$ 9 061 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador W. Stuart SYMINGTON embassy: 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie Kigali mailing address: B. P. 28 Kigali telephone: [250] 596-400 FAX: [250] 596-591,$ 900,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Slovakia,2254000,2008 est.,Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges and appointed by president),2.67,2005,90.0,NA,6.84,2009 est.,metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity gas coke oil nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products,172,2008,4.6,2008,1.0,2001 census,.sk,0.1,2007 est.,200,2007 est.,100,2001 est.,1151000,2007,0.6,2009 est.,2350000,2007,37.0,2008,48 40 N 19 30 E,12.5,2009 est.,1.0,2008,3.7,2008 est.,bilateral government legal technical and economic working group negotiations continued in 2006 between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border Slovakia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules,49035,NA,1830.0,2003,Europe,Central Europe south of Poland,conventional long form: Slovak Republic conventional short form: Slovakia local long form: Slovenska Republika local short form: Slovensko,0.0,NA,4.1,2008,ratified 1 September 1992 effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998; amended February 2001 note: the change in September 1998 allowed direct election of the president; the amendment of February 2001 allowed Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership,chief of mission: Ambassador Peter BURIAN chancery: 3523 International Court NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054 FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles New York,34783.0,2009 est.,26.0,2005,12770,2007 est.,$ 45 720 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 72 570 000 000,2008 est.,72240,2005,36.9,2009 est.,82860,2007 est.,134100,2005,9000000,1 January 2008 est.,14160000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004) head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 July 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Dusan CAPLOVIC Robert KALINAK Stefan HARABIN Jan MIKOLAJ (since 4 July 2006) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 March and 4 April 2009 (next to be held no later than April 2014); following National Council elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC reelected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 55.5% Iveta RADICOVA 44.5%,21.05,NA,1.0,2001 census,$ 6 971 000 000,31 December 2007,4.7,2008,35,2008,14.0,2006,21.0,2002,3.1,1996,11850000000.0,2007 est.,26000000000,2006 est.,name: Bratislava geographic coordinates: 48 09 N 17 07 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,The dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I allowed the Slovaks to join the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro area on 1 January 2009.,4.0,30 September 2008,vehicles 25.9% machinery and electrical equipment 21.3% base metals 14.6% chemicals and minerals 10.1% plastics 5.4% (2004),,,9.53,July 2009 est.,416.0,2008,$ 100 600 000 000,2008 est.,$ 44 120 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 1 867 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,8 regions (kraje singular - kraj); Banskobystricky Bratislavsky Kosicky Nitriansky Presovsky Trenciansky Trnavsky Zilinsky,50.1,2003,1.04,2003,grains potatoes sugar beets hops fruit; pigs cattle poultry; forest products,Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily) Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily) (2009),10.6,2009 est.,3.9,2005,$ 31 230 000 000,2008 est.,temperate; cool summers; cold cloudy humid winters,machinery and transport equipment 41.1% intermediate manufactured goods 19.3% fuels 12.3% chemicals 9.8% miscellaneous manufactured goods 10.2% (2003),parties in the Parliament:: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Pal CSAKY]; People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party or SDKU-DS [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA] selected parties outside the Parliament:: Agrarian Party of the Provinces or ASV [Vladimir GOZORA]; Alliance of the New Citizen or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Peter ZAJAC]; Free Forum [Zuzana MARTINAKOVA]; Mission 21 - New Christian Democracy or MISIA 21 [Ivan SIMKO]; Movement for Democracy or HZD [Jozef GRAPA]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Ladislav KOZMON]; Prosperita Slovenska or PS [Frantisek A. ZVRSKOVEC]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Jozef HRDLICKA]; Slovak People's Party or SLS [Jozef SASIK]; Union of the Workers of Slovakia or ZRS [Jan LUPTAK],5463046,July 2009 est.,noun: Slovak(s) adjective: Slovak,brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land,0.3,2009 est.,landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys,Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS; Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic; National Union of Employers or RUZ; Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK; The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS,Slovakia has made significant economic reforms since its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993. Reforms to the taxation healthcare pension and social welfare systems helped Slovakia to consolidate its budget and get on track to join the EU in 2004 and to adopt the euro in January 2009. Major privatizations are nearly complete the banking sector is almost entirely in foreign hands and the government has helped facilitate a foreign investment boom with business friendly policies such as labor market liberalization and a 19% flat tax. Foreign investment in the automotive and electronic sectors has been strong. Slovakia's economic growth exceeded expectations in 2001-08 despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment at an unacceptable 18% in 2003-04 dropped to 8.4% in 2008 but remains the economy's Achilles heel. Despite its 2006 pre-election promises to loosen fiscal policy and reverse the previous DZURINDA government's pro-market reforms FICO's cabinet has thus far been careful to keep a lid on spending in order to meet euro adoption criteria and has focused on regulating energy and food prices instead. The OECD expects Slovakia's GDP growth to be positive in 2009.,6068000,2007,1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia),180000000,2007 est.,6268000000,2007 est.,6216000000,2007 est.,3.2,2001 census,$ -6 430 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,12730000000.0,2007 est.,0.2,NA,$ 41 760 000 000,31 December 2007,,,1152941.0,2009 est.,Constitution Day 1 September (1992),51,2008,94.0,NA,NA,about twice the size of New Hampshire,99.6,2004,75.4,2009 est.,unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 17 June 2006 (next to be held in 2010) election results: percent of vote by party - Smer 29.1% SDKU 18.4% SMK 11.7% SNS 11.7% LS-HZDS 8.8% KDH 8.3% other 12%; seats by party - Smer 50 SDKU-DS 31 SMK 20 SNS 19 LS-HZDS 16 KDH 14; note - seats by party as of December 2008 - Smer 50 SDKU-DS 28 SMK 20 SNS 19 LS-HZDS 15 KDH 9 nonaffiliated 9,civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory,Australia Group BIS BSEC (observer) CBSS (observer) CE CEI CERN EAPC EBRD EIB EU FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IEA IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM (guest) NATO NEA NSG OAS (observer) OECD OIF (observer) OPCW OSCE PCA Schengen Convention SECI (observer) UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNFICYP UNIDO UNTSO UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WEU (associate partner) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC,,,1386259.0,2008 est.,1.87,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Air Pollution-Sulfur 85 Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests,7.0,2008,2.0,2008,26170000000,2007 est.,3622,2008,Bratislava Komarno,18.0,NA,-3.7,2008 est.,rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south,general assessment: Slovakia has a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth in cellular services domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable especially in the larger cities; 3 companies provide nationwide cellular services international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services,1.35,2009 est.,7.7,2008,parliamentary democracy,three equal horizontal bands of white (top) blue and red superimposed with the coat of arms of Slovakia (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white Cross of Lorraine surmounting three blue hills); the coat of arms is centered vertically and offset slightly to the hoist side,transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy,$ 73 620 000 000,2008 est.,43761,2006,0.14,2009 est.,6.4,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 119 500 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Keith EDDINS embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4 81102 Bratislava mailing address: P.O. Box 309 814 99 Bratislava telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338 FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861,$ 21 900,2008 est.,128000000,2007 est.
Somalia,3447000,2007,following the breakdown of the central government most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution either secular traditional Somali customary law or Sharia (Islamic) law with a provision for appeal of all sentences,0.04,2005,58.0,NA,109.19,2009 est.,a few light industries including sugar refining textiles wireless communication,,,,,,,.so,0.5,2007 est.,24000,2007 est.,1600,2007 est.,100000,2007,0.72,2009 est.,98000,2007,4.0,2001,10 00 N 49 00 E,2.5,2009 est.,0.0,2001,10.0,2005 est.,"Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; ""Somaliland"" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera to landlocked Ethiopia and have established commercial ties with other regional states; ""Puntland"" and ""Somaliland"" ""governments"" seek international support in their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading south across the border which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists",637657,NA,2000.0,2003,Africa,Eastern Africa bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean east of Ethiopia,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Somalia local long form: Jamhuuriyada Demuqraadiga Soomaaliyeed local short form: Soomaaliya former: Somali Republic Somali Democratic Republic,3025.0,NA,5.1,2008,25 August 1979 presidential approval 23 September 1979 note: the formation of transitional governing institutions known as the Transitional Federal Government is currently ongoing,Somalia does not have an embassy in the US (ceased operations on 8 May 1991); note - the Transitional Federal Government is represented in the United States through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations,93738.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 3 000 000 000,2001 est.,$ 300 000 000,2006,0,2005,17.5,2009 est.,5040,2006 est.,4772,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,5663000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: Transitional Federal President Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (since 31 January 2009); note - a transitional governing entity with a five-year mandate known as the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs) was established in October 2004; the TFIs relocated to Somalia in June 2004 head of government: Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali SHARMARKE (since 13 February 2009) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by the Transitional Federal Assembly election results: Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed was elected president by the expanded Transitional Federal Assembly in Djibouti,1438.3,NA,15.0,NA,,,6.4,2008,59,2008,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,260400000,2006 est.,name: Mogadishu geographic coordinates: 2 04 N 45 22 E time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969 a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule that managed to impose a degree of stability in the country for a couple of decades. After the regime's collapse early in 1991 Somalia descended into turmoil factional fighting and anarchy. In May 1991 northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal Woqooyi Galbeed Togdheer Sanaag and Sool. Although not recognized by any government this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy including holding municipal parliamentary and presidential elections. The regions of Bari Nugaal and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring self-declared autonomous state of Puntland which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims portions of eastern Sool and Sanaag. Beginning in 1993 a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions but when the UN withdrew in 1995 having suffered significant casualties order still had not been restored. A two-year peace process led by the Government of Kenya under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia and the formation of an interim government known as the Somalia Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs). The TFIs included a 275-member parliamentary body known as the Transitional Federal Assembly (TFA). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while United Nations-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009 following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government Ethiopian military forces which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Council of Islamic Courts (CIC) withdrew from the country. The TFA was increased to 550 seats with the addition of 275 ARS members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed the former CIC and ARS chairman as president on 31 January 2009 in Djibouti. Subsequently President SHARIF appointed Omar Abdirashid ali SHARMARKE son of a former president of Somalia as prime minister on 13 February 2009. The TFIs are based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC) which outlines a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. However in January 2009 the TFA amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011. While its institutions remain weak the TFG continues to reach out to Somali stakeholders and work with international donors to help build the governance capacity of the TFIs and work toward national elections in 2011.,29.0,1975,livestock bananas hides fish charcoal scrap metal,,,15.55,July 2009 est.,,,$ 2 600 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,18 regions (plural - NA singular - gobolka); Awdal Bakool Banaadir Bari Bay Galguduud Gedo Hiiraan Jubbada Dhexe Jubbada Hoose Mudug Nugaal Sanaag Shabeellaha Dhexe Shabeellaha Hoose Sool Togdheer Woqooyi Galbeed,15.7,1997,3.29,2000,bananas sorghum corn coconuts rice sugarcane mangoes sesame seeds beans; cattle sheep goats; fish,no national-level armed forces (2008),43.7,2009 est.,,,,,principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February) moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October) torrid in the north and hot in the south irregular rainfall hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons,manufactures petroleum products foodstuffs construction materials qat,none,9832017,July 2009 est.,noun: Somali(s) adjective: Somali,uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore tin gypsum bauxite copper salt natural gas likely oil reserves,0.0,2009 est.,strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal,other: numerous clan and sub-clan factions exist both in support and in opposition to the transitional government,Despite the lack of effective national governance Somalia has maintained a healthy informal economy largely based on livestock remittance/money transfer companies and telecommunications. Agriculture is the most important sector with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-pastoralists who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood make up a large portion of the population. Livestock hides fish charcoal and bananas are Somalia's principal exports while sugar sorghum corn qat and machined goods are the principal imports. Somalia's small industrial sector based on the processing of agricultural products has largely been looted and sold as scrap metal. Somalia's service sector also has grown. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector money transfer/remittance services have sprouted throughout the country handling roughly $2 billion in remittances annually. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to the newest electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate and are supported with private-security militias. Somalia's arrears to the IMF continued to grow in 2008. Statistics on Somalia's GDP growth per capita income and inflation should be viewed skeptically.,600000,2007,1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960 and Italian Somaliland which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,4.2,NA,,,,,1301026.0,2009 est.,Foundation of the Somali Republic 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland,1,2008,0.0,NA,recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season,slightly smaller than Texas,37.8,2001 est.,49.63,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly note: unicameral Transitional Federal Assembly (TFA) (550 seats; 475 members appointed according to the 4.5 clan formula with the remaining 75 seats reserved for civil society and business persons),no national system; a mixture of English common law Italian law Islamic Sharia and Somali customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ACP AfDB AFESD AMF AU CAEU FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS IGAD ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ITSO ITU LAS NAM OIC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UPU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO,200.0,NA,2125558.0,2008 est.,0.9,2005 est.,party to: Biodiversity Desertification Endangered Species Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification,4.0,2008,1.0,2008,280000000,2006 est.,,,Berbera Kismaayo,18.0,NA,,,mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north,general assessment: the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private companies offer limited local fixed-line service and private wireless companies offer service in most major cities while charging the lowest international rates on the continent domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers international: country code - 252; international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite (2001),6.52,2009 est.,,,no permanent national government; transitional parliamentary federal government,light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; blue field influenced by the flag of the UN,,$ 798 000 000,2006,22100,2000,2.82,2009 est.,2.6,2008 est.,,,$ 5 524 000 000,2008 est.,the US does not have an embassy in Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Embassy in Nairobi Kenya at United Nations Avenue Nairobi; mailing address: Unit 64100 Nairobi; APO AE 09831; telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000; FAX [254] (20) 363-6157,$ 600,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Peru,10200000,2008 est.,Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary),0.47,2005,171.0,NA,28.62,2009 est.,mining and refining of minerals; steel metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining natural gas; fishing and fish processing textiles clothing food processing,8808,2008,5.8,2008 est.,,,.pe,0.5,2007 est.,76000,2007 est.,3300,2007 est.,2673000,2007,0.89,2009 est.,7636000,2007,13.0,1997,10 00 S 76 00 W,5.7,2009 est.,189.0,1999,8.5,2008 est.,Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border,1285216,NA,12000.0,2003,South America,Western South America bordering the South Pacific Ocean between Chile and Ecuador,conventional long form: Republic of Peru conventional short form: Peru local long form: Republica del Peru local short form: Peru,2414.0,NA,4.1,2008,29 December 1993,chief of mission: Ambassador Luis VALDIVIESO Montano chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869 FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124 consulate(s) general: Atlanta Boston Chicago