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@flother
Last active Mar 12, 2016
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Aping the New York Times

Annotated source code to make [this chart] 1 using [R] 2 and [ggplot2] 3. The source data is included as justices.csv and a [write-up of the process] 4 can be found on my blog.

# An attempt to duplicate a chart published by the New York Times graphics
# department: http://nyti.ms/1ofeih6. After selecting the data around 80% of the
# work is done in the first ggplot() call. The other 20% --- that took at least
# 80% of the time --- are the following lines. They make this chart look like
# the original. If there's one thing I'd do better next time, it would be to
# make it resolution-independent (this version only really works at 1050x707).
# More details can be found at http://flother.is/2016/supreme-court-ideology/.
library(dplyr)
library(ggplot2)


justices <- read.csv("justices.csv")
median_justice <- justices %>%
  # Remove the justices that left the court mid-term. With them, those terms
  # will have ten justices and so the median won't track one justice, but take
  # the mean between justice 5 and 6. I made a decision to take the median from
  # the existing eight plus the new justice.
  filter(!(term == 1937 & name == "Sutherland"),
         !(term == 1938 & name == "Douglas"),
         !(term == 1956 & name == "Reed"),
         !(term == 2005 & name == "Roberts")) %>%
  group_by(term) %>%
  summarise(score=median(score)) %>%
  ungroup() %>%
  mutate(name = "Median justice")
# Store current justices; their names will be placed to the right of the chart.
recent_justices <- justices %>%
  filter(term == 2014) %>%
  mutate(pos = score,
         # Tweak positions of these justices so they don't overlap on the chart.
         pos = ifelse(name == "Ginsburg", pos - .2, pos),
         pos = ifelse(name == "Breyer", pos + .05, pos),
         pos = ifelse(name == "Kagan", pos - .1, pos))
# Split Scalia out so we can highlight him in the chart.
scalia <- justices %>% filter(name == "Scalia")
justices <- justices %>% filter(name != "Scalia")

