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A simple golang web server with basic logging, tracing, health check, graceful shutdown and zero dependencies
package main
import (
"context"
"flag"
"fmt"
"log"
"net/http"
"os"
"os/signal"
"sync/atomic"
"time"
)
type key int
const (
requestIDKey key = 0
)
var (
listenAddr string
healthy int32
)
func main() {
flag.StringVar(&listenAddr, "listen-addr", ":5000", "server listen address")
flag.Parse()
logger := log.New(os.Stdout, "http: ", log.LstdFlags)
logger.Println("Server is starting...")
router := http.NewServeMux()
router.Handle("/", index())
router.Handle("/healthz", healthz())
nextRequestID := func() string {
return fmt.Sprintf("%d", time.Now().UnixNano())
}
server := &http.Server{
Addr: listenAddr,
Handler: tracing(nextRequestID)(logging(logger)(router)),
ErrorLog: logger,
ReadTimeout: 5 * time.Second,
WriteTimeout: 10 * time.Second,
IdleTimeout: 15 * time.Second,
}
done := make(chan bool)
quit := make(chan os.Signal, 1)
signal.Notify(quit, os.Interrupt)
go func() {
<-quit
logger.Println("Server is shutting down...")
atomic.StoreInt32(&healthy, 0)
ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(context.Background(), 30*time.Second)
defer cancel()
server.SetKeepAlivesEnabled(false)
if err := server.Shutdown(ctx); err != nil {
logger.Fatalf("Could not gracefully shutdown the server: %v\n", err)
}
close(done)
}()
logger.Println("Server is ready to handle requests at", listenAddr)
atomic.StoreInt32(&healthy, 1)
if err := server.ListenAndServe(); err != nil && err != http.ErrServerClosed {
logger.Fatalf("Could not listen on %s: %v\n", listenAddr, err)
}
<-done
logger.Println("Server stopped")
}
func index() http.Handler {
return http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
if r.URL.Path != "/" {
http.Error(w, http.StatusText(http.StatusNotFound), http.StatusNotFound)
return
}
w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "text/plain; charset=utf-8")
w.Header().Set("X-Content-Type-Options", "nosniff")
w.WriteHeader(http.StatusOK)
fmt.Fprintln(w, "Hello, World!")
})
}
func healthz() http.Handler {
return http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
if atomic.LoadInt32(&healthy) == 1 {
w.WriteHeader(http.StatusNoContent)
return
}
w.WriteHeader(http.StatusServiceUnavailable)
})
}
func logging(logger *log.Logger) func(http.Handler) http.Handler {
return func(next http.Handler) http.Handler {
return http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
defer func() {
requestID, ok := r.Context().Value(requestIDKey).(string)
if !ok {
requestID = "unknown"
}
logger.Println(requestID, r.Method, r.URL.Path, r.RemoteAddr, r.UserAgent())
}()
next.ServeHTTP(w, r)
})
}
}
func tracing(nextRequestID func() string) func(http.Handler) http.Handler {
return func(next http.Handler) http.Handler {
return http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
requestID := r.Header.Get("X-Request-Id")
if requestID == "" {
requestID = nextRequestID()
}
ctx := context.WithValue(r.Context(), requestIDKey, requestID)
w.Header().Set("X-Request-Id", requestID)
next.ServeHTTP(w, r.WithContext(ctx))
})
}
}
@elmiko

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@elmiko elmiko commented Jan 7, 2018

very cool, thank you for sharing! =)

@RomanMinkin

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@RomanMinkin RomanMinkin commented Jan 7, 2018

Nice! Thanks for sharing!

Question: isn’t it safer to use something like ‘uuid’ for ‘nextRequestID’ or add ‘Mutex.Lock’?

@creack

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@creack creack commented Jan 7, 2018

Good work! If you are interested, here is a simplified version with the same features (and more): https://gist.github.com/creack/4c00ee404f2d7bd5983382cc93af5147

@djui

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@djui djui commented Jan 7, 2018

It’s usually a good idea to log incoming requests separately and before hand outgoing responses, for security audit and debugging reasons.