Dallas Denver Hartford Houston Los Angeles Miami New York Paterson (New Jersey) San Francisco,300838.0,2009 est.,49.8,2005,110800,2008 est.,$ 34 940 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 31 530 000 000,2008 est.,27390,2007 est.,26.1,2009 est.,170000,2007 est.,109000,2007 est.,930000000,1 January 2008 est.,334700000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas (since 28 July 2006); Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas (since 28 July 2006); Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006) note: Prime Minister Javier VELASQUEZ Quesquen (since 12 July 2009) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a nonconsecutive reelection); presidential and congressional elections held 9 April 2006 with runoff election held 4 June 2006; next to be held in April 2011 election results: Alan GARCIA Perez elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA Perez 52.5% Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%,2.91,NA,3.0,NA,$ 57 230 000 000,31 July 2008,5.5,2008,202,2008,14.0,2006,44.5,2006,1.5,2006,0.0,2008 est.,28970000000,2008 est.,name: Lima geographic coordinates: 12 03 S 77 03 W time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington DC during Standard Time),Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821 and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980 but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001 which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990 has overseen a robust macroeconomic performance.,0.7,2005,copper gold zinc crude petroleum and petroleum products coffee potatoes asparagus textiles fishmeal,24.1,December 2008,6.14,July 2009 est.,15.0,2008,$ 131 400 000 000,2008 est.,$ 30 310 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 2 284 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,25 regions (regiones singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas Ancash Apurimac Arequipa Ayacucho Cajamarca Callao Cusco Huancavelica Huanuco Ica Junin La Libertad Lambayeque Lima Lima* Loreto Madre de Dios Moquegua Pasco Piura Puno San Martin Tacna Tumbes Ucayali,1913.0,2000,20.13,2000,asparagus coffee cocoa cotton sugarcane rice potatoes corn plantains grapes oranges pineapples guavas bananas apples lemons pears coca tomatoes mango barley medicinal plants palm oil marigold onion wheat dry beans; poultry beef dairy products; fish guinea pigs,Army of Peru (Ejercito Peruano) Navy of Peru (Marina de Guerra del Peru MGP (includes naval air naval infantry and Coast Guard)) Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru FAP) (2008),19.38,2009 est.,2.5,2006,$ 35 290 000 000,2008 est.,varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes,petroleum and petroleum products plastics machinery vehicles iron and steel wheat paper,Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF (a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90 Nueva Mayoria and Si Cumple); Central Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC (a coalition of Accion Popular Somos Peru and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes) [Victor Andres GARCIA Belaunde]; National Renovation Party (Partido Renovacion Nacional) [Rafael REY]; National Restoration Party (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Solidarity Party (Partido Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA); Peruvian Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Peruano) or PNP [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Union for Peru (Union por el Peru) or UPP [Aldo ESTRADA Choque],29546963,July 2009 est.,noun: Peruvian(s) adjective: Peruvian,copper silver gold petroleum timber fish iron ore coal phosphate potash hydropower natural gas,-0.95,2009 est.,shares control of Lago Titicaca world's highest navigable lake with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi a 5 316 m peak is the ultimate source of the Amazon River,General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]; Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned) Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group),Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region the Andes further inland and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. The Peruvian economy grew by more than 4% per year during the period 2002-06 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Growth jumped to 9% per year in 2007 and 2008 driven by higher world prices for minerals and metals and the government's aggressive trade liberalization strategies. Peru's rapid expansion has helped to reduce the national poverty rate by about 15% since 2002 though underemployment and inflation remain high. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices and poor infrastructure precludes the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. Not all Peruvians therefore have shared in the benefits of growth. President GARCIA's pursuit of sound trade and macroeconomic policies has cost him political support since his election. Nevertheless he remains committed to Peru's free-trade path. The United States and Peru completed negotiations on the implementation of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA) and the agreement entered into force February 1 2009 opening the way to greater trade and investment between the two economies.,15417000,2007,28 July 1821 (from Spain),0,2008 est.,0,2008 est.,3400000000,2008 est.,2.9,2007 Census,$ -4 180 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2008 est.,1.3,NA,$ 17 880 000 000,31 December 2007,,,5920716.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 28 July (1821),8,2008,0.0,NA,earthquakes tsunamis flooding landslides mild volcanic activity,slightly smaller than Alaska,92.9,2007 Census,70.74,2009 est.,unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 9 April 2006 (next to be held in April 2011) election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 21.2% PAP 20.6% UN 15.3% AF 13.1% FC 7.1% PP 4.1% RN 4.0% other 14.6%; seats by party - UPP 45 PAP 36 UN 17 AF 13 FC 5 PP 2 RN 2,based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,APEC CAN FAO G-15 G-24 G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC LAES LAIA Mercosur (associate) MIGA MINUSTAH MONUC NAM OAS OPANAL OPCW PCA RG UN UNASUR UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO Union Latina UNMIL UNMIS UNOCI UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,200.0,NA,7531329.0,2008 est.,1.5,2006,party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes,2.0,2008,4.0,2008,30570000000,2008 est.,1989,2008,Callao Iquitos Matarani Paita Pucallpa Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos Pucallpa and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries,18.0,NA,8.0,2008 est.,western coastal plain (costa) high and rugged Andes in center (sierra) eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva),general assessment: adequate for most requirements domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 9 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity spurred by competition among multiple providers has increased to roughly 55 telephones per 100 persons; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America the Caribbean and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean),2.37,2009 est.,8.1,2008 est.,constitutional republic,three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side) white and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna cinchona tree (the source of quinine) and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins all framed by a green wreath,until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru declined to 36 000 hectares in 2007; second largest producer of cocaine estimated at 210 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2007; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine however are being moved to Brazil Chile Argentina and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption,$ 28 440 000 000,2008 est.,78829,2004,1.23,2009 est.,9.2,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 238 900 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador P. Michael MCKINLEY embassy: Avenida La Encalada Cuadra 17s/n Surco Lima 33 mailing address: P. O. Box 1995 Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima) APO AA 34031-5000 telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000 FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397,$ 8 400,2008 est.,3400000000,2008 est.
Laos,2100000,2006 est.,People's Supreme Court (the president of the People's Supreme Court is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee; the vice president of the People's Supreme Court and the judges are appointed by the National Assembly Standing Committee),0.34,2005,235.0,NA,77.82,2009 est.,copper tin gold and gypsum mining; timber electric power agricultural processing construction garments cement tourism,4600,2008,8.6,2008 est.,,,.la,0.2,2007 est.,5500,2007 est.,100,2007 est.,94800,2007,0.76,2009 est.,100000,2007,7.0,2006,18 00 N 105 00 E,3.1,2009 est.,2.0,2006,26.5,2008 est.,Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Thailand but disputes remain over islands in the Mekong River; concern among Mekong Commission members that China's construction of dams on the Mekong River will affect water levels,236800,NA,1750.0,2003,Southeast Asia,Southeastern Asia northeast of Thailand west of Vietnam,conventional long form: Lao People's Democratic Republic conventional short form: Laos local long form: Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao local short form: Pathet Lao (unofficial),0.0,NA,4.7,2008,promulgated 14 August 1991,chief of mission: Ambassador PHIANE Philakone chancery: 2222 S Street NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-6416 FAX: [1] (202) 332-4923,74498.0,2009 est.,34.6,2002,0,2007 est.,$ 3 179 000 000,2006,$ 1 163 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,19.3,2009 est.,2996,2006 est.,3036,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Lt. Gen. CHOUMMALI Saignason (since 8 June 2006); Vice President BOUN-GNANG Volachit (since 8 June 2006) head of government: Prime Minister BOUASONE Bouphavanh (since 8 June 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Maj. Gen. ASANG Laoli (since May 2002) Maj. Gen. DOUANGCHAI Phichit (since 8 June 2006) SOMSAVAT Lengsavat (since 26 February 1998) and THONGLOUN Sisoulit (since 27 March 2001) cabinet: Ministers appointed by president approved by National Assembly elections: president and vice president elected by National Assembly for five-year terms; election last held 8 June 2006 (next to be held in 2011); prime minister nominated by president and elected by National Assembly for five-year term election results: CHOUMMALI Saignason elected president; BOUN-GNANG Volachit elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100%; BOUASONE Bouphavanh elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 97%,8760.69,NA,8.0,2005 census,,,4.5,2008,42,2008,8.0,2006,30.7,2005 est.,3.4,2002,547000000.0,2006 est.,1344000000,2006 est.,name: Vientiane (Viangchan) geographic coordinates: 17 58 N 102 36 E time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Modern-day Laos has its roots in the ancient Lao kingdom of Lan Xang established in the 14th Century under King FA NGUM. For 300 years Lan Xang had influence reaching into present-day Cambodia and Thailand as well as over all of what is now Laos. After centuries of gradual decline Laos came under the domination of Siam (Thailand) from the late 18th century until the late 19th century when it became part of French Indochina. The Franco-Siamese Treaty of 1907 defined the current Lao border with Thailand. In 1975 the Communist Pathet Lao took control of the government ending a six-century-old monarchy and instituting a strict socialist regime closely aligned to Vietnam. A gradual return to private enterprise and the liberalization of foreign investment laws began in 1986. Laos became a member of ASEAN in 1997.,20.0,2005 est.,wood products coffee electricity tin copper gold,28.5,31 December 2007,10.78,July 2009 est.,540.0,2008,$ 5 187 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,16 provinces (khoueng singular and plural) and 1 capital city* (nakhon luang singular and plural); Attapu Bokeo Bolikhamxai Champasak Houaphan Khammouan Louangnamtha Louangphrabang Oudomxai Phongsali Salavan Savannakhet Viangchan (Vientiane)* Viangchan Xaignabouli Xekong Xiangkhoang,333.6,2003,3.0,2000,sweet potatoes vegetables corn coffee sugarcane tobacco cotton tea peanuts rice; water buffalo pigs cattle poultry,Lao People's Armed Forces (LPAF): Lao People's Army (LPA; includes Riverine Force) Air Force (2009),33.94,2009 est.,3.0,2006,$ 811 600 000,2008 est.,tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to April),machinery and equipment vehicles fuel consumer goods,Lao People's Revolutionary Party or LPRP [CHOUMMALI Saignason]; other parties proscribed,6834942,July 2009 est.,noun: Lao(s) or Laotian(s) adjective: Lao or Laotian,timber hydropower gypsum tin gold gemstones,,,landlocked; most of the country is mountainous and thickly forested; the Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary with Thailand,NA,The government of Laos one of the few remaining one-party Communist states began decentralizing control and encouraging private enterprise in 1986. The results starting from an extremely low base were striking - growth averaged 6% per year from 1988-2008 except during the short-lived drop caused by the Asian financial crisis that began in 1997. Despite this high growth rate Laos remains a country with an underdeveloped infrastructure particularly in rural areas. It has no railroads a rudimentary road system and limited external and internal telecommunications though the government is sponsoring major improvements in the road system with support from Japan and China. Electricity is available in urban areas and in many rural districts. Subsistence agriculture dominated by rice accounts for about 40% of GDP and provides 80% of total employment. The government depends upon aid from international donors for over 80% of its capital investment. The economy has until recently benefited from high foreign investment in hydropower mining and construction. The fiscal crisis of late 2008 and the rapid drop in commodity prices - especially copper - has slowed these investments. Several policy changes since 2004 may help spur growth. Laos which gained Normal Trade Relations status with the US in 2004 is taking steps to join the World Trade Organization. Related trade policy reforms will improve the business environment. On the fiscal side a value-added tax (VAT) regime which began with a few large businesses in early 2009 should slowly help streamline the government's inefficient tax system. Economic prospects will improve gradually as the administration continues to simplify investment procedures and as a more competitive banking sector extends credit to small farmers and small entrepreneurs. The government appears committed to raising the country's profile among investors. Foreign donors have praised the Lao government for its efforts to improve the investment regime. The World Bank has declared that Laos' goal of graduating from the UN Development Program's list of least-developed countries by 2020 could be achievable.,1478000,2007,19 July 1949 (from France),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,1.5,2005 census,$ -52 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,367000000.0,2006 est.,5.6,NA,$ 285 800 000,31 December 2007,,,1023205.0,2009 est.,Republic Day 2 December (1975),1,2008,70.0,NA,floods droughts,slightly larger than Utah,68.7,2001 est.,56.68,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly (115 seats; members elected by popular vote from a list of candidates selected by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 30 April 2006 (next to be held in 2011) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LPRP 113 independents 2,based on traditional customs French legal norms and procedures and socialist practice; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ADB APT ARF ASEAN CP EAS FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF Interpol IOC IPU ISO (subscriber) ITU MIGA NAM OIF OPCW PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),,,1549774.0,2008 est.,0.5,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,unexploded ordnance; deforestation; soil erosion; most of the population does not have access to potable water,1.0,2008,2.0,2008,1639000000,2006 est.,,,,18.0,NA,11.0,2008 est.,mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus,general assessment: service to general public is poor but improving; the government relies on a radiotelephone network to communicate with remote areas domestic: multiple service providers; mobile cellular usage growing rapidly; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership about 25 per 100 persons international: country code - 856; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2007),4.41,2009 est.,2.4,2005 est.,Communist state,three horizontal bands of red (top) blue (double width) and red with a large white disk centered in the blue band,estimated opium poppy cultivation in 2008 was 1 900 hectares about a 73% increase from 2007; estimated potential opium production in 2008 more than tripled to 17 metric tons; unsubstantiated reports of domestic methamphetamine production; growing domestic methamphetamine problem (2007),$ 1 384 000 000,2008 est.,29811,2006,2.32,2009 est.,7.5,2008 est.,,,$ 13 990 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Ravic R. HUSO embassy: 19 Rue Bartholonie That Dam Vientiane mailing address: American Embassy Vientiane APO AP 96546 telephone: [856] 21-26-7000 FAX: [856] 21-26-7190,$ 2 100,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Southern Ocean,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,60 00 S 90 00 E (nominally) but the Southern Ocean has the unique distinction of being a large circumpolar body of water totally encircling the continent of Antarctica; this ring of water lies between 60 degrees south latitude and the coast of Antarctica and encompasses 360 degrees of longitude,,,,,,,Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctica entry) but Argentina Australia Chile France NZ Norway and UK assert claims (some overlapping) including the continental shelf in the Southern Ocean; several states have expressed an interest in extending those continental shelf claims under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to include undersea ridges; the US and most other states do not recognize the land or maritime claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia have reserved the right to do so); no formal claims exist in the waters in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west,20327000,NA,,,Antarctic Region,body of water between 60 degrees south latitude and Antarctica,,17968.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,A large body of recent oceanographic research has shown that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) an ocean current that flows from west to east around Antarctica plays a crucial role in global ocean circulation. The region where the cold waters of the ACC meet and mingle with the warmer waters of the north defines a distinct border - the Antarctic Convergence - which fluctuates with the seasons but which encompasses a discrete body of water and a unique ecologic region. The Convergence concentrates nutrients which promotes marine plant life and which in turn allows for a greater abundance of animal life. In the spring of 2000 the International Hydrographic Organization decided to delimit the waters within the Convergence as a fifth world ocean - the Southern Ocean - by combining the southern portions of the Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. The Southern Ocean extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south latitude which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit and which approximates the extent of the Antarctic Convergence. As such the Southern Ocean is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean but larger than the Arctic Ocean). It should be noted that inclusion of the Southern Ocean does not imply recognition of this feature as one of the world's primary oceans by the US Government.