ggplot(mapping = aes(term, score, group = name, colour = nominated_by),
       size = 0.5) +
  # Custom horizontal gridlines. If I use ggplot's default gridlines they go
  # farther right than they do in the Times's original chart.
  annotate("segment", colour = "#dddddd", x = 1936, xend = 2014,
           y = seq(-4, 4, 2), yend = seq(-4, 4, 2)) +
  # All justices bar Scalia.
  geom_line(data = justices, alpha = 0.7) +
  # Scalia.
  geom_line(data = scalia, colour = "#bb3c40", alpha = 1, size = 1) +
  # Median justice.
  geom_line(data = median_justice, colour = "black") +
  # Names of current justices as text labels on the right of the chart.
  geom_text(data = recent_justices,
            aes(label = name, x = 2014, y = pos),
            size = 3.5,
            colour = "black",
            hjust = "outward",
            nudge_x = 0.5) +
  # Add a simple legend in top left corner.
  annotate("text", x = 1940, y = 3,
           label = "MORE CONSERVATIVE\nMORE LIBERAL", hjust = 0, vjust = 0,
           size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", x = 1939, y = 3.05,
           label = "↑\n↓", hjust = 0, vjust = 0,
           size = 3.5) +
  # White rectangle behind Vinson and Warren's names to obscure the justice
  # lines. Otherwise they're hard to read.
  annotate("rect", xmin = 1952, xmax = 1956, ymin = 1.5, ymax = 1.25,
           fill = "white") +
  annotate("rect", xmin = 1968, xmax = 1972, ymin = -1.345, ymax = -1.145,
           fill = "white") +
  # Highlight lines for chief justices (and a few others) by labelling them with
  # the justices' names.
  annotate("text", label = "Vinson", x = 1952, y = 1.356, hjust = -.05,
           vjust = 0.3, size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", label = "Frankfurter", x = 1961, y = 1.861, hjust = -.05,
           vjust = 0.4, size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", label = "Warren", x = 1968, y = -1.245, hjust = -.05,
           vjust = 0.4, size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", label = "Douglas", x = 1974, y = -6.619, hjust = -.05,
           vjust = 0.4, size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", label = "Burger", x = 1985, y = 2.004, hjust = -.05,
           vjust = 0.4, size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", label = "Brennan", x = 1989, y = -3.737, hjust = -.05,
           vjust = 0.4, size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", label = "Marshall", x = 1990, y = -4.307, hjust = -.05,
           vjust = 0.4, size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", label = "Blackmun", x = 1993, y = -1.863, hjust = -.05,
           vjust = 0.4, size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", label = "Rehnquist", x = 1998, y = 1.8, hjust = -.05,
           vjust = 0.4, size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", label = "Souter", x = 1997, y = -.65, hjust = -.05,
           vjust = 0.4, size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", label = "O'Connor", x = 2005, y = -0.041, hjust = -.1,
           vjust = 0.4, size = 3.5) +
  annotate("text", label = "Stevens", x = 2009, y = -2.669, hjust = -.1,
           vjust = 0.4, size = 3.5) +
  # Label the median justice's line with text and a pointer line.
  annotate("text", label = "Median justice", x = 1987, y = 0.2,
           fontface = "bold", size = 3.5) +
  annotate("segment", colour = "black", x = 1987, xend = 1987,
           y = .35, yend = 0.8) +
  # Limit the x-axis extremes without affecting the underlying data.
  coord_cartesian(xlim = c(1939, 2020)) + 
  # Remove default x-axis labels as they don't line up with the custom
  # gridlines.
  scale_x_continuous(breaks = NULL, limits = c(1935, NA)) +
