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#! /usr/local/bin/bash
# FreeBSD 9.1 ZFS Health Check script
# @ Version 0.15
# Check health of ZFS volumes and drives. On any faults send email. In FreeBSD
# 10 there is supposed to be a ZFSd daemon to monitor the health of the ZFS
# pools. For now, in FreeBSD 9, we will make our own checks and run this script
# through cron a few times a day.
# 99 problems but ZFS aint one
# Health - Check if all zfs volumes are in good condition. We are looking for
# any keyword signifying a degraded or broken array.
condition=$(/sbin/zpool status | egrep -i '(DEGRADED|FAULTED|OFFLINE|UNAVAIL|REMOVED|FAIL|DESTROYED|corrupt|cannot|unrecover)')
if [ "${condition}" ]; then
emailSubject="`hostname` - ZFS pool - HEALTH fault"
# Capacity - Make sure pool capacities are below 80% for best performance. The
# percentage really depends on how large your volume is. If you have a 128GB
# SSD then 80% is reasonable. If you have a 60TB raid-z2 array then you can
# probably set the warning closer to 95%.
# ZFS uses a copy-on-write scheme. The file system writes new data to
# sequential free blocks first and when the uberblock has been updated the new
# inode pointers become valid. This method is true only when the pool has
# enough free sequential blocks. If the pool is at capacity and space limited,
# ZFS will be have to randomly write blocks. This means ZFS can not create an
# optimal set of sequential writes and write performance is severely impacted.
if [ ${problems} -eq 0 ]; then
capacity=$(/sbin/zpool list -H -o capacity)
for line in ${capacity//%/}
if [ $line -ge $maxCapacity ]; then
emailSubject="`hostname` - ZFS pool - Capacity Exceeded"
# Errors - Check the columns for READ, WRITE and CKSUM (checksum) drive errors
# on all volumes and all drives using "zpool status". If any non-zero errors
# are reported an email will be sent out. You should then look to replace the
# faulty drive and run "zpool scrub" on the affected volume after resilvering.
if [ ${problems} -eq 0 ]; then
errors=$(/sbin/zpool status | grep ONLINE | grep -v state | awk '{print $3 $4 $5}' | grep -v 000)
if [ "${errors}" ]; then
emailSubject="`hostname` - ZFS pool - Drive Errors"
# Scrub Expired - Check if all volumes have been scrubbed in at least the last
# 8 days. The general guide is to scrub volumes on desktop quality drives once
# a week and volumes on enterprise class drives once a month. You can always
# use cron to schedule "zpool scrub" in off hours. We scrub our volumes every
# Sunday morning for example.
# Scrubbing traverses all the data in the pool once and verifies all blocks can
# be read. Scrubbing proceeds as fast as the devices allows, though the
# priority of any I/O remains below that of normal calls. This operation might
# negatively impact performance, but the file system will remain usable and
# responsive while scrubbing occurs. To initiate an explicit scrub, use the
# "zpool scrub" command.
# The scrubExpire variable is in seconds. So for 8 days we calculate 8 days
# times 24 hours times 3600 seconds to equal 691200 seconds.
if [ ${problems} -eq 0 ]; then
currentDate=$(date +%s)
zfsVolumes=$(/sbin/zpool list -H -o name)
for volume in ${zfsVolumes}
if [ $(/sbin/zpool status $volume | egrep -c "none requested") -ge 1 ]; then
echo "ERROR: You need to run \"zpool scrub $volume\" before this script can monitor the scrub expiration time."
if [ $(/sbin/zpool status $volume | egrep -c "scrub in progress|resilver") -ge 1 ]; then
### FreeBSD with *nix supported date format
scrubRawDate=$(/sbin/zpool status $volume | grep scrub | awk '{print $15 $12 $13}')
scrubDate=$(date -j -f '%Y%b%e-%H%M%S' $scrubRawDate'-000000' +%s)
### Ubuntu with GNU supported date format
#scrubRawDate=$(/sbin/zpool status $volume | grep scrub | awk '{print $11" "$12" " $13" " $14" "$15}')
#scrubDate=$(date -d "$scrubRawDate" +%s)
if [ $(($currentDate - $scrubDate)) -ge $scrubExpire ]; then
emailSubject="`hostname` - ZFS pool - Scrub Time Expired. Scrub Needed on Volume(s)"
# Notifications - On any problems send email with drive status information and
# capacities including a helpful subject line to root. Also use logger to write
# the email subject to the local logs. This is the place you may want to put
# any other notifications like:
# + Update an anonymous twitter account with your ZFS status (
# + Playing a sound file or beep the internal speaker
# + Update Nagios, Cacti, Zabbix, Munin or even BigBrother
if [ "$problems" -ne 0 ]; then
echo -e "$emailSubject \n\n\n `/sbin/zpool list` \n\n\n `/sbin/zpool status`" | mail -s "$emailSubject" root
logger $emailSubject
### EOF ###
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