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,sea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Celsius to -2 degrees Celsius; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent and frequently are intense because of the temperature contrast between ice and open ocean; the ocean area from about latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south latitude in the Atlantic sector lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Celsius; at some coastal points intense persistent drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free throughout the winter,,,,,,probable large and possible giant oil and gas fields on the continental margin; manganese nodules possible placer deposits sand and gravel fresh water as icebergs; squid whales and seals - none exploited; krill fish,,,the major chokepoint is the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica; the Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence) is the best natural definition of the northern extent of the Southern Ocean; it is a distinct region at the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that separates the cold polar surface waters to the south from the warmer waters to the north; the Front and the Current extend entirely around Antarctica reaching south of 60 degrees south near New Zealand and near 48 degrees south in the far South Atlantic coinciding with the path of the maximum westerly winds,,Fisheries in 2006-07 landed 126 976 metric tons of which 82% (104 586 tons) was krill (Euphausia superba) and 9.5% (12 027 tons) Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides - also known as Chilean sea bass) compared to 127 910 tons in 2005-06 of which 83% (106 591 tons) was krill and 9.7% (12 396 tons) Patagonian toothfish (estimated fishing from the area covered by the Convention of the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) which extends slightly beyond the Southern Ocean area). International agreements were adopted in late 1999 to reduce illegal unreported and unregulated fishing which in the 2000-01 season landed by one estimate 8 376 metric tons of Patagonian and Antarctic toothfish. In the 2007-08 Antarctic summer 45 213 tourists visited the Southern Ocean compared to 35 552 in 2006-2007 and 29 799 in 2005-2006 (estimates provided to the Antarctic Treaty by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) and does not include passengers on overflights and those flying directly in and out of Antarctica).,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,huge icebergs with drafts up to several hundred meters; smaller bergs and iceberg fragments; sea ice (generally 0.5 to 1 m thick) with sometimes dynamic short-term variations and with large annual and interannual variations; deep continental shelf floored by glacial deposits varying widely over short distances; high winds and large waves much of the year; ship icing especially May-October; most of region is remote from sources of search and rescue,slightly more than twice the size of the US,,,,,,,,,,,,,,the Southern Ocean is subject to all international agreements regarding the world's oceans; in addition it is subject to these agreements specific to the Antarctic region: International Whaling Commission (prohibits commercial whaling south of 40 degrees south [south of 60 degrees south between 50 degrees and 130 degrees west]); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (limits sealing); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (regulates fishing) note: many nations (including the US) prohibit mineral resource exploration and exploitation south of the fluctuating Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence) which is in the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and serves as the dividing line between the cold polar surface waters to the south and the warmer waters to the north,increased solar ultraviolet radiation resulting from the Antarctic ozone hole in recent years reducing marine primary productivity (phytoplankton) by as much as 15% and damaging the DNA of some fish; illegal unreported and unregulated fishing in recent years especially the landing of an estimated five to six times more Patagonian toothfish than the regulated fishery which is likely to affect the sustainability of the stock; large amount of incidental mortality of seabirds resulting from long-line fishing for toothfish note: the now-protected fur seal population is making a strong comeback after severe overexploitation in the 18th and 19th centuries,,,,,,,,,McMurdo Palmer and offshore anchorages in Antarctica note: few ports or harbors exist on southern side of Southern Ocean; ice conditions limit use of most to short periods in midsummer; even then some cannot be entered without icebreaker escort; most Antarctic ports are operated by government research stations and except in an emergency are not open to commercial or private vessels (2007),,,,,the Southern Ocean is deep 4 000 to 5 000 m over most of its extent with only limited areas of shallow water; the Antarctic continental shelf is generally narrow and unusually deep its edge lying at depths of 400 to 800 m (the global mean is 133 m); the Antarctic icepack grows from an average minimum of 2.6 million sq km in March to about 18.8 million sq km in September better than a sixfold increase in area; the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (21 000 km in length) moves perpetually eastward; it is the world's largest ocean current transporting 130 million cubic meters of water per second - 100 times the flow of all the world's rivers,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Nauru,,,Supreme Court,0.0,2005,0.0,NA,9.25,2009 est.,phosphate mining offshore banking coconut products,,,,,,,.nr,,,,,,,1900,2002,0.97,2009 est.,300,2002,1.0,1997,0 32 S 166 55 E,2.1,2009 est.,0.0,1998,,,none,21,NA,,,Oceania,Oceania island in the South Pacific Ocean south of the Marshall Islands,conventional long form: Republic of Nauru conventional short form: Nauru local long form: Republic of Nauru local short form: Nauru former: Pleasant Island,30.0,NA,,,29 January 1968; amended 17 May 1968,chief of mission: Ambassador Marlene I. MOSES chancery: 800 2nd Avenue Suite 400 D New York NY 10017 telephone: [1] (212) 937-0074 FAX: [1] (212) 937-0079 consulate(s): Agana (Guam),174.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 33 300 000,2002,$ 64 000,2005 est.,0,2005,21.6,2009 est.,1070,2006 est.,1049,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 December 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 December 2007); note - President Ludwig SCOTTY defeated in a no confidence vote in parliament on 19 December 2007 cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of parliament elections: president elected by parliament for a three-year term; election last held 19 December 2007 (next to be held in 2010) election results: NA,1.21,NA,8.0,NA,,,,,1,2008,8.0,2006,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,28830000,2006 est.,no official capital; government offices in Yaren District time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),The exact origins of the Nauruans are unclear since their language does not resemble any other in the Pacific. The island was annexed by Germany in 1888. Its phosphate deposits began to be mined early in the 20th century by a German-British consortium. Nauru was occupied by Australian forces in World War I and subsequently became a League of Nations mandate. After the Second World War - and a brutal occupation by Japan - Nauru became a UN trust territory. It achieved independence in 1968 and joined the UN in 1999 as the world's smallest independent republic.,,,phosphates,,,6.42,July 2009 est.,,,,,,,,,14 districts; Aiwo Anabar Anetan Anibare Baiti Boe Buada Denigomodu Ewa Ijuw Meneng Nibok Uaboe Yaren,,,,,coconuts,no regular military forces; Nauru Police Force (2009),23.9,2009 est.,,,$ 13 500 000,2005,tropical with a monsoonal pattern; rainy season (November to February),food fuel manufactures building materials machinery,Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]; Nauru Party (informal); Nauru First (Naoero Amo) Party; note - loose multiparty system,14019,July 2009 est.,noun: Nauruan(s) adjective: Nauruan,phosphates fish,,,Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator,Woman Information and News Agency (women's issues),Revenues of this tiny island have traditionally come from exports of phosphates now significantly depleted. An Australian company in 2005 entered into an agreement intended to exploit remaining supplies. Few other resources exist with most necessities being imported mainly from Australia its former occupier and later major source of support. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems. Reserves of phosphates may only last until 2010 at current mining rates. In anticipation of the exhaustion of Nauru's phosphate deposits substantial amounts of phosphate income were invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition and provide for Nauru's economic future. As a result of heavy spending from the trust funds the government faces virtual bankruptcy. To cut costs the government has frozen wages and reduced overstaffed public service departments. Nauru lost further revenue in 2008 with the closure of Australia's refugee processing center making it almost totally dependent on food imports and foreign aid. Housing hospitals and other capital plant is deteriorating. The cost to Australia of keeping the government and economy afloat continues to climb. Few comprehensive statistics on the Nauru economy exist with estimates of Nauru's GDP varying widely.,1500,2002,31 January 1968 (from the Australia- NZ- and UK-administered UN trusteeship),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,2.4,2002 census,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,0.3,NA,,,,,2592.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 31 January (1968),,,0.0,NA,periodic droughts,about 0.1 times the size of Washington DC,,,64.2,2009 est.,unicameral parliament (18 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms) elections: last held 26 April 2008 (next to be held in 2011) election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 18; note - President Marcus STEPHEN called a snap election to break a parliamentary stalemate blocking legislative action,acts of the Nauru Parliament and British common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ACP ADB C FAO ICAO ICCt Interpol IOC ITU OPCW PIF Sparteca SPC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UPU WHO,12.0,NA,3470.0,2008 est.,,,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,limited natural fresh water resources roof storage tanks collect rainwater but mostly dependent on a single aging desalination plant; intensive phosphate mining during the past 90 years - mainly by a UK Australia and NZ consortium - has left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland and threatens limited remaining land resources,,,1.0,2008,31000000,2006 est.,,,Nauru,20.0,NA,,,sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center,general assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities domestic: NA international: country code - 674; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean),2.85,2009 est.,90.0,2004 est.,republic,blue with a narrow horizontal yellow stripe across the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru,,$ 20 000 000,2004 est.,24,2002,1.75,2009 est.,,,,,$ 60 000 000,2005 est.,the US does not have an embassy in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Nauru,$ 5 000,2005 est.,0,2007 est.
Seychelles,39560,2006,Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the president,2.17,2005,0.0,NA,12.3,2009 est.,fishing tourism processing of coconuts and vanilla coir (coconut fiber) rope boat building printing furniture; beverages,,,37.0,2008 est.,0.2,2002 census,.sc,,,,,,,22700,2007,0.59,2009 est.,32000,2007,2.0,1997,4 35 S 55 40 E,7.1,2009 est.,1.0,2001,2.0,2008 est.,together with Mauritius Seychelles claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory),455,NA,,,Africa,archipelago in the Indian Ocean northeast of Madagascar,conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles conventional short form: Seychelles local long form: Republic of Seychelles local short form: Seychelles,491.0,NA,5.7,2008,18 June 1993,chief of mission: Ambassador Jean Ronald JUMEAU chancery: 800 Second Avenue Suite 400C New York NY 10017 telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785 FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786,685.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 1 111 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 475 000 000,2008 est.,0,2006,31.4,2009 est.,6560,2006 est.,5722,2005,0,1 January 2006,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President James MICHEL (since 14 April 2004) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held 28-30 July 2006 (next to be held in 2011) election results: President James MICHEL elected president; percent of vote - James MICHEL 53.73% Wavel RAMKALAWAN 45.71% Philippe BOULLE 0.56%; note - this was the first election in which President James MICHEL participated; he was originally sworn in as president after former president France Albert RENE stepped down in April 2004,5.5,NA,,,,,4.0,2008,15,2008,14.0,2007,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,193400000,2006 est.,name: Victoria geographic coordinates: 4 38 S 55 27 E time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814 when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993. President France-Albert RENE who had served since 1977 was re-elected in 2001 but stepped down in 2004. Vice President James MICHEL took over the presidency and in July 2006 was elected to a new five-year term.,3.0,2006,canned tuna frozen fish cinnamon bark copra petroleum products (reexports),10.89,31 December 2007,6.93,July 2009 est.,,,$ 779 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins Anse Boileau Anse Etoile Anse Louis Anse Royale Baie Lazare Baie Sainte Anne Beau Vallon Bel Air Bel Ombre Cascade Glacis Grand' Anse (on Mahe) Grand' Anse (on Praslin) La Digue La Riviere Anglaise Mont Buxton Mont Fleuri Plaisance Pointe La Rue Port Glaud Saint Louis Takamaka,,,,,coconuts cinnamon vanilla sweet potatoes cassava (tapioca) bananas; poultry; tuna,Seychelles Defense Force: Army Coast Guard (includes Naval Wing Air Wing) National Guard (2005),15.87,2009 est.,6.5,2006,$ 260 500 000,2008 est.,tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May),machinery and equipment foodstuffs petroleum products chemicals,Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM Paul CHOW]; Seychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO); People's Party (Parti Lepep) or PL [France Albert RENE James MICHEL] (the governing party),87476,July 2009 est.,noun: Seychellois (singular and plural) adjective: Seychellois,fish copra cinnamon trees,1.05,2009 est.,41 granitic and about 75 coralline islands,Roman Catholic Church other: trade unions,Since independence in 1976 per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the pre-independence near-subsistence level moving the island into the upper-middle income group of countries. Growth has been led by the tourist sector which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings and by tuna fishing. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming fishing and small-scale manufacturing. GDP grew about 7-8% per year in 2006-07 driven by tourism and a boom in tourism-related construction. The Seychelles rupee was allowed to depreciate in 2006 after being overvalued for years and fell by 10% in the first 9 months of 2007. Despite these actions the Seychelles economy has struggled to maintain its gains and in 2008 suffered from food and oil price shocks a foreign exchange shortage high inflation and large financing gaps with GDP growth reduced to about 3% in 2008. In July 2008 the government defaulted on a Euro amortizing note worth roughly US$80 million leading to a downgrading of Seychelles credit rating. Seychelles requested an IMF Stand-By Agreement in December 2008.,77300,2007,29 June 1976 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0.6,2002 census,$ -277 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,1.4,NA,$ 660 200 000,31 December 2007,,,19702.0,2009 est.,Constitution Day (National Day) 18 June (1993),8,2008,0.0,NA,lies outside the cyclone belt so severe storms are rare; short droughts possible,2.5 times the size of Washington DC,91.8,2002 census,73.02,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (34 seats; 25 members elected by popular vote 9 allocated on a proportional basis to parties winning at least 10% of the vote; to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 10-12 May 2007 (next to be held in 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - SPPF 56.2% SNP 43.8%; seats by party - SPPF 23 SNP 11,based on English common law French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP AfDB AU C COMESA FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt (signatory) ICRM IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO InOC Interpol IOC ISO (correspondent) ITU ITUC MIGA NAM OIF OPCW SADC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),12.0,NA,23598.0,2008 est.,2.0,2006 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater,2.0,2008,1.0,2008,208000000,2006 est.,,,Victoria,17.0,NA,2.0,2008 est.,Mahe Group is granitic narrow coastal strip rocky hilly; others are coral flat elevated reefs,general assessment: effective system domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 125 telephones per 100 persons; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago international: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean),1.93,2009 est.,2.0,2006 est.,republic,five oblique bands of blue (hoist side) yellow red white and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side,,$ 882 000 000,2008 est.,458,2003,1.0,2009 est.,3.1,2008 est.,,,$ 1 473 000 000,2008 est.,the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles,$ 17 000,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Norway,2591000,2008 est.,Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch),0.0,2005,196.0,NA,3.58,2009 est.,petroleum and gas food processing shipbuilding pulp and paper products metals chemicals timber mining textiles fishing,1577,2008,3.8,2008 est.,,,.no,0.1,2007 est.,3000,2007 est.,100,2003 est.,1988000,2007,0.75,2009 est.,3800000,2007,69.0,2008,62 00 N 10 00 E,15.2,2009 est.,1.0,2008,2.0,2008 est.,Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); despite dialogue Russia and Norway continue to dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone,323802,NA,1270.0,2003,Europe,Northern Europe bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean west of Sweden,conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway conventional short form: Norway local long form: Kongeriket Norge local short form: Norge,25148.0,NA,4.2,2008,17 May 1814; amended many times,chief of mission: Ambassador Wegger C. STROMMEN chancery: 2720 34th Street NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000 FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870 consulate(s) general: Houston Minneapolis New York San Francisco,30543.0,2009 est.,25.0,2008,2565000,2007 est.,$ 469 100 000 000,30 June 2007,$ 168 800 000 000,2008 est.,2310000,2007,39.4,2009 est.,224500,2007 est.,92650,2005,6865000000,1 January 2008 est.,2241000000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973) head of government: Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 October 2005) cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of parliament elections: the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament,5.64,NA,2.0,2007 estimate,$ 142 500 000 000,31 December 2008,4.5,2008,98,2008,17.0,2006,,,3.9,2000,17300000000.0,2008 est.,128800000000,2008 est.,name: Oslo geographic coordinates: 59 55 N 10 45 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397 Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814 Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949 neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994 Norway rejected joining the EU.,2.9,2008,petroleum and petroleum products machinery and equipment metals chemicals ships fish,3.5,1st quarter 2009,9.29,July 2009 est.,31.0,2008,$ 481 100 000 000,2008 est.,$ 91 490 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 160 100 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,19 counties (fylker singular - fylke); Akershus Aust-Agder Buskerud Finnmark Hedmark Hordaland More og Romsdal Nordland Nord-Trondelag Oppland Oslo Ostfold Rogaland Sogn og Fjordane Sor-Trondelag Telemark Troms Vest-Agder Vestfold,381.4,2005,2.4,1996,barley wheat potatoes; pork beef veal milk; fish,Norwegian Army (Haeren) Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret RNoN; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)) Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret RNoAF) Home Guard (Heimevernet HV) (2007),10.99,2009 est.,7.2,2005,$ 178 100 000 000,2008 est.,temperate along coast modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast,machinery and equipment chemicals metals foodstuffs,Center Party [Liv Signe NAVARSETE]; Christian People's Party [Dagfinn HOYBRATEN]; Conservative Party [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Siv JENSEN]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN],4660539,July 2009 est.,noun: Norwegian(s) adjective: Norwegian,petroleum natural gas iron ore copper lead zinc titanium pyrites nickel fish timber hydropower,1.71,2009 est.,about two-thirds mountains; some 50 000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world,Norwegian Aid Committee or NORWAC; Norwegian Association of the Disabled; Pure Salmon Campaign; The Consumer Council (consumer advocacy group) other: environmental groups; media; reform movements,The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas such as the vital petroleum sector through large-scale state enterprises. The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum hydropower fish forests and minerals - and is highly dependent on the petroleum sector which accounts for nearly half of exports and over 30% of state revenue. Norway is the world's third-largest gas exporter; its position as an oil exporter has slipped to seventh-largest as production has begun to decline. Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless as a member of the European Economic Area it contributes sizably to the EU budget. In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production Norway saves almost all state revenue from the petroleum sector in a sovereign wealth fund. After lackluster growth of less than 1.5% in 2002-03 GDP growth picked up to 2.5-6.2% in 2004-07 partly due to higher oil prices. Growth fell to 2.3% in 2008 as a result of the slowing world economy and the drop in oil prices.,5192000,2007,7 June 1905 (Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union),85700000000,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,6500000000,2007 est.,1.0,2004,$ 83 500 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,3450000000.0,2008 est.,0.7,NA,,,,,863255.0,2009 est.,Constitution Day 17 May (1814),688,2008,0.0,NA,rockslides avalanches,slightly larger than New Mexico,100.0,NA,79.95,2009 est.,modified unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms); note - in 2009 the number of seats will change to 165 elections: last held 12 September 2005 (next to be held in September 2009) election results: percent of vote by party - Labor Party 32.7% Progress Party 22.1% Conservative Party 14.1% Socialist Left Party 8.8% Christian People's Party 6.8% Center Party 6.5% Liberal Party 5.9% other 3.1%; seats by party - Labor Party 61 Progress Party 38 Conservative Party 23 Socialist Left Party 15 Christian People's Party 11 Center Party 11 Liberal Party 10 note: for certain purposes the parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership in the Lagting and three-fourths of its membership in the Odelsting,mixture of customary law civil law system and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ADB (nonregional member) AfDB (nonregional member) Arctic Council Australia Group BIS CBSS CE CERN EAPC EBRD EFTA ESA FAO IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM (guest) NATO NC NEA NIB NSG OAS (observer) OECD OPCW OSCE Paris Club PCA Schengen Convention UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL UNITAR UNMIS UNRWA UNTSO UNWTO UPU WCO WEU (associate) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC,10.0,NA,1046550.0,2008 est.,1.9,2005 est.,party to: Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Air Pollution-Sulfur 85 Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Antarctic Seals Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions,6.0,2008,12.0,2008,142700000000,2008 est.,4114,2009,Bergen Borg Havn Haugesund Maaloy Mongstad Narvik Oslo Sture,18.0,NA,-0.2,2008 est.,glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north,general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular-mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark Finland Iceland and Sweden) (1999),1.78,2009 est.,2.6,2008 est.,constitutional monarchy,red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag),,$ 85 990 000 000,2008 est.,92946,2007,0.34,2009 est.,1.8,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 256 500 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Benson K. WHITNEY embassy: Henrik Ibsens gate 48 0244 Oslo; note - the embassy will move to Huseby in the near future mailing address: PSC 69 Box 1000 APO AE 09707 telephone: [47] (22) 44 85 50 FAX: [47] (22) 44 33 63 56 27 51,$ 55 200,2008 est.,99300000000,2008 est.
Malawi,5747000,2007 est.,Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chief justice appointed by the president puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission); magistrate's courts,1.18,2005,475.0,NA,89.05,2009 est.,tobacco tea sugar sawmill products cement consumer goods,700,2008,8.7,2008 est.,1.7,1998 census,.mw,11.9,2007 est.,930000,2007 est.,68000,2007 est.,175200,2007,0.74,2009 est.,139500,2007,1.0,2001,13 30 S 34 00 E,2.7,2009 est.,2.0,2001,16.8,2008 est.,disputes with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant,118484,NA,560.0,2003,Africa,Southern Africa east of Zambia,conventional long form: Republic of Malawi conventional short form: Malawi local long form: Dziko la Malawi local short form: Malawi former: British Central African Protectorate Nyasaland Protectorate Nyasaland,0.0,NA,4.5,2008,18 May 1994,chief of mission: Ambassador Hawa NDILOWE chancery: 1029 Vermont Avenue Suite 1000 Washington DC 20005 telephone: [1] (202) 721-0270 FAX: [1] (202) 721-0288,173828.0,2009 est.,39.0,2004,0,2007 est.,$ 1 039 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 830 000 000,2008 est.,0,2005,16.8,2009 est.,6160,2006 est.,6788,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 May 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 May 2004) cabinet: 46-member Cabinet named by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 19 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014) election results: Bingu wa MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Bingu wa MUTHARIKA 66% John TEMBO 30.7% other 3.3%,108.89,NA,,,,,5.7,2008,34,2008,9.0,2004,53.0,2004,3.0,2004,0.0,2007 est.,1051000000,2006 est.,name: Lilongwe geographic coordinates: 13 59 S 33 47 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Established in 1891 the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule under President Hastings Kamuzu BANDA the country held multiparty elections in 1994 under a provisional constitution that came into full effect the following year. Current President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA elected in May 2004 after a failed attempt by the previous president to amend the constitution to permit another term struggled to assert his authority against his predecessor and subsequently started his own party the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) in 2005. As president MUTHARIKA has overseen substantial economic improvement but because of political deadlock in the legislature his minority party has been unable to pass significant legislation and anti-corruption measures have stalled. Population growth increasing pressure on agricultural lands corruption and the spread of HIV/AIDS pose major problems for Malawi.,10.0,2003 est.,tobacco 53% tea sugar cotton coffee peanuts wood products apparel,27.72,31 December 2007,17.6,July 2009 est.,,,$ 4 082 000 000,2008 est.,$ 11 230 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,,,28 districts; Balaka Blantyre Chikwawa Chiradzulu Chitipa Dedza Dowa Karonga Kasungu Likoma Lilongwe Machinga (Kasupe) Mangochi Mchinji Mulanje Mwanza Mzimba Neno Ntcheu Nkhata Bay Nkhotakota Nsanje Ntchisi Phalombe Rumphi Salima Thyolo Zomba,17.3,2001,1.01,2000,tobacco sugarcane cotton tea corn potatoes cassava (tapioca) sorghum pulses groundnuts Macadamia nuts; cattle goats,Malawi Armed Forces: Army (includes Air Wing and Naval Detachment) (2009),41.48,2009 est.,5.8,2003,$ 1 254 000 000,2008 est.,sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November),food petroleum products semimanufactures consumer goods transportation equipment,Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Dindi NYASULU]; Congress of Democrats or CODE [Ralph KASAMBARA]; Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Bingu wa MUTHARIKA]; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [John TEMBO]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA]; Malawi Forum for Unity and Development or MAFUNDE [George MNESA]; Maravi People's Party [Uladi MUSSA]; National Unity Party or NUP [Harry CHIUME]; New Rainbow Coalition Party [Beatrice MWALE]; New Republican Party [Gwanda CHAKUWAMBA]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Aleke BANDA]; People's Transformation Movement or PETRA [Kamuzu CHIBAMBO]; Republican Party or RP [Stanley MASAULI]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI]; United Democratic Party [Kenedy KALAMBO],14268711,July 2009 est.,noun: Malawian(s) adjective: Malawian,limestone arable land hydropower unexploited deposits of uranium coal and bauxite,,,landlocked; Lake Nyasa some 580 km long is the country's most prominent physical feature,Agri-Ecology Media (agriculture and environmental group); Council for NGOs in Malawi or CONGOMA (human rights democracy and development); Human Rights Consultative Committee or HRCC (human rights); Malawi Law Society (human rights and law reform); Malawi Movement for the Restoration of Democracy or MMRD (acts to restore and maintain democracy); Public Affairs Committee or PAC (promotes democracy development peace and unity),Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's most densely populated and least developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural with about 85% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for more than one-third of GDP and 90% of export revenues. The performance of the tobacco sector is key to short-term growth as tobacco accounts for more than half of exports. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF the World Bank and individual donor nations. In December 2007 the US granted Malawi eligibility status to receive financial support within the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) initiative. Malawi will now begin a consultative process to develop a five-year program before funding can begin. In 2006 Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. The government faces many challenges including developing a market economy improving educational facilities facing up to environmental problems dealing with the rapidly growing problem of HIV/AIDS and satisfying foreign donors that fiscal discipline is being tightened. In 2005 President MUTHARIKA championed an anticorruption campaign. Since 2005 President MUTHARIKA'S government has exhibited improved financial discipline under the guidance of Finance Minister Goodall GONDWE and signed a three year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility worth $56 million with the IMF. Improved relations with the IMF lead other international donors to resume aid as well.,1051000,2007,6 July 1964 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,3.0,1998 census,$ -241 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,5.2,NA,$ 406 200 000,31 December 2007,,,1562107.0,2009 est.,Independence Day (Republic Day) 6 July (1964),,,37.0,NA,NA,slightly smaller than Pennsylvania,62.7,2003 est.,43.82,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly (193 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 19 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DPP 114 MCP 26 UDF 17 independents 32 other 4,based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ACP AfDB AU C COMESA FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MONUC NAM OPCW SADC UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNMIL UNMIS UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,,,3050444.0,2008 est.,1.3,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea,deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff sewage industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,1130000000,2006 est.,797,2008,Chipoka Monkey Bay Nkhata Bay Nkhotakota Chilumba,18.0,NA,4.0,2008 est.,narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains rounded hills some mountains,general assessment: rudimentary domestic: fixed-line subscribership about 1 per 100 persons; privatization of Malawi Telecommunications (MTL) a necessary step in bringing improvement to telecommunications services completed in 2006; mobile-cellular services are expanding but cellular network coverage is limited and is based around the main urban areas; mobile cellular subscribership roughly 8 per 100 persons international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean 1 Atlantic Ocean),5.59,2009 est.,,,multiparty democracy,three equal horizontal bands of black (top) red and green with a radiant rising red sun centered in the black band,,$ 1 587 000 000,2008 est.,15451,2003,2.39,2009 est.,6.5,2008 est.,,,$ 11 560 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. BODDE embassy: 16 Jomo Kenyatta Road Lilongwe 3 mailing address: P. O. Box 30016 Lilongwe 3 Malawi telephone: [265] (1) 773 166 FAX: [265] (1) 770 471,$ 800,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Cook Islands,6820,2001,High Court,8.33,2005,0.0,NA,16.9,2009 est.,fruit processing tourism fishing clothing handicrafts,,,2.1,2005 est.,,,.ck,,,,,,,6200,2002,0.97,2009 est.,3600,2002,1.0,2004,21 14 S 159 46 W,9.2,2009 est.,0.0,2004,9.6,2004,none,236,NA,,,Oceania,Oceania group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean about half way between Hawaii and New Zealand,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Cook Islands former: Harvey Islands,120.0,NA,,,4 August 1965,none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand),125.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 141 000 000,1996 est.,$ 5 222 000,2005,0,2005,30.5,2009 est.,464,2006 est.,476,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) represented by Sir Frederick GOODWIN (since 9 February 2001); New Zealand High Commissioner Tia BARRETT (since December 2008) representative of New Zealand head of government: Prime Minister Jim MARURAI (since 14 December 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Terepai MAOATE (since 9 August 2005) cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively responsible to Parliament elections: the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative is appointed by the monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner is appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes prime minister,1.38,NA,5.8,2001 census,,,,,9,2008,10.0,2005,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,27900000,2006 est.,name: Avarua geographic coordinates: 21 12 S 159 46 W time difference: UTC-10 (5 hours behind Washington DC during Standard Time),Named after Captain COOK who sighted them in 1770 the islands became a British protectorate in 1888. By 1900 administrative control was transferred to New Zealand; in 1965 residents chose self-government in free association with New Zealand. The emigration of skilled workers to New Zealand and government deficits are continuing problems.,15.0,1995,copra papayas fresh and canned citrus fruit coffee; fish; pearls and pearl shells; clothing,,,,,,,$ 183 200 000,2005 est.,,,,,none,,,,,copra citrus pineapples tomatoes beans pawpaws bananas yams taro coffee; pigs poultry,no regular military forces; National Police Department (2007),16.18,2009 est.,0.2,2001,$ 69 050 000,FY05/06,tropical oceanic; moderated by trade winds; a dry season from April to November and a more humid season from December to March,foodstuffs textiles fuels timber capital goods,Cook Islands Party or CIP [Henry PUNA]; Democratic Party or Demo [Dr. Terepai MAOATE],11870,July 2009 est.,noun: Cook Islander(s) adjective: Cook Islander,NEGL,,,the northern Cook Islands are seven low-lying sparsely populated coral atolls; the southern Cook Islands where most of the population lives consist of eight elevated fertile volcanic isles including the largest Rarotonga at 67 sq km,Reform Conference (lobby for political system changes) other: various groups lobbying for political change,Like many other South Pacific island nations the Cook Islands' economic development is hindered by the isolation of the country from foreign markets the limited size of domestic markets lack of natural resources periodic devastation from natural disasters and inadequate infrastructure. Agriculture employing more than one-quarter of the working population provides the economic base with major exports made up of copra and citrus fruit. Black pearls are the Cook Islands' leading export. Manufacturing activities are limited to fruit processing clothing and handicrafts. Trade deficits are offset by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid overwhelmingly from New Zealand. In the 1980s and 1990s the country lived beyond its means maintaining a bloated public service and accumulating a large foreign debt. Subsequent reforms including the sale of state assets the strengthening of economic management the encouragement of tourism and a debt restructuring agreement have rekindled investment and growth.,1500,2002,none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral action),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,2.6,2001 census,$ 26 670 000,2005,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,-0.7,NA,,,,,2286.0,2009 est.,Constitution Day first Monday in August (1965),26,2008,0.0,NA,typhoons (November to March),1.3 times the size of Washington DC,95.0,NA,74.22,2009 est.,bicameral Parliament consisting of a House of Ariki (or upper house) made up of traditional leaders and a Legislative Assembly (or lower house) (24 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) note: the House of Ariki advises on traditional matters and maintains considerable influence but has no legislative powers elections: last held 26 September 2006 (next to be held by 2011) election results: percent of vote by party - Demo 51.9% CIP 45.5% independent 2.7%; seats by party - Demo 15 CIP 8 independent 1,based on New Zealand law and English common law,ACP ADB FAO ICAO ICCt ICRM IFAD IFRCS IMSO IOC ITUC OPCW PIF Sparteca SPC UNESCO UPU WHO WMO,12.0,NA,,,,,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection,NA,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,30000000,2006 est.,,,Avatiu,18.0,NA,1.0,2002,low coral atolls in north; volcanic hilly islands in south,general assessment: Telecom Cook Islands offers international direct dialing Internet email fax and Telex domestic: individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations microwave systems and VHF and HF radiotelephone; within the islands service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open-wire cable and fiber-optic cable international: country code - 682; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean),2.49,2009 est.,13.1,2005,self-governing parliamentary democracy,blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag,,$ 81 040 000,2005,320,2003,-3.3,2009 est.,0.1,2005 est.,,,$ 183 200 000,2005 est.,none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand),$ 9 100,2005 est.,0,2007 est.