  # Custom y-axis labels to make sure the zero line is the visual centre.
  scale_y_continuous(breaks = c(-4, -2, 0, 2, 4),
                     labels = c("-4", "-2", "0", "+2", "+4")) +
  # Custom x-axis labels: start of every decade plus "2014 term" on the right.
  annotate("text",
           x = c(seq(1940, 2010, 10), 2014),
           y = -4.7,
           label = c(seq(1940, 2010, 10), "2014 term"),
           size = 3.5,
           hjust = 0.2) +
  # Colour justice lines based on the party of the president who nominated them.
  scale_colour_manual(name = "",
                      values = c("Republican" = "#d27d80",
                                 "Democrat" = "#62a3c5"),
                      labels = c("Republican" = "Nominated by a Republican",
                                 "Democrat" = "Nominated by a Democrat")) +
  labs(title = "Supreme Court justice ideology based on Martin-Quinn scores",
       x = "", y = "") +
  theme_minimal() +
  # Move the title to the left, shift the legend up to the top (after the title)
  # remove the default gridlines, set the axis font size.
  theme(plot.title = element_text(hjust = -0.04, face = 'bold'),
        legend.position = c(.6, 0.977),
        legend.justification = c(0.1, 0),
        legend.direction = "horizontal",
        panel.grid = element_blank(),
        axis.text = element_text(size = 10))

# Save the file to the working directory.
ggsave("supreme_court.png", width = 10.5, height = 7.07, dpi = 100, units = "in")

Supreme Court justice ideology based on Martin-Quinn scores

term name nominated_by score
1937 Black Democrat -2.908
1937 Brandeis Democrat -0.54
1937 Butler Republican 1.826
1937 Cardozo Republican -1.749
1937 Hughes Republican -0.455
1937 McReynolds Democrat 2.894
1937 Reed Democrat -0.991
1937 Roberts, Owen Republican -0.043
1937 Stone Republican -0.809
1937 Sutherland Republican 2.055
1938 Black Democrat -3.191
1938 Brandeis Democrat -0.505
1938 Butler Republican 2.084
1938 Douglas Democrat -2.68
1938 Frankfurter Democrat -1.29
1938 Hughes Republican -0.299
1938 McReynolds Democrat 2.902
1938 Reed Democrat -1.094
1938 Roberts, Owen Republican 0.378
1938 Stone Republican -0.779
1939 Black Democrat -3.278
1939 Douglas Democrat -2.9
1939 Frankfurter Democrat -1.215
1939 Hughes Republican 0.302
1939 McReynolds Democrat 2.67
1939 Murphy Democrat -1.586
1939 Reed Democrat -1.013
1939 Roberts, Owen Republican 1.036
1939 Stone Republican -0.777
1940 Black Democrat -3.306
1940 Douglas Democrat -3.027
1940 Frankfurter Democrat -0.707
1940 Hughes Republican 0.841
1940 McReynolds Democrat 2.175
1940 Murphy Democrat -1.542
1940 Reed Democrat -0.633
1940 Roberts, Owen Republican 1.725
1940 Stone Republican -0.326
1941 Black Democrat -3.199
1941 Byrnes Democrat -0.196
1941 Douglas Democrat -2.973
1941 Frankfurter Democrat 0.09
1941 Jackson Democrat 0.23
1941 Murphy Democrat -1.5
1941 Reed Democrat -0.234
1941 Roberts, Owen Republican 1.939
1941 Stone Republican 0.399
1942 Black Democrat -2.944
1942 Douglas Democrat -2.668
1942 Frankfurter Democrat 0.416
1942 Jackson Democrat 0.271
1942 Murphy Democrat -1.643
1942 Reed Democrat 0.174
1942 Roberts, Owen Republican 2.204
1942 Rutledge Democrat -1.13
1942 Stone Republican 0.27
1943 Black Democrat -2.624
1943 Douglas Democrat -2.297
1943 Frankfurter Democrat 0.428
1943 Jackson Democrat 0.186
1943 Murphy Democrat -1.734
1943 Reed Democrat 0.026
1943 Roberts, Owen Republican 2.585
1943 Rutledge Democrat -1.168
1943 Stone Republican 0.174
1944 Black Democrat -2.503
1944 Douglas Democrat -1.889
1944 Frankfurter Democrat 0.412
1944 Jackson Democrat 0.235
1944 Murphy Democrat -1.456
1944 Reed Democrat -0.21
1944 Roberts, Owen Republican 2.946
