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package square;
import java.math.BigInteger;
import java.util.Random;
* A suggested solution to the puzzle by Wouter Coekaerts from Square.
* The puzzle can be found <a href="">here</a>
* @author Eran Medan
public class Solution {
private static long MIN_BENCH_DURATION = 5000000000L; // in nanoseconds
// a copy of the test class, for benchmarking purposes
public static class SquareRoot2 {
public static final int BITS = SquareRoot.BITS;
// this is our copy, so we can make it public :)
public static BigInteger n = new BigInteger(BITS, new SecureRandom()).pow(2);
public static void answer(BigInteger root) {
if (n.divide(root).equals(root)) {
System.out.println("Square root!");
public static void main(String[] args) {
//take a number that was generated the same way the secret one was for benchmarking
BigInteger ourNumber = SquareRoot2.n;
// a number slightly below our "lab test" number
BigInteger ourNumberMinusSome = ourNumber.subtract(BigInteger.valueOf(new Random().nextInt(100)));
// a number slightly above our "lab test" number (benchmark is actually
// faster, might be surprising, but it's because BigInteger first checks if the dividend less than divisor)
BigInteger ourNumberPlusSome = ourNumber.add(BigInteger.valueOf(new Random().nextInt(100)));
// do a benchmark of the lower number, this should take more time as it has
// to really do the division + equals without shortcuts
double minusSomeTime = benchmarkSample(ourNumberMinusSome);
// do a benchmark of the higher number, this should take less time as as if first does a compare and skips the division)
double plusSomeTime = benchmarkSample(ourNumberPlusSome);
// the maximum number for n: (2^10000-1)^2, used as the upper bound for the
// "guess the number" search
BigInteger upperBound = BigInteger.valueOf(2).pow(SquareRoot.BITS).subtract(BigInteger.ONE).pow(2);
// the starting lower bound is 0
BigInteger lowerBound = BigInteger.valueOf(0);
long lastGCTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
while (true) {
//if we ran a bit, let's do some garbange collection and let the system do some resting in order to lessen the chance of benchmark glitches
long timeSinceLastGC = System.currentTimeMillis() - lastGCTime;
if (timeSinceLastGC > 10000) {
.println("garbage collecting, and letting the system rest a little");
try {
} catch (InterruptedException e) {
lastGCTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
// current guess is the middle point between lower and upper bounds
BigInteger curGuess = upperBound.add(lowerBound).divide(
// used as a primitive "progress bar"
BigInteger upperMinusLower = upperBound.subtract(lowerBound);
System.out.println("upperMinusLower: " + upperMinusLower);
if (upperMinusLower.compareTo(BigInteger.ONE) != 1) {
// when we are converging
System.out.println("Starting to calculate square root");
BigInteger sqrt = sqrt(curGuess);
System.out.println("Calculated square root");
// in case we missed a little try to explore up and down a bit
for (int i = 0; i <= 1000; i++) {
BigInteger add = curGuess.add(BigInteger.valueOf(i));
BigInteger sub = curGuess.subtract(BigInteger.valueOf(i));
sqrt = sqrt(add);
sqrt = sqrt(sub);
// first benchmark to our current guess
double time1 = benchmarkBigIntOperation(curGuess, new TestSubject() {
public void test(BigInteger guess) {
}, true);
// second benchmark to our current guess
double time2 = benchmarkBigIntOperation(curGuess, new TestSubject() {
public void test(BigInteger guess) {
}, true);
// take the average of both benchmarks (not sure why it's better than
// simply doing a longer benchmark, but it seems to have less errors)
double averageTime = (time1 + time2) / 2;
// find how far is our benchmark from each of the initial ones
double diffLess = Math.abs(averageTime - minusSomeTime);
double diffMore = Math.abs(averageTime - plusSomeTime);
// filter out noisy benchmarks
if (averageTime < plusSomeTime * 1.5) {
// if our benchmark is about or less than the time it took to divide a
// larger number (as dividing by a larger number is actually quick as it
// only compares)
// then our guess is larger than the secret number, then the upper bound
// can be set to our current guess
upperBound = curGuess;
} else if (averageTime > minusSomeTime / 1.5) {
// if our benchmark is larger than the time it took to divide a smaller
// number (as dividing by a smaller number is actually slow as it needs
// to actually do some work)
// then our guess is smaller than the secret number, therefore the lower
// bound can be set to our current guess
if (diffLess < minusSomeTime * 0.5) {
lowerBound = curGuess;
} else {
System.out.println("Not close enough, skipping");
} else {
System.out.println("too risky");
* Benchmark a numbrer using our "lab" version of the SquareRoot class
* @param guess the number to benchmark against
* @return
private static double benchmarkSample(BigInteger guess) {
double minusSomeTime = benchmarkBigIntOperation(guess, new TestSubject() {
public void test(BigInteger guess) {
}, false);
return minusSomeTime;
* finds a square root of a BigInteger
* Credit: based on a blog post from here:
* @param n the number to find the square root for
* @return the square root
public static BigInteger sqrt(BigInteger n) {
BigInteger a = BigInteger.ONE;
BigInteger b = new BigInteger(n.shiftRight(5).add(new BigInteger("8"))
while (b.compareTo(a) >= 0) {
BigInteger mid = new BigInteger(a.add(b).shiftRight(1).toString());
if (mid.multiply(mid).compareTo(n) > 0)
b = mid.subtract(BigInteger.ONE);
a = mid.add(BigInteger.ONE);
return a.subtract(BigInteger.ONE);
* a helper interface for the benchmarkBigIntOperation
* used to pass a piece of code to be under benchmark against a BigInteger
public static interface TestSubject {
public void test(BigInteger guess);
* Benchmark an operation (divide in this case) on a BigInteger
* Credit: based on
* @param b the number used to test on, e.g. to execute <code>testSubject.test(b)</code>
* @param testSubject the piece of code that needs to benchmark
* @param fast if true, will perform a faster benchmark (less acurate though)
* @return
private static double benchmarkBigIntOperation(BigInteger b, TestSubject testSubject, boolean fast) {
long minBenchDuration = MIN_BENCH_DURATION;
if (fast) {
minBenchDuration = minBenchDuration / 100;
int numIterations = 0;
long tStart = System.nanoTime();
do {
} while (System.nanoTime() - tStart < minBenchDuration);
b = new BigInteger(b.toByteArray());
tStart = System.nanoTime();
for (int i = 0; i < numIterations; i++)
long tEnd = System.nanoTime();
long tNano = (tEnd - tStart + (numIterations + 1) / 2) / numIterations;
return tNano;
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I'm sure there can be better and more elegant solutions, but this one worked for me
It takes a little while to converge, but if I decrease the benchmark time for each iteration, I get occasional errors (one error is enough to miss the result) so the trade-off is between running time and chance for an error.

the minBenchDuration / 100; line can be changed to try running faster (e.g. instead of 100, try with 1000, but it might not reach the correct result)

This current implementation above took 1 hour and 14 minutes to converge on an i5, but I'm sure it can be much improved

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