Benin,3662000,2007 est.,Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice,2.37,2005,266.0,NA,64.64,2009 est.,textiles food processing construction materials cement,150,2007,7.9,2008 est.,,,.bj,1.2,2007 est.,64000,2007 est.,3300,2007 est.,110300,2007,0.7,2009 est.,150000,2007,6.0,2007,9 30 N 2 15 E,2.6,2009 est.,1.0,2007,14.5,2007 est.,in September 2007 Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) intervened to attempt to resolve the dispute over two villages along the Benin-Burkina Faso border that remain from 2005 ICJ decision; much of Benin-Niger boundary including tripoint with Nigeria remains undemarcated; in 2005 Nigeria ceded thirteen villages to Benin but border relations remain strained by rival cross-border gang clashes; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River,112622,NA,120.0,2003,Africa,Western Africa bordering the Bight of Benin between Nigeria and Togo,conventional long form: Republic of Benin conventional short form: Benin local long form: Republique du Benin local short form: Benin former: Dahomey,121.0,NA,4.2,2008,adopted by referendum 2 December 1990,chief of mission: Ambassador Cyrille Segbe OGUIN chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656 FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996,97856.0,2009 est.,36.5,2003,0,2007 est.,$ 1 200 000 000,2007,$ 894 000 000,2008 est.,6484,2005,17.2,2009 est.,9232,2007 est.,16830,2007 est.,8000000,1 January 2008 est.,1133000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); runoff election held 19 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2011) election results: Thomas YAYI Boni elected president; percent of vote - Thomas YAYI Boni 74.5% Adrien HOUNGBEDJI 25.5%,447.81,NA,1.6,2002 census,,,4.2,2008,5,2008,6.0,2001,37.4,2007 est.,3.1,2003,0.0,2007 est.,595000000,2006 est.,name: Porto-Novo (official capital) geographic coordinates: 6 29 N 2 37 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) note: Cotonou (seat of government),Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey a prominent West African kingdom that rose in the 15th century. The territory became a French Colony in 1872 and achieved independence on 1 August 1960 as the Republic of Benin. A succession of military governments ended in 1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to representative government began in 1989. Two years later free elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as president marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by elections held in 1996 and 2001 though some irregularities were alleged. KEREKOU stepped down at the end of his second term in 2006 and was succeeded by Thomas YAYI Boni a political outsider and independent. YAYI has begun a high profile fight against corruption and has strongly promoted accelerating Benin's economic growth.,,,cotton cashews shea butter textiles palm products seafood,,,9.45,July 2009 est.,,,$ 6 940 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,12 departments; Alibori Atakora Atlantique Borgou Collines Kouffo Donga Littoral Mono Oueme Plateau Zou,25.8,2001,0.13,2001,cotton corn cassava (tapioca) yams beans palm oil peanuts cashews; livestock,Benin Armed Forces (FAB): Army (l'Arme de Terre) Benin Navy (Forces Navales Beninois FNB) Benin People's Air Force (Force Aerienne Populaire de Benin FAPB) (2008),39.22,2009 est.,4.4,2004,$ 1 291 000 000,2008 est.,tropical; hot humid in south; semiarid in north,foodstuffs capital goods petroleum products,Alliance for Dynamic Democracy or ADD; Alliance of Progress Forces or AFP; African Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Benin Renaissance or RB [Rosine SOGLO]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Force Cowrie for an Emerging Benin or FCBE; Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD [Theophile NATA]; Key Force or FC [Lazare S�HOU�TO]; Movement for the People's Alternative or MAP [Olivier CAPO-CHICHI]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Dominique HOUNGNINOU]; Social Democrat Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Union for the Relief or UPR [Issa SALIFOU]; Union for Democracy and National Solidarity or UDS [Sacca LAFIA] note: approximately 20 additional minor parties,8791832,July 2009 est.,noun: Beninese (singular and plural) adjective: Beninese,small offshore oil deposits limestone marble timber,0.0,2009 est.,sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural harbors river mouths or islands,other: economic groups; environmentalists; political groups; teachers' unions and other educational groups,The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on subsistence agriculture cotton production and regional trade. Growth in real output has averaged around 5% in the past seven years but rapid population growth has offset much of this increase. Inflation has subsided over the past several years. In order to raise growth still further Benin plans to attract more foreign investment place more emphasis on tourism facilitate the development of new food processing systems and agricultural products and encourage new information and communication technology. Specific projects to improve the business climate by reforms to the land tenure system the commercial justice system and the financial sector were included in Benin's $307 million Millennium Challenge Account grant signed in February 2006. The 2001 privatization policy continues in telecommunications water electricity and agriculture though the government annulled the privatization of Benin's state cotton company in November 2007 after the discovery of irregularities in the bidding process. The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the external debt situation with Benin benefiting from a G8 debt reduction announced in July 2005 while pressing for more rapid structural reforms. An insufficient electrical supply continues to adversely affect Benin's economic growth though the government recently has taken steps to increase domestic power production.,1895000,2007,1 August 1960 (from France),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,15.5,2002 census,$ -487 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,590000000.0,2006 est.,4.0,NA,$ 520 600 000,31 December 2007,,,1279053.0,2009 est.,National Day 1 August (1960),,,0.0,NA,hot dry dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to March,slightly smaller than Pennsylvania,34.7,2002 census,59.0,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 31 March 2007 (next to be held by March 2011) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FCBE 35 ADD 20 PRD 10 other and independents 18,based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACCT ACP AfDB AU ECOWAS Entente FAO FZ G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MONUC NAM OAS (observer) OIC OIF OPCW PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMIL UNMIS UNOCI UNWTO UPU WADB (regional) WAEMU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,200.0,NA,1882421.0,2008 est.,1.7,2006,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,120000000,2006 est.,578,2008,Cotonou,18.0,NA,3.5,2008 est.,mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains,general assessment: inadequate; fixed-line network characterized by aging deteriorating equipment with fixed-line teledensity stuck at 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership is increasing domestic: system of open-wire microwave radio relay and cellular connections; multiple mobile-cellular providers international: country code - 229; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat-Atlantic Ocean) (2007),5.49,2009 est.,,,republic,two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red (bottom) with a vertical green band on the hoist side,transshipment point used by traffickers for cocaine destined for Western Europe; vulnerable to money laundering due to poorly enforced financial regulations (2008),$ 1 399 000 000,2008 est.,16000,2006,2.98,2009 est.,4.8,2008 est.,,,$ 12 840 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Gayleatha B. BROWN embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani Cotonou mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012 Cotonou telephone: [229] 21-30-06-50 FAX: [229] 21-30-03-84,$ 1 500,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Dhekelia,,,,,,103.0,NA,,,none,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,2006,34 59 N 33 45 E,,,1.0,2006,,,,131,NA,,,Middle East,Eastern Mediterranean on the southeast coast of Cyprus near Famagusta,conventional long form: Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area conventional short form: Dhekelia,27.5,NA,,,Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Order in Council 1960 effective 16 August 1960 functions as a basic legal document,none (overseas territory of the UK),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) head of government: Administrator Major General Jamie GORDON (since October 2008); note - reports to the British Ministry of Defense elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the administrator is appointed by the monarch,0.68,NA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,name: Episkopi Cantonment (base administrative center for Akrotiri and Dhekelia); located in Akrotiri geographic coordinates: 34 40 N 32 51 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,By terms of the 1960 Treaty of Establishment that created the independent Republic of Cyprus the UK retained full sovereignty and jurisdiction over two areas of almost 254 square kilometers - Akrotiri and Dhekelia. The larger of these is the Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area which is also referred to as the Eastern Sovereign Base Area.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,temperate; Mediterranean with hot dry summers and cool winters,,,15700,NA,,,,,British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small off-post sites scattered across Cyprus; of the Sovereign Base Area land 60% is privately owned and farmed 20% is owned by the Ministry of Defense and 20% is SBA Crown land,,Economic activity is limited to providing services to the military and their families located in Dhekelia. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,about three-quarters the size of Washington DC,,,,,,the Sovereign Base Area Administration has its own court system to deal with civil and criminal matters; laws applicable to the Cypriot population are as far as possible the same as the laws of the Republic of Cyprus,,,,,,,,,netting and trapping of small migrant songbirds in the spring and autumn,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,the flag of the UK is used,,,,,,,,,,,,,,none (overseas territory of the UK),,,,
Korea South,24350000,2008 est.,Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president with consent of National Assembly); Constitutional Court (justices appointed by the president based partly on nominations by National Assembly and Chief Justice of the court),2.01,2005,238.0,NA,4.26,2009 est.,electronics telecommunications automobile production chemicals shipbuilding steel,1608,2008,4.7,2008 est.,,,.kr,0.1,2007 est.,13000,2007 est.,500,2007 est.,23905000,2007,0.67,2009 est.,35590000,2007,57.0,2008,37 00 N 127 30 E,10.8,2009 est.,1.0,2008,3.0,2008 est.,Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents with North Korea in the Yellow Sea over the Northern Limiting Line which South Korea claims as a maritime boundary; South Korea and Japan claim Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima) occupied by South Korea since 1954,99720,NA,8780.0,2003,Asia,Eastern Asia southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea,conventional long form: Republic of Korea conventional short form: South Korea local long form: Taehan-min'guk local short form: Han'guk abbreviation: ROK,2413.0,NA,6.1,2008,17 July 1948; note - amended or rewritten nine times; current constitution approved on 29 October 1987,chief of mission: Ambassador HAN Duck-soo chancery: 2450 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 939-5600 FAX: [1] (202) 387-0205 consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam) Atlanta Boston Chicago Honolulu Houston Los Angeles New York San Francisco Seattle,322605.0,2009 est.,31.3,2007,20970,2007 est.,$ 371 800 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 433 500 000 000,2008 est.,910000,2008 est.,37.3,2009 est.,2080000,2008 est.,2370000,2008,,,50000000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President LEE Myung-bak (since 25 February 2008) head of government: Prime Minister HAN Seung-soo (since 29 February 2008) cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation elections: president elected by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 19 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2012); prime minister appointed by president with consent of National Assembly election results: LEE Myung-bak elected president on 19 December 2007; percent of vote - LEE Myung-bak (GNP) 48.7%; CHUNG Dong-young (UNDP) 26.1%); LEE Hoi-chang (independent) 15.1; others 10.1%,929.2,NA,,,$ 623 000 000 000,31 December 2008,6.4,2008,113,2008,15.0,2007,15.0,2003 est.,2.7,2007,0.0,2008 est.,385100000000,2008 est.,name: Seoul geographic coordinates: 37 33 N 126 59 E time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),An independent Korean state or collection of states has existed almost continuously for several millennia. Between its initial unification in the 7th century - from three predecessor Korean states - until the 20th century Korea existed as a single independent country. In 1905 following the Russo-Japanese War Korea became a protectorate of imperial Japan and in 1910 it was annexed as a colony. Korea regained its independence following Japan's surrender to the United States in 1945. After World War II a Republic of Korea (ROK) was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a Communist-style government was installed in the north (the DPRK). During the Korean War (1950-53) US troops and UN forces fought alongside soldiers from the ROK to defend South Korea from DPRK attacks supported by China and the Soviet Union. An armistice was signed in 1953 splitting the peninsula along a demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel. Thereafter South Korea achieved rapid economic growth with per capita income rising to roughly 14 times the level of North Korea. In 1993 KIM Young-sam became South Korea's first civilian president following 32 years of military rule. South Korea today is a fully functioning modern democracy. In June 2000 a historic first North-South summit took place between the South's President KIM Dae-jung and the North's leader KIM Jong Il. In October 2007 a second North-South summit took place between the South's President ROH Moo-hyun and the North Korean leader. Harsh rhetoric and unwillingness by North Korea to engage with President LEE Myung-bak following his February 2008 inauguration has strained inter-Korean relations.,7.2,2007,semiconductors wireless telecommunications equipment motor vehicles computers steel ships petrochemicals,,,5.94,July 2009 est.,827.0,2008,$ 857 500 000 000,2008 est.,$ 124 200 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 74 600 000 000,30 June 2008,9 provinces (do singular and plural) and 7 metropolitan cities* (gwangyoksi singular and plural) provinces: Cheju-do Cholla-bukto (North Cholla) Cholla-namdo (South Cholla) Ch'ungch'ong-bukto (North Ch'ungch'ong) Ch'ungch'ong-namdo (South Ch'ungch'ong) Kangwon-do Kyonggi-do Kyongsang-bukto (North Kyongsang) Kyongsang-namdo (South Kyongsang) metropolitan cities: Inch'on-gwangyoksi (Inch'on) Kwangju-gwangyoksi (Kwangju) Pusan-gwangyoksi (Pusan) Soul-t'ukpyolsi (Seoul) Taegu-gwangyoksi (Taegu) Taejon-gwangyoksi (Taejon) Ulsan-gwangyoksi (Ulsan),69.7,1999,18.59,2000,rice root crops barley vegetables fruit; cattle pigs chickens milk eggs; fish,Republic of Korea Army Navy (includes Marine Corps) Air Force (2009),8.93,2009 est.,4.6,2004,$ 216 700 000 000,2008 est.,temperate with rainfall heavier in summer than winter,machinery electronics and electronic equipment oil steel transport equipment organic chemicals plastics,Democratic Party or DP [CHUNG Sye-kyun] (formerly the United Democratic Party or UDP); Democratic Labor Party or DLP [KANG Ki-kabi]; Grand National Party or GNP [KANG Jae-sup]; Liberty Forward Party or LFP [LEE Hoi-chang]; Pro-Park Alliance or PPA [SUH Choung-won]; Renewal Korea Party or RKP [MOON Kook-hyun],48508972,July 2009 est.,noun: Korean(s) adjective: Korean,coal tungsten graphite molybdenum lead hydropower potential,-0.33,2009 est.,strategic location on Korea Strait,Federation of Korean Industries; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions; Korean National Council of Churches; Korean Traders Association; Korean Veterans' Association; National Council of Labor Unions; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Federation of Student Associations,Since the 1960s South Korea has achieved an incredible record of growth and integration into the high-tech modern world economy. Four decades ago GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorer countries of Africa and Asia. In 2004 South Korea joined the trillion dollar club of world economies. In 2008 its GDP per capita was roughly the same as that of the Czech Republic and New Zealand. Initially this success was achieved by a system of close government/business ties including directed credit import restrictions sponsorship of specific industries and a strong labor effort. The government promoted the import of raw materials and technology at the expense of consumer goods and encouraged savings and investment over consumption. The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 exposed longstanding weaknesses in South Korea's development model including high debt/equity ratios massive foreign borrowing and an undisciplined financial sector. GDP plunged by 6.9% in 1998 then recovered by 9% in 1999-2000. Korea adopted numerous economic reforms following the crisis including greater openness to foreign investment and imports. Growth fell back to 3.3% in 2001 because of the slowing global economy falling exports and the perception that much-needed corporate and financial reforms had stalled. Led by consumer spending and exports growth in 2002 was an impressive 7% despite anemic global growth. Between 2003 and 2007 growth moderated to about 4-5% annually. A downturn in consumer spending was offset by rapid export growth. In 2008 inflation increased in the face of rising oil and food prices before easing in the fourth quarter. Korea was hit hard by the global financial turmoil that began in September 2008. Stock prices fell by