1944 Rutledge Democrat -1.331
1944 Stone Republican 0.522
1945 Black Democrat -2.122
1945 Burton Democrat 0.492
1945 Douglas Democrat -1.708
1945 Frankfurter Democrat 0.674
1945 Jackson Democrat 0.641
1945 Murphy Democrat -1.354
1945 Reed Democrat -0.015
1945 Rutledge Democrat -1.158
1945 Stone Republican 0.585
1946 Black Democrat -1.932
1946 Burton Democrat 0.554
1946 Douglas Democrat -1.421
1946 Frankfurter Democrat 1.029
1946 Jackson Democrat 1.046
1946 Murphy Democrat -1.768
1946 Reed Democrat 0.255
1946 Rutledge Democrat -1.405
1946 Vinson Democrat 0.437
1947 Black Democrat -1.801
1947 Burton Democrat 0.897
1947 Douglas Democrat -1.531
1947 Frankfurter Democrat 0.914
1947 Jackson Democrat 1.183
1947 Murphy Democrat -1.71
1947 Reed Democrat 0.564
1947 Rutledge Democrat -1.74
1947 Vinson Democrat 0.582
1948 Black Democrat -1.646
1948 Burton Democrat 0.966
1948 Douglas Democrat -1.748
1948 Frankfurter Democrat 0.654
1948 Jackson Democrat 1.327
1948 Murphy Democrat -1.596
1948 Reed Democrat 0.7
1948 Rutledge Democrat -1.835
1948 Vinson Democrat 0.887
1949 Black Democrat -1.678
1949 Burton Democrat 0.961
1949 Clark Democrat 1.047
1949 Douglas Democrat -1.608
1949 Frankfurter Democrat 0.375
1949 Jackson Democrat 0.932
1949 Minton Democrat 1.167
1949 Reed Democrat 1.075
1949 Vinson Democrat 1.111
1950 Black Democrat -1.633
1950 Burton Democrat 0.979
1950 Clark Democrat 1.094
1950 Douglas Democrat -1.495
1950 Frankfurter Democrat 0.231
1950 Jackson Democrat 0.818
1950 Minton Democrat 1.322
1950 Reed Democrat 1.185
1950 Vinson Democrat 1.223
1951 Black Democrat -1.525
1951 Burton Democrat 0.924
1951 Clark Democrat 1.182
1951 Douglas Democrat -1.702
1951 Frankfurter Democrat 0.078
1951 Jackson Democrat 0.739
1951 Minton Democrat 1.376
1951 Reed Democrat 1.221
1951 Vinson Democrat 1.437
1952 Black Democrat -1.24
1952 Burton Democrat 1.229
1952 Clark Democrat 1.131
1952 Douglas Democrat -2.359
1952 Frankfurter Democrat 0.05
1952 Jackson Democrat 0.955
1952 Minton Democrat 1.192
1952 Reed Democrat 1.298
1952 Vinson Democrat 1.356
1953 Black Democrat -1.576
1953 Burton Democrat 1.318
1953 Clark Democrat 0.598
1953 Douglas Democrat -2.964
1953 Frankfurter Democrat 0.38
1953 Jackson Democrat 0.879
1953 Minton Democrat 0.857
1953 Reed Democrat 1.482
1953 Warren Republican -0.005
1954 Black Democrat -1.65
1954 Burton Democrat 1.287
1954 Clark Democrat 0.171
1954 Douglas Democrat -3.567
1954 Frankfurter Democrat 0.389
1954 Harlan Republican 0.908
1954 Minton Democrat 0.881
1954 Reed Democrat 1.493
1954 Warren Republican -0.456
1955 Black Democrat -1.931
1955 Burton Democrat 1.291
1955 Clark Democrat 0.078
1955 Douglas Democrat -4.032
1955 Frankfurter Democrat 0.7
1955 Harlan Republican 1.134
1955 Minton Democrat 0.93
1955 Reed Democrat 1.093
1955 Warren Republican -1.072
1956 Black Democrat -2.115
1956 Brennan Republican -0.619
1956 Burton Democrat 1.283
1956 Clark Democrat 0.263
1956 Douglas Democrat -4.428
1956 Frankfurter Democrat 0.903
1956 Harlan Republican 1.35
1956 Reed Democrat 0.876
1956 Warren Republican -1.249
1956 Whittaker Republican 1.044
1957 Black Democrat -2.174
1957 Brennan Republican -0.745
1957 Burton Democrat 1.131
1957 Clark Democrat 0.612
1957 Douglas Democrat -4.73
1957 Frankfurter Democrat 1.274
1957 Harlan Republican 1.639
1957 Warren Republican -1.515
1957 Whittaker Republican 1.074
1958 Black Democrat -2.056
1958 Brennan Republican -0.747
1958 Clark Democrat 0.548
1958 Douglas Democrat -4.965
1958 Frankfurter Democrat 1.602
1958 Harlan Republican 1.774
1958 Stewart Republican 0.897
1958 Warren Republican -1.562
1958 Whittaker Republican 1.378
1959 Black Democrat -2.017
1959 Brennan Republican -0.902
1959 Clark Democrat 0.435