@munirehmad

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@munirehmad munirehmad commented Jan 7, 2018

If you want to add simple level based logging (also to file) you can plug in
https://github.com/munirehmad/golanglog

@djui

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@djui djui commented Jan 7, 2018

Small race condition: the server shutdown might not be clean as the program exits as soon shutdown is called:

When Shutdown is called, Serve, ListenAndServe, and ListenAndServeTLS immediately return ErrServerClosed. Make sure the program doesn't exit and waits instead for Shutdown to return.

https://golang.org/pkg/net/http/#Server.Shutdown

@enricofoltran

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@enricofoltran enricofoltran commented Jan 7, 2018

@elmiko thanks!

Hi @RomanMinkin, thanks! I've built this trying to avoid external dependencies and Go doesn't have a uuid package in the standard lib; that said, for a production grade app I probably implement a more robust nextRequestID function with sometingh like uuid or https://github.com/sony/sonyflake

@creack thanks for sharing your variant, I like the way you used uptime to store server state!

@munirehmad In this small example I'm trying to avoid third party dependencies, but thanks for your suggestion.

@djui I think my program wait for server.Shutdown() to return, correct me if I'm wrong.

@vic3lord

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@vic3lord vic3lord commented Jan 7, 2018

        done := make(chan bool)
	quit := make(chan os.Signal, 1)
	signal.Notify(quit, os.Interrupt)

	go func() {
		<-quit
		logger.Println("Server is shutting down...")
		atomic.StoreInt32(&healthy, 0)

		ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(context.Background(), 5*time.Second)
		defer cancel()

		server.SetKeepAlivesEnabled(false)
		if err := server.Shutdown(ctx); err != nil {
			logger.Fatalf("Could not gracefully shutdown the server: %v\n", err)
		}
                close(done)
	}()

	logger.Println("Server is ready to handle requests at", listenAddr)
	atomic.StoreInt32(&healthy, 1)
	if err := server.ListenAndServe(); err != http.ErrServerClosed {
		logger.Fatalf("Could not listen on %s: %v\n", listenAddr, err)
	}
        <-done

This will block until shutdown returns

@GeorgeMac

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@GeorgeMac GeorgeMac commented Jan 7, 2018

@enricofoltran What @vic3lord and @djui are pointing to is that the Shutdown call should finished before the program exits.
There is nothing set up to synchronize the goroutine with the singal trap which calls shutdown, with the exit of the program. Using a channel like above would work perfectly. Shutdown will wait for inflight requests to be cleaned up, but will immediately unblock the main goroutine and the program will exit before the cleanup or its timeout happens.

Also https://gist.github.com/enricofoltran/10b4a980cd07cb02836f70a4ab3e72d7#file-main-go-L69

you will want to check for err != nil as well. Otherwise, a nil error here would also result in a non-zero exit code (because of log.Fatalf). Though I don't know under which circumstances ListenAndServe returns a nil error, instead of blocking indefinitely. But to rely on that being the case would be to rely on that behavior never changing.

Great to see how little code it takes to do something as sophisticated as this. Testament to how great Go is 👍

@enricofoltran

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@enricofoltran enricofoltran commented Jan 7, 2018

@djui @vic3lord @GeorgeMac after some testing I proved myself that you guys are right, thank you very much for pointing that out! I've updated the code

@dstroot

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@dstroot dstroot commented Jan 8, 2018

@sohymg

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@sohymg sohymg commented Jan 8, 2018

Alternate implementation for consideration https://github.com/moexmen/gokit/blob/master/web/server.go

@Xeoncross

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@Xeoncross Xeoncross commented Jan 8, 2018

I've had a problem with os.Interrupt (syscall.SIGINT) not being enough depending on deploy method (fine for development). syscall.SIGTERM (not on all systems) on linux/bsd seems to solve this when the process is detached from your user.

signal.Notify(quit, syscall.SIGINT, syscall.SIGTERM)

You can also listen for os.Kill (https://golang.org/pkg/os/#Signal)

I started a repo based on this: https://github.com/Xeoncross/vanilla-go-server

@drewblas

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@drewblas drewblas commented Jan 8, 2018

Given the multiple revisions and 78 forks, would you be willing to put this into a full git repo, so that it's clearer/easier to see the latest version and also have separate Issue discussions about potential changes/improvements?