more than 40% for the year and the value of the won fell by approximately 26%. Korean GDP shrank in the fourth quarter and GDP growth for the year was just 2.5%. The Korean government adopted several measures to combat the credit crunch and stimulate the economy.,43500000,2007,15 August 1945 (from Japan),0,2007 est.,34400000000,2007 est.,37000000000,2007 est.,1.3,1995 census,$ -6 349 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2008 est.,0.6,NA,$ 1 061 000 000 000,31 December 2007,,,10356604.0,2009 est.,Liberation Day 15 August (1945),812,2008,0.0,NA,occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; low-level seismic activity common in southwest,slightly larger than Indiana,97.9,2002,78.72,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly or Kukhoe (299 seats; 243 members elected in single-seat constituencies 56 elected by proportional representation; to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 9 April 2008 (next to be held in April 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GNP 172 UDP 83 LFP 20 Pro-Park Alliance 8 DLP 5 CKP 1 independents 9,combines elements of continental European civil law systems Anglo-American law and Chinese classical thought; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ADB AfDB (nonregional member) APEC APT ARF ASEAN (dialogue partner) Australia Group BIS CP EAS EBRD FAO G-20 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC LAIA MIGA NEA NSG OAS (observer) OECD OPCW OSCE (partner) PCA PIF (partner) SAARC (observer) UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL UNMIL UNMIS UNMOGIP UNOMIG UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC,12.0,NA,13029859.0,2008 est.,2.7,2006,party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,air pollution in large cities; acid rain; water pollution from the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; drift net fishing,2.0,2008,3.0,2008,440000000000,2008 est.,3381,2008,Inch'on P'ohang Pusan Ulsan,19.0,NA,2.2,2008 est.,mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south,general assessment: excellent domestic and international services featuring rapid incorporation of new technologies domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership roughly 140 per 100 persons; rapid assimilation of a full range of telecommunications technologies leading to a boom in e-commerce international: country code - 82; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia Australia the Middle East Europe and US; satellite earth stations - 66,1.21,2009 est.,3.2,2008 est.,republic,white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the center; there is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of Changes) in each corner of the white field,,$ 427 400 000 000,2008 est.,103029,2008,0.27,2009 est.,2.5,2008 est.,536.0,2007,$ 1 278 000 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Kathleen STEPHENS embassy: 32 Sejongno Jongno-gu Seoul 110-710 mailing address: US Embassy Seoul APO AP 96205-5550 telephone: [82] (2) 397-4114 FAX: [82] (2) 738-8845,$ 26 000,2008 est.,640000000,2007 est.
Western Sahara,12000,2005 est.,,0.0,2005,42.0,NA,69.66,2009 est.,phosphate mining handicrafts,,,,,,,.eh,,,,,,,,,0.73,2009 est.,,,,,24 30 N 13 00 W,2.3,2009 est.,0.0,1998,40.0,2007 est.,"Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved; UN-administered cease-fire has remained in effect since September 1991 administered by the UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) but attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals; several states have extended diplomatic relations to the ""Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic"" represented by the Polisario Front in exile in Algeria while others recognize Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara; most of the approximately 102 000 Sahrawi refugees are sheltered in camps in Tindouf Algeria",266000,NA,,,Africa,Northern Africa bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Mauritania and Morocco,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Western Sahara former: Spanish Sahara,1110.0,NA,,,,none,4679.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,,,,,0,2005,17.3,2009 est.,1760,2006 est.,1925,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,none,7.53,NA,,,,,,,9,2008,,,,,,,0.0,2007,83700000,2006 est.,none time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Morocco virtually annexed the northern two-thirds of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) in 1976 and claimed the rest of the territory in 1979 following Mauritania's withdrawal. A guerrilla war with the Polisario Front contesting Rabat's sovereignty ended in a 1991 UN-brokered cease-fire; a UN-organized referendum on the territory's final status has been repeatedly postponed. In April 2007 Morocco presented an autonomy plan for the territory to the UN which the U.S. considers serious and credible. The Polisario also presented a plan to the UN in 2007 that called for independence. Representatives from the Government of Morocco and the Polisario Front have met four times since June 2007 to negotiate the status of Western Sahara but talks have stalled since the UN envoy to the territory stated in April 2008 that independence is unrealistic.,50.0,2005 est.,phosphates 62%,,,11.49,July 2009 est.,,,,,,,,,none (under de facto control of Morocco),,,,,fruits and vegetables (grown in the few oases); camels sheep goats (kept by nomads); fish,,39.54,2009 est.,,,,,hot dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog and heavy dew,fuel for fishing fleet foodstuffs,,405210,July 2009 est.,noun: Sahrawi(s) Sahraoui(s) adjective: Sahrawi Sahrawian Sahraouian,phosphates iron ore,,,the waters off the coast are particularly rich fishing areas,none,Western Sahara depends on pastoral nomadism fishing and phosphate mining as the principal sources of income for the population. The territory lacks sufficient rainfall for sustainable agricultural production and most of the food for the urban population must be imported. Incomes in Western Sahara are substantially below the Moroccan level. The Moroccan Government controls all trade and other economic activities in Western Sahara. Morocco and the EU signed a four-year agreement in July 2006 allowing European vessels to fish off the coast of Morocco including the disputed waters off the coast of Western Sahara. Moroccan energy interests in 2001 signed contracts to explore for oil off the coast of Western Sahara which has angered the Polisario. However in 2006 the Polisario awarded similar exploration licenses in the disputed territory which would come into force if Morocco and the Polisario resolve their dispute over Western Sahara.,0,1999,,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,4.0,NA,,,,,52267.0,2009 est.,,,,-55.0,NA,hot dry dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time often severely restricting visibility,about the size of Colorado,,,54.32,2009 est.,,,WFTU,,,,,,,party to: none of the selected agreements,sparse water and lack of arable land,1.0,2008,3.0,2008,90000000,2006 est.,,,Ad Dakhla Cabo Bojador Laayoune (El Aaiun),,,,,mostly low flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast,general assessment: sparse and limited system domestic: NA international: country code - 212; tied into Morocco's system by microwave radio relay tropospheric scatter and satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) linked to Rabat Morocco,5.61,2009 est.,,,legal status of territory and issue of sovereignty unresolved; territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro) which in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government-in-exile of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) led by President Mohamed ABDELAZIZ; territory partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976 when Spain withdrew with Morocco acquiring northern two-thirds; Mauritania under pressure from Polisario guerrillas abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government-in-exile was seated as an Organization of African Unity (OAU) member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued sporadically until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented on 6 September 1991 (Security Council Resolution 690) by the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara or MINURSO,,,,,,,2.83,2009 est.,,,,,$ 900 000 000,2007 est.,none,$ 2 500,2007 est.,0,2007 est.
Cuba,4962000,2008 est.,People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular (president vice president and other judges are elected by the National Assembly),6.54,2005,29.0,NA,5.82,2009 est.,sugar petroleum tobacco construction nickel steel cement agricultural machinery pharmaceuticals,240,2008,3.4,2008 est.,,,.cu,0.1,2007 est.,6200,2007 est.,100,2007 est.,1043000,2007,0.83,2009 est.,1310000,2007,58.0,1997,21 30 N 80 00 W,11.2,2009 est.,1.0,1998,4.4,2008 est.,US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the facility can terminate the lease,110860,NA,8700.0,2003,Central America and the Caribbean,Caribbean island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean 150 km south of Key West Florida,conventional long form: Republic of Cuba conventional short form: Cuba local long form: Republica de Cuba local short form: Cuba,3735.0,NA,6.6,2008,24 February 1976; amended July 1992 and June 2002,none; note - Cuba has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy headed by Principal Officer Jorge BOLANOS Suarez; address: Cuban Interests Section Swiss Embassy 2630 16th Street NW Washington DC 20009; telephone: [1] (202) 797-8518; FAX: [1] (202) 797-8521,72253.0,2009 est.,,,61300,2008 est.,$ 19 580 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 3 780 000 000,2008 est.,0,2006,37.3,2009 est.,203500,2006 est.,123200,2005,220800000,1 January 2008 est.,70790000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 February 2008); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura (since 24 February 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 February 2008); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura (since 24 February 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State and appointed by the National Assembly or the 31-member Council of State elected by the assembly to act on its behalf when it is not in session elections: president and vice presidents elected by the National Assembly for a term of five years; election last held 24 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013) election results: Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of legislative vote - 100%; Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 100%,0.92,NA,10.1,2002 census,,,4.3,2008,147,2008,15.0,2006,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,14670000000,2007 est.,name: Havana geographic coordinates: 23 07 N 82 21 W time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions that were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from the US in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's Communist revolution with Soviet support was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s 1970s and 1980s. The country faced a severe economic downturn in 1990 following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually. Cuba portrays its difficulties as the result of the US embargo in place since 1961. Illicit migration to the US - using homemade rafts alien smugglers air flights or via the southwest border - is a continuing problem. The US Coast Guard intercepted 2 656 individuals attempting to cross the Straits of Florida in fiscal year 2007.,19.4,2005,sugar nickel tobacco fish medical products citrus coffee,,,7.24,July 2009 est.,41.0,2008,$ 55 180 000 000,2008 est.,$ 11 240 000 000,2006 est.,$ 4 138 000 000,2006 est.,14 provinces (provincias singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey Ciego de Avila Cienfuegos Ciudad de La Habana Granma Guantanamo Holguin Isla de la Juventud* La Habana Las Tunas Matanzas Pinar del Rio Sancti Spiritus Santiago de Cuba Villa Clara,38.1,2000,8.2,2000,sugar tobacco citrus coffee rice potatoes beans; livestock,Revolutionary Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias FAR): Revolutionary Army (ER; includes Territorial Militia Troops (Milicia de Tropas de Territoriales MTT)) Revolutionary Navy (Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria MGR; includes Marine Corps) Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR) Youth Labor Army (Ejercito Juvenil del Trabajo EJT) (2009),11.13,2009 est.,9.1,2006,$ 45 420 000 000,2008 est.,tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October),petroleum food machinery and equipment chemicals,Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz first secretary],11451652,July 2009 est.,noun: Cuban(s) adjective: Cuban,cobalt nickel iron ore chromium copper salt timber silica petroleum arable land,-1.56,2009 est.,largest country in Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater Antilles,Human Rights Watch; National Association of Small Farmers,The government continues to balance the need for economic loosening against a desire for firm political control. It has rolled back limited reforms undertaken in the 1990s to increase enterprise efficiency and alleviate serious shortages of food consumer goods and services. The average Cuban's standard of living remains at a lower level than before the downturn of the 1990s which was caused by the loss of Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. Since late 2000 Venezuela has been providing oil on preferential terms and it currently supplies about 100 000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Cuba has been paying for the oil in part with the services of Cuban personnel in Venezuela including some 30 000 medical professionals.,198300,2007,20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902); not acknowledged by the Cuban Government as a day of independence,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,1218000000,2007,,,$ -2 691 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,0.0,NA,,,,,2468631.0,2009 est.,Triumph of the Revolution 1 January (1959),11,2008,0.0,NA,the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to November (in general the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common,slightly smaller than Pennsylvania,99.8,2002 census,77.45,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (number of seats in the National Assembly is based on population; 614 seats; members elected directly from slates approved by special candidacy commissions to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 20 January 2008 (next to be held in January 2013) election results: Cuba's Communist Party is the only legal party and officially sanctioned candidates run unopposed,based on Spanish civil law and influenced by American legal concepts with large elements of Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP FAO G-77 IAEA ICAO ICC ICRM IFAD IFRCS IHO ILO IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM (observer) IPU ISO ITSO ITU LAES LAIA NAM OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962) OPANAL OPCW PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO Union Latina UNITAR UNWTO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,12.0,NA,3024876.0,2008 est.,3.8,2006 est.,party to: Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation,air and water pollution; biodiversity loss; deforestation,1.0,2008,5.0,2008,17620000000,2007 est.,8598,2006,Cienfuegos Havana Matanzas,16.0,NA,1.9,2008 est.,mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast,general assessment: greater investment beginning in 1994 and the establishment of a new Ministry of Information Technology and Communications in 2000 has resulted in improvements in the system; wireless service is expensive and must be paid in convertible pesos which effectively limits mobile cellular subscribership domestic: national fiber-optic system under development; 95% of switches digitized by end of 2006; fixed telephone line density remains low at less than 10 per 100 inhabitants; domestic cellular service expanding but remains at only about 2 per 100 persons international: country code - 53; fiber-optic cable laid to but not linked to US network; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) (2007),1.61,2009 est.,1.6,2008 est.,Communist state,five equal horizontal bands of blue (top center and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white five-pointed star in the center,territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone for US- and European-bound drugs; established the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999 (2008),$ 14 500 000 000,2008 est.,60858,2000,0.23,2009 est.,4.3,2008 est.,,,$ 108 200 000 000,2008 est.,none; note - the US has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy headed by Chief of Mission Jonathan D. FARRAR; address: USINT Swiss Embassy Calzada between L and M Streets Vedado Havana; telephone: [53] (7) 833-3551 through 3559 (operator assistance required); FAX: [53] (7) 833-1653; protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland,$ 9 500,2008 est.,1218000000,2007