1959 Douglas Democrat -5.118
1959 Frankfurter Democrat 1.767
1959 Harlan Republican 1.906
1959 Stewart Republican 0.664
1959 Warren Republican -1.528
1959 Whittaker Republican 1.488
1960 Black Democrat -1.892
1960 Brennan Republican -0.915
1960 Clark Democrat 0.787
1960 Douglas Democrat -5.253
1960 Frankfurter Democrat 1.846
1960 Harlan Republican 1.998
1960 Stewart Republican 0.536
1960 Warren Republican -1.368
1960 Whittaker Republican 1.311
1961 Black Democrat -1.793
1961 Brennan Republican -0.773
1961 Clark Democrat 0.409
1961 Douglas Democrat -5.373
1961 Frankfurter Democrat 1.861
1961 Harlan Republican 2.288
1961 Stewart Republican 0.487
1961 Warren Republican -1.464
1961 Whittaker Republican 1.241
1962 Black Democrat -1.704
1962 Brennan Republican -1.017
1962 Clark Democrat 0.208
1962 Douglas Democrat -5.467
1962 Goldberg Democrat -0.813
1962 Harlan Republican 2.507
1962 Stewart Republican 0.655
1962 Warren Republican -1.338
1962 White Democrat -0.043
1963 Black Democrat -1.468
1963 Brennan Republican -0.877
1963 Clark Democrat 0.175
1963 Douglas Democrat -5.58
1963 Goldberg Democrat -0.952
1963 Harlan Republican 2.519
1963 Stewart Republican 0.489
1963 Warren Republican -1.282
1963 White Democrat 0.022
1964 Black Democrat -0.979
1964 Brennan Republican -0.743
1964 Clark Democrat 0.006
1964 Douglas Democrat -5.747
1964 Goldberg Democrat -0.607
1964 Harlan Republican 2.333
1964 Stewart Republican 0.654
1964 Warren Republican -1.074
1964 White Democrat -0.069
1965 Black Democrat -0.604
1965 Brennan Republican -0.905
1965 Clark Democrat -0.07
1965 Douglas Democrat -5.892
1965 Fortas Democrat -1.259
1965 Harlan Republican 2.201
1965 Stewart Republican 0.841
1965 Warren Republican -1.156
1965 White Democrat -0.051
1966 Black Democrat -0.318
1966 Brennan Republican -1.054
1966 Clark Democrat 0.066
1966 Douglas Democrat -6.017
1966 Fortas Democrat -1.354
1966 Harlan Republican 1.882
1966 Stewart Republican 0.917
1966 Warren Republican -1.228
1966 White Democrat 0.11
1967 Black Democrat -0.107
1967 Brennan Republican -1.104
1967 Douglas Democrat -6.141
1967 Fortas Democrat -1.164
1967 Harlan Republican 1.325
1967 Marshall Democrat -0.959
1967 Stewart Republican 0.476
1967 Warren Republican -1.232
1967 White Democrat 0.192
1968 Black Democrat -0.008
1968 Brennan Republican -0.976
1968 Douglas Democrat -6.258
1968 Fortas Democrat -1.023
1968 Harlan Republican 0.81
1968 Marshall Democrat -0.974
1968 Stewart Republican 0.677
1968 Warren Republican -1.245
1968 White Democrat 0.15
1969 Black Democrat 0.079
1969 Brennan Republican -0.888
1969 Burger Republican 2.011
1969 Douglas Democrat -6.336
1969 Harlan Republican 0.688
1969 Marshall Democrat -0.903
1969 Stewart Republican 0.633
1969 White Democrat 0.287
1970 Black Democrat 0.06
1970 Blackmun Republican 1.896
1970 Brennan Republican -0.986
1970 Burger Republican 2.251
1970 Douglas Democrat -6.419
1970 Harlan Republican 0.585
1970 Marshall Democrat -0.933
1970 Stewart Republican 0.609
1970 White Democrat 0.607
1971 Blackmun Republican 1.841
1971 Brennan Republican -1.144
1971 Burger Republican 2.497
1971 Douglas Democrat -6.488
1971 Marshall Democrat -1.033
1971 Powell Republican 1.51
1971 Rehnquist Republican 3.589
1971 Stewart Republican 0.208
1971 White Democrat 0.778
1972 Blackmun Republican 1.493
1972 Brennan Republican -1.411
1972 Burger Republican 2.322
1972 Douglas Democrat -6.507
1972 Marshall Democrat -1.325
1972 Powell Republican 1.3
1972 Rehnquist Republican 3.962
1972 Stewart Republican 0.19
1972 White Democrat 1.053
1973 Blackmun Republican 1.339
1973 Brennan Republican -1.749
1973 Burger Republican 2.266
1973 Douglas Democrat -6.554
1973 Marshall Democrat -1.479
1973 Powell Republican 1.253