@enricofoltran

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@enricofoltran enricofoltran commented Jan 8, 2018

@enricofoltran

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@enricofoltran enricofoltran commented Jan 9, 2018

@Xeoncross can you open a new issue in this repository? I'd like to better understand the problem and find a solution, thank you!

@kingeasternsun

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@kingeasternsun kingeasternsun commented Jan 10, 2018

what if i want to make the server support both http and https?

@shahidhk

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@shahidhk shahidhk commented Feb 28, 2018

Here's a git-push to deploy version of this with HTTPS domain: https://hasura.io/hub/projects/shahidhk/simple-go-server

@aarjan

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@aarjan aarjan commented Oct 2, 2018

In the tracing middleware, shouldn't you get the Request ID from the Context, rather than from the request Header.
Please, correct me if I am wrong!

@ghost

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@ghost ghost commented Nov 25, 2018

It turns out, maybe a simple server isn't quite so simple, compared to the typical "Hello World."

Anybody want to discuss the use of goroutines and other techniques in this code? We're usually told that goroutines aren't necessary because this is already done in the standard library, for example.

It seems clear that this relates to resiliency and so on, but what caused the authors (original and contributing) to arrive at these conclusions and include additional checks and handling code, at the cost of increased complexity? There would appear to be context--likely based on knowledge and direct experience--that is somewhat lost in the example.

A breakdown of the code and decisions behind its parts would likely be very educational for those among us who wouldn't know to include these things by default.

@oquidave

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@oquidave oquidave commented Mar 14, 2019

if i started this server from the commandline like go run server.go, how do you stop it?

@wvh

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@wvh wvh commented Aug 25, 2020

It turns out, maybe a simple server isn't quite so simple, compared to the typical "Hello World."

Anybody want to discuss the use of goroutines and other techniques in this code? We're usually told that goroutines aren't necessary because this is already done in the standard library, for example.

It seems clear that this relates to resiliency and so on, but what caused the authors (original and contributing) to arrive at these conclusions and include additional checks and handling code, at the cost of increased complexity? There would appear to be context--likely based on knowledge and direct experience--that is somewhat lost in the example.

A breakdown of the code and decisions behind its parts would likely be very educational for those among us who wouldn't know to include these things by default.

The real world is always messy, especially compared to programming examples on websites. It always helps to have experience with the platforms you're running on, code doesn't run in a vacuum.

When you run a web server, you need a process to listen for connections, and processes for handling the responses (which is handled behind the scenes by the Go standard library here). If you want to listen for signals from the system, you would need another process. This process just sleeps until it gets a signal, then calls the shutdown method on the web server. The main process then stops listening but needs to wait for that routine with shutdown to end. You can think of it as how many things you need to do concurrently, at the same time, and in which order they need to be handled.

This is pretty much how processes are handled in "traditional" unix software, so if you have experience with those platforms and the code running on them, adding this kind of functionality comes naturally.

The question is if you really are going to notice any problems if you wouldn't include graceful shutdown on a typical web server, where connections tend to be short-lived and services are rarely brought down...

@wvh

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@wvh wvh commented Aug 25, 2020

if i started this server from the commandline like go run server.go, how do you stop it?

Ctrl-C (sigint), or use kill to send the process a signal.

@Sen10001

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@Sen10001 Sen10001 commented Oct 8, 2020

how to stop the server once it started?

@marcandcheese

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@marcandcheese marcandcheese commented Nov 18, 2020

Anyone know how I can also log GET and POST arguments? Like for example printing out "index.php?firstname=John&lastname=Smith". Would be much appreciated!

@wvh

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@wvh wvh commented Nov 26, 2020

Anyone know how I can also log GET and POST arguments? Like for example printing out "index.php?firstname=John&lastname=Smith". Would be much appreciated!

If you are interested in the GET query parameters, check the other fields and methods of URL, such as RequestURI, RawQuery or even just calling String() on URL itself.

If you also want the POST variables, you need to check out Request.Form and Request.ParseForm(). Note it's usually a bad idea to log POST request variables as they might be rather large or contain sensitive information such as passwords.

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