Montenegro,259100,2004,Constitutional Court (five judges with nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure),1.0,NA,25.0,NA,,,steelmaking aluminum agricultural processing consumer goods tourism,,,3.4,2007,3.7,2003 census,.me,,,,,,,353300,2006,0.68,2009 est.,280000,2007,13.0,2004,42 30 N 19 18 E,13.7,2009 est.,31.0,2004,,,none,13812,NA,,,Europe,Southeastern Europe between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia,conventional long form: none conventional short form: Montenegro local long form: none local short form: Crna Gora former: People's Republic of Montenegro Socialist Republic of Montenegro Republic of Montenegro,293.5,NA,,,approved 19 October 2007 (by the Assembly),chief of mission: Ambassador Miodrag VLAHOVIC chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW Washington DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108 FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109 consulate(s) general: New York,3907.0,2009 est.,30.0,2003,0,2007 est.,$ 650 000 000,2006,$ 171 300 000,2003,314,2005,36.7,2009 est.,450,2004,6093,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,,,chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008) head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 29 February 2008) cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 April 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister proposed by president accepted by Assembly election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.89% Andrija MANDIC 19.55% Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC 16.64% Srdan MILIC 11.92%,0.68,NA,5.0,2003 census,$ 3 699 000 000,31 December 2007,,,5,2008,,,7.0,2007 est.,,,0.0,2005,18600000,2005,name: Podgorica geographic coordinates: 42 26 N 19 16 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1 hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October,The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries Montenegro was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries Montenegro became a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852 it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992 Montenegro federated with Serbia first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and after 2003 in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006 Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.,2.0,2004 est.,,9.09,31 December 2007,8.63,July 2009 est.,,,$ 4 515 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,21 municipalities (opstine singular - opstina); Andrijevica Bar Berane Bijelo Polje Budva Cetinje Danilovgrad Herceg Novi Kolasin Kotor Mojkovac Niksic Plav Pljevlja Pluzine Podgorica Rozaje Savnik Tivat Ulcinj Zabljak,,,,,grains tobacco potatoes citrus fruits olives grapes; sheepherding; commercial fishing negligible,Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army Navy Air Force (2009),11.14,2009 est.,,,,,Mediterranean climate hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland,,Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Coalition for European Montenegro or DPS-SDP (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC] and Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]); Coalition SNP-NS-DSS (bloc) (includes Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC] People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC] and Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]); Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity or SPP [Mehmet BARDHIJ]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Ferhat DINOSA]; Liberals and the Bosniak Party (bloc) [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC] (includes Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC] and Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]); Movement for Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; New Serb Democracy or NSD [Andrija MANDIC]; Serbian List (bloc) [Andrija MANDIC] (includes Party of Serb Radicals or SSR [Dusko SEKULIC] People's Socialist Party or NSS [Emilo LABUDOVIC] and Serbian People's Party of Montenegro or SNS [Andrija MANDIC]); Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Srdjan MILIC],672180,July 2009 est.,noun: Montenegrin(s) adjective: Montenegrin,bauxite hydroelectricity,,,strategic location along the Adriatic coast,,Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and maintained its own central bank adopted the Deutchmark then the euro - rather than the Yugoslav dinar - as official currency collected customs tariffs and managed its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. On 18 January 2007 Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro is pursuing its own membership in the World Trade Organization and signed a Stabilization and Association agreement with the European Union in October 2007. On December 15 2008 Montenegro submitted an EU membership application. Unemployment and regional disparities in development are key political and economic problems. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector. The global financial crisis is likely to have a significant negative impact on the economy.,643700,2006,3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro),,,,,,,0.6,2003 census,$ -1 102 000 000,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2005,-0.8,NA,$ 3 083 000 000,31 December 2007,,,136847.0,2009 est.,National Day 13 July (1878),6,2008,0.0,NA,destructive earthquakes,slightly smaller than Connecticut,,,,,unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote for four-year terms; changed from 74 seats in 2006) elections: last held 29 March 2009 (next to be held in 2013) election results: percent of vote by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 51.94% SNP 16.83% NSD 9.22% PZP 6.03% other (including Albanian minority parties) 15.98%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 48 SNP 16 NSD 8 PZP 5 Albanian minority parties 4,based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,CE CEI EAPC EBRD FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITU ITUC MIGA OPCW OSCE PCA PFP SECI UN UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMIL UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO (observer),12.0,NA,,,,,party to: Air Pollution Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor,1.0,2008,1.0,2008,2864000000,2005 est.,250,2007,Bar,18.0,NA,,,highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus,general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites domestic: GSM wireless service available through 3 providers with national coverage is growing rapidly international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system,,,14.7,2007 est.,republic,a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered,,$ 601 700 000,2003,7368,2006,-0.85,2009 est.,6.5,2008 est.,1.0,2007,$ 6 600 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Roderick W. MOORE embassy: Ljubljanska bb 81000 Podgorica Montenegro mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [382] 81 225 417 FAX: [382] 81 241 358,$ 9 700,2008 est.,,
Saint Kitts and Nevis,18170,June 1995,Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (consisting of a Court of Appeal and a High Court; based on Saint Lucia; two judges of the Supreme Court reside in Saint Kitts and Nevis); member of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ),2.78,2005,0.0,NA,13.94,2009 est.,tourism cotton salt copra clothing footwear beverages,,,4.5,2007 est.,,,.kn,,,,,,,25000,2004,0.72,2009 est.,10000,2002,1.0,2003,17 20 N 62 45 W,7.9,2009 est.,0.0,2003,3.5,2001,joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation a criterion under UNCLOS which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea,261,NA,,,Central America and the Caribbean,Caribbean islands in the Caribbean Sea about one-third of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago,conventional long form: Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis conventional short form: Saint Kitts and Nevis former: Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis,135.0,NA,4.1,2008,19 September 1983,chief of mission: Ambassador Izben Cordinal WILLIAMS chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW Washington DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 686-2636 FAX: [1] (202) 686-5740 consulate(s) general: New York,362.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 314 000 000,2004,$ 84 000 000,2006,0,2005,28.6,2009 est.,950,2006 est.,918,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Cuthbert Montraville SEBASTIAN (since 1 January 1996) head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS (since 6 July 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Sam CONDOR (since 6 July 1995) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general in consultation with the prime minister elections: the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general,2.7,NA,,,$ 439 700 000,31 December 2007,3.7,2008,2,2008,12.0,2005,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,120900000,2006 est.,name: Basseterre geographic coordinates: 17 18 N 62 43 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),Carib Indians occupied the islands for hundreds of years before the British began settlement in 1623. The islands became an associated state of the UK with full internal autonomy in 1967. The island of Anguilla rebelled and was allowed to secede in 1971. Saint Kitts and Nevis achieved independence in 1983. In 1998 a vote in Nevis on a referendum to separate from Saint Kitts fell short of the two-thirds majority needed. Nevis continues in its efforts to separate from Saint Kitts.,,,machinery food electronics beverages tobacco,8.89,31 December 2007,8.05,July 2009 est.,,,$ 559 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,14 parishes; Christ Church Nichola Town Saint Anne Sandy Point Saint George Basseterre Saint George Gingerland Saint James Windward Saint John Capesterre Saint John Figtree Saint Mary Cayon Saint Paul Capesterre Saint Paul Charlestown Saint Peter Basseterre Saint Thomas Lowland Saint Thomas Middle Island Trinity Palmetto Point,0.02,2000,,,sugarcane rice yams vegetables bananas; fish,Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Defense Force (includes Coast Guard) Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Police Force (2009),17.67,2009 est.,9.3,2005,$ 89 700 000,2003 est.,tropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November),machinery manufactures food fuels,Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Vance AMORY]; Nevis Reformation Party or NRP [Joseph PARRY]; People's Action Movement or PAM [Lindsay GRANT]; Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP [Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS],40131,July 2009 est.,noun: Kittitian(s) Nevisian(s) adjective: Kittitian Nevisian,arable land,-1.15,2009 est.,with coastlines in the shape of a baseball bat and ball the two volcanic islands are separated by a 3-km-wide channel called The Narrows; on the southern tip of long baseball bat-shaped Saint Kitts lies the Great Salt Pond; Nevis Peak sits in the center of its almost circular namesake island and its ball shape complements that of its sister island,NA,The economy of Saint Kitts and Nevis is heavily dependent upon tourism revenues which has replaced sugar the traditional mainstay of the economy until the 1970s. Following the 2005 harvest the government closed the sugar industry after decades of losses of 3-4% of GDP annually. To compensate for employment losses the government has embarked on a program to diversify the agricultural sector and to stimulate other sectors of the economy such as tourism export-oriented manufacturing and offshore banking. Economic growth was above average for Latin America from 2004 to 2006 but has since slowed. Like other tourist destinations in the Caribbean the St. Kitts and Nevis is vulnerable to damage from natural disasters and shifts in tourism demand. The current government is constrained by a high public debt burden equivalent to nearly 185% of GDP by the end of 2006 largely attributable to public enterprise losses.,10000,2004,19 September 1983 (from the UK),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,,,$ -163 000 000,2007 est.,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,1.4,NA,$ 782 400 000,31 December 2007,,,8159.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 19 September (1983),159,2008,0.0,NA,hurricanes (July to October),1.5 times the size of Washington DC,97.8,2003 est.,73.2,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly (14 seats 3 appointed and 11 popularly elected from single-member constituencies; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 25 October 2004 (next to be held by 2009) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SKNLP 7 CCM 2 NRP 1 PAM 1,based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ACP C Caricom CDB FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICCt ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC ITU MIGA NAM OAS OECS OPANAL OPCW UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WFTU WHO WIPO WTO,12.0,NA,10081.0,2008 est.,,,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,NA,,,1.0,2008,130000000,2006 est.,50,2008,Basseterre,18.0,NA,,,volcanic with mountainous interiors,general assessment: good interisland and international connections domestic: interisland links via Eastern Caribbean Fiber Optic cable; construction of enhanced wireless infrastructure launched in November 2004 international: country code - 1-869; connected internationally by the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and Southern Caribbean fiber optic system (SCF) submarine cables,2.26,2009 est.,4.5,1997,parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm,divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black band bearing two white five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in yellow; the upper triangle is green the lower triangle is red,transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; some money-laundering activity,$ 383 000 000,2006,383,2002,0.85,2009 est.,3.5,2008 est.,,,$ 784 900 000,2008 est.,the US does not have an embassy in Saint Kitts and Nevis; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Saint Kitts and Nevis,$ 19 700,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Togo,2595000,2007,Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme,2.11,2005,126.0,NA,56.24,2009 est.,phosphate mining agricultural processing cement handicrafts textiles beverages,50,2008,8.7,2008 est.,,,.tg,3.3,2007 est.,130000,2007 est.,9100,2007 est.,82100,2006,0.65,2009 est.,320000,2006,3.0,1997,8 00 N 1 10 E,2.8,2009 est.,2.0,1998,25.0,2008 est.,in 2001 Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006 14 000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40 000 who fled there in 2005,56785,NA,70.0,2003,Africa,Western Africa bordering the Bight of Benin between Benin and Ghana,conventional long form: Togolese Republic conventional short form: Togo local long form: Republique togolaise local short form: none former: French Togoland,56.0,NA,5.1,2008,adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992,chief of mission: Ambassador Kadangha Iimbiya BARIKI chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212 FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190,70051.0,2009 est.,,,0,2007 est.,$ 2 000 000 000,2005,$ 782 000 000,2008 est.,1547,2005,18.7,2009 est.,17770,2006 est.,16650,2005,0,1 January 2006 est.,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son Faure GNASSINGBE with the support of the military; following international condemnation for the unconstitutional move he then stepped aside pending elections and Abass BONFOH served as interim president; Faure GNASSINGBE later won popular elections in April 2005 head of government: Prime Minister Gilbert HOUNGBO (since 7 September 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held in April 2010); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2% Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3% Nicolas LAWSON 1% Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%,447.81,NA,99.0,NA,,,4.8,2008,8,2008,7.0,2000,32.0,1989 est.,,,0.0,2007 est.,607000000,2006 est.,name: Lome geographic coordinates: 6 08 N 1 13 E time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA installed as military ruler in 1967 ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005 the military installed the president's son Faure GNASSINGBE and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and fire from international organizations for human rights abuses Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.,5.0,1998 est.,reexports cotton phosphates coffee cocoa,,,9.33,July 2009 est.,,,$ 3 009 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,5 regions (regions singular - region); Centrale Kara Maritime Plateaux Savanes,14.7,2001,0.17,2000,coffee cocoa cotton yams cassava (tapioca) corn beans rice millet sorghum; livestock; fish,Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise FAT): Ground Forces Togolese Navy (Marine du Togo) Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise FAT) National Gendarmerie (2009),36.44,2009 est.,2.6,2002,$ 438 100 000,2008 est.,tropical; hot humid in south; semiarid in north,machinery and equipment foodstuffs petroleum products,Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for a Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO],6019877,July 2009 est.,noun: Togolese (singular and plural) adjective: Togolese,phosphates limestone marble arable land,,,the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna,NA,This small sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa coffee and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort supported by the World Bank and the IMF to implement economic reform measures encourage foreign investment and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization increased openness in government financial operations progress toward legislative elections and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan. Economic growth remains marginal due to declining cotton production underinvestment in phosphate mining and strained relations with donors.,1190000,2007,27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,20.0,NA,$ -287 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,505000000.0,2006 est.,4.3,NA,$ 590 700 000,31 December 2007,,,929395.0,2009 est.,Independence Day 27 April (1960),10,2008,0.0,NA,hot dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts,slightly smaller than West Virginia,60.9,2003 est.,58.69,2009 est.,unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held on 14 October 2007 (next to be held in 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - RPT 39.4% UFC 37.0% CAR 8.2% independents 2.5% other 12.9%; seats by party - RPT 50 UFC 27 CAR 4,French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations,ACP AfDB AU ECOWAS Entente FAO FZ G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO (correspondent) ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA NAM OIC OIF OPCW PCA UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNMIL UNOCI UNWTO UPU WADB (regional) WAEMU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO,30.0,NA,1365505.0,2008 est.,1.6,2005 est.,party to: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Law of the Sea Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas,2.0,2008,2.0,2008,203000000,2006 est.,532,2008,Kpeme Lome,18.0,NA,3.0,2008 est.,gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes,general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 15 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) 1 Symphonie,4.79,2009 est.,,,republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule,five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia,transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem,$ 1 549 000 000,2008 est.,7520,2000,2.71,2009 est.,0.8,2008 est.,,,$ 5 105 000 000,2008 est.,chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia McMahon HAWKINS embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema Cite OUA Lome mailing address: B. P. 852 Lome; 2300 Lome Place Washington DC 20512-2300 telephone: [228] 261-5470 FAX: [228] 261-5501,$ 900,2008 est.,0,2007 est.