1973 Rehnquist Republican 4.22
1973 Stewart Republican 0.548
1973 White Democrat 0.611
1974 Blackmun Republican 1.058
1974 Brennan Republican -2.034
1974 Burger Republican 2.183
1974 Douglas Democrat -6.619
1974 Marshall Democrat -1.533
1974 Powell Republican 1.146
1974 Rehnquist Republican 4.305
1974 Stewart Republican 0.421
1974 White Democrat 0.61
1975 Blackmun Republican 0.881
1975 Brennan Republican -2.604
1975 Burger Republican 2.035
1975 Marshall Democrat -2.108
1975 Powell Republican 0.962
1975 Rehnquist Republican 4.408
1975 Stevens Republican 0.031
1975 Stewart Republican 0.54
1975 White Democrat 0.525
1976 Blackmun Republican 0.654
1976 Brennan Republican -2.896
1976 Burger Republican 1.926
1976 Marshall Democrat -2.424
1976 Powell Republican 0.722
1976 Rehnquist Republican 4.364
1976 Stevens Republican -0.133
1976 Stewart Republican 0.496
1976 White Democrat 0.326
1977 Blackmun Republican 0.272
1977 Brennan Republican -3.006
1977 Burger Republican 1.595
1977 Marshall Democrat -2.727
1977 Powell Republican 0.462
1977 Rehnquist Republican 4.315
1977 Stevens Republican -0.026
1977 Stewart Republican 0.325
1977 White Democrat -0.073
1978 Blackmun Republican 0.104
1978 Brennan Republican -2.992
1978 Burger Republican 1.452
1978 Marshall Democrat -3.114
1978 Powell Republican 0.804
1978 Rehnquist Republican 4.316
1978 Stevens Republican -0.305
1978 Stewart Republican 0.553
1978 White Democrat -0.046
1979 Blackmun Republican -0.075
1979 Brennan Republican -2.955
1979 Burger Republican 1.214
1979 Marshall Democrat -3.384
1979 Powell Republican 0.809
1979 Rehnquist Republican 4.338
1979 Stevens Republican -0.277
1979 Stewart Republican 0.489
1979 White Democrat 0.146
1980 Blackmun Republican -0.166
1980 Brennan Republican -2.803
1980 Burger Republican 1.389
1980 Marshall Democrat -3.57
1980 Powell Republican 0.824
1980 Rehnquist Republican 4.184
1980 Stevens Republican -0.279
1980 Stewart Republican 0.673
1980 White Democrat 0.072
1981 Blackmun Republican -0.489
1981 Brennan Republican -2.787
1981 Burger Republican 1.5
1981 Marshall Democrat -3.699
1981 O'Connor Republican 1.499
1981 Powell Republican 0.891
1981 Rehnquist Republican 4.037
1981 Stevens Republican -0.267
1981 White Democrat 0.02
1982 Blackmun Republican -0.561
1982 Brennan Republican -2.627
1982 Burger Republican 1.362
1982 Marshall Democrat -3.876
1982 O'Connor Republican 1.648
1982 Powell Republican 1.093
1982 Rehnquist Republican 3.947
1982 Stevens Republican -0.564
1982 White Democrat 0.47
1983 Blackmun Republican -0.102
1983 Brennan Republican -2.922
1983 Burger Republican 1.54
1983 Marshall Democrat -3.931
1983 O'Connor Republican 1.588
1983 Powell Republican 0.955
1983 Rehnquist Republican 3.874
1983 Stevens Republican -0.615
1983 White Democrat 0.75
1984 Blackmun Republican -0.23
1984 Brennan Republican -3.133
1984 Burger Republican 1.865
1984 Marshall Democrat -4
1984 O'Connor Republican 1.454
1984 Powell Republican 0.675
1984 Rehnquist Republican 3.685
1984 Stevens Republican -0.506
1984 White Democrat 0.953
1985 Blackmun Republican -0.789
1985 Brennan Republican -3.238
1985 Burger Republican 2.004
1985 Marshall Democrat -4.083
1985 O'Connor Republican 1.233
1985 Powell Republican 0.788
1985 Rehnquist Republican 3.478
1985 Stevens Republican -0.485
1985 White Democrat 1.172
1986 Blackmun Republican -0.956
1986 Brennan Republican -3.498
1986 Marshall Democrat -4.26
1986 O'Connor Republican 1.332
1986 Powell Republican 0.758
1986 Rehnquist Republican 3.234
1986 Scalia Republican 1.419
1986 Stevens Republican -0.597
1986 White Democrat 1.196
1987 Blackmun Republican -0.963
1987 Brennan Republican -3.578
1987 Kennedy Republican 1.142
1987 Marshall Democrat -4.411
1987 O'Connor Republican 1.508
1987 Rehnquist Republican 2.828
1987 Scalia Republican 1.572
1987 Stevens Republican -0.531
1987 White Democrat 0.955
1988 Blackmun Republican -0.998
1988 Brennan Republican -3.684
1988 Kennedy Republican 1.414
1988 Marshall Democrat -4.485
1988 O'Connor Republican 1.433
1988 Rehnquist Republican 2.682
1988 Scalia Republican 1.706
1988 Stevens Republican -0.661
1988 White Democrat 1.026
1989 Blackmun Republican -0.881
1989 Brennan Republican -3.737
1989 Kennedy Republican 1.32
1989 Marshall Democrat -4.465
1989 O'Connor Republican 1.423
1989 Rehnquist Republican 2.498
1989 Scalia Republican 1.885
1989 Stevens Republican -1.069
1989 White Democrat 0.791
1990 Blackmun Republican -1.187
1990 Kennedy Republican 1.123
1990 Marshall Democrat -4.307
1990 O'Connor Republican 1.007
1990 Rehnquist Republican 2.253
1990 Scalia Republican 2.044
1990 Souter Republican 0.969
1990 Stevens Republican -1.763
1990 White Democrat 0.551
1991 Blackmun Republican -1.445
1991 Kennedy Republican 0.761
1991 O'Connor Republican 0.563
1991 Rehnquist Republican 1.954
1991 Scalia Republican 2.365
1991 Souter Republican 0.573
1991 Stevens Republican -2.158
1991 Thomas Republican 2.687
1991 White Democrat 0.522
1992 Blackmun Republican -1.599
1992 Kennedy Republican 0.9
1992 O'Connor Republican 0.698
1992 Rehnquist Republican 1.887
1992 Scalia Republican 2.376
1992 Souter Republican 0.158
1992 Stevens Republican -2.333
1992 Thomas Republican 2.938
1992 White Democrat 0.508
1993 Blackmun Republican -1.863
1993 Ginsburg Democrat -0.326
1993 Kennedy Republican 0.74
1993 O'Connor Republican 0.872
1993 Rehnquist Republican 1.704
1993 Scalia Republican 2.453
1993 Souter Republican -0.371
1993 Stevens Republican -2.547
1993 Thomas Republican 3.273
1994 Breyer Democrat -0.508
1994 Ginsburg Democrat -0.585
1994 Kennedy Republican 0.683
1994 O'Connor Republican 0.659
1994 Rehnquist Republican 1.697
1994 Scalia Republican 2.679
1994 Souter Republican -0.538
1994 Stevens Republican -2.907
1994 Thomas Republican 3.44
1995 Breyer Democrat -0.745
1995 Ginsburg Democrat -0.668
1995 Kennedy Republican 0.571
1995 O'Connor Republican 0.691
1995 Rehnquist Republican 1.668
1995 Scalia Republican 2.925
1995 Souter Republican -0.58
1995 Stevens Republican -3.132
1995 Thomas Republican 3.509
1996 Breyer Democrat -0.995
1996 Ginsburg Democrat -0.883
1996 Kennedy Republican 0.688
1996 O'Connor Republican 0.812
1996 Rehnquist Republican 1.526
1996 Scalia Republican 3.145
1996 Souter Republican -0.623
1996 Stevens Republican -3.234
1996 Thomas Republican 3.579
1997 Breyer Democrat -1.073
1997 Ginsburg Democrat -1.109
1997 Kennedy Republican 0.633
1997 O'Connor Republican 0.897
1997 Rehnquist Republican 1.476
1997 Scalia Republican 3.227
1997 Souter Republican -0.777
1997 Stevens Republican -3.191
1997 Thomas Republican 3.589
1998 Breyer Democrat -1.062
1998 Ginsburg Democrat -1.349
1998 Kennedy Republican 0.736
1998 O'Connor Republican 0.772
1998 Rehnquist Republican 1.688
1998 Scalia Republican 3.237
1998 Souter Republican -0.907
1998 Stevens Republican -3.148
1998 Thomas Republican 3.613
1999 Breyer Democrat -1.058
1999 Ginsburg Democrat -1.707
1999 Kennedy Republican 0.944
1999 O'Connor Republican 0.721
1999 Rehnquist Republican 1.596
1999 Scalia Republican 3.351
1999 Souter Republican -1.268
1999 Stevens Republican -3.056
1999 Thomas Republican 3.563
2000 Breyer Democrat -1.419
2000 Ginsburg Democrat -1.795
2000 Kennedy Republican 0.889
2000 O'Connor Republican 0.481
2000 Rehnquist Republican 1.608
2000 Scalia Republican 3.387
2000 Souter Republican -1.418
2000 Stevens Republican -2.904
2000 Thomas Republican 3.597
2001 Breyer Democrat -1.429
2001 Ginsburg Democrat -1.806