Virgin Islands,49820,2007 est.,US District Court of the Virgin Islands (under Third Circuit jurisdiction); Superior Court of the Virgin Islands (judges appointed by the governor for 10-year terms),2.86,2005,0.0,NA,7.56,2009 est.,tourism petroleum refining watch assembly rum distilling construction pharmaceuticals textiles electronics,,,2.2,2003,1.9,2000 census,.vi,,,,,,,71700,2005,0.82,2009 est.,30000,2007,5.0,2006,18 20 N 64 50 W,13.6,2009 est.,0.0,2005,1.0,2003 est.,none,1910,NA,,,Central America and the Caribbean,Caribbean islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean east of Puerto Rico,conventional long form: United States Virgin Islands conventional short form: Virgin Islands former: Danish West Indies abbreviation: USVI,188.0,NA,,,Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954,none (territory of the US),831.0,2009 est.,,,17620,2007 est.,,,$ 4 234 000 000,2001,398500,2005,39.1,2009 est.,91680,2007 est.,492300,2005,,,0,1 January 2006 est.,chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009) head of government: Governor John DeJONGH (since 1 January 2007) cabinet: NA elections: under the US Constitution residents of unincorporated territories such as the Virgin Islands do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however they may vote in the Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 7 and 21 November 2006 (next to be held November 2010) election results: John DeJONGH elected governor; percent of vote - John DeJONGH 57.3% Kenneth MAPP 42.7%,,,1.1,2000 census,,,,,2,2008,,,28.9,2002,,,0.0,2007 est.,892800000,2006 est.,name: Charlotte Amalie geographic coordinates: 18 21 N 64 56 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time),During the 17th century the archipelago was divided into two territorial units one English and the other Danish. Sugarcane produced by slave labor drove the islands' economy during the 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1917 the US purchased the Danish portion which had been in economic decline since the abolition of slavery in 1848.,1.0,2003 est.,refined petroleum products,,,6.75,July 2009 est.,,,,,,,,,none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government but there are three islands at the second order; Saint Croix Saint John Saint Thomas,,,,,fruit vegetables sorghum; Senepol cattle,,11.95,2009 est.,,,$ 837 000 000,FY08/09,subtropical tempered by easterly trade winds relatively low humidity little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season September to November,crude oil foodstuffs consumer goods building materials,Democratic Party [Arturo WATLINGTON]; Independent Citizens' Movement or ICM [Usie RICHARDS]; Republican Party [Gary SPRAUVE],109825,July 2009 est.,noun: Virgin Islander(s) (US citizens) adjective: Virgin Islander,sun sand sea surf,-5.49,2009 est.,important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the Caribbean,NA,Tourism is the primary economic activity accounting for 80% of GDP and employment. The islands hosted 2.6 million visitors in 2005. The manufacturing sector consists of petroleum refining rum distilling textiles electronics pharmaceuticals and watch assembly. One of the world's largest petroleum refineries is at Saint Croix. The agricultural sector is small with most food being imported. International business and financial services are small but growing components of the economy. The islands are vulnerable to substantial damage from storms. The government is working to improve fiscal discipline to support construction projects in the private sector to expand tourist facilities to reduce crime and to protect the environment.,80300,2005,none (territory of the US),0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,0,2007 est.,7.0,NA,,,,,,,,,,,0.0,2007 est.,0.2,NA,,,,,17820.0,2009 est.,Transfer Day (from Denmark to the US) 31 March (1917),,,0.0,NA,several hurricanes in recent years; frequent and severe droughts and floods; occasional earthquakes,twice the size of Washington DC,,,79.05,2009 est.,unicameral Senate (15 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms) elections: last held 7 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2008) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 8 ICM 4 independent 3 note: the Virgin Islands elects one non-voting representative to the US House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2008),based on US laws,IOC UPU WFTU,12.0,NA,,,,,,lack of natural freshwater resources,,,1.0,2008,960000000,2006 est.,,,Charlotte Amalie Limetree Bay,18.0,NA,,,mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land,general assessment: modern system with total digital switching uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay domestic: full range of services available international: country code - 1-340; submarine cable connections to US the Caribbean Central and South America; satellite earth stations - NA,1.85,2009 est.,6.2,2004,NA,white field with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows a yellow eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other with a superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue panel,,$ 4 609 000 000,2001,1257,2007,-0.03,2009 est.,2.0,2002 est.,,,$ 1 577 000 000,2004 est.,none (territory of the US),$ 14 500,2004 est.,0,2007 est.
China,807300000,2008 est.,Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local People's Courts (comprise higher intermediate and basic courts); Special People's Courts (primarily military maritime railway transportation and forestry courts),1.27,2005,0.34,NA,20.25,2009 est.,mining and ore processing iron steel aluminum and other metals coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products including footwear toys and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment including automobiles rail cars and locomotives ships and aircraft; telecommunications equipment commercial space launch vehicles satellites,110000,2008,5.9,2008 est.,,,.cn,0.1,2007 est.,700000,2007 est.,39000,2007 est.,365400000,2007,0.91,2009 est.,253000000,2008,3240.0,1997,35 00 N 105 00 E,8.1,2009 est.,45.0,1998,11.3,2008 est.,"continuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin) India (Jammu and Kashmir) and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged militarized boundary regional nuclear proliferation and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes due to cartographic discrepancies; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia Philippines Taiwan Vietnam and possibly Brunei; the 2002 ""Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea"" eased tensions in the Spratly's but is not the legally binding ""code of conduct"" sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly's and in March 2005 the national oil companies of China the Philippines and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; China and Taiwan continue to reject both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared equidistance line in the East China Sea the site of intensive hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans fleeing privations and oppression by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary is expected to be completed by the end of 2008 while the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements in the Gulf of Tonkin ratified in June 2004 have been implemented; citing environmental cultural and social concerns China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River but energy-starved Burma with backing from Thailand remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests; Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop; Hong Kong developing plans to reduce 2 000 out of 2 800 hectares of its restricted Closed Area by 2010",9596961,NA,545960.0,2003,Asia,Eastern Asia bordering the East China Sea Korea Bay Yellow Sea and South China Sea between North Korea and Vietnam,conventional long form: People's Republic of China conventional short form: China local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo local short form: Zhongguo abbreviation: PRC,14500.0,NA,4.5,2008,most recent promulgation 4 December 1982 with amendments in 1988 and 1993,chief of mission: Ambassador ZHOU Wenzhong chancery: 12 International Place NW Washington DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500 FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582 consulate(s) general: Chicago Houston Los Angeles New York San Francisco,9533880.0,2009 est.,47.0,2007,3725000,2008 est.,$ 379 800 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,$ 1 435 000 000 000,2008 est.,399000,2007,34.1,2009 est.,7880000,2007 est.,4210000,2007,19600000000,1 January 2008 est.,2265000000000,1 January 2008 est.,chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003); Vice President XI Jinping (since 15 March 2008) head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 March 2003); Executive Vice Premier LI Keqiang (17 March 2008) Vice Premier HUI Liangyu (since 17 March 2003) Vice Premier ZHANG Deijiang (since 17 March 2008) and Vice Premier WANG Qishan (since 17 March 2008) cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress elections: president and vice president elected by National People's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 15-17 March 2008 (next to be held in mid-March 2013); premier nominated by president confirmed by National People's Congress election results: HU Jintao elected president by National People's Congress with a total of 2 963 votes; XI Jinping elected vice president with a total of 2 919 votes,6.94,NA,8.5,2000 census,$ 6 226 000 000 000,31 December 2007 est.,4.2,2008,477,2008,11.0,2006,8.0,2006 est.,2.4,2004,14560000000.0,2007 est.,3271000000000,2007,"name: Beijing geographic coordinates: 39 55 N 116 23 E time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time) note: despite its size all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial ""Xinjiang timezone"" of UTC+6 two hours behind Beijing",For centuries China stood as a leading civilization outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences but in the 19th and early 20th centuries the country was beset by civil unrest major famines military defeats and foreign occupation. After World War II the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that while ensuring China's sovereignty imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978 MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded yet political controls remain tight.,25.0,2006 est.,electrical and other machinery including data processing equipment apparel textiles iron and steel optical and medical equipment,5.58,17 December 2007,7.06,July 2009 est.,9746.0,2008,$ 4 222 000 000 000,2008 est.,$ 758 900 000 000,2007 est.,$ 149 300 000 000,31 December 2008 est.,23 provinces (sheng singular and plural) 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu singular and plural) and 4 municipalities (shi singular and plural) provinces: Anhui Fujian Gansu Guangdong Guizhou Hainan Hebei Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangsu Jiangxi Jilin Liaoning Qinghai Shaanxi Shandong Shanxi Sichuan Yunnan Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan) autonomous regions: Guangxi Nei Mongol Ningxia Xinjiang Uygur Xizang (Tibet) municipalities: Beijing Chongqing Shanghai Tianjin note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau,2829.6,1999,415.0,2000,rice wheat potatoes corn peanuts tea millet barley apples cotton oilseed; pork; fish,People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces Navy (includes marines and naval aviation) Air Force (includes airborne forces) and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2009),14.0,2009 est.,1.9,1999,$ 847 800 000 000,2008 est.,extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north,electrical and other machinery oil and mineral fuels optical and medical equipment metal ores plastics organic chemicals,Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP,1338612968,July 2009 est.,noun: Chinese (singular and plural) adjective: Chinese,coal iron ore petroleum natural gas mercury tin tungsten antimony manganese molybdenum vanadium magnetite aluminum lead zinc uranium hydropower potential (world's largest),-0.39,2009 est.,world's fourth largest country (after Russia Canada and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak,the China Democracy Party; the Falungong spiritual movement note: no substantial political opposition groups exist although the government has identified the organizations listed above as subversive groups,"China's economy during the past 30 years has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy. Reforms started in the late 1970s with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices fiscal decentralization increased autonomy for state enterprises the foundation of a diversified banking system the development of stock markets the rapid growth of the non-state sector and the opening to foreign trade and investment. Annual inflows of foreign direct investment rose to nearly $84 billion in 2007. China has generally implemented reforms in a gradualist or piecemeal fashion. In recent years China has re-invigorated its support for leading state-owned enterprises in sectors it considers important to ""economic security "" explicitly looking to foster globally competitive national champions. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years China in July 2005 revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. Cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar since the end of the dollar peg was more than 20% by late 2008 but the exchange rate has changed little since the onset of the global financial crisis. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences China in 2008 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US although in per capita terms the country is still lower middle-income. The Chinese government faces numerous economic development challenges including: (a) strengthening its social safety net including pension and health system reform to counteract a high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic demand; (b) sustaining adequate job growth for tens of millions of migrants new entrants to the work force and workers laid off from state-owned enterprises deemed not worth saving; (c) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (d) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has been more rapid in coastal provinces than in the interior and approximately 200 million rural laborers and their dependents have relocated to urban areas to find work. One demographic consequence of the ""one child"" policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution soil erosion and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. In 2007 China intensified government efforts to improve environmental conditions tying the evaluation of local officials to environmental targets publishing a national climate change policy and establishing a high level leading group on climate change headed by Premier WEN Jiabao. The Chinese government seeks to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil. In late 2008 as China commemorated the 30th anniversary of its historic economic reforms the global economic downturn began to slow foreign demand for Chinese exports for the first time in many years. The government vowed to continue reforming the economy and emphasized the need to increase domestic consumption in order to make China less dependent on foreign exports for GDP growth in the future.",547286000,2007,221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China); 1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established),5360000000,2007 est.,3871000000,2007 est.,70510000000,2007 est.,,,$ 426 100 000 000,2008 est.,,,,,,,,,4251000000.0,2007 est.,2.7,NA,$ 4 653 000 000 000,31 December 2007,,,296763134.0,2009 est.,Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China 1 October (1949),1826,2008,-154.0,NA,frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence,slightly smaller than the US,90.9,2000 census,73.47,2009 est.,unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2 987 seats; members elected by municipal regional and provincial people's congresses and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms) elections: last held December 2007-February 2008; date of next election - late 2012 to early 2013 election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2 987 note: only members of the CCP its eight allied parties and sympathetic independent candidates are elected,based on civil law system; derived from Soviet and continental civil code legal principles; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,ADB AfDB (nonregional member) APEC APT Arctic Council (observer) ARF ASEAN (dialogue partner) BIS CDB EAS FAO G-20 G-24 (observer) G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM (observer) IPU ISO ITSO ITU LAIA (observer) MIGA MINURSO MONUC NAM (observer) NSG OAS (observer) OPCW PCA PIF (partner) SAARC (observer) SCO SICA (observer) UN UN Security Council UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL UNITAR UNMIL UNMIS UNMIT UNOCI UNTSO UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC,12.0,NA,354314328.0,2008 est.,4.3,2006,party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 83 Tropical Timber 94 Wetlands Whaling signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements,air pollution (greenhouse gases sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species,3.0,2008,21.0,2008,3256000000000,2007,77834,2008,Dalian Guangzhou Ningbo Qingdao Qinhuangdao Shanghai Shenzhen Tianjin,18.0,NA,9.3,2008 est.,mostly mountains high plateaus deserts in west; plains deltas and hills in east,general assessment: domestic and international servic
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