2001 Kennedy Republican 0.986
2001 O'Connor Republican 0.301
2001 Rehnquist Republican 1.357
2001 Scalia Republican 3.275
2001 Souter Republican -1.54
2001 Stevens Republican -2.814
2001 Thomas Republican 3.574
2002 Breyer Democrat -1.402
2002 Ginsburg Democrat -1.795
2002 Kennedy Republican 0.828
2002 O'Connor Republican 0.215
2002 Rehnquist Republican 1.186
2002 Scalia Republican 3.007
2002 Souter Republican -1.612
2002 Stevens Republican -2.697
2002 Thomas Republican 3.724
2003 Breyer Democrat -1.319
2003 Ginsburg Democrat -1.821
2003 Kennedy Republican 0.723
2003 O'Connor Republican 0.166
2003 Rehnquist Republican 1.351
2003 Scalia Republican 2.801
2003 Souter Republican -1.746
2003 Stevens Republican -2.66
2003 Thomas Republican 3.758
2004 Breyer Democrat -1.205
2004 Ginsburg Democrat -1.726
2004 Kennedy Republican 0.5
2004 O'Connor Republican 0.073
2004 Rehnquist Republican 1.464
2004 Scalia Republican 2.563
2004 Souter Republican -1.722
2004 Stevens Republican -2.588
2004 Thomas Republican 3.82
2005 Alito Republican 1.523
2005 Breyer Democrat -1.438
2005 Ginsburg Democrat -1.498
2005 Kennedy Republican 0.405
2005 O'Connor Republican -0.041
2005 Roberts Republican 1.475
2005 Scalia Republican 2.525
2005 Souter Republican -1.614
2005 Stevens Republican -2.495
2005 Thomas Republican 3.868
2006 Alito Republican 1.536
2006 Breyer Democrat -1.527
2006 Ginsburg Democrat -1.609
2006 Kennedy Republican 0.396
2006 Roberts Republican 1.487
2006 Scalia Republican 2.566
2006 Souter Republican -1.503
2006 Stevens Republican -2.518
2006 Thomas Republican 3.852
2007 Alito Republican 1.62
2007 Breyer Democrat -1.429
2007 Ginsburg Democrat -1.591
2007 Kennedy Republican 0.292
2007 Roberts Republican 1.461
2007 Scalia Republican 2.484
2007 Souter Republican -1.532
2007 Stevens Republican -2.435
2007 Thomas Republican 3.752
2008 Alito Republican 1.839
2008 Breyer Democrat -1.216
2008 Ginsburg Democrat -1.66
2008 Kennedy Republican 0.532
2008 Roberts Republican 1.496
2008 Scalia Republican 2.427
2008 Souter Republican -1.554
2008 Stevens Republican -2.648
2008 Thomas Republican 3.536
2009 Alito Republican 1.874
2009 Breyer Democrat -1.336
2009 Ginsburg Democrat -1.633
2009 Kennedy Republican 0.526
2009 Roberts Republican 1.394
2009 Scalia Republican 2.375
2009 Sotomayor Democrat -1.546
2009 Stevens Republican -2.669
2009 Thomas Republican 3.422
2010 Alito Republican 2.047
2010 Breyer Democrat -1.416
2010 Ginsburg Democrat -2.056
2010 Kagan Democrat -1.444
2010 Kennedy Republican 0.615
2010 Roberts Republican 1.435
2010 Scalia Republican 2.189
2010 Sotomayor Democrat -1.607
2010 Thomas Republican 3.275
2011 Alito Republican 2.098
2011 Breyer Democrat -1.415
2011 Ginsburg Democrat -2.343
2011 Kagan Democrat -1.449
2011 Kennedy Republican 0.329
2011 Roberts Republican 1.263
2011 Scalia Republican 2.105
2011 Sotomayor Democrat -1.725
2011 Thomas Republican 3.263
2012 Alito Republican 2.141
2012 Breyer Democrat -1.43
2012 Ginsburg Democrat -2.447
2012 Kagan Democrat -1.745
2012 Kennedy Republican 0.291
2012 Roberts Republican 1.201
2012 Scalia Republican 1.768
2012 Sotomayor Democrat -2.071
2012 Thomas Republican 3.234
2013 Alito Republican 2.13
2013 Breyer Democrat -1.549
2013 Ginsburg Democrat -2.414
2013 Kagan Democrat -1.766
2013 Kennedy Republican 0.124
2013 Roberts Republican 0.959
2013 Scalia Republican 1.646
2013 Sotomayor Democrat -2.247
2013 Thomas Republican 3.253
2014 Alito Republican 2.037
2014 Breyer Democrat -1.729
2014 Ginsburg Democrat -2.461
2014 Kagan Democrat -1.913
2014 Kennedy Republican -0.15
2014 Roberts Republican 0.869
2014 Scalia Republican 1.583
2014 Sotomayor Democrat -2.354
2014 Thomas Republican